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Glories of Sri Krishna

Who is Lord Krishna


Who is Lord Shri Krishna?
Krishna is God, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This fact is stated and corroborated in the Vedic
scriptures and by various authorities. Lord Brahma in Brahma Samhita says, "Krishna who is known as
Govinda is the Supreme Godhead. He has an eternal blissful spiritual body. He is the origin of all. He has no
other origin and He is the prime cause of all causes" (BS 5.1). In the Bhagavata Purana Krishna becomes the
chief object of devotion. After describing various incarnations of the Lord such as Rama, Balarama, Vamana,
Nrsimha, and Vishnu, Srila Sukadeva Goswami states, "All of the above mentioned incarnations are either
plenary portions or portions of the plenary portions of the Lord, but Lord Krishna is the original Personality of
Godhead" (SB 1.3.28).
Lord Shiva in Gita Mahatmya, states that "let there be only one God - Krishna, the son of Devaki" (Verse 7). In
the Padma Purana it is stated, "By scrutinizingly reviewing all the revealed scriptures and judging them again
and again, it is now concluded that Lord Narayana is the Supreme Absolute Truth, and thus He alone should be
worshipped". Similarly it is said in the Skanda Purana, "In the material world, which is full of darkness and
dangers, combined with birth and death and full of different anxieties, the only way to get out of the great
entanglement is to accept loving transcendental devotional service to Lord Vasudeva. This is accepted by all
classes of philosophers".
The position of Krishna as God is confirmed by great personalities like Narada, Asita, Devala, Vyasa, Parasara,
Brahma and Shiva. Finally Krishna Himself confirms this fact in the Bhagavad Gita to His friend and devotee,
Arjuna. He clearly says that He is "the Supreme Lord of all planets and demigods" (BG 5.29), that "there is no
truth superior to Me" (BG 7.7) and - "I am the source of all spiritual and material worlds. Everything emanates
from Me" (BG 10.8).
What is the position of Krishna?
As God, there is no one equal to or greater than Krishna. He is the original, unborn, eternal person, the most
ancient, completely
independent, and the cause of all causes. Parasara Muni, the father of Srila Vyasadeva and a great scholar who
had himself held the position of Vyasa in a previous kalpa, very nicely defines the position of Bhagavana (God)
as one Who is complete in six kinds of opulence namely - wisdom, beauty, fame, power, wealth and
renunciation. While there are many great personalities who are very famous or very wealthy, only Krishna as
God is replete in all six opulence.
The scriptures not only give us the unique position of Krishna but also give us a detailed description of all His
aspects. They tell us that above this temporary material universe is an eternal spiritual world called Vaikuntha,
and Krishna lives in the topmost planet of this universe called Goloka Vrindavana which is full of palaces made
of touch-stone (cintamani), with trees that are capable of fulfilling all desires (kalpa-vraksha) and cows that are
called Surabhi.
Here Krishna eternally resides, served by hundreds and thousands of goddesses of fortune. He sports with His
most confidential and intimate devotees, headed by Srimati Radharani. He has a form just like us but His body
is spiritual and thus eternal. His complexion is dark-blue, like that of a rain-filled cloud and His eyes are like
lotus petals. He is ever youthful, full of bliss and His beauty excels that of thousands of cupids. He likes to play
the flute, He sports a crown with a peacock feather and He is adorned by the exquisite kastuba jewel.
What is Krishna avatar?
In Caitanya-caritamrita (2.20.263-264) it is stated that the "avatara, or incarnation of Godhead, descends from
the kingdom of God for creating and maintaining the material manifestation. And the particular form of the
Personality of Godhead who so descends is called an incarnation, or avatara. Such incarnations are situated in
the spiritual world, the kingdom of God. When They descend to the material creation, They assume the name
avatar."

The Srimad Bhagavatam states that there are countless incarnations just like the waves of the oceans. They fall
in various categories like lila (pastime), yuga (period of yuga), manavantara (period of Manu), purusa (Vishnu
expansions) and shaktivesa (empowered). These avatars perform various pastimes based on the time, place and
circumstances, but their purpose is always the same - "to attract the conditioned souls back to their eternal
spiritual abode".
The incarnations emanate from Vishnu. Maha-Vishnu is the original cause of all material creation and from
Him Garbhodakashai-Vishnu expands and then Ksirodakasayi-Vishnu. Generally all incarnations appearing
within the material world are plenary portions of Ksirodakasayi-Vishnu (also known as Hari).
However only once in a day of Lord Brahma (which lasts for 4.32 billion of our years), does Krishna descend in
His original form, as the avataree, the cause of all avatars. When Krishna appears all the incarnations join with
Him. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is the complete whole and all the plenary portions and incarnations
always live with Him. So when Krishna appeared, Lord Vishnu was always with Him, and while Krishna
enjoyed His pastimes in Vrindavana, the killing of the demons was actually carried out by the His Vishnu
portion. Since Krishna eternally resides in Vrindavana, when He left Vrindavana at the age of ten, it was His
Vasudeva expansion that actually left.
Appearance of Krishna
In the era of the Svayambhuva Manu, prajapati Sutapa and his wife Prsni were instructed by Lord Brahma to
have progeny. They performed severe austerities for twelve thousand years of the demigods to have the Lord as
their child. Pleased by their austerities the Lord appeared and granted them this benediction. Since He gave
them this benediction three times, in Satya-yuga He first appeared as the son of Prsni and Sutapa and was called
Prsnigarba. In Treta-yuga they were Aditi and Kasyapa Muni and the Lord
appeared as Vamanadeva. Finally in the Dvapara yuga, Krishna in His original form, appeared as the child of
Devaki and Vasudeva.
Krishna appeared specifically on the request of Bhudevi, the presiding deity of the Earth planet. Distressed by
the burden of many demons who had appeared as powerful Kshatriyas and were ruling the planet impiously, she
assumed the form of a cow and pleaded to Lord Brahma for help. Lord Brahma with all the demigods prayed to
Vishnu in Svetadvipa by chanting the Purusa-sukta prayers. At this time the Lord informed Brahma that in order
to establish religiosity and destroy evil, He would soon appear as His original Self. In the meantime the various
demigods were instructed to take birth in various families in the Yadu dynasty and prepare for the appearance of
the Lord.
Lifeline of Krishna
Historically, Lord Krishna appeared in the Dvapara yuga, on the midnight of the 8th day of the dark half of the
month of Sravana. This corresponds to July 19th 3228 BC. He exhibited His pastimes for a little over 125 years
and disappeared on February 18th 3102 BC on the new moon night of Phalguna. His departure marks the
beginning of the current age of corruption known as Kali.
The great scholar Srila Vishvanatha Chakravarti neatly outlines Lord Krishna's activities in this way. He was
born in Mathura in the prison cell of Kamsa and carried to Gokula. The first three years and four months were
spent in Gokula, then equal lengths of time in Vrindavana and Nandagram. At the age of eleven He left
Vrindavan for Mathura where He lived for eighteen years and four months, and finally ninety-six years and
eight months in Dvaraka totaling about 126 years of manifest pastimes. At the time of Mahabharata, when
Krishna spoke the Bhagavad Gita, He was about ninety years of age.
Pastimes of Krishna
The tenth canto of Srimad Bhagavatam describes the activities and transcendental pastimes of Sri Krishna. They
are also described in the epic Mahabharata, specially in the Bhishma parva which also contains the Bhagavad
Gita. The pastimes of Krishna appeal to the liberated souls, those that are trying to get liberated and also to the
gross materialists.

The pastimes of Sri Krishna, known as Krishna-katha fall into two categories. Words spoken by Krishna, as the
Bhagavad Gita, and words spoken about Krishna, as in the Srimad Bhagavatam. Souls in the liberated stage
derive great pleasure in relishing anything and everything related to Krishna. For those that are trying to be
liberated, Krishna-katha makes their path of liberation very clear. By studying the Gita one becomes fully
conscious of the position of Sri Krishna; and when one is situated at the lotus feet of the Lord, he understands
the narration's of Krishna as described in the Srimad Bhagavatam.
Even the gross materialists are attracted by the pleasure pastimes of Krishna with the Gopis and His wives.
Even though the loving affairs of Krishna have nothing to do with the gross, mundane sex affairs, they attract
the people engrossed in sense-gratification and gradually elevate them to higher levels of spirituality.
Causeless mercy of Krishna
Even though Krishna is completely self sufficient and self satisfied, He descends for the benefit of all the
conditioned souls. His most endearing quality is that of "bhakta vatsala". His pure devotees are always trying to
please Him, and He is always trying to please His devotees. Just as He lives in the heart of His devotees, His
devotees constantly reside in Him.
Krishna is so merciful that He not only helps His devotees, but also those who are envious of Him. Krishna
destroys evil by providing them with an opportunity to take up devotion.
On the greatly auspicious day of Krishna-Janamashtami, let us all pray to Sri Krishna for a drop of His
causeless mercy, for only that alone is sufficient to take us out from this material word, back home, back to
Godhead.
All glories to the appearance day of Lord Krishna ! All glories to Sri Krishna and His devotees !!
JANMASTAMI & BACK TO GODHEAD MAGAZINE
Sarasvati Thakura liked Abhayada and would be very pleased to see him because he knew that Abhayda liked to
preach. On the occasion of the annual varshik-utsav (festival of Janmastami), in Sarasvati Thakura's room,
upstairs at the Baghbazaar Math, Jotisekhara saw Abhayda sitting near his guru maharaja, who told him to start
a magazine in Bengali, giving him the idea, "ghore phirae chala - return back to home `Back To Godhead,' as a
title. He also quoted a sloka in Sanskrit: "yad gatva nanuvartante, tad dhama paramama mama (Gita 15.6)," on
the same topic and then said, "This idea of going back to Godhead is the basis of the Gaudiya Math."
(From HH Bhakti Vikasa Swami's book on SBSST.)
JANMASTAMI & VAMSIDAS BABAJI
On Janmastami he was in Baleshvar, a town in North Orissa. At midnight he said to Gopal, "Last year I gave
You some palmfruit. This year I shall give You some mango. Gopal, don't be impatient, mango is coming to
You." Within ten minutes a brahmana teacher called Jogendra Mukherjee arrived, explaining how he had just
dreamt that a sadhu wanted a mango, so he went to the market and bought one. That brahmana was then told,
"Yes, yes, you come. He said he wanted a mango."(From HH Bhakti Vikasa Swami's book Lion Guru.)

Krishna Tattva
From Gauya Kahahra compiled by Shrila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura Prabhupada.
KA-TATTVA
The One Absolute Truth is Realized inThree Different Ways
7.1

vadanti tat tattva-vidas tattva yaj jnam advayam


brahmeti paramtmeti bhagavn iti abdyate
Great seers of the truth, who understand the nature of the Absolute Truth, describe that non-dual truth in three
ways as Brahman, Paramtm, and Bhagavn. (Bhg. 1.2.11)

7.2

advaya-jna tattva-vastu kera svarpa


brahma, tm, bhagavn tina tra rpa
Ka is the one Absolute Truth which is conceived of in three ways, as Brahman, Paramtm, and Bhagavn.
(Cc. di. 2.65)Bhagavn Realization is Complete, Paramtm and Brahman are Partial
7.3

bhakti-yoge bhakta pya yhra darana


srya yena savigraha dekhe deva-gaa
jna-yoga-mrge tre bhaje yei saba
brahma-tm-rpe tre kare anubhava
Through devotional service devotees can realize or see that Personality of Godhead, just as the denizens of
heaven see the personality of the sun. Those on the paths of knowledge and yoga worship only Him. They
perceive Him as the impersonal Brahman and localized Paramtm. (Cc. di 2.25,26)
The Conclusion of the ruti About Brahman
7.4

na tatra sryo bhti candra-traka


nem vidyuto bhnti kto 'yamagni
tam eva bhntam anubhti sarva
tasya bhs sarvam ida vibhti
In the transcendental abode of the Lord there is no need of sun, moon, or stars for illumination, nor is there any
need of electricity, what to speak of lamps. All of them get their power of illumination from the Lord's
effulgence alone. In fact the whole universe exists only because of His existence. (Kaha Upaniad 2.2.15)
7.5

hiranmayena ptrea satyasypihita mukham


tat tva pann-apvu satya-dharmya dtaye
O my Lord, sustainer of all that lives, Your real face is covered by Your dazzling effulgence. Please remove that
effulgent covering and show Yourself to Your pure devotee. (opaniad 15)
7.6

pann akarye yama srya prjpatya


vyuha-ramn samha tejo
yat te rpa kalyatama tat te paymi
yo 'sav asau purua so 'ham asmi
O my Lord! O primeval philosopher, maintainer of the universe. O regulating principle, destination of the pure
devotees, well-wisher of mankind please remove the effulgence of Your transcendental rays, so that I can see
Your form of bliss. You are the eternal Supreme Personality of Godhead, like unto the sun, as am I. (Iopaniad
16)
The Conclusion of the Brahm-sahit
7.7

yasya prabh prabhavato jagad-aa-koi-

koisv aea-vasudhdi vibhti-bhinnam


tad brahma nikalam anantam aea-bhta
govindam di-purua tam aha bhajmi
I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, whose effulgence is the source of the nondifferentiated Brahman which
is mentioned in the Upaniads, and which, being differentiated from the infinity of glories of the mundane
universe, appears as the indivisible, infinite, and limitless truth. Millions and millions of universes emanate
from that Brahman effulgence, which is infinite, causeless, and unlimited. That Brahman effulgence is simply
the light emanating from the brilliant form of the Supreme Lord Govinda. (Brahm-sahit 5.40)
The Conclusion of the Bhagavad-gt
7.8

brahmao hi pratihham amtasyvyayasya ca


vatasya ca dharmasya sukhasyaikntikasya ca
I am the basis of the impersonal Brahman, which is immortal, imperishable, and eternal, and is the
constitutional position of ultimate happiness. (Bhagavad-gt 14.27)
The Conclusion of the Gosvms
7.9

yasya brahmeti saj kvacidapi nigame yti cin-mtrasattpyao yasyakai svairvibhavati vaayanneva my pum
ca eka yasyaiva rpa vilasati paramvyomni nryakhya
sa r ko vidhatt svayamiha bhagavn prema-tat-pda-bhjm
r Ka is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He appears in Vaikuha in the form of Nryaa. He
expands as the Puruvataras, who control the material world. He is Himself the Supreme Spiritual Truth
designated by the word "Brahman" in the Vedas and Upaniads. May that Lord Ka grant pure love for Him
to those engaged in devotional service to His lotus feet (Tattva-sandarbha 8)
7.10

brahma aga-knti tra, nirviea prake


srya yena carma-cake jyotirmaya bhse
The manifestation of the impersonal Brahman effulgence, which is without variety, is the rays of Ka's
personal bodily effulgence. It is exactly like the sun: When the sun is seen by ordinary eyes, it appears to only
consist of effulgence. Similarly, when we view divinity through ordinary eyes, we are unable to penetrate its
effulgence to see the beautiful form of Ka within. Rather we are blinded by the powerful rays of impersonal
Brahman. (Cc. Madhya 20.159)
7.11

thra agera udha kiraa-maala


upaniat kahe tre brahma sunirmala
What the Upaniads call the impersonal Brahman is but the realm of the glowing effulgence of the Supreme
Person. (Cc. di. 2.12)
Nirviea Means Ka has no Material Qualities

7.12

tre 'nirviea' kahi, cic-chakti n mni


ardha-svarpa n mnile prat haya hni
When one speaks of the Supreme as impersonal, one denies His spiritual potencies. Logically, if you accept
only half the truth, you cannot understand the whole. (Cc. di 7.140)
7.13

vyjite bhagavat-tattve brahma ca vyajyate svayam


When the knowledge about Bhagavn is revealed, Brahman automatically becomes known. (Bhagavatsandarbha 7)
Yogis Worship the Supersoul
7.14
isvarah sarva-bhutanam hrid-dese 'rjuna tishthati
bhramayan sarva-bhutani yantrarudhani mayaya
The Supreme Lord is situated in every one's heart, O Arjuna, and is directing the wanderings of all living
entities who are seated as on a machine made of material energy. (Bhagavad-gita 18.61)
7.15
atha va bahunaitena kim jnatena tavarjuna
vishtabhyaham idam kritsnam ekamsena sthito jagat
What need is there, O Arjuna, for all this detailed knowledge? With a single fragment of Myself, I pervade and
support this entire universe. (Bhagavad-gita 10.42)
7.16
mayadhyakshena prakritih suyate sa-caracaram
hetunanena kaunteya jagad viparivartate
Material nature, which is one of My energies, is working under My direction, O son of Kunti, and produces all
moving and non-moving beings. Under its rule, this manifestation is created and annihilated again and again.
(Bhagavad-gita 9.10)
7.17
aham hi sarva-yajnanam bhokta ca prabhur eva ca
na tu mam abhijananti tattvenatas cyavanti te
I am the only enjoyer and master of all sacrifices. Those who do not recognize My true transcendental position
fall down. (Bhagavad-gita 9.24)
Paramatma is an Ekamsa Expansion of the Supreme Lord
7.18
paramatma yenho, tenho krishnera eka amsa
atmara 'atma' haya krishna sarva-avatamsa
Paramatma is the partially complete portion (ekamsa) of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Krishna is the
original source of all living entities, and is the source of Paramatma. (Cc . Mad. 20.161)
7.19
kecit sva-dehantar-hridayavakase
pradesa-matram purusham vasantam

catur-bhujam kanja-rathanga-sankhagada-dharam dharanaya smaranti


Others conceive of the Personality of Godhead residing within the body in the region of the heart, and
measuring only eight inches, with four hands holding lotus, wheel, conch, and club. (Bhag. 2.2.8)
The Supreme Truth has Three Potencies
Sandhini (existence), Samvit (consciousness) and Hladini (ecstasy)
7.20
na tasya karyam karanam ca vidyate
na tat samas cabhyadhikas ca drisyate
parasya saktir-vividhaiva sruyate
svabhaviki jnana-bala-kriya ca
He does not have a bodily form like that of an ordinary living entity: He has a transcendental form of bliss and
knowledge. His senses are all transcendental. Nothing is greater than Him or equal to Him. His potencies are
multifarious, such as cognitive, will and active potency. (Svetasvatara Upanishad 6.8)
Vishnu is the Supreme Truth
7.21
om tad vishno paramam padam sada
pasyanti surayah diviva cakshur-atatam
tad vipraso vipanyavo jagrivamsah
samindhate vishnor yat paramam padam
The supreme abode of Lord Vishnu, or the lotus feet of Lord Vishnu, is spread all around like the sunlight in the
sky. Great demigods and saintly persons always see that supreme abode, recognizing Him as the highest truth.
Spiritually awake souls learned in transcendental understanding glorify the Lord and make that abode more
brilliant. (Rig Veda 1.22.20,21)
Krishna is the Supreme
7.22
advaya-jnana-tattva krishna svayam bhagavan
'svarupa-sakti' rupe tanra haya avasthana
Krishna is the non-dual Absolute Truth, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Although He is one, He
maintains different personal expansions and energies for His divine pastimes. (Cc. Madhya 22.7)
Krishna is the Independent Supreme Person
7.23
janmady asya yato 'nvayad itaratas cartheshv abhijnah svarat
tene brahma hrida ya adi-kavaye muhyanti yat surayah
tejo-vari-mridam yatha vinimayo yatra tri-sargo 'mrisha
dhamna svena sada nirasta-kuhakam satyam param dhimahi

Lord Sri Krishna is the Absolute Truth, the primeval cause of all causes of the creation, sustenance, and
destruction of the universes. He is directly and indirectly conscious of all manifestations, and He is independent
because there is no other cause beyond Him. It was He who imparted Vedic knowledge to the heart of Brahma,
the original living being. By Him even the great sages and demigods are placed into illusion as one is
bewildered by the illusory representations of water seen on fire or land seen on water. Only because of Him do
the material universes, temporarily manifested by the reactions of the three modes of material nature, appear
factual, although they are unreal. I therefore meditate upon Him, Lord Sri Krishna, who is eternally existent in
the transcendent abode which is forever free of illusion. I meditate upon Him, for He is the Absolute Truth.
(Bhag. 1.1.1.)
Krishna is the Ultimate Goal of all Vedic Literature
7.24
sarvasya caham hridi sannivishto
mattah smritir jnanam apohanam ca
vedais ca sarvair aham eva vedyo
vedanta-krid veda-vid eva caham
I am seated in every one's heart. From Me comes remembrance, knowledge, and forgetfulness. By all the Vedas
I am to be known. Indeed, I am the compiler of Vedanta, and I am the knower of the Vedas. (Bhagavad-gita
15.15)
7.25
ete camsa-kalah pumsah krishnas tu bhagavan svayam
indrari-vyakulam lokam mridayanti yuge yuge
All these incarnations are either plenary portions or portions of plenary portions of the Supreme Lord, but Lord
Sri Krishna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. All the other incarnations appear whenever there is a
disturbance created by the enemies of Indra. (Bhag. 1.3.28)
7.26
isvarah paramah krishnah sac-cid-ananda-vigrahah
anadir adir govindah sarva-karana-karanam
Krishna, who is known as Govinda, is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He has a transcendental form of
eternal bliss and knowledge. He is the origin of all and the cause of all causes. (Brahma-samhita 5.1)
7.27
parama isvara krishna svayam bhagavan
sarva-avatari, sarva-karana-pradhana
ananta vaikuntha, ara ananta avatara
ananta brahmanda ihao, sabara adhara
sac-cid-ananda-tanu, vrajendra-nandana
sarvaisvarya, sarvasakti sarvarasa-purna
The supreme controller is Krishna, the original Bhagavan. He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the
fountainhead of all incarnations and the cause of material creation. He is the source of the innumerable
Vaikuntha planets as well as innumerable incarnations. In the material world there are innumerable universes,
and Krishna is the Supreme resting place for all of them. The transcendental body of Krishna is eternal, full of
bliss and knowledge. He is the son of Nanda Maharaja. He is full of all opulences and potencies, as well as all
spiritual mellows. (Cc. Madhya 8.134-136)

The Meaning of Bhagavan


7.28
aisvaryasya samagrasya viryasya yasasah sriyah
jnana-vairagyayos caiva san nam bhaga itiogana
One who is complete in the six opulences of wealth, power, fame, beauty, knowledge, and renunciation is
known as Bhagavan. (Vishnu-Purana 6.5.74)
7.29
yanra bhagavatta haite anyera bhagavatta
'svayam-bhagavan'-sabdera tahatei satta
Only that Lord who is the source of all other divinities is eligible to be designated as svayam bhagavan. (Cc.
Adi 2.88)
Krishna is the Supreme Master, the Supreme Enjoyer and the Independent Lord
7.30
anera ki katha, baladeva mahasaya
yanra bhava suddha-sakhya-vatsalyadi-maya
tenho apanake karena dasa-bhavana
krishna-dasa-bhava vinu ache kona jana
sahasra-vadane yenho sesha-sankarshana
dasa deha dhari' kare krishnera sevana
ananta brahmande rudra sadasivera amsa
gunavatara tenho, sarva-deva-avatamsa
tenho karena krishnera dasya-pratyasa
nirantara kahe siva, 'muni krishna-dasa'
krishna-preme unmatta, vihvala digambara
krishna-guna-lila gaya, nace nirantara
pita-mata-guru-sakha-bhava kene naya
krishna-premera sva-bhave dasya-bhava se karaya
eka krishna sarva-sevya, jagat-isvara
ara yata saba, tanra sevakanucara
sei krishna avatirna caitanya-isvara
ataeva ara saba, tanhara kinkara
keha mane, keha na mane, saba tanra dasa
ye na mane, tara haya sei pape nasa
Not to speak of others, even Lord Baladeva is full of emotion like pure friendship and paternal love towards Sri
Krishna. He also considers Himself a servant of Sri Krishna. Indeed, who is there who does not consider
himself a servant of Krishna. The thousand-mouthed Sesha Himself serves Krishna by assuming ten forms.
Rudra, who is an expansion of Sadasiva, and who appears in unlimited universes is also a guna-avatara and is
the crown jewel of all the demigods in the endless universes, but he also desires only to serve Sri Krishna. He

always says, "I am Krishna dasa, a servant of Krishna." He becomes overwhelmed and dances naked while
continuously singing about Krishna's qualities and pastimes. All different transcendental emotions that are
directed towards Krishna, be they those of father, mother, guru, or friend, are imbued with the sentiments of
service towards the Lord. That is the nature of krishna-prema.
Sri Krishna, the only lord and master of the universe, is worthy of being served by everyone. Everyone is
merely a servant of His servants. That same Sri Krishna has now descended as Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu, the
Supreme Personality of Godhead. Everyone therefore is also a servant of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Some accept
Him, whereas others do not, but in any case, everyone is His servant. One who does not accept Him, however,
will be ruined by his sinful activities. (Cc. Adi 6.76-85)
Krishna is the Cause of all Causes
7.31
tenaiva hetu-bhutale vayam jata mahesvari
karanam sarva-bhutanam sa ekah paramesvarah
[Siva said to Parvati] O Mahesvari, controller of the world, we have taken birth as instruments to serve the will
of the Supreme Person. He alone is the Paramesvara, the Supreme Controller, the master of everyone, and the
ultimate cause of all living beings. (Skanda Purana)
Krishna is the Supreme Shelter of Everything
7.32
dasame dasamam lakshyam- asritasraya-vigraham
sri krishnakhyam param dhama jagad-dhama namami-tat
The tenth canto of Srimad-bhagavatam describes the ten items which is the shelter of all the sheltered beings.
His is called Lord Krishna and is the ultimate shelter of both the material and spiritual worlds. I offer my
humble obeisances unto Him. (Bhag. 10.1.1. Bhavartha-Dipika)
Krishna is the Original Person
7.33
avatara saba purushera kala, amsa
svayam-bhagavan krishna sarva-avatamsa
krishna eka sarvasraya, krishna sarva-dhama
krishnera sarire sarva-visvera visrama
svayam bhagavan krishna, krishna sarvasraya
parama isvara krishna sarva-sastre kaya
All the incarnations of Godhead are plenary portions or parts of the plenary portions of the purushavataras, but
the primeval Lord is Sri Krishna. He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the fountainhead of all
incarnations. He is the shelter and abode of everything all the universes rest in His body. Thus Sri Krishna is the
primeval Lord, the source of all other expansions. This is proclaimed in all the revealed scriptures. (Cc. Adi.
2.70,94,106)
On the Basis of Rasa, Krishna is Superior to Narayana
7.34

siddhanta-tas-tva-bhede 'pi srisa-krishna-svarupayoh


rasenot-krishyate krishna- rupamesha rasasthitih
Although Narayana and Sri Krishna are one and the same, on the basis of the fact that Sri Krishna exhibits the
super excellence of conjugal mellow, He is considered superior. In Him alone do all rasas find their final and
absolute expression. (Bhakti-Rasamrita Sindhu, Purva-vibhaga, 2.59)
Narayana is the Opulent Pastime Expansion of Krishna
7.35
narayanas tvam na hi sarva-dehinam
atmasy adhisakhila-loka-sakshi
narayano 'ogam nara-bhu-jalayanat
tac capi satyam na tavaiva maya
O Lord of lords, You are the seer of all creation. You are indeed everyone's dearest life. Are You not, therefore,
my father; Narayana? Narayana refers to one whose abode is in the water born from Nara [Garbhodakasayi
Vishnu], and that Narayana is Your plenary portion. All Your plenary portions are transcendental. They are
absolute and are not creations of maya. (Bhag. 10.14.14)
7.36
harimtvekam tattvam viddhi-siva-suresa-pranamitah
yadevedam brahma prakritirahitam tattanumahah
paratma tasyamso jagadanugato visvajanakah
sa vai radha-kanto nava-jalada-kantiscidudayah
Brahma, Siva, and Indra offer their obeisances to Sri Hari as the only Supreme Truth. The undifferentiated
Brahman effulgence is simply the emanation from His holy body. The creator, maintainer, and Supersoul of the
material universe are only expansions from Him. That Lord whose complexion is the color of a rain cloud, who
sports in transcendental pastimes in his original form as the lover of Sri Radha is known as Sri Krishna and He
is the Absolute Truth (Dasa-mula Siksha)
The Demigods Recognize Krishna as Supreme
7.37
athapi yat-pada-nakhavasrishtam
jagad virincopahritarhanambhah
sesam punaty anyatamo mukundat
ko nama loke bhagavat-padarthah
Who could be worthy of the name "Supreme Personality of Godhead" but Sri Krishna? Brahma, the creator of
the universe, col-lected the water emanating from the nails of Krishna's lotus feet to give to Siva as a worshipful
welcome. This very water, the Ganges, is purifying the whole universe including Lord Siva. (Bhag. 1.18.21)
7.38
yac-chauca-nihsrita-sarit-pravarodakena
tirthena murdhny adhikritena sivah sivo 'bhut
dhyatur manah-samala-saila-nisrishta-vajram
dhyayec ciram bhagavatas caranaravindam

The blessed Lord Siva is all the more blessed by bearing on his head the holy waters of the Ganges, which has
its source in the water that washed the Lord's lotus feet. The Lord's lotus feet act like thunderbolts hurled to
shatter the mountain of sin stored in the mind of the meditating devotee. One should therefore meditate on the
lotus feet of the Lord for a long time. (Bhag. 3.28.22)
7.39suta uvaca
yam brahma varunendra-rudra-marutah stunvanti divyaih stavair
vedaih sanga-pada-kramopanishadair gayanti yam sama-gah
dhyanavasthita-tad-gatena manasa pasyanti yam yogino
yasyantam na viduh surasura-gana devaya tasmai namah
I offer my obeisances unto Sri Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Brahma, Rudra, Indra, Varuna
and all the other demigods glorify Him by chanting transcendental hymns and reciting the Vedas and
Upanishads. He is the Supreme Person of whom the chanters of the Sama Veda always sing. The perfected
yogis see Him within their minds after fixing themselves in trance and absorbing themselves within him. His
limit can never be found by any demigod or demon. (Bhag. 12.13.1)
7.40
asankhya brahmara gana aila tata-kshane
dasa-bisa-sata-sahasra-ayuta-laksha-vadana
koty-arbuda mukha karo, na yaya ganana
rudra-gana aila laksha koti-vadana
indra-gana aila laksha koti-nayana
dekhi' caturmukha brahma phanpara ha-ila
hasti-gana-madhye yena sasaka rahila
asi' saba brahma krishna-pada-pitha-age
dandavat karite mukuta pada-pithe lage
krishnera acintya-sakti lakhite keha nare
yata brahma, tata murti eka-i sarire
pada-pita-mukutagra-sanghatte uthe dhvani
pada-pithe stuti kare mukuta hena jani'
yoda-hate brahma-rudradi karaye stavana
"bada kripa karila prabhu, dekhaila carana
bhagya, more bolaila 'dasa' angikari'
kon ajna haya, taha kari sire dhari' "
The countless Brahmas had different numbers of heads. Some had ten, some twenty, some one hundred, some
one thousand, some ten thousand, some one hundred thousand, some ten million, others one hundred million.
No one could count the number of heads they had. Many Sivas with many heads also arrived there. Some of
them had heads numbering one hundred thousand and ten million. Many Indras also arrived with millions of
eyes all over their bodies. When the four-headed Brahma of this universe saw all these opulences of Krishna, he
became very bewildered and considered himself a rabbit among many elephants. All the Brahmas who came to
see Krishna offered their respects at His lotus feet, and when they did this, their helmets touched His lotus feet.
No one can estimate the inconceivable potency of Krishna. All the Brahmas who were there were resting in the
one body of Krishna. When all their helmets struck together at the lotus feet of Krishna, there was a tumultuous
sound. It appeared that the helmets themselves were offeringprayers unto Krishna's lotus feet. With folded
hands the Brahmas and Sivas began offering prayers unto Lord Krishna saying, "O Lord, You have shown me

great favor. I have been able to see Your lotus feet "All of them said, "It is my great fortune, Lord, that You
have called me, thinking of me as Your servant. Now let me know what is Your order, so that I may carry it on
my heads." (Cc. Madhya 21.66-74)
This World is Maintained by an Expansion of an Expansion of an Expansion of Krishna
7.41
yasyamsamsamsa-bhagena visvotpatti-layodayah
bhavanti kila visvatmams tam tvadyaham gatim gata
O Krishna, You are the soul of the universe. You bring about the creation, sustenance, and dissolution of the
universe by Your minutest part. I offer my respectful obeisances unto You and surrender myself before You.
(Bhag. 10.85.31)
The Form of Krishna is as Lord of Vrindavana, With two Hands Holding the Flute
7.42
krishno 'nyo yadu sambhuto yah purnah so 'styatah parah
vrindavanam parityajya sa kvacit naiva gacchati
The Krishna known as Yadu-kumara is Vasudeva Krishna; He is different from the Krishna who is the son of
Nanda Maharaja. Yadu-kumara manifests His pastimes in the cities of Dvaraka and Mathura, but Krishna never
leaves Vrindavana. (Laghu-bhagavatamrita, Purva-khanda 165)
7.43
dvibhujah sarvada so 'tra na kadacit caturbhujah
gopyaikaya yutas tatra parikridati nityada
That original Personality of Godhead, Krishna, always manifests two arms. He never manifests four arms; He is
always at the right hand side of the foremost gopi, Srimati Radharani. (Laghu-Bhagavatamrita, Purva-khanda
165)
The Real Form of Krishna
7.44
krishnera svarupa-vicara suna, sanatana
advaya-jnana-tattva, vraje vrajendra-nandana
sarva-adi, sarva-amsi, kisora-sekhara
cid-ananda-deha, sarvasraya, sarvesvara
svayam bhagavan krishna, 'govinda' para nama
sarvaisvarya-purna yanra goloka nitya-dhama
[Caitanya Mahaprabhu said] O Sanatana, please hear about the eternal form of Lord Krishna; He is the Absolute
Truth, devoid of duality, but present in Vrindavana as the son of Nanda Maharaja. Krishna is the original source
and sum total of everything. He appears as the Supreme Youth. His body is composed of spiritual bliss. He is
the shelter of everything and the master of everything. The svayam bhagavan is Sri Krishna, His supreme name
is Govinda, He is full in all opulence, and His eternal abode is Goloka Vrindavana. (Cc. Madhya 20.152153,155)
The Vedas Speak of the Pastimes of the Supreme Lord

7.45
apasyam gopamani-padyamanama ca para ca pathibhis carantam
sa sadhricih sa vishucirvasan avarivarti-bhuvanesvantah
I saw a gopala before me, but could not understand if He came from nearby or from far away. He wanders from
place to place at different times, adopting different modes of dress. In this way He comes again and again to
establish and withdraw His transcendental pastimes within this material world. (Eg Veda Mandala, 22,
Anuvaka, 164 Sukta, 31 Ek)
By serving Krishna, the Universe is Satisfied
7.46
yatha taror mula-nishecanena
tripyanti tat-skandha-bhujopasakhah
pranopaharac ca yathendriyanam
tathaiva sarvarhanam acyutejya
By pouring water on the root of a tree, all the leaves and branches are automatically nourished. In the same way,
by offering service to the lotus feet of Vishnu, all other purposes are satisfied. Just as by offering food to the
stomach, all the limbs of the body are satisfied, similarly, by offering service to Krishna the entire universe is
satisfied. (Bhag. 4.31.14)
The Demigods are Never Envious of Krishna
7.47
harir eva sadaradhyah sarvadevesvaresvarah
itare brahma-rudradya navajneyah kadacana
Sri Hari alone should be worshiped as the supreme master of the universe. Brahma, Siva and all the demigods
never violate this principle at any time. (Padma Purana)
7.48
aham sarvasya prabhavo mattah sarvam pravartate
iti matva bhajante mam budha bhava-samanvitah
I am the origin of everything. From Me everything emanates. The wise who know this perfectly engage in My
devotional service and worship Me with all their hearts. (Bhagavad-gita 10.8)
Krishna Appears in Three Categories of Forms
Svayam-rupa, Tadekatma-rupa and Avesa-rupa
7.49
svayam-rupa, tad-ekatma-rupa, avesa nama
prathamei tina-rupe rahena bhagavan
That Supreme Personality of Godhead. Krishna appears in His selfsame form as svayam-rupa, in His first
expansion as tad-ekatma-rupa, and in His empowered manifestations, known as avesa. (Cc. Madhya 20.165)
The two Divisions of Svayam-rupa
7.50

'svayam-rupa' 'svayam-prakasa' dui rupe sphurti


svayam-rupe eka 'krishna' vraje gopa-murti
Krishna reveals Himself in two forms, as svayam-rupa, His own form) and svayam-prakasa (His own
manifestation). Svayam-rupa is Krishna Himself in Vrindavana, in the figure of a cowherd boy. (Cc. Madhya
20.166)
Two Divisions of Svayam-rupa Prabhava and Vaibhava7.51
'prabhava-vaibhava'-rupe dvividha prakase
eka-vapu bahu rupa yaiche haila rase
An example of prabhava-prakasa is when the Lord accepts two or more identical forms for the sake of enjoying
His pastimes, just as He accepted many identical forms during the rasa-lila. (Cc. Madhya 20.167)
Prabhava-vilasa: Expanding Many Forms to Marry Thousands of Queens
7.52
mahishi-vivahe haila bahu-vidha murti
'prabhava prakasa' ei sastra-parasiddhi
In order to marry 16,108 queens, Krishna accepted 16,108 forms. These forms are known as prabhava-vilasa,
and the scriptures have declared they are all trancendentally perfect. (Cc. Madhya 20.168)
Vaibhava-prakasa
7.53
sei vapu, sei akriti prithak yadi bhase
bhavavesa-bhede nama 'vaibhava-prakase'
If a form is differently manifested, according to different emotional features, it is called vaibhava-prakasa. (Cc.
Madhya 20.171)
Examples of Vaibhava prakasa
7.54
vaibhava-prakasa krishnera sri-balarama
varna-matra-bheda, saba krishnera samana
vaibhava-prakasa yaiche devaki-tanuja
dvibhuja-svarupa kabhu, kabhu haya caturbhuja
The first manifestation of the vaibhava feature of Krishna, known as vaibhava-prakasa, is Sri Balarama.
Balarama and Krishna have different bodily colors, otherwise Balarama is equal to Krishna in all respects.
Another example of vaibhava-prakasa is the son of Devaki. He sometimes has two hands and sometimes has
four hands. (Cc. Madhya 20.174,175)
The Four-handed Vasudeva is Prabhava-vilasa
7.55

ye-kale dvibhuja, nama vaibhava-prakasa


caturbhuja haile, nama prabhava-prakasa
svayam-rupera gopa-vesa, gopa-abhimana
vasudevera kshatriya-vesa, 'ami kshatriya'-jnana
saundarya, aisvarya, madhurya, vaidagdhya-vilasa
vrajeodra-nandane iha adhika ullasa
When the Lord is two-handed, He is called vaibhava-prakasa, and when He is four-handed, He is called
prabhava-prakasa. In His original form, the Lord dresses like a cowherd boy and thinks Himself one of them.
When He appears as Vasudeva, the son of Vasudeva and Devaki, His dress and consciousness are those of a
kshatriya. When one compares the beauty, opulence, sweetness, and intellectual pastimes of Vasudeva, the
warrior, to that of Krishna, the cowherd son of Nanda Maharaja, one sees that Krishna's attributes are more
pleasant. (Cc. Madhya 20.176-178)
Tad-ekatma-rupa
7.56
sei vapu bhinnabhase kichu bhinnakara
bhavavesakriti-bhede 'tad-ekatma' nama tanra
When the Lord's form is a little differently manifest and its features a little different in transcendental emotion
and form, it is called tad-ekatma-rupa. (Cc. Madhya 20.183)
Two Divisions of Tad-ekatma-rupa
7.57
tad-ekatma-rupe 'vilasa', 'svamsa' dui bheda
vilasa, svamsera bhede vividha vibheda
In the tad-ekatma-rupa there are two divisions pastime expansions (vilasa) and personal expansions (svamsa).
According to pastime and personal expansion, there are various differences. (Cc. Madhya 20.184)
Two Divisions of Vilasa Prabhava and Vaibhava
7.58
prabhava-vilasa vasudeva, sankarshana
pradyumna, aniruddha, mukhya cari-jana
The chief quadruple expansions are named Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha. These are called
prabhava vilasa. (Cc. Madhya 20.186)
Balarama is a Vilasa Form
7.59
vraje gopa-bhava ramera, pure kshatriya-bhavana
varna-vesa-bheda, tate 'vilasa' tanra nama
Balarama, who has the same original form as Krishna, is Himself a cowherd boy in Vrindavana. He also
considers Himself to belong to the kshatriya race in Dvaraka. Thus His color and dress are different, and He is
called a pastime (vilasa) form of Krishna. (Cc. Madhya 20.187)

Vaibhava-prakasa and Prabhava-vilasa Forms are According to Different Moods and Pastimes
7.60
vaibhava-prakase ara prabhava-vilase
eka-i murtye baladeva bhava-bhede bhase
Lord Balarama is a vaibhava-prakasa manifestation of Krishna. He is also manifest in the original quadruple
expansion of Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha. These are prabhava-vilasa expansions with
different emotions. (Cc. Madhya 20.188)
From That Prabhava-vilasa Comes the Catur-vyuhas,
Which are Vaibhava-vilasa Features of the Lord7.61
adi-catur-vyuha inhara keha nahi sama
ananta caturvyuha-ganera prakatya-karana
The first expansion of the catur-vyuha is unique. There is nothing to compare with them. These quadruple forms
are the source of unlimited quadruple forms. (Cc. Madhya 20.189)
The Original Catur-vyuha are the Lords in Mathura and Dvaraka
7.62
krishnera ei cari prabhava-vilasa
dvaraka-mathura-pure nitya inhara vasa
These four prabhava-vilasa pastime forms of Lord Krishna reside eternally in Dvaraka and Mathura. (Cc.
Madhya 20.190)
The Twenty-four Principle Expansions From
the Original Catur-vyuha are Known as Vaibhava-vilasa-7.63
ei cari haite cabbisa murti parakasa
astra-bhede nama-bheda vaibhava-vilasa
From the original quadruple expansions, twenty-four forms are manifest. They differ according to the placement
of weapons in Their four hands. They are called vaibhava-vilasa. (Cc. Madhya 20.191)
The Original Catur-vuyha Expands into Vaikuntha
7.64
punah krishna catur-vyuha lana purva-rupe
paravyoma-madhye vaise narayana-rupe
tanha haite punah catur-vyuha-parakasa
avarana-rupe cari-dike yanra vasa
Lord Krishna again expands, and within the spiritual sky, He is situated in fullness as the four-handed
Narayana, accompanied by expansions of the original quadruple form. Thus, the original quadruple forms again

manifest Themselves in a second quadruple expansion. The residences of these second quadruple expansions
cover the four directions. (Cc. Madhya 20.192,193)
Further Expansions of the Second Quadruples
7.65
cari-janera punah prithak tina tina murti
kesavadi yata haite vilasera purti
Again these quadruple forms expand three times, beginning with Kesava. That is the fulfillment of the pastime
forms. (Cc. Madhya 20.194)
Svamsa Expansions Appear in the Material World
7.66
sankarshana, matsyadika, dui bheda tanra
sankarshana purushavatara, lilavatara ara
The first personal expansion is Sankarshana, and the others are incarnations like the fish incarnation.
Sankarshana is an expansion of the Purusha, or Vishnu. The incarnations such as Matsya appear in different
ages for specific pastimes, and are known as lila-avataras. (Cc. Madhya 20.244)
Six Kinds of Avataras
7.67
avatara haya krishnera shad-vidha prakara
purushavatara eka, lilavatara ara
gunavatara, ara manvantaravatara
yugavatara, ara saktyavesavatara
There are six types of avataras of Krishna: Incarnations of Vishnu (purusha-avataras), pastime incarnations
(lila-avataras), incarnations that control the modes of nature (guna-avataras), incarnations as Manu
(manvantara-avataras), incarnations in different milleniums (yuga-avataras), and saktyavesa-avataras. (Cc.
Madhya 20.245,246)
Who is Called Svayam-Bhagavan
7.68
yanra bhagavatta haite anyera bhagavatta
'svayam-bhagavan'-sabdera tahatei satta
Only the Personality of Godhead, the source of all other expansions is eligible to be described as svayambhagavan, or the primeval Lord. (Cc. Adi 2.88)
Avatari and the Different Avataras of the Lord
7.69
dipa haite yaiche bahu dipera jvalana
mula eka dipa taha kariye ganana
taiche saba avatarera krishna se karana

ara eka sloka suna, kuvyakhya-khandana


When from one candle many others are lit, I consider that one the original. In the same way, Krishna is the
cause of all causes and the fountainhead of all avataras. (Cc. Adi 2.89,90)
The Distinction Between Avatara and Avatari
7.70
vasudevah sankarshanah pradyumno 'niruddho 'ham matsyah kurmo varahah nrisimho vamano ramo ramo
ramah krishno buddhah kalkir aham iti
The Supreme Lord said, "I am Krishna. I appear as Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha. I also
appear as Baladeva, Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, Nrisimha, Vamana, Rama, and Parasurama. I also appear as
Buddha and Kalki. (Catur-Veda-Siksha)
The Avataras of the Lord are Divine
7.71
naivaite jayante naivaite mriyate naiyamavandho na muktih sarva eva hyete purna ajara amritah paramananda iti
The avataras of Krishna do not take birth as ordinary living entities, who are all conditioned by the modes of
nature. The avataras are never covered by ignorance or have to attain freedom from material illusion. They are
complete in every way. They are never subject to old age. They are immortal and eternal. They are the supreme
truth and They personify the highest bliss. (Catur-Veda-Siksha)
Time and Purpose for the Lord's Avatara
7.72
yada yada hi dharmasya glanir bhavati bharata
abhyutthanam adharmasya tadatmanam srijamy aham
Whenever and wherever there is a decline in religion and a rise in irreligion, at that time I advent Myself.
(Bhagavad-gita 4.7)
7.73
paritranaya sadhunam vinasaya ca dushkritam
dharma-samsthapanarthaya sambhavami yuge yuge
To protect the sadhus, destroy the envious, and reestablish the principles of religion, I advent myself
millennium after millennium. (Bhagavad-gita 4.8)
To Protect the Saintly and Chastise the Demoniac
is not the Principle Reason for Krishna's Advent
7.74
svayam-bhagavanera karma nahe bhara-harana
sthiti-karta vishnu karena jagat-palana
kintu krishnera yei haya avatara-kala
bhara-harana-kala tate ha-ila misala
purna bhagavan avatare yei kale

ara saba avatara tante asi' mile


ataeva vishnu takhana krishnera sarire
vishnu-dvare kare krishna asura-samhare
Removing the burden of the earth is not the work of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krishna. It is Lord
Vishnu, who protects the universe. But the time to lift the burden of the world mixed with the time for Sri
Krishna's appearance. When the complete personality of Godhead descends, all other incarnations of the Lord
meet within Him and Lord Vishnu, present within the body of Krishna, kills the demons through Him. (Cc. Adi
4.8-10,13)
Krishna's Avataras are Countless
7.75
avatara hy asankhyeya hareh sattva-nidher dvijah
yathavidasinah kulyah sarasah syuh sahasrasah
[Suta Gosvami said] O brahmanas, just as the waves of the ocean are countless, the thousands and thousands of
avataras of the Lord are limitless. No one can count the appearances and disappearances of the Lord. (Bhag.
1.3.26)
The Purusha-avataras are the Origin of Everything
7.76
vishnos tu trini rupani purushakhyanyatho viduh
ekas tu mahatah srashtri dvitiyam tvandasamsthitam
tritiyam sarva-bhutastham tani jnatva vimucyate
Vishnu has three forms called Purushas. The first, Maha-vishnu, is the Creator of the total material energy
(mahat-tattva). The second, Garbhodakasayi Vishnu, is within every universe, and the third, Kshirodakasayi
Vishnu, lives in the heart of every living being as the Supersoul. One who recognizes these three as the
Personality of Godhead becomes liberated from the bondage of material illusion. (Laghu-Bhagavatamrita,
Purva-khanda 5)
Because He Descends to the Material World, the Lord is Called Avatara
7.77
srishti-hetu yei murti prapance avatare
sei isvara-murti 'avatara' nama dhare
mayatita paravyome sabara avasthana
visve avatari' dhare 'avatara' nama
The form of the Lord that descends to the material world to create is called an avatara. All the expansions of
Lord Krishna are actually residents of the spiritual world. When they descend to the material world, however,
they are called avataras. (Cc. Madhya 20.263,264)
Mahavishnu is but a Partial Part of Krishna
7.78
jagrihe paurusham rupam bhagavan mahad-adibhih

sambhutam shodasa-kalam adau loka-sisrikshaya


At the beginning of creation, the Lord first expanded Himself in the form of the purusha-avatara and manifest
all the ingredients of the material creation. And thus, at first there was the creation of the sixteen principles of
material action. This was for the purpose of creating the material universe. (Bhag. 1.3.1)
7.79
adyo 'vatarah purushah parasya
kalah svabhavah sad-asan-manas ca
dravyam vikaro guna indriyani
virat svarat sthasnu carishnu bhumnah
Karanarnavasayi Vishnu is the first incarnation of the Supreme Lord. He is the master of eternal time, space,
cause, and effects, including mind, the elements, material ego, the modes of nature, the senses, the universal
form of the Lord, Garbhodakasayi Vishnu, and the sum total of all living beings, both moving and non-moving.
(Bhag. 2.6.42)
7.80
yasyaika-nisvasita-kalam athavalambya
jivanti loma-vilaja jagad-anda-nathah
vishnur mahan sa iha yasya kala-visesho
govindam adi-purusham tam aham bhajami
Brahma and the other lords of the mundane worlds, appearing from the pores of the transcendental body of
Mahavishnu, remain alive for the duration of one exhalation of the latter. I adore the primeval Lord, Govinda, of
whose subjective personality Mahavishnu is but a portion of a portion. (Brahma-Samhita 5.48)
7.81
sahasra-patra-kamalam gokulakhyam mahat padam
tat-karnikaram tad-dhama tad-anantamsa-sambhavam
The super excellent station of Krishna, which is known as Gokula, has thousands of petals and a corolla like
that of a lotus sprouted from a part of His infinitary aspect, the whorl of the leaves being the actual abode of
Krishna. (Brahma-Samhita 5.2)
Mahavishnu is Beyond the Modes of Nature
7.82
yasyavayava-samsthanaih kalpito loka-vistarah
tad vai bhagavato rupam visuddham sattvam urjitam
It is believed that all the universal planetary systems are on the extensive body of the purusha, but He has
nothing to do with the material creative ingredients. His body is eternally in spiritual existence par excellence.
(Bhag. 1.3.3.)
Pradyumna Becomes Garbhodakasayi Vishnu,
who is the Root of the Other Avataras
7.83
brahma, vishnu, siva tanra guna-avatara
srishti-sthiti-pralayera tinera adhikara

hiranyagarbha-antaryami garbhodakasayi
'sahasra-sirshadi' kari' vede yanre gai
Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva are His incarnations in the material qualities. They are in charge of creation,
maintenance, and destruction respectively. Garbhodakasayi Vishnu, known within the universe as
Hiranyagarbha and as the indwelling Supersoul, is glorified in the Vedic hymn known as the Purusha-sukta,
beginning with the word sahasra-sirsha. (Cc. Madhya 20.291,292)
Aniruddha is Ksirodakasayi Vishnu
7.84
virat vyashti-jivera tenho antaryami
kshirodakasayi tenho palana-karta, svami
Kshirodakasayi Vishnu is the universal form of the Lord and the Supersoul within every living entity. He is
known as Kshirodakasayi, or the Lord who lies within the ocean of milk. He is the maintainer and master of the
universe. (Cc. Madhya 20.295)
Brahma is the Avatara of Rajo-guna
7.85
bhakti-misra-krita-punye kona jivottama
rajo-gune vibhavita kari' tanra mana
garbhodakasayi-dvara sakti sancari'
vyashti srishti kare krishna brahma-rupa dhari'
Because of his past pious deeds mixed with devotional service, a first-class living entity who is influenced by
the mode of passion within his mind and empowered by Garbhodakasayi Vishnu becomes Brahma, the
qualitative incarnation of the Lord in the mode of passion. His purpose is to engineer the creation of universe.
(Cc. Madhya 20.302,303)
Brahma is Empowered for the Work of Creation
7.86
bhasvan yathasma-sakaleshu nijeshu tejah
sviyam kiyat prakatayaty api tadvad atra
brahma ya esha jagad-anda-vidhana-karta
govindam adi-purusham tam aham bhajami
I adore the primeval Lord Govinda from whom the separated subjective portion Brahma receives his power for
the regulation of the mundane world, just as the sun manifests some portion of his own light in all the effulgent
gems that bear the names of suryakantha. etc. (Brahma-samhita 5.49)
Rudra is the Avatara of the Mode of Ignorance
7.87
nijamsa-kalaya krishna tamo-guna angikari'
samhararthe maya-sange rudra-rupa dhari

Krishna expands a portion of His plenary portion, and accepting the association of the material mode of
ignorance, assumes the form of Rudra to dissolve the cosmic manifestation. (Cc. Madhya 20.307)
The Distinction Between Krishna, Siva, and Jiva
7.88
maya-sanga-vikari rudra bhinnabhinna rupa
jiva-tattva nahe, nahe krishnera 'svarupa'
Rudra has various forms that are transformations brought about by association with maya. Although Rudra is
not on the same level as jiva-tattva, he cannot be considered a personal expansion of Lord Krishna. (Cc.
Madhya 20.308)
Rudra is one with yet Different From the Lord
7.89
dugdha yena amla-yoge dadhi-rupa dhare
dugdhantara vastu nahe, dugdha haite nare
Milk is transformed into yogurt when it associates with a yogurt culture. Thus yogurt is nothing but milk; still it
is not the same as milk. [In the same way, Vishnu transforms Himself into Siva. Thus Siva-tattva is similar to
Vishnu-tattva, but not identical.] (Cc. Madhya 20.309)
7.90
kshiram yatha dadhi-vikara-visesha-yogat
sanjayate na hi tatah prithag asti hetoh
yah sambhutam api tatha samupaiti karyat
govindam adi-purusham tam aham bhajami
Milk changes into yogurt when it is mixed with a yogurt culture; but yogurt is constitutionally nothing but milk.
Similarly, Govinda, the Supreme Lord, assumes the form of Lord Siva for the special purpose of material
transactions. I offer my obeisances at the lotus feet of Govinda, the primeval Lord. (Brahma-Samhita 5.45)
The Difference Between Siva and Krishna
7.91
'siva maya-sakti-sangi, tamo-gunavesa
mayatita gunatita 'vishnu' paramesa
Lord Siva is an associate of the external energy (maya). He is absorbed in the material quality of darkness. Lord
Vishnu is transcendental to maya and the qualities of maya. He is, therefore, the Supreme Personality of
Godhead. (Cc. Madhya 20.311)
Rudra is Always Absorbed in a Synthesis of the Qualities of Maya
7.92
sivah sakti-yutah sasvat tri-lingo guna-samvritah
vaikarikas taijasas ca tamasas cety aham tridha
The truth about Lord Siva is that he is always covered with the three material coverings: vaikarika, tejasa, and
tamasah (the modes of goodness, passion, and ignorance and their perverted egoic misconceptions). Because of

these three modes of nature he always associates with the external energy and with egotism itself. (Bhag.
10.88.3)
Vishnu is Above the Modes of Nature
7.93
harir hi nirgunah sakshat purushah prakriteh parah
sa sarva-drig upadrashta tam bhajan nirguno bhavet
Sri Hari is beyond the range of material nature. He is the Supreme Transcendental Person. He can see
everything, inside and outside. Therefore, He is the Supreme overseer of all living entities. Whoever takes
shelter at His lotus feet and worships Him attains the transcendental position. (Bhag. 10.88.5)
Vishnu in Sattva-guna is the Pastime Form of Garbhodakasayi Vishnu and a Svamsa Expansion of Krishna
7.94
palanartha svamsa vishnu-rupe avatara
sattva-guna drashta, tate guna-maya-para
svarupa aisvarya-purna, krishna-sama praya
krishna amsi, tenho amsa, vede hena gaya
To maintain the universe, Lord Krishna descends as His personal plenary expansion in the form of Lord Vishnu
and directs the mode of goodness. Therefore He is transcendental to the material energy. Lord Vishnu is in the
category of svamsa, because He has opulences almost equal to Krishna's. The verdict of all Vedic literature is
that Krishna is the original person and Lord Vishnu is His personal expansion. (Cc. Madhya 20.314,315)
Krishna Expands as Vishnu Just as an Original Candle Lights Other Candles
7.95
diparcir eva hi dasantaramabhyupetya
dipayate vivrita-hetu-samanadharma
yas-tadrig eva hi ca vishnutaya vibhati
govindam adi-purusham tam aham bhajami
When one candle lights other candles, they all burn with the same intensity. Still, the first one may be said to be
the original candle. In the same way, although so many Personalities of Godhead may expand from Him,
Govinda is the original Supreme Personality of Godhead. I adore that primeval Lord Govinda. (BrahmaSamhita 5.45)
The Constitutional Position of Vishnu, Brahma, and Siva
7.96
brahma, siva ajna-kari bhakta-avatara
palanarthe vishnu krishnera svarupa-akara
The conclusion is that Lord Brahma and Lord Siva, are simply devotee incarnations who carry out orders.
However, Lord Vishnu, the maintainer, is the personal feature of Lord Krishna. (Cc. Madhya 20.3l7)
7.97
srijami tan-niyukto 'ham haro harati tad-vasah

visvam purusha-rupena paripati tri-sakti-dhrik


[Lord Brahma said] I am engaged by the Supreme Lord to create: following His orders, Lord Siva dissolves
everything. The Supreme Lord in His form of Ksirodakasayi Vishnu maintains all the affairs of material nature.
Thus, the Supreme controller of the modes of material nature is Lord Vishnu. (Bhag. 2.6.32)
The Eternal and Transcendental Character of Krishna's Birth and Pastimes
7.98
janma karma ca me divyam evam yo vetti tattvatah
tyaktva deham punar janma naiti mam eti so 'rjuna
One who can understand the transcendental character of My birth and pastimes O Arjuna, will never take birth
again in this world. He certainly attains Me. (Bhagavad-gita 4.9)
Evidence From the Srutis About the Transcendental Character of Krishna's Pastimes
7.99
ta vam vastunyusmasi gamadhyai yatra gavo bhurisrioga ayasah
atraha tadurugayasya vrishnah paramam padamavabhati bhuri
Attaining the transcendental abode of Radha-Krishna, I shall rejoice. There, in the midst of the cows, Krishna
enjoys His loving pastimes, which are all-auspicious. In that supreme abode, Krishna enjoys transcendental
pastimes, with His different devotees. (Purusha-sukta 1.154.6 Eg Veda)
The Apani-padah Verse Means That His Body is Transcendental7.100
'apani-pada'-sruti varje 'prakrita' pani carana
punah kahe, sighra cale, kare sarva grahana
The Upanishad verse, apani-padah...means that Krishna has no material hands or legs. It rejects material hands
and legs and yet states that the Lord runs very quickly and accepts everything offered to Him. (Cc. Madhya
6.150)
The Lord's Body is not Material
7.101
ajo 'pi sann avyayatma bhutanam isvaro 'pi san
prakritim svam adhishthaya sambhavamy atma-mayaya
Although I am unborn and My transcendental body never deteriorates, still, I advent Myself in every
millennium by My own transcendental potency. (Bhagavad-gita 4.6)
The Transcendental Science Cannot be Understood by Material Intelligence
7.102
aprakrita vastu nahe prakrita-gocara
veda-puranete ei kahe nirantara

The Vedas and Puranas repeatedly warn against considering divine or non-material substance as under material
nature. (Cc. Madhya 9.194)
7.103
acintya khalu ye bhava na tams tarkena yojayet
prakritibhyah param yat tu tad-acintyasya lakshanam
One should not try to understand by logic that which is inconceivable. That object which is beyond material
nature is called inconceivable. (Mahabharata, Bhishma Parva, 5.12)
7.104
tarkapratishthanat
The Absolute Truth can never be established through argument. (Brahma-sutra 2.1.11)
7.105
athapi te deva padambuja-dvayaprasada-lesanugrihita eva hi
janati tattvam bhagavan-mahimno
na canya eko 'pi ciram vicinvan
My Lord, if one is favored by even a slight trace of the mercy of Your lotus feet, He can understand the
greatness of Your personality, but those who speculate in order to understand are unable to know You, even
though they study the Vedas for many years. (Bhag. 10.14.29)
7.106
anumana pramana nahe isvara-tattva-jnane
kripa vina ishvarere keha nahi jane
One can understand the Supreme Lord only by His mercy, not by guesswork or hypothesis. (Cc. Madhya 6.82)
7.107
pandityadye isvara-tattva-jnana kabhu nahe'
One cannot understand the Supreme Lord simply by scholarship. (Cc. Madhya 6.87)
7.108
tvam silarupacaritaih parama-prakrishta
sattvena sattvikataya prabalais ca sastraih
prakhyata-daiva-paramartha-vidam matais ca
naivasura-prakritayah prabhavanti boddhum
O Lord. Those who are demonic are unable to understand You by following good behaviour, culture of the
mode of goodness, doing activties in mode of goodness, by logic, scripture, or even by the opinion of the
famous scholars who know the essence of the Absolute. (Stotra-Ratnam, Yamunacarya, 15)
7.109
ullamghita-trividha-sima-samatisayi
sambhavanam tara parivradim-asvabhavam
maya-balena bhavata 'pi niguhyamanam
pasyanti kecidanisam tvad-ananya-bhavah

O Lord, only those devotees who have completely surrendered unto You are able to see Your opulence
continously, although You hide Yourself by Your yoga-maya. Your opulence is beyond time, space and any
material object and there is nothing equal or superior to it. (Stotra-ratnam, Yamunacarya 13)
The Body of the Lord is Transcendental Substance
7.110
isvarera sri-vigraha sac-cid-anandakara
se-vigrahe kaha sattva-gunera vikara
sri-vigraha ye na mane, sei ta' pashandi
adrisya asprisya, sei haya yama-dandi
The Lord's transcendental form is eternal, full of bliss and knowledge. Those who don't properly regard the
Deity of the Lord are atheists. The Lord never reveals Himself to such persons, but remains invisible. After
death such men are punished by Yamaraja. (Cc. Madhya 6.166,167)
The Name and Form of the Lord
7.111
'nama', 'vigraha', 'svarupa' tina eka-rupa
tine 'bheda' nahi, tina 'cid-ananda-rupa'
deha-dehira, nama-namira krishne nahi 'bheda'
jivera dharma nama-deha-svarupe 'vibheda'
ataeva krishnera 'nama', 'deha', 'vilasa'
prakritendriya-grahya nahe, haya sva-prakasa
The Lord's holy name, form, and personality are all one and the same. There is no difference between them.
Since all of them are absolute, they are transcendentally blissful. There is no difference between Krishna's body
and Himself, nor between His name and Himself. For conditioned souls everything is different. One's name is
different from one's body, from one's original form, and so on. The holy name of Krishna, as well as His body
and His pastimes cannot be understood by the blunt material senses; they are self-manifest. (Cc. Madhya
17.131,132,134)
Who Cannot Understand Krishna's Form is a Mudha
7.112
avajananti mam mudha manushim tanum asritam
param bhavam ajananto mama bhuta-mahesvaram
Fools who know Me not think I have assumed this form and personality. They do not know My Supreme
Transcendental nature, which is unborn and limitless. Nor do they know My supreme dominion over all.
(Bhagavad-gita 9.11)
7.113
purnananda-cit-svarupa jagannatha-raya
tanre kaili jada-nasvara-prakrita-kaya!!
purna-shad-aisvarya caitanya svayam bhagavan
tanre kaili kshudra jiva sphulinga-samana!!

dui-thani aparadhe paibi durgati!


atattva-jna 'tattva' varne, tara ei riti!
ara eka kariyacha parama 'pramada'!
deha-dehi-bheda isvare kaile 'aparadha'!
isvarera nahi kabhu deha-dehi-bheda
svarupa, deha, cid-ananda, nahika vibheda
Lord Jagannatha is completely spiritual and full of transcendental bliss, but you have compared Him to a dull
destructible body composed of material elements. You have calculated that Sri Caitanya, who is Godhead
Himself and full in six opulences, to be on the level of an ordinary living being. Instead of knowing Him as the
Supreme fire, you have accepted Him as a spark. Because of this offense against Lord Jagannatha and Lord
Caitanya you will go to hell. You do not know how to describe the Absolute Truth, nevertheless you have tried
to do so, and therefore you must be condemned. You are in complete illusion, for you have distinguished
between the body and soul of Lord Jagannatha and Caitanya Mahaprabhu. That is a great offense. At no time is
there any distinction between the Supreme Lord and His body and soul. His personal identity and His body are
made of eternal, blissful spiritual energy. There is no distinction between them. (Cc. Antya 5.118-122)
The Deity Form of the Lord Appears in Eight Kinds of Material Substances
7.114
saili daru-mayi lauhi lepya lekhya ca saikati
mano-mayi mani-mayi pratimashta-vidha smrita
The Deity form of the Lord appears in eight varieties of material substances: stone, metal, wood, earth, paint,
sand, the mind, and jewels. (Bhag. 11.27.12)
Thus ends the Seventh Jewel of the Gaudiya Kanthahara, entitled Krishna-tattva.

Shri Shri Radha Krishna Gannodesha Dipika by Shrila Rupa Goswami


A LAMP TO SEE THE ASSOCIATES OF SRI SRI RADHA-KRSNA BY SHRILA RUPA GOSWAMI
INTRODUCTION
TEXT 1
I offer my respectful obeisances to the lotus feet of my spiritual master. I offer my respectful obeisances to Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu, who appeared in this world with Nityananda Prabhu and is surrounded by His devotees.
TEXT 2
I offer my respectful obeisances to the two lotus feet Srimati Radharani. I offer my respectful obeisances Lord
Nandanandana, who is surrounded by the gopis and enchants the minds of the residents of Vrndavana.
TEXT 3
The celebrated personal associates of the King and Queen of Vrndavana are briefly but truthfully described with
great delight in both Vedic literatures and oral tradition. This book will also describe them.
TEXT 4 AND 5
These associates of the Lord are described by the residents of Mathura-mandala, by the various books written
by devotees , various Vedic literatures such as the Puranas and Agamas and by the great devotees and saintly
persons. For the satisfaction of my dear friends, these associates of the Lord will now be briefly describing in
writing, following the previous authorities in the path of ecstatic love of God.
TEXT 6

The associates of Krsna who reside in Vrajabhumi may be divided into three groups : 1. protectors of domestic
animals, 2. brahmanas, 3. others.
TEXT 7
The Protectors of Domestic Animals
These are descendants of the Yadu dynasty and they may be divided into three groups : 1. vaisyas, 2. abhiras, 3.
gurjaras.
TEXT 8
The Vaisyas
For the most part the most important vaisyas earn their livelihood by protecting cows. Some of the vaisyas are
born from lower-caste mothers and they are known as abhiras.
TEXT 9
The Abhiras
The abhiras are those who have vaisya fathers and sudra mothers. A little inferior to the vaisyas, who are
engaged in cow protection, the abhiras earn their livelihood by protecting buffalo. They are known by various
names, such as ghosa.
TEXT 10
The Garjaras
A little inferior to the abhiras, the garjaras earn their livelihood by protecting goats and similar animals. Their
bodily features are a little chubby and they reside on the outskirts of Vraja.
TEXT 11
The Brahmanas
Learned in all the Vedas, the brahmanas engage in performing sacrifices, worshiping the Deity and other
brahminical occupations.
TEXT 12
The Bahisthas
The bahisthas earn their livelihood by engaging in various trades and crafts. In this way we have described five
kinds of associates (vaisyas, abhiras, garjaras, brahmanas and bahisthas) of Lord Hari in Vrajabhumi.
TEXT 13
Lord Krsna's associates may also be divided into the following eight groups : 1. worshipable superiors, 2.
relatives who are on the same level (such as brothers and sisters) 3. gopi messengers, 4. servants, 5. craftsmen,
6. maidservants, 7. contemporary cowherd friends and 8. dear gopi friends. Included among the worshipable
superiors are the brothers and similar relatives of Nanda Maharaja, Nanda's contemporary friends, servants,
other associates and the elderly gopis. Krsna is always respectful to these superiors.
TEXT 14
1. Worshipable Superiors
The worshipable superiors include Krnsa's grandfather, other elderly relatives and also the community of
brahmanas.
TEXT 15 AND 16
Krsna's fair-complexion, white-haired and white-attired grandfather is named Parjanya Maharaja, because he is
like a great cloud (parjanya) showering the nectar of auspiciousness. He is the best of all the residents of Vraja.

Desiring a worthy descendant, he followed the advice of Devarsi Narada and engaged in the worship of Lord
Narayana, the husband of Laksmi. As he was worshiping Narayana at Nandisvara-pura, a pleasant voice spoke
the following words from the sky.
TEXT 17 AND 18
" Because of your pious austerities you will obtain five sons. Of these sons the middle one, named Nanda, will
be the best. Nanda's glorious son will delight the residents of Vraja. He will defeat all oppositions. Both the
demigods and demons will worship Him, touching the jewels of their crowns to His lotus feet."
TEXT 19
Hearing this, Parjanya Maharaja became happy and decided to reside at the place. He lived there until he saw
the Kesi demon arrive and at that time he became frightened and fled with all his associates to Mahavana.
TEXT 20
Krsna's grandmother Variyasi is respected in the land of Vraja. She is short in stature and her complexion is the
colour of a kusumbha flower. She is attired in green garments and her hair is the color of milk.
TEXT 21
Parjanya Maharaja's brothers are named Urjanya and Rajanya and his sister is an expert dancer named
Suverjana. Her husband is named Gunavira and they live in the town named Surya-kunja.
TEXT 22 and 23
Krsna's father is Nanda Maharaja. Nanda delights the residents of Vraja and he is worshiped by all the worlds.
He has a protuberant belly, his complexion is the colour of sandalwood, he is tall in stature and his garments are
the colour of a bandhujiva flower. His beard is a mixture of black and white hairs, like rice and toasted sesame
seeds mixed together.
TEXT 24
Nanda is the king of the cowherd men, the younger brother of Upananda and the intimate friend of Maharaja
Vasudeva. Nanda and his wife Yasoda are the king and queen of Vrajabhumi and the parents of Lord Krsna.
TEXT 25
Because he possesses the splendor (deva) of great wealth (vasu), Nanda Maharaja is also known as Vasudeva.
He is also famous by the name Anakadundubhi and it is known that in his previous birth he was named Drona.
TEXT 26
These names of Maharaja Nanda are described in the Mathura-mahima section of the Garuda Purana. Nanda's
most intimate friend is named Maharaja Vrsabhanu.
TEXT 27
Krsna's mother is named Yasoda because she bestows (da) fame (yasah) on the cowherd residents of Vraja. She
is like the personification of parental love for Krnsa. Her complexion is dark and her garments are like a
rainbow.
TEXT 28
Mother Yasoda's body is of a medium size, neither large nor small. She has long black hair. Her closest friends
are Aindavi and Kirtida.
TEXT 29
Yasoda is the wife of Nanda, the king of Gokula. She is the queen of the cowherd men in Vraja, the friend of
Devaki and the mother of Lord Krsna.
TEXT 30

The friendship of Yasoda is described in the following statement of the Adi Purana : " The wife of Maharaja
Nanda was known by two names, Yasoda and Devaki. Partly because they share the same name (Devaki) the
wife of Maharaja Nanda and the wife of Maharaja Vasudeva were great friends."
TEXT 31
Lord Balarama's mother is named Rohini, because she is filled with a constantly rising (arohini) flood of
transcendental bliss. Although she dearly loves her son Balarama, she loves Krsna millions of times more.
TEXT 32
Nanda Maharaja's elder brothers are Upananda and Abhinanda and his younger brothers are Sannanda and
Nandana. These are the names of Lord Krsna's parental uncles.
TEXT 33
Upananda's complexion is pink. He has a long beard and wears green garments. Tungi-devi is his dear wife.
Both her complexion and garments are the colour of a cataka bird.
TEXT 34
Abhinanda wears dark garments and his long beautiful beard is like a great conchshell. Pivari-devi is his wife.
She wears blue garments and her complexion is pink.
TEXT 35
Sannanda is also known as Sunanda. His complexion is white and he wears dark-colored clothing. He has two
or three white hairs and he is very dear to Lord Kesava.
TEXT 36
Kuvalaya-devi is Sannanda's wife. Her complexion is the colour of a blue lotus flower and she wears red
garments. Nandana wears garments the color of a candata flower and his complexion is like the color of a
peacock.
TEXT 37
Nandana lives in the same house with his father, Parjanya Maharaja. He is full of love for his yound nephew
Krsna. Atulya-devi is Nandana's wife. Her complexion is like lightning and her garments resemble a dark cloud.
TEXT 38
Krsna's father has two sisters, Sananda-devi and Nandini-devi. They both dress in garments of many different
colors. They have beautiful teeth and their complexions are the color of white foam. Sananda-devi's husband is
Mahanila and Nandini's husband is Sunila.
TEXT 39 and 40
Kandava and Dandava are the two sons of Upananda. Their faces are as beautiful as lotus flowers and they
become especially happy in the association of their friend Subala.
Catu and Batuka are Nanda Maharaja's two ksatriya cousins born in Vasudeva Maharaja's dynasty. Catu's wife
is Dadhisara and Batuka's wife is Havihsara.
TEXT 41
Krsna's energetic and enthusiastic maternal grandfather is named Sumukha. His long beard is like a great
conchshell and his complexion is the color of a ripe jambu fruit.
TEXT 42
Queen Patala-devi is Krsna's maternal grandmother and she is very famous in Vrajabhumi. Her hair is the white
color of yogurt, her complexion is the pink color of a patala flower and her garments are green.
TEXT 43
Patala-devi's dear friend is named Mukhara-gopi. Out of intense affection for her friend, Mukhara used to feed
the infant Yasoda with her own breast milk.

TEXT 44 AND 45
Carumukha is Sumukha's younger brother. His complexion is the color of black eye-cosmetics and his wife
Balaka-gopi was raised by her stepparents. Gola is the brother of Patala-devi, Krsna's maternal grandmother.
His garments are the color of smoke. His brother-in-law, Sumukha, used to make fun of him and laugh and
because of this Gola was very angry with him. Because he had worshiped Durvasa Muni in his previous birth,
Gola was allowed to take birth in Vrajabhumi in the family of Ujjvala.
TEXT 46
Jatila-devi is Gola's wife. She has a large belly and her complexion is the color of a cow. Her sons Yasodhara,
Yasodeva and Sudeva head the group of Krsna's maternal uncles.
TEXT 47
Krsna's maternal uncles have complexions like the color of a dark atasi flower and they dress in white garments.
Their wives have complexions like karkati flowers and they dress in smoke-colored garments.
TEXT 48
Rema-devi, Roma-devi and Surema-devi are the daughters of Krsna's parental uncle Pavana. Yasodevi and
Yasasvini are the sisters of Krsna's mother Yasoda. Yasasvini's husband is named Malla.
TEXT 49
Yasodevi is elder. Her complexion is dark and she is also known by the name Dadhisara. Yasasvini is younger.
Her complexion is fair and she is also known by the name Havihsara. Both dress in vermillion-colored
garments.
TEXT 50
Yasoda's sisters married the two ksatriyas Catu and Batuka (see text 40). Yasoda's uncle Carumukha has one
son who is named Sucaru.
TEXT 51
Sucaru's wife is Tulavati-devi, the daughter of Sumukha's brother-in-law Gola. Tundu, Kutera, Purata and
others are the comtemporary associates of Krsna's parental grandfather.
TEXT 52
Kila, Antakela, Tilata, Krpita, Purata, Gonda, Kallota, Karanda, Tarisana, Varisana, Viraroha and Vararoha are
among the contemporary associates of Krsna's maternal grandfather.
TEXT 53
The elderly ladies Silabheri, Sikhambara, Bharuni, Bhangur, Bhangi, Bharasakha and Sikha are among the
contemporary associates of Krsna's parental grandmother.
TEXT 54 AND 55
Bharunda, Jatila, Bhela, Karala, Karabalika, Gharghara, Mukhara, Ghora, Ghanta, Ghoni, Sughantika,
Dhvankarunti, Handi, Tundi, Dingima, Manjuranika, Cakkini, Condika, Cundi, Dindima, Pundavanika,
Damani, Damari, Dambi and Danka are among the contemporary associates of Krsna's maternal grandmother.
TEXT 56 - 58
Mangala, Pingala, Pinga, Mathura, Pitha, Pattisa, Sankara, Sangara, Bhrngaq, Ghrni, Ghatika, Saragha, Pathira,
Dandi, Kedara, Saurabheya, Kala, Ankura, Dhurina, Dhurva, Cakranga, Maskara, Utpala, Kambala, Supaksa,
Saudha, Harita, Harikesa, Hara and Upananda are among the contemporary associates of Krsna's father, Nanda
Maharaja.
TEXT 59
Having taken a vow of friendship in their youth, Parjanya and Sumukha always remain the best of friends.
Nanda Maharaja and many other of the cowherds are descended from their families.

TEXT 60 - 62
Vatsala, Kusala, Tali, Medura, Masrna, Krpa, Sankini, Bimbini, Mitra, Subhaga, Bhogini, Prabha, Sarika
Hingula, Niti, Kapila, Dhamanidhara, Paksati, Pataka, Pundi, Sutunda, Tusti, Anjana, Tarangaksi, Taralika,
Subhada, Malika, Angada, Visala, Sallaki, Vena and Vartika are among the contemporary associates of Krsna's
mother, Yasoda-devi.
TEXT 63
Ambika and Kilimba are the two nurses who fed Krsna with their breast milk. Of the two, Ambika, the dear
friend of Vraja's queen, is the most important.
TEXT 64 -65
The Brahmanas
Two groups of brahmanas reside in Gokula : those maintained by Nanda Maharaja and those who are priests
engaged in the performance of Vedic sacrifices. Among the priests, Vedagarbha, Mahayajva and Bhaguri are
prominent. Their respective wives are Samadheni, Mahakavya and Vedika.
TEXT 66
Sulabha, Gautami, Gargi, Candila, Kubjika, Vamani, Svaha, Sulata, Sandili, Svadha and Bhargavi are the most
important of the brahmana ladies respectfully worshiped by the residents of Vraja.
TEXT 67 - 69
Full of transcendental opulences, Paurnamasi-devi is the incarnation of the Lord's Yogamaya potency. She
makes the arrangements of Lord Krsna's pastimes to be properly performed. She is slightly tall in stature and
has a fair complexion. Her hair is the color of kasa flowers and she wears red garments. She is greatly respected
by Nanda Maharaja and all the other residents of Vrajabhumi. She was the dear student of Devarsi Narada and
on his advice she left her favorite son, Sandipani Muni, in Avantipura and came to Gokula, impelled by great
love for her worshipable Lord Krsna.
TEXT 70
Krsna's associates may be divided into two groups : gopis and gopas. The gopis may be divided into three
groups : 1. Gopi friends of the same age as Krsna, 2. maidservants and 3. gopi messengers.
TEXT 71 - 72
Learned scholars have also divided Lord Krsna's associates into the following nine categories : 1. yutha, 2. kula,
3. mandala, 4. varga, 5. gana, 6. samavaya, 7. sancaya, 8. samaja, 9. and samanvaya.
TEXT 73 - 75
Krsna's Gopi Friends :
Of the three kinds of gopi associates of the Lord of the three kinds of gopi associates of the Lord mentioned in
text 70, the first group, Krsna's contemporary gopi friends, are the most exalted, the second group, the
maidservants are the next most exalted, and the gopi messengers come after them. These three groups
correspond to the groups mentioned as samaja, mandala and gana respectively (in texts 71 - 72). The first group,
Krsna's contemporary gopi friends, may be further divided into varistha (the most exalted ) and vara (exalted).
TEXT 76
Varistha (The Most Exalted Gopis)
The varistha gopis are more famous than all the others. They are eternally the intimate friends of Sri Sri RadhaKrsna. No one can equal or exceed the love they bear for the divine couple.
TEXT 77
Of all Krsna's friends, the varistha gopis are the most worshipable. They are decorated with incomparable
transcendental qualities, bodily beauty and all other charming opulences.

TEXT 78
Krsna's Gopi Friends
Lalita, Visakha, Citra, Campakamallika, Tungavidya, Indulekha, Rangadevi and Sudevi are the most intimate of
Lord Krsna's gopi friends.
TEXT 79
Lalita
Of these eight gopis, the first one, Lalita-devi, is the best. She is a dear friend of the divine couple and she is 27
years old, the eldest of Krsna's gopi friends.
TEXT 80
Lalita is famous as Srimati Radharani's constant companion and follower. Lalita is contrary and hot-tempered
by nature. Her complexion is like the yellow pigment gorocana and her garments are like peacock feathers.
TEXT 81
Her mother is Saradi-devi and her father is Visoka. Her husband is named Bhairava. He is a close friend of
Govardhana-gopa.
TEXT 82 - 83
Visakha
Visakha is the second most important of these eight varistha-gopis. Her attributes, activities and resolve are all
muck like those of her friend Lalita. Visakha was born at the exact same moment as her dear friend Srimati
Radharani appeared in this world. Visakha's garments are decorated with stars and her complexion is like
lightning. Her father is Pavana, the son of the sister of Mukhara-gopi and her mother is Daksina-devi, the
daughter of the sister of Jatila. Her husband is Vahika-gopa.
TEXT 84
Campakalata
Campakalata is the third of the varistha-gopis. Her complexion is the color of a blossoming yellow campaka
flower and her garments are the color of a blue-jay's feature. She is one day younger than Srimati Radharani.
TEXT 85
Her husband is Arama, her mother is Vatika-devi and her husband is Candaksa. Her qualities are much like
those of Visakha.
TEXT 86
Citra
Citra is the fourth of the varistha gopis. Her fair complexion resembles the color of kunkuma and her garments
are the color of crystal. She is 26 days younger than Srimati Radharani. When Lord Madhava is full of blis, she
becomes satisfied.
TEXT 87
Her father is Catura, the paternal uncle of Suryamitra. Her mother is Carcika-devi. Her husband is Pithara.
TEXT 88
Tungavidya
Tungavidya is the fifth of the varistha gopis. Her complexion is the color of kunkuma and the fragrance of her
body is like sandalwood mixed with camphor. She is fifteen days younger than Srimati Radharani
TEXT 89
Tungavidya is hot-tempered and expert at dissimulation. She wears white garments. Her parents are Puskara
and Medha-devi and her husband is Balisa.

TEXT 90
Indulekha
Indulekha is the sixth of the varistha gopis. She has a tan complexion and wears garments the color of a
pomegranate flower. She is three days younger than Srimati Radharani.
TEXT 91
Her parents are Sagara and Vela-devi and her husband is Durbala. She is contrary and hot-tempered by nature.
TEXT 92
Rangadevi
Rangadevi is the seventh of the varistha gopis. Her complexion is the color of a lotus filament and her garments
are the color of a red rose. She is seven days younger than Srimati Radharani.
TEXT 93
Her personal qualities are much like those of Campakalata. Her parents are Karuna-devi and Rangasara.
TEXT 94
Sudevi
Sudevi is the eighth of the varistha gopis. She is sweet and charming by nature. She is the sister of Rangadevi.
Her husband is Vakreksana, the younger brother of Bhairava.
TEXT 95
Her marriage with Vakreksana was arranged by his younger brother. Her form and other qualities are so similar
to those of her sister Rangadevi that they are often mistaken for one another.
TEXT 96 - 97
The Vara-Gopis
Just as there are eight varistha (most exalted) gopis, the same way there are also eight vara (exalted) gopis. The
vara-gopis are all teenage girls. Their names are Kalavati, Subhangada, Hiranyangi, Ratnalekha, Sikhavati,
Kandarpa manjari, Phullakalika and Ananga manjari
TEXT 98
Kalavati's parents are Sindhumati-devi and Kalankura-gopa, the maternal uncle of Arkamitra.
TEXT 99
Her complexion is the color of yellow sandalwood and she wears garments the color of a parrot. Her husband is
Kapota, the youngest brother of Vahika.
TEXT 100
Subhangada
Subhangada is the younger sister of Visakha. She is a very fair complexion and is married to Patatri, the
younger brother of Pithara.
TEXT 101
Hiranyangi
Hiranyangi's complexion is the color of gold and she appears to be a temple or palace in which all beauty is
conserved. She was born from the womb of Harini-devi.
TEXT 102
Mahavasu-gopa is pious, famous and devoted to performing Vedic sacrifices. He is decorated with wonderful
good qualities and he is the close friend of Arkamitra.
TEXT 103

Mahavasu-gopa desired to beget a powerful and heroic son and a beautiful daughter. To attain this end the selfcontrolled Mahavasu engaged Bhaguri Muni in performing a Vedic sacrifice.
TEXT 104
Certain nectarean foodstuffs appeared from that sacrifice and the delighted Mahavasu gave them to his wife,
Sucandra-devi.
TEXT 105 - 106
As Sucandra-devi was hastily eating the sacred foodstuff on her front porch, she spilled some of it. At that time
the doe named Suranga, who was the mother of the doe named Rangini, was wandering in Vrajabhumi. Seeing
Sucandra-devi spill some of the foodstuff, the doe Suranga quickly came forward and ate some of it. As a result
of eating this sacred foodstuff, both the gopi Sucandra and the doe Suranga became pregnant.
TEXT 107
Sucandra-devi gave birth to a son whom the gopas called Stokakrsna and the deer gave birth to the girl
Hiranyangi in the village of Vraja.
TEXT 108
Hiranyangi is very dear to Srimati Radharani and Srimati Radharani is very dear to her. Hiranyangi is dressed in
beautiful garments that appear like a great multitude of unparalleled blossoming flowers.
TEXT 109
With great respect the father Mahavasu then promised the exalted Hiranyangi in marriage to an elderly gopa
who was completely unfit to become her husband.
TEXT 110 - 111
Ratnalekha
Maharaj Vrsabhanu's maternal cousin Payonidhi had a son but no daughter. His wife Mitra-devi desired to have
a daughter also and to achieve this end she faithfully worshiped the sun-god, Vivasvan. By Vivasvan's mercy
she gave birth to a daughter who was named Ratnalekha.
TEXT 112
Ratnalekha's complexion is the red color of the mineral manahsila and her garments appear like a beautiful
swarm of bumblebees. She is very dear to Srimati Radharani, the daughter of Maharaja Vrsabhanu. Her mother
engages both her and her friend Radharani in the devoted attentive worship of the sun-god. When Ratnalekha
sees Lord Madhava, her eyes begin to roll in ferocious anger and she severly rebukes Him.
TEXT 113
Sikhavati
Sikhavati's father is Dhanyadhanya and her mother is Susikha-devi. Sikhavati's complexion is the color of a
karnikara flower. She is the younger sister of Kundalatika.
TEXT 114
She is like sweetness and charm personified. Her garments are the spotted color of an old francoline partridge.
She is married to Garjara-gopa, who is also known as Garuda-gopa.
TEXT 115 AND 116
Kandarpa-manjari
Kandarpa-manjari's father is Puspakara and her mother is Kuruvinda-devi. Kandarpa-manjari's father did not
give her marriage to anyone, for he considered in his heart that Lord Hari is the only suitable husband for his
daughter. Kandarpa-manjari's complexion is the color of a kinkirata bird and her garments are decorated with
many different colors.
TEXT 117

Phullakalika
Phullakalika's father is Srimalla and her mother is Kamalini. Phullakalika's complexion is dark like a blue lotus
flower and her garments are like a rainbow.
TEXT 118
Her forehead is naturally marked with yellow tilaka lines. Her husband, Vidura has a loud voice and is able to
call the buffaloes from a great distance.
TEXT 119
Ananga-manjari
Ananga-manjari is exquistely beautiful and therefore it is very appropriate that she is named after Ananga
(cupid). Her complexion is the color of a springtime ketaki flower and her garments are the color of a blue lotus.
TEXT 120
Her proud husband Durmada is also her sister's brother-in-law. She is especially dear to Lalita and Visakha.
TEXT 121
General Description of the Activities of Krsna's Contemporary Gopi Friends
Krsna's contemporary gopi friends decorate their own dear friend Srimati Radharani. They cheat their husbands
parents and other guardians (by going to meet Radha and Krsna) and they take Srimati Radharani's side when
she has a lover's quarrel with Lord Hari.
TEXT 122
These gopis assist Radha and Krsna in Their secret rendezvous. These gopis serve palatable meals to the divine
couple and afterward relish tasting the remnants left by Them. These gopis carefully guard the secret of Radha's
and Krsna's confidential pastimes together.
TEXT 123
Their minds are pure and they are very expert and intelligent. They serve Radha and Krsna very appropriately.
They glorify their own group and criticize the followers of Candravali, Radharani's rival.
TEXT 124
They please Radha and Krsna by expertly singing, dancing and playing instrumental music. At the appropriate
time they beg to be engaged in various appropriate services.
TEXT 125
For the most part the learned devotees know about these activities of Krsna's gopi friends. All the gopis are
aware of these and all the other similar services and they actively serve Radha and Krsna by performing these
activities.
TEXT 126
The gopis who are close associates of the divine couple are directly engaged in these services, whereas other
gopis are not. We shall now describe, one by one, the gopis engaged in these intimate services.
TEXT 127
Among these most exalted gopis who are most dear to Krsna, the leader and controller is Lalita-devi.
TEXT 128
Lalita-devi is full of ecstatic love for the divine couple. She is expert at arranging both Their meeting and Their
conjugal struggle. Sometimes, for Radha's sake, she offends Lord Madhava.
TEXT 129
The beauty of all the other gopis appears to be conserved in the form of Lalita-devi. In an argument her mouth
becomes bent with ferocious anger and she expertly speaks the most outrageous and arrogant replies.

TEXT 130
When the arrogant gopis pick a quarrel with Krsna, she is in the forefront of the conflict. When Radha and
Krsna meet, she audaciously remains standing a little away from them.
TEXT 131
With the help of Purnamasi-devi and the other gopis she arranges for the meeting of Radha and Krsna. She
carries the parasol for the divine couple, she decorates Them with flowers and she decorates the cottage where
They rest at night and rise in the morning.
TEXT 132 - 133
Some gopis serve the divine couple in the garden known as Madanonmadini among the flowering creepers,
betel creepers and betel trees. Some gopis are expert at playing various magic tricks, some are expert at
composing riddles and some are appointed to provide betel nuts for the divine couple. All these gopis are the
servants of Srimati Radharani.
TEXT 134
Other gopis are specifically the friends of Lord Baladeva. Lalita-devi is the leader and controller of all these
exalted and worshipable young gopis.
TEXT 135
Ratnalekha and the eight other dear vara-gopis described here all follow the footsteps of Lalita-devi always and
in all respects.
TEXT 136
Among these eight gopis Ratnaprabha-dvie and Ratikala-devi are famous for their transcendental virtues,
beauty, experise and charming sweetness.
TEXT 137 - 138
Flower Decorations
The flower ornaments of the divine couple are 1. flower crown, 2. flowers in the hair, 3. flower earrings, 4.
flowers decorating the forehead, 5. flower necklaces, 6. flower armlets, 7. flower sashes, 8. flower braelets, 9.
flower anklets, 10. flower bodices and many other kinds of flower ornaments. Just as these ornaments may be
fashioned from precious jewels, gold or other materials, in the same way they may be made of flowers.
TEXT 139 - 140
Crown
The divine couple's crowns may be made of rangini flowers, yellow jasmine flowers, navamali flowers, sumali
flowers, dhrti gems, rubies, gomeda gems, pearls or splendid moonstones. These may be artistically arranged to
construct beautiful crowns.
TEXT 141
The crowns may be made with seven points and they may also have gold ketaki flowers or various flower buds
among their colorful and beautiful ingredients. These crowns enchant the mind of Lord Hari.
TEXT 142
The flower crowns known as puspapara are the best of all and they are more pleasing than even the best jeweled
crowns (ratnapara). Lalita-devi learned how to make these puspapara crowns from Srimati Radharani.
TEXT 143
These puspapara crowns are made with flowers and flower buds of five different colors arranged in five points.s
This crown is especially used to decorate Srimati Radharani.
TEXT 144
Balapasya

A garland of flower buds and similar ingredients closely strung together and placed on the hair is called
balapasya.
TEXT 145
Earrings
Skilled craftsmen say there are five kinds of earrings. They are known by the names tadanka, kundala, puspi,
karnika and karna-vestana.
TEXT 146
Tadanka
A hollow gold post worn in the ear is called a tadanka. This kind of earring is of two varieties. In the first
variety the petal of golden ketaki flower is attached to this earring. In the second kind the petal of some other
colorful flower is attached.
TEXT 147
Kundala
When an earring is fashioned from flowers in order to resemble a certain object, the earring is called kundala.
There are many different kinds of kundala earrings. The flowers may be arranged to resemble a peacock, shark,
lotus, half-moon or many other things.
TEXT 148
Puspi
The puspi earrings is fashioned from four different kinds of flowers placed in a circle with a large gunja berry in
the middle.
TEXT 149
Karnika
The karnika earring is fashioned from the whorl of a blue lotus surrounded by yellow flowers. In the middle are
a bhrngika flower and pomegranate flower.
TEXT 150
Karna-vestana
When the flower earring is so large it completely covers the ear, the earring is known as karna-vetsana.
TEXT 151
Decoration for the Forehead.
A garland of flowers placed on the upper forehead along the hairline is called lalatika. Such a garland should
have flowers of two colors : red in the middle of the garland and the other color flowers on the two sides.
TEXT 152
Graivekyaka (flower collar)
Made of a single kind of flower, a necklace strung four times around the neck is called graiveyaka.
TEXT 153
Angada (armlet)
A flower-armlet (angada) may be fashioned of three kinds of flowers strung one after another to resemble a
little flower creeper.
TEXT 154
Kanci (sash)

A sash made of flowers of five different colors, artistically strung together in a gently waving pattern, is called a
kanci.
TEXT 155
Kataka (flower anklets)
Anklets made of many different flower buds are called kataka. These are of many different varieties.
TEXT 156
Mani-bandhani (bracelet)
A bracelet made of flowers of four colors, with bunches of flowers hanging down at three places, is called
mani-bandhani.
TEXT 157
Hamsaka (flower shoes)
When the decoration of flowers covers the entire top and side parts of the feet and there are bunches of flowers
in four places, such a decoration is called hamsaka.
TEXT 158
Kanculi (flower bodice)
A bodice made of flowers of six colors, artistically arranged and perfumed with musk and which begins from
the neck, is called kanculi.
TEXT 159
Chatra (parasol)
Made of thin white sticks, decorated with white flowers and with a handle decorated with yellow jasmine
flowers, a flower parasol is called a chatra.
TEXT 160
Sayanam (couch)
The couch is fashioned of campaka and malli flowers and decorated with small bells. It has a large cushion of
navamali flowers.
TEXT 161
Ulloca (an awning)
An awning is made of a latticework of various colorful flowers, ketaki petals and various leaves. Many malli
flowers hang down from this awning.
TEXT 162
Candratapa (an awning)
When many sindhuvara flowers as white as pearls decorate the sides and fresh lotus flowers hang down in the
middle, the awning is called candratapa.
TEXT 163
Vesma (cottage)
With reeds as pillars and various colorful flowers as the roof and four walls, a vesma (flower cottage0 is
constructed.
TEXT 164 a
Gopi Messengers

Vrnda, Vrndarika, Mela and Murali are the most important gopi messengers. The gopi messengers expertly
know the geograhy of Vrndavana and they intimately know each grove and garden there. They are also learned
in the science of gardening.
TEXT 164 b
These exalted gopi messengers are all filled with great love for Sri Sri Radha and Krsna. The gopi messengers
are fair complexioned and they dress in colorful garments. Vrnda-devi is the most important among them.
TEXT 165
Visakha
Visakha-devi, the intimate friend of the divine couple, although she is more exalted than these younger gopis,
also takes up the work of carrying messages between Radha and Krsna and she is the most intelligent and expert
of all the gopi messengers. Loquacious Visakha is expert at joking with Lord Govinda and she is the perfect
counsellor of the divine couple. She is expert at all aspects of amorous diplomacy and she knows all the arts of
how to conciliate an angered lover, how to bribe him and how to quarrel with him.
TEXT 166
Rangavali-devi and other gopis are expert at drawing various designs in tilaka, artistically stringing flower
garlands, composing clever verses and acrostics such as sarvatobhadra, conjuring magical illusions by chanting
mantras, worshipable the sun god with various paraphernalia, singing in various foreign languages and
composing different kinds of poetry.
TEXT 167
Maidservants who dress Srimati Radharani.
Madhavai, Malati, and Candrarekha are the leaders the gopi servants who dress and decorate Srimati Radharani.
TEXT 168 - 169
The gopi messengers appointed by Vrnda-devi have the flowering trees of Vrndavana under their jurisdiction.
Malika-devi isthe leader of these wonderfully blissful gopis. In addition to these two groups of gopi messengers
(1. Visakha and 2. the followers of Vrnda-devi), Campakalata-devi is the third of the gopi messengers.
TEXT 170
Campakalata veils her activities in great secrecy. She is expert at the art of logical persuasion, and she is killed
diplomat who knows how to thwart Srimati Radharani's rivals.
TEXT 171
Campakalata is expert at collecting fruits, flowers, and roots from the forest. Using only the skill of her hands
shecan artistically fashion things from clay.
TEXT 172
Campakalata is an expert cook who knows all the literature describing the six flavors of gourmet cooking.
Sheis so expert at making various kinds of candythat she has become famous by the name Mistahasta (sweet
hands).
TEXT 173
There are also eight gopi maidservants expert at cooking various preparations from the milk products Vraja
village. Kurangaksi-devi is the leader of these gopi cooks.
TEXT 174
Activities of the Eight Principal Gopies
Of all these gopis who are appointed as protectoresses of the trees, creepers, and bushes of Vrndavana, the
leader is Campakalata-devi.
TEXT 175

Citra
Citra-devi is wonderfully expert in all the activities wehavejust described. She is especially expert in the lover's
quarrel between Radha and Krsna (the third of the six definitions of the word abhisarana).
TEXT 176
Citra-devi can read between the lines of books and letters written in many different languages, perceiving the
hidden intentions of the author. She is a skilled gourmet and can understand the testes of various foods made
with honey, milk, and other ingredients simply by glancing at them.
TEXT 177
She is expert in playing music on pots filled with varying degrees of water. She is learned in the literature
describing astronomy and astrology, and she is well versed in the theoretical and practical activities of
protecting domestic animals.
TEXT 178
She is especially expert at gardenting and she can nicely make various kinds of nectarean beverages.
TEXT 179
There are also eight other gopi maidservants, headed by Rasalika-devi, who are expert at making various kinds
of nectarean beverages.
TEXT 180
There are other gopis who mostly collect transcendental herbs and medicinal creepers from the forest and do not
collect flowers or anything else. Citra-devi is the leader of these gopis.
TEXT 181
Tungavidya
Tungavidya is one of the leaders of the gopis. She is learned in the eighteen branches of knowledge.
TEXT 182
She has full faith in Krsna. She is very expert at arranging the meeting of the divine couple. She is learned in
rasa-sastra (transcendental mellows), niti-sastra(morality), dancing, drama, literature and all other arts and
sciences.
TEXT 183
She is a celebrated music teacher expert at playing the vina and singing in the style known as marga.
TEXT 184
Eight gopi messengers headed by Manjumedha-devi are especially expect at arranging political alliances
(sandhi) the first of diplomatic maneuvers in the art of politics between Radha and Krsna.
TEXT 185
These gopis are the best of dancers. They are musicians expert at playing the mrdanga and singing in recital
halls.
TEXT 186
These gopis are especially engaged in fetching water from the streams in Vrndavana. Tungavidya is the leader
of these gopis.
TEXT 187
Indulekha
Noble Indulekha is learned in the science and mantras of the Naga-sastra, which describes various methods of
charming snakes. She is also learned in the Samudraka-sastra, which describes the science of palmistry.
TEXT 188

She is expert at stringing various kinds of wonderful necklaces, decorating the teeth with red substances,
gemology and weaving various kinds of cloth.
TEXT 189
In her hand she carries the auspicious messages of the divine couple. In this way she creates the good fortune of
Radha and Krsna by creating Their mutual love and attraction.
TEXT 190
The group of gopis headed by Tungabhadra-devi are the friends and neighours of Indulekha. Among these gopis
is a group, headed by Palindhika-devi, which acts as messengers for the divine couple.
TEXT 191
Indulekha-devi is fully aware of the confidential secrets of the divine couple. Some of her friends are engaged
in providing ornaments for the divine couple, others provide exquisite garments and others guard the divine
couple's treasury.
TEXT 192
Indulekha-devi is thus the leader of all the gopis engaged in these services in the various parts of Vrndavana.
TEXT 193
Ranga-devi
Ranga-devi is always like a great ocean of coquettish words and gestures. She is very fond of joking with her
friend Srimati Radharani in the presence of Lord Krishna.
TEXT 194
Among the six activities of diplomacy she is especially expert in the fourth : patiently waiting for the enemy to
make the next move. She is an expert logician and because of previous austerities she has attained a mantra by
which she can attract Lord Krsna.
TEXT 195
Kalakanti-devi is the leader of the eight most important friends of Ranga-devi. These friends are all expert in
the use of perfumes and cosmetics.
TEXT 196
Ranga-devi's friends are expert at burning aromatic incense, carrying coal during the winter and fanning the
divine couple in the summer.
TEXT 197
Ranga-devi's friends are able to control the lions, deer and other wild animals in the forest. Ranga-devi is the
leader of all these gopis.
TEXT 198
Sudevi
Sudevi always remains at the side of her dear friend Srimati Radharani. Sudevi arranges Radharani's hair,
decorates Her eyes with mascara and massages Her body.
TEXT 199
She is expert in training male and female parrots and she is also expert in the pastimes of roosters. She is an
expert sailor and she is fully aware of the auspicious and inauspicious omens described in the Sakuna-sastra.
TEXT 200
She is expert at massaging the body with scented oils, she knows how to start fires and keep them burning and
she knows which flowers blossom with the rising of the moon.
TEXT 201

Kaveri-devi and the other friends of Sudevi are expert at constructing leaf-spitoons, playing music on bells and
decorating couches in various ways.
TEXT 202 - 203
Sudevi's friends are also entrusted with the decoration of the divine couple's sitting place. Sudevi's friends act as
clever spies, disguising themselves in various ways and moving among Radharani's rivals (Candravali and her
friends) to discover their secrets. Sudevi's friends are the deities of Vrndavana forest and they are charged with
the protection of the forest birds and bees. Sudevi is the leader of these gopis.
TEXT 204
Description of the Various Gopis
The wonderful arts, crafts and other duties that comprise the activities of the gopis will now be described.
TEXT 205 - 206
Pindaka-devi, Nirvitandika-devi, Pundarika-devi, Sitakhandi-devi, Carucandi-devi, Sudantika-devi, Akunthitadevi, Kalakanthi-devi, Ramaci-devi and Mecika-devi are among the gopis who are very strong and stubborn
when there is an argument or conflict. Among them Pindaka-devi is the leader. She dresses in red garments. She
is very beautiful. When Lord Krsna comes she embarrasses Him by attacking Him with many ferocious witty
puns.
TEXT 207
Haridrabha-devi, Hariccela-devi and Harimitra-devi speak many illogical and frivolous objections as they lead
Lord Krsna to the place where Srimati Radharani waits for Him.
TEXT 208
Pundarika-devi's garments and complexion are both the color of a white lotus flower. She ferociously mocks
lotus-eyed Lord Krsna.
TEXT 209
Gauri-devi always wears white garments. Her complexion is the color of a peacock. Because her sweet and
charming words are often laced with acid sarcasms, Lord Krsna jokingly calls her Sitakhandi (always sweet).
TEXT 210
Gauri-devi's sister is known as Carucandi because her words are sometimes mild and pleasant (caru) and
sometimes harsh and violent (candi). Carucandi's complexion is the color of a black bee and her garments are
the color of lightning.
TEXT 211
Sudantika-devi wears garments the color of a kurunthaka flower. Her complexion is the color of a sirisa flower.
She is expert at inflaming the amorous sentiments of ujjvala-rasa.
TEXT 212
Akunthita-devi's complexion is the color of a lotus stem. She wears white garments the color of the fibers
within a lotus stem. She likes to insult Krsna for the amusement of her gopi friends.
TEXT 213
Kalakanthi-devi's complexion is the color of a kuli flower and her garments are the color of milk. She speaks to
Lord Krnsa, describing Radharani's jealous anger and advising Him to beg forgiveness from Her.
TEXT 214
Ramaci-devi's is the daughter of Lalita-devi's nurse. Ramaci's complexion is golden and her garments are the
color of a parrot. She takes pleasure in jokingly insulting Krsna and laughing at Him.
TEXT 215

Ramaci-devi always wears white garments. Her complexion is the color of a pinda flower. She is expert at
insulting Lord Krnsa.
TEXT 216 - 217
Petari-devi, Varuda-devi, Cari-devi, Kotari-devi, Kalatippani-devi, Marunda-devi, Morata-devi, Cuda-devi,
Cundari-devi and Gondika-devi are the leaders of those gopi messengers who are past the prime of youth. These
older gopis can argue with great stubbornness and they can also nicely sing as the divine couple take their meal.
These gopis are always engaged in making arrangements for the forest pastimes of the divine couple.
TEXT 218
Petari-devi is an elderly Gujarati lady whose hair is the color of fibers within a lotus stem. Varudi-devi is a
native of Garuda-desa and her braided hair is like the current of a river.
TEXT 219
Cari-devi, who is Kucari-devi's siste, is also known by the name Tapahkatyayani, because she performed severe
austerities (tapah) and took shelter of goddess Katyayani (Durga). Kotari-devi was born in the abhira caste. Her
hair is a mixture of black and white resembling rice mixed with toasted sesame seeds.
TEXT 220
Kalatippani-devi is an elderly washerwoman with white hair. Marunda-devi has white eyebrows and a shaved
head.
TEXT 221
Agile Morata-devi has hair the color of a kasa flower. Cuda-devi has a wrinkled face and a forehead decorated
with many grey hairs.
TEXT 222
The brahmani Cundari-devi is not as old as the others. Lotus-eyed Lord Krsna glorifies her and treats her with
great respect. Gondika-devi shaves the splendid white hairs on her head. Her cheeks are wrinkled with age.
TEXT 223 - 224
Gopi Messengers who Arrange the Meeting of the Divine Couple
Sivada-devi, Saumyadarsana-devi, Suprasada-devi, Sadasanta-devi, Santida-devi and Kantida-devi are the
leaders of the gopi messengers who expertly arrange the meeting of Radha and Krsna. These gopis consider
Lalita-devi to be their dearmost life and soul. They are counted among the intimate associates of Lord Krsna.
TEXT 225
At a certain time Srimati Radharani quarrels with Lord Krsna and refuses to see Him. Understanding the hints
of Lalita-devi, these gopis then approach Lord Krsna.
TEXT 226 - 227
These gopis appease Lord Krsna and please Him in different ways. With great effort they convince Him that
His actual desire is to meet Radha again. When These gopis bring to Her the gift that Lord Krsna gave them as a
peace offering, Srimati Radharani becomes very pleased with them and grants them Her mercy.
TEXT 228 - 229
Sivada-devi was born in the Ragyhu dynasty, Saumyadarsana-devi in the dynasty of the moon-god, Suprasadadevi in the Puru dynasty, Sadasanta-devi in a family of ascetics and Santida and Kantida in brahmana families.
By the mercy of Narada Muni they were all able to reside in Vraja.
TEXT 230
The Second Gruop of Gopis

After this first group of gopis there is a second group of gopis, whose love for the divine couple is a little less
than that of the first group. This second group of gopis may again be divided into two groups : sama-prema and
asama-prema. These gopis will be described in the following verses.
TEXT 231
The sama-prema gopis may be divided into two groups - those who are eternally perfect and those who have
attained perfection by engaging in devotional service.
TEXT 232
Out of one hundred million gopis, eight hundred thousand are eternally perfect.
TEXT 233 - 234
The direct followers of the eight principal gopis are counted in different ways. Some say they number five
thousand, others say they number four or five thousand, still others say they number three or four thousand and
still others say they number one thousand.
TEXT 235
Some say the followers of the eight principal gopis are divided into many groups and others say they are not
divided into groups at all. Some say they are divided into sixteen groups according to the nature of their love for
the divine couple.
TEXT 236
Some say these gopis are divided into twenty groups, some say there are twenty-five groups, some say there are
thirty, some say there are sixty and some say there are sixty-four groups of gopis.
TEXT 237
Some say this group of gopis is in turn divided into two subgroups. Others say it is divided into two or three
subgroups and others say it is divided into three or four subgroups.
TEXT 238
The entire gopi community may be divided in different ways. Some say there are forty groups of gopis and
others that there are five hundred groups.
TEXT 239 - 246
Aside from the eight varistha-gopas and the eight vara-gopis, sixty four gopis are considered most important.
Their names are : 1. Ratnaprabha, 2. Ratikala, 3. Subhadra, 4. Ratika,
5. Sumukhi, 6. Dhanistha, 7. Kalahamsi, 8. Kalapini, 9. Madhavi, 10. Malati, 11. Candrarekha, 12. Kunjari, 13.
Harini,
14. Capala, 15. Damni, 16. Surabhi, 17. Subhanana, 18. Kurangaksi, 19. Sucarita, 20. Mandali, 21.
Manikundala, 22. Candrika, 23. Candralatika, 24. Pankajaksi, 25. Sumandira,
26. Rasalika, 27. Tilakini, 28. Sauraseni, 29. Sugandhika,
30. Ramani, 31. Kamanagari, 32. Nagari, 33. Nagavenika,
34. Manjumedha, 35. Sumadhura, 36. Sumadhya, 37. Madhureksana,
38. Tanumadhya, 39. Madhuspanda, 40. Gunacuda, 41. Varangada,
42. Tungabhadra, 43. Rasottunga, 44. Rangavati, 45. Susangata,
46. Citrarekha, 47. Vicitrangi, 48. Modini, 49. Madanalasa, 50. Kalakanthi, 51. Sasikala, 52. Kamala, 53.
Madhurendira,
54. Kandarpa-sundari, 55. Kamalatika, 56. Prema-manjari,
57. Kaveri, 58. Carukavara, 59. Sukesi, 60. Manjukesi,
61. Harahira, 62. Mahahira, 63. Harakanthi, 64. Manohara.

TEXT 247
The Sammohana-tantra's Description of Srimati Radharani's Eight Principal Friends
A different list of Srimati Radharani's eight principal gopi friends is found in the following statement of
Sammohana-tantra : " Lilavati, Sadhika, Candrika, Madhavi, Lalita, Vijaya, Gauri and Nandi are the eight
principal gopi friends of Srimati Radharani."
TEXT 248
Another Description of the Eight Principal Gopis
Another quotation from Vedic literature gives the following description : " Kalavati, Srimati, Sudhamukhi,
Visakha, Kaumudi, Madhvi and Sarada are the eight prinicpal gopis.
TEXT 249 - 250
The numbers presented in this description of the gopis has no actual relevance to the number of eternally
liberated gopis in the spiritual world. There the associates of the king and queen of Vrndavana are unlimited in
number. No one can count them. We have simply given some hints so the reader may understand the vast
number of the associates of the divine couple.
TEXT 251
Preparing the divine couple's couch, food, drink and betel nuts, swinging Them on a swing and decorating
Them with tilaka are among the many services performed by the gopis. The learned devotees may research this
and enumerate all these services.
TEXT 252
Rupa Goswami prays that the effulgent Krsna-sun may remove the blindness from his eyes and enable him to
properly see and understand the various rasa-sastras that describe Sri Sri Radha-Krsna and Their associates.
TEXT 253
In the year 1472 of the Saka era (1550 A.D.) on Sunday, the sixth day of the month of Sravana, at Nandagrama,
the home of the king of Vraja, this book, the Radha-Krsna-ganoddesa-dipika was completed.
PART TWO
TEXT 1
Sri Krsna's Transcendental Form and Attributes
Sri Krsna's form glistens with the black mascara of the sweetness of His nectarean handsomeness. His
complexion is the color of a blue lotus flower or a sapphire.
TEXT 2
His complexion is as enchanting as an emerald, a tamala tree, or a group of beautiful dark clouds. He is an
ocean of nectarean handsomeness.
TEXT 3
He wears yellow garments and a garland of forest flowers. He is decorated with various jewels and He is a great
reservoir of the nectar of many transcendental pastimes.
TEXT 4
He has long, curling hair and He is anointed with many fragrant scents. His handsome crown is decorated with
many different flowers.
TEXT 5
His handsome forehead is splendidly decorated with tilaka markings and curling locks of hair. The playful
movements of His raised, dark eyebrows enchant the hearts of the gopis.
TEXT 6

His rolling eyes are as splendid as red and blue lotus flowers. The tip of His nose is as handsome as the beak of
Garuda, the king of birds.
TEXT 7
His charming ears and cheeks are decorated with earrings made of various jewels.
TEXT 8
His handsome lotus face is as splendid as millions of moons. He speaks many charming jokes and His chin is
exquisitely handsome.
TEXT 9
His handsome, smooth and charming neck bends in three places. Decorated with a necklace of pearls, the
beauty of His neck enchants the residents of the three planetary systems.
TEXT 10
Decorated with a necklace of pearls and with the Kaustubha gem, which shines like lightning, Krsna's
handsome chest longs to enjoy the company of the beautiful gopis.
TEXT 11
Decorated with bracelets and armlets, Krsna's arms hang down to His knees. His reddish lotus hands are
decorated with various auspicious signs.
TEXT 12
Krsna's hands are beautifully decorated with the auspicious signs of a club, conchshell, barleycorn, parasol,
half-moon, rod for controlling elephants, flag, lotus flower, sacrificial post, plow, pitcher and fish.
TEXT 13
Krsna's charming abdomen is the pastime abode of handsomeness. His nectarean back seems to long for the
playful touch of the beautiful gopis.
TEXT 14
The nectarean lotus flower that is Lord Krsna's hips bewilders the demigod Cupid. Krsna's thighs are like two
beautiful plantain trees that charm the hearts of all women.
TEXT 15
Krsna's knees are very splendid, charming and handsome. His charming lotus feet are decorated with jeweled
ankle-bells.
TEXT 16 - 17
Krsna's feet have the luster of roses, and they are decorated with various auspicious markings, such as the
markings of the disc, half-moon, octagon, triangle, barleycorn, sky, parasol, waterpot, conchshell, cow's
hoofprint, svastika, rod for controlling elephants, lotus flower, bow and jambu fruit.
TEXT 18
Krsna's handsome lotus feet are like two oceans filled with the happiness of pure love. His reddish toes are
decorated with the row fo full moons that are His toenails.
TEXT 19
Although we have sometimes compared Krsna's handsomeness to various things, nothing can actually be equal
to it. In this place we have given a small indication of Krsna's handsomeness to arouse the attraction of the
reader.
TEXY 20
Krsna's Friends

Now Lord Krsna's friends will be described. The most important of Krsna's friends is His elder brother,
Balarama.
TEXT 21
Different Kinds of Friends
Krsna's friends are divided into four groups : 1. well-wishing friends (suhrt), 2. ordinary friends (sakha), 3.
more confidential friends (priya-sakha), and 4. initmate friends
(priya-narma-sakha)
TEXT 22
Well-wishing Friends (suhrt)
The well-wishing friends include Krsna's cousins :
Subhadra, Kundala, Dandi and Mandala. Sunandana, Nandi, Anandi and others who accompany Krsna as He
herds the cows and calves in Vrndavana forest are also well-wishing friends.
TEXTS 23 - 24
Also included among the well-wishing friends are Subhadra, Mandalibhadra, Bhadravardhana, Gobhata,
Yaksendra, Bhata, Bhadranga, Virabhadra, Mahaguna, Kulavira, Mahabhima, Divyasakti, Suraprabha,
Ranasthira and others. These well-wishing friends are older than Krsna and they try to protect Him from any
danger.
TEXT 25
Krsna's parents love their son very dearly. They consider Him many millions of times more important than their
own life's breath. Very frightened that the demon Kamsa would harm their son, they engaged these wellwishing friends (suhrt) to protect Him. The leader of these well-wishing friends is a boy named Vijayaksa,
whose mother, Ambika-devi, was Krsna's nurse. Ambika-devi worshiped goddess Parvati and performed great
austerities to get a powerful son who could protect Krsna.
TEXT 26
Subhadra
Subhadra has a splendid dark complexion. He wears yellow garments and various ornaments.
TEXT 27
Subhadra's father is Upananda, and his mother the chaste and faithful Tula-devi. Kundalata-devi will become
his wife. Subhadra is full of the glory of youth.
TEXT 28 - 29
Krsna's Ordinary Friends (sakha)
Visala, Vrsabha, Ojasvi, Devaprastha, Varuthapa, Mandara, Kusumapida, Manibandhakara, Mandara, Candana,
Kunda, Kalindi, Kulika and many others are included in the group of Krsna's ordinary friends (sakha). These
friends are younger than Krsna and are always eager to serve Him.
TEXTS 30 - 31
Krsna's confidential friends (priya-sakha)
Krsna's confidential friends are Sridama, Sudama, Dama, Vasudama, Kinkini, Bhadrasena, Amsu, Stokakrsna,
Vilasi, Pundarika, Vitankaksa, Kalavinka and Priyaskara. These friends are the smae age of Krsna. Their leader
is Sridama, who is also known as Pithamardaka.
TEXT 32
Bhadrasena is the general who leads Krsna's childhood friends in military pastimes. Stokakrsna is very
appropriately named, for he is just like a small (stoka) Krsna.

TEXT 33
These confidential friends (priya-sakha) delights Lord Krsna with their enthusiastic and jubliant wrestling,
stick-fighting and other sports.
TEXT 34
These confidential friends are all very peaceful by nature. Each of them considers Lord Krsna equal to his own
life's breath.
TEXT 35
Krsna's Intimate Friends (priya-narma-sakha)
Subala, Arjuna, Gandharva, Vasanta, Ujjvala, Kokila, Sanandana and Vidagdha are the msot important of
Krsna's intimate friends.
TEXT 36
Krsna keeps no secrets from these intimate friends. Among them Madhumangala, Puspanka and Hasanka are
the leaders of those fond of joking. Handsome Sanandana is very pleased by his close friendship with Krsna and
splendid Ujjvala appears like the personified ruler of all transcendental mellows. Lord Krsna, the crest jewel of
playful boys, is submissive to His dear friend Ujjvala.
TEXT 37
Sridama has a handsome dark complexion. He wears yellow garments and a necklace of jewels.
TEXT 38
He is a splendid youth sixteen years old. He is a great resevoir of the nectar of innumerable transcendental
pastimes. He is Lord Krsna's dearest friend.
TEXT 39
His father is Maharaj Vrsabhanu and His mother is the chaste Kirtida-devi. Srimati Radharani and Anangamanjari are his two younger sisters.
TEXT 40
Sudama
Sudama's handsome complexion is somewhat fair. He is decorated with jeweled ornaments and wears blue
garments.
TEXT 41
His father's name is Matuka and His mother is Rocana-devi. He is very young and fond of playing many kinds
of games.
TEXT 42
Subala
Subala has a fair complexion. He wears handsome blue garments and he is decorated wtih many kinds of jewels
and flowers.
TEXT 43
He is twelve-and-a-half years old and He glows with youthful luster. Although he is Krsna's friend, he is
immersed in serving Krsna in many different ways.
TEXT 44
He is expert at arranging the meeting of the divine couple. He is charming and full of transcendental love for
Them. He is cheerful and full of good qualities. He is very dear to Krsna.
TEXT 45
Arjuna

Arjuna's glistening complexion is the color of a red lotus flower. His garments are the color of moonlight and
He is decorated with many kinds of jewels.
TEXT 46
His father is Sudaksina, his mother Bhadra-devi, and his elder brother Vasudama. He is always plunged in
transcendental love for the divine couple.
TEXT 47
He is fourteen-and-a half and full of the luster of youth. He wears a garland of forest flowers and many other
kinds of flower-ornaments.
TEXT 48
Gandharva
Handsome Gandharva has a complexion the color of moonlight. He wears red garments and many different
ornaments.
TEXT 49
He is twelve years old and full of youthful luster. He is decorated with many kinds of flowers.
TEXT 50
His mother is the saintly Mitra-devi and his father the great soul Vinoka. He is very playful and very dear to Sri
Krsna.
TEXT 51
Vasanta
Vasanta has a splendid fair complexion. His garments glitter like the moon and he is decorated with various
jewels.
TEXT 52
He is eleven years old. He is decorated with many different flower garlands. His mother is the saintly Saradidevi and his father is the great soul Pingala.
TEXT 53
Ujjvala
Ujjvala has a splendid reddish complexion. His garments are decorated with star patterns and he is decorated
with pearls and flowers.
TEXT 54
His father is named Sagara and his mother is the chaste Veni-devi. He is thirteen years old and full of youthfull
luster.
TEXT 55
Kokila
Kokila is fair-complexioned and very handsome. He wears blue garments and is decorated with many kinds of
jewels.
TEXT 56
He is eleven years and four months of age. His father is named Puskara and his mother is the famous Medhadevi.
TEXT 57
Sanandana

Handsome Sanandana has a fair complexion. He wears blue garments and is decorated with many different
ornaments.
TEXT 58
He is fourteen years old. He wears garlands of flowers. His father is Arunaksa and his mother is Mallika-devi.
TEXT 59
Handsome Sanandana is very happy to have the friendship of Lord Krsna. He is like the splendid monarch of all
transcendental mellows.
TEXT 60
Vidagdha has a splendid complexion the color of a yellow campaka flower. He wears blue garments and a
necklace of pearls.
TEXT 61
He is fourteen years old and full of youthful luster. His father is named Matuka and his mother is Rocana-devi.
TEXT 62
His elder brother is Sudama and his sister is Susila-devi. He is very dear to Sri Krsna. He is full of
transcendental love for the divine couple.
TEXT 63
Madhumangala
Madhumangala has a slightly dark complexion. He wears yellow garments and a garlands of forest flowers.
TEXT 64
His father is the saintly Sandipani Muni, his mother the chaste Sumukhi devi, his sister is Nandimukhi-devi and
his parental grandmother is Paurnamasi-devi.
TEXT 65
An expert comedian who always plays the buffoon, Sri Madhumangala is the constant companion of Lord
Krsna.
TEXT 66 - 67
Sri Balarama
Powerful Lord Balarama has a fair complexion the color of crystal. He wears blue garments and a garland of
forest flowers.
TEXT 68
His handsome hair is tied in a graceful topknot. Splendid earrings decorate His ears.
TEXT 69
His neck is splendidly decorated with garlands of flowers and strings of jewels. His arms are splendidly
decorated with bracelets and armlets.
TEXT 70
His feet are decorated with splendid jeweled anklets. His father is Maharaja Vasudeva and His mother is
Rohini-devi.
TEXT 71
Nanda Maharaja is the friend of His father. Yasoda-devi is His mother, Sri Krsna His younger brother and
Subhadra His sister.
TEXT 72

He is sixteen years old and full of the luster of youth. He is Sri Krsna's dearest friend. He is a great reservoir of
the nectar mellows of many kinds of transcendental pastimes.
TEXT 73
Vitas
Expert in music, drama, literature, the science of various kinds of scents and a host of ther arts, the vitas are
very happy to serve Lord Krsna in many different ways.
TEXT 74 - 75
Krsna's Servants
Bhangura, Brngara, Sandhika, Grahila, Raktaka, Patraka, Patri, Madhukantha, Madhuvrata, Salika, Talika,
Mali, Mana and Maladhara are the most prominent of Lord Krsna's servants.
TEXT 76
These servants carry Krsna's venu and murali flutes, buffalo-horn bugle, stick, rope and other paraphernalia.
They also bring the mineral dyes (the cowherd boys use to decorate their bodies).
TEXT 77 - 78
Betel-nut Servants
Pallva, Mangala, Phulla, Komala, Kapila, Suvilasa, Vilasaksa, Rasala, Rasasali and Jambula are the most
important of Lord Krsna's betel-nut servants. They are younger than Krsna and always expert at singing and
playing musical instruments. They are younger than Krsna and always stay near Him.
TEXT 79
Water Carriers
Payoda and Varida are the most important of the servants engaged in carrying water for Lord Krsna.
Clothing Washers
Saranga and Bakula are the most important of the servants engaged in expertly washing Lord Krsna's laundry.
TEXT 80
Decorators
Premakanda, Mahagandha, Sairindhra, Madhu, Kandala and Makaranda are the most important of the servants
constantly engaged in decorating Lord Krsna with various ornaments and clothing.
TEXT 81
Servants Who Provide Aromatic Substances
Sumanah, Kusumollasa, Puspahara, Hara and others expertly provide Krsna with various aromatic substances
such as flowers, flower ornaments, flower garlands and camphor.
TEXT 82
The Napitas
Svaccha, Susila, Praguna and others are engaged in various services, such as caring for the Lord's hair,
massaging Him, giving Him a mirror and guarding over His treasury.
Others
Vimala, Komala and others are engaged in various services, such as caring for the Lord's kitchen.
TEXT 83
Maidservants
Dhanistha-devi, Candanakala-devi, Gunamala-devi, Ratiprabha-devi, Taruni-devi, Induprabha-devi, Sobha-devi
and Rambha-devi are the leaders of the gopis engaged in Krsna's service. These gopis are expert at cleaning and

decorating Krsna's home, anointing it with various aromatic substances, carrying milk and performing other
duties.
TEXT 84
Other Maidservants
Kurangi-devi, Bhrngari-devi, Sulamba-devi, Alambika-devi and other gopis also serve Krsna in these ways.
TEXT 85
Spies
Catura, Carana, Dhiman and Pesala are the leaders of Krsna's expert spies, who travel in various disguises
among the cowherd men and gopis.
TEXT 86
Gopa Messengers
Visarada, Tunga, Vavaduka, Manorama and Nitisara are the leaders of the gopa messengers. They carry Krsna's
messages to the gopis to arrange for pastimes and also to settle quarrels.
TEXT 87
Krsna's Gopi Messengers
Paurnamasi-devi, Vira-devi, Vrnda-devi, Vamsi-devi, Nandimukhi-devi, Vrndarika-devi, Mela-devi and
Murali-devi are the leaders of Krsna's gopi messengers.
TEXT 88
Among all these gopi messengers Vrnda-devi is the best. She is expert at arranging the meeting of Radha and
Krsna and she is fully conversant with the geography of Vrndavana, knowing the best places for the divine
couple's rendezvous.
TEXT 89
Paurnamasi
Paurnamasi's complexion is like molten gold. She wears white garments and many jeweled ornaments.
TEXT 90
Paurnamasi is very learned and famous. Her father is Suratadeva and her chaste mother is Candrakala. Her
husband is Prabala.
TEXT 91
Her brother is Devaprastha. She is like a perfect crest jewel decorating the land of Vraja. She is expert at
making various arrangements for the meeting of Radha and Krsna.
TEXT 92(A)
Vira
Another gopi messenger is Vira-devi. She is very famous and is much respected in Vraja. She can speak very
arrogantly and boldly and she can also speak sweet and flattering words, as Vrnda-devi does.
TEXT 92(B)
She has a dark complexion. She wears splendid white garments and various jewels and flower garlands.
TEXT 93
Her husband is Kavala, her mother is the chaste Mohini-devi, her father Visala and her sister is Kavala-devi.
She is very dear to Jatila-devi. She resides in the village of Javata
TEXT 94
She is expert at making various arrangements for the meeting of Radha and Krsna.

TEXT 95
Vrnda-devi
Vrnda-devi has a beautiful complexion the color of molten gold. She wears blue garments and is decorated with
pearls and flowers.
TEXT 96
Her father is Candrabhanu and her mother is Phullara-devi. Her husband is Mahipala and her sister is Manjaridevi.
TEXT 97
She always remains in Vrndavana, immersed in love for Radha and Krsna and yearning to both arrange for
Their meeting and taste the nectar of assisting in Their transcendental pastimes.
TEXT 98
Nandimukhi-devi
Nandimukhi-devi has a fair complexion and wears exquisite garments. Her father is Sandipani Muni and her
mother is the chaste Sumukhi-devi.
TEXT 99
Her brother is Madhumangala and her paternal grandmother is Paurnamasi-devi. She wears various jeweled
ornaments and she glows with youthful luster.
TEXT 100
She is expert at various arts and crafts. Full of love for Radha and Krsna, she is expert at making various
arrangements for Their rendezvous.
TEXT 101
A General Description of Lord Krsna's Servants
Sobhana, Dipana and other provide lamps for the Lord and Sudhakara, Sudhanada, Sananda and others play the
mrdanga for His satisfaction.
TEXT 102
Vicitrarava and Madhurarava are the leaders of the talented an virtuous poets who compose prayers glorifying
Sri Krsna, while Candrahasa, Induhasa and Candramukha are leaders of the servants who dance for the Lord's
satisfaction.
TEXT 103
Kalakantha, Sukantha, Sudhakantha, Bharata, Sarada, Vidyavilasa, Sarasa and others are learned in the arts of
all kinds of literary composition. They carry their books and papers with them and they are fully aware of all the
mellows fo devotional service.
TEXT 104
Raucika is the tailor who sews clothes for the Lord. Sumukha, Durlabha, Ranjana and others wash the Lord's
laundry.
TEXT 105
Punyapunja and Bhagyarasi are the two sweepers who clean the area around Krsna's home.
TEXT 106
Rangana and Tankana are goldsmiths who make ornaments for the Lord. Pavana and Karmatha are potters who
make drinking vessels and jugs for churning butter.
TEXT 107

Vardhaki and Vardhamana are carpenters who serve the Lord by building carts, couches and other objects.
Sucitra nd Vicitra are talented artists who paint pictures for the Lord.
TEXT 108
Kunda, Kanthola, Karanda and others are craftsmen who make ropes, churning rods, axes, baskets, balances for
carrying heavy objects and various other ordinary utensils.
TEXT 109
Mangala, Pingala, Ganga, Pisangi, Manikastani, Hamsi and Vamsipriya are the most important of the surabhi
cows, who are all very dear to Lord Krsna.
TEXT 110
Padmagandha and Pisangaksa are Krsna's pet oxen. Suranga is His pet deer and Dadhilobha is His pet monkey.
TEXT 111
Vyaghra and Bhramaraka are Krsna's pet dogs. Kalasvana is His pet swan, Tandavika His pet peacock and
Daksa and Vicaksana His pet parrots.
TEXT 112
Places of Krsna's Pastimes Described
The best of all places of Krsna's pastimes is the great garden known as Vrndavana forest. Another important
place of the Lord's pastimes is the beautiful and opulent Govardhana Hill. This Hill is very appropriately named
for it nourishes (vardhana) Krsna's cows (go) with its grasses.
TEXT 113
On Govardhana Hill is the cave known as Manikandali and the river-landing place named Nilamandapika. On
the Manasa-ganga river is the famous landing place named Paranga.
TEXT 114
The boat named Suvilasatara remains at this Paranga landing place. Another important place is Nandisvara Hill,
Krsna's home, where the goddess of fortune is personally present.
TEXT 115
On Nandisvara Hill is the splendid white stone house where Krsna grew up. This house is named
Amodavardhana because it is always filled with (vardhana) the pleasant fragrance (amoda) of incense and other
aromatic substances.
TEXT 116
The lake near Krsna's home is named Pavana and on its shore there are many groves where the Lord enjoys
pastimes. Also near Krsna's home is the grove named Kama Mahatirtha and the jeweled pathway named
Mandara.
TEXT 117
The splendid kadamba trees named Kadambaraj and the king of the banyan trees named Bhandira grow in the
forest of Vrndavana. On the sandy bank of the Yamuna is the pastime place named Anagaranga-bhu.
TEXT 118
On the shore of the Yamuna River is the sacred place known as Khela-tirtha, where Lord Krsna eternally enjoys
pastimes with His dearmost Srimati Radharani.
TEXT 119
Sri Krsna's Paraphernalia
Krsna's mirror is named Saradindu and His fan is named Marumaruta. His toy lotus flower is named Sadasmera
and His toy ball is named Citrakoraka.

TEXT 120
Krsna's golden bow is named Vilasakarmana. The two ends of this bow are studded with jewels and it has a
bowstring named Manjulasara.
TEXT 121
His glistening jewel-handled scissors are named Tustida. His buffalo-horn bugle is named Mandraghosa and
His flute is named Bhuvanamohini.
TEXT 122
Krsna has another flute named Mahananda, which is like a fishook that captures the fish of Srimati Radharani's
heart and mind. Another flute, which has six holes is known as Madanajhankrti.
TEXT 123
Krsna's flute named Sarala makes a low, soft tone like the sound of a softly singing cuckoo. Krsna is very fond
of playing this flute in the ragas gaudi and garjari.
TEXT 124
The wonderful sacred mantra He chants is the name of His dearmost Radharani. His cane is named Mandana,
His vina is named Tarangini, the two ropes He carries are named Pasuvasikara and His milk bucket is named
Amrtadohani.
TEXT 125
Krsna's ornaments
On Krsna's arm is an amulet studded with nine jewels and placed there by His mother for His protection.
TEXT 126
His two armlets are named Rangada, His two bracelets are named Sobhana, His signet ring is named
Ratnamukhi and His yellow garments are named Nigamasobhana.
TEXT 127
Krsna's string of small bell is named Kalajhankara and His two anklets are named Hamsaganjana. The tinkling
sounds of these ornaments enchant the deer that are the minds of the deer-eyed gopis.
TEXT 128
Krsna's pearl necklace is named Taravali and His jewel necklace is named Taditprabha. The locket He wears on
His chest is named Hrdayamodana and within it is a picture of Srimati Radharani.
TEXT 129
Krsna's jewel is named Kaustubha. In the Kaliya lake the Kaliya serpent's wives gave this jewel to the Lord
with their own hands.
TEXT 130
Krsna's shark-shaped earrings are named Ratiragadhidaivata, His crown is named Ratnapara and its crest-jewel
is named Camaradamari.
TEXT 131
Krsna's peacock feather crown is named Navaratnavidamba, His gunja necklace is named Ragavalli and His
tilaka marking is named Drstimohana.
TEXT 132
Krsna's garland of forest flowers and leaves, which reaches down to His feet and contains flowers of five
different colors, is called Vaijayanti.
TEXT 133

The eighth night of the dark moon in the month of Bhadra, when the moon rose together with its dear
companion, the star Rohini, is the sacred time decorated by the birth of Lord Krsna in this world.
TEXT 134
Krsna's Dear Gopis
Now the very wonderful gopis, who are decorated with the good fortune of pure love of God to a greater degree
than even Laksmi-devi and the other goddesses of fortune, will be glorified.
TEXT 135
Srimati Radharani
Among all the beautiful gopis Srimati Radharani is the best. Radharani is the queen of Vrndavana. She has
many famous friends, headed by Lalita and Visakha.
TEXT 136 - 139
Srimati Radharani's rival is Candravali. Among Candravali's friends are Padma, Syama, Saibya, Bhadra,
Vicitra, Gopali, Palika, Candrasalika, Mangala, Vimala, Lila, Taralaksi, Manorama, Kandarpa-manjari,
Manjubhasini, Khanjaneksana, Kumuda, Kairavi, Sari, Saradaksi, Visarada, Sankari, Kunkuma, Krsna, Sarangi,
Indravali, Siva, Taravali, Gunavati, Sumukhi, Keli-manjari, Haravali, Cakoraksi, Bharati and Kamala.
TEXT 140
The beautiful gopis may be considered in hundreds of groups, each group containing hundreds of thousands of
gopis.
TEXT 141
Among all these gopis the most important are Srimati Radharani, Candravali, Bhadra, Syama and Palika. These
gopis are full of all transcendental good qualities.
TEXT 142
Of these gopis Srimati Radharani and Candravali are the best. Each of them has millions of doe-eyed gopi
followers.
TEXT 143
Because She possesses all charm and sweetness, Srimati Radharani is the better of the two. She is supremely
famous. In the Sruti-sastra She is known by the name Gandharva-devi.
TEXT 144
Sri Krsna, the cowherd prince whose charming sweetness has no equal or superior, is very dear to Srimati
Radharani. She considers Him millions and millions of times more dear than Her own life's breath.
TEXT 145
Now the beauty of Srimati Radharani's trancendental form will be described. Srimati Radharani is expert in all
the fine arts and Her transcendental form is like an ocean of nectar.
TEXT 146
Her splendid bodily luster is like the yellow pigment gorocana, molten gold, or stationary lightning.
TEXT 147
She wears wonderfully beautiful blue garments and She is decorated with various pearls and flowers.
TEXT 148
She is very beautiful and She has long nicely braided hair. She is decorated with a garland of flowers and a
beautiful pearl necklace.
TEXT 149
Her splendid forehead is decorated with the red pigment sindura and with beautiful locks of curling hair.

TEXT 150
Decorated with blue bangles, Her arms have defeated Cupid's staff with their beauty.
TEXT 151
Decorated with black mascara and reaching back almost to Her ears, Srimati Radharani's lotus eyes are the most
beautiful in all the three planetary systems.
TEXT 152
Her nose is as beautiful as a sesame flower and it is nicely decorated with a pearl. She is anointed with various
perfumes. She is splendidly beautiful.
TEXT 153
Her ears are decorated with wonderful earrings and Her nectarean lips defeat the red lotus flowers.
TEXT 154
Her teeth are like a row of pearls and Her tongue is very beautiful. Decorated with a nectarean smile of pure
love for Krsna, Her beautiful face is a splendid as millions of moons.
TEXT 155
The beauty of Her chin has defeated and bewildered the demigod Cupid. Decorated with a drop of musk, Her
chin appears like a golden lotus flower with a bumblebee.
TEXT 156
Bearing all the marks of wonderful beauty, Her neck is decorated with a string of pearls. Her neck, back and
sides are enchantingly beautiful.
TEXT 157
Her beautiful breasts are like two splendid waterpots covered with a bodice and decorated with a necklace of
pearls.
TEXT 158
Her beautiful enchanting arms are decorated with jeweled armlets.
TEXT 159
Her arms are also decorated with jeweled bracelets and other kinds of jeweled ornaments. Her hands are like
two red lotus flowers illuminated by the series of moons that are Her fingernails
TEXT 160
Auspicious Markings on Srimati Radharani's Hands
Srimati Radharani's hands are decorated with many auspicious markings such as the signs of the bumblebee,
lotus, crescent moon, earring, parasol, sacrificial post, conchshell, tree, flower, camara and svastika.
TEXT 161
These auspicious marks are manifest in various ways on Srimati Radharani's lotus hands. Her splendidly
beautiful fingers are also decorated with jeweled rings.
TEXT 162
Charming, full of sweet nectar and decorated with a deep navel, Srimati Radharani's beautiful waist enchants
the three worlds.
TEXT 163
Her sloping hips lead to Her charmingly beautiful slender waist, which is bound by a creeper of three beautiful
folds of skin and decorated with a sash of tinkling bells.
TEXT 164

As beautiful as two exquisite plantain trees, Her thighs enchant the mind of Cupid. Her beautiful knees are like
two reservoirs filled with the nectar of various transcendental pastimes.
TEXT 165
Her beautiful lotus feet are decorated with jeweled ankle-bells and Her toes with toe rings as beautiful as the
treasure of Varuna.
TEXT 166
The Auspicious Markings on Srimati Radharani's Lotus Feet
The auspicious markings on Srimati Radharani's lotus feet include the signs of the conchshell, moon, elephant,
barleycorn, rod for controlling elephants, chariot flag, small drum, svastika and fish.
TEXT 167
Srimati Radharani is fifteen years old and full of the luster of youth.
TEXT 168
Yasoda-devi, the queen of the cowherds, is more affectionate to Radharani than millions of mothers can be.
Radharani's father is King Vrsabhanu, who is as splendid as the sun.
TEXT 169
Srimati Radharani's mother is Kirtida-devi, who is also known in this world as Ratnagarbha-devi. Radharani's
paternal grandfather is Mahibhanu and Her maternal grandfather is Indu.
TEXT 170
Her maternal grandmother is Mukhara-devi and Her paternal grandmother is Sukhada-devi. Her father's
brothers (Her uncles) are Ratnabhanu, Subhanu and Bhanu.
TEXT 171
Bhadrakirti, Mahakirti and Kirticandra are Radharani's materal uncles. Menaka-devi, Sasthi-devi, Gauri-devi,
Dhatri-devi and Dhataki-devi are Radharani's materal aunts.
TEXT 172
Radharani's mother's sister is Kirtimati-devi, whose husband is Kasa. Radharani's father's sister is Bhanumudradevi, whose husband is Kusa.
TEXT 173
Radharani's elder brother is Sridama and Her younger sister is Ananga-manjari. Radharani's father-in-law is
Vrkagopa and Her brother-in-law is Durmada.
TEXT 174
Jatila-devi is Radharani's mother-in-law and Abhimanyu is Radharani's so-called husband. Kutila-devi, who is
always eager to find fault, is Radharani's sister-in-law.
TEXT 175
Lalita, Visakha, Sucitra, Campakalata, Ranga-devi, Sudevi, Tungavidya and Indulekha are the eight dearest
friends of Srimati Radharani. These gopis are considered the leaders of all the others.
TEXT 176
Kurangaksi, Mandali, Mankiundala, Matali, Candralalita, Madhavi, Madanalasa, Manjumedha, Sasikala,
Sumadhya, Madhureksana, Kamala, Kamalatika, Gunacuda, Varangada, Madhuri, Candrika, Prema-manjari,
Tanumadhyama, Kandarpa-sundari and Manjukesi are among the millions of dear friends (priya-sakhi) of
Srimati Radharani.
TEXT 177

Lasika, Kelikandali, Kadambari, Sasimukhi, Candrarekha, Priyamvada, Madonmada, Madhumati, Vasanti,


Kalabhasini, Ratnavali, Manimati and Karpuralatika are among those friends (jivita-sakhi) for whom Srimati
Radharani is as dear as life.
TEXT 178
Kasturi, Manojna, Manimanjari, Sindura, Candanavati, Kaumudi and Madira are among Sriamti Radharani's
eternal friends (nitya-sakhi).
TEXT 179- 181
Srimati Radharani's Manjari Friends.
Ananga-manjari, Rupa-manjari, Rati-manjari, Lavanga-manjari, Raga-manjari, Rasa-manjari, Vilasa-manjari,
Prema-manjari, Mani-manjari, Suvarna-manjari, Kama-manjari, Ratna-manjari, Kasturi-manjari, Gandhamanjari, Netra-manjari, Sripadma-manjari, Lila-manjari and Hema-manjari are among Srimati Radharani's
manjari friends. Prema-manjari and Rati-manjari are both also known by the name Bhanumati-devi.
TEXT 182
The Objects of Srimati Radharani's Worship
Srimati Radharani's worshipable deity is the sun-god, who enlivens the lotus flowers and acts as an eye for the
entire world. Srimati Radharani's maha-mantra is the name of Lord Krsna. Srimati Radharani's benefactor, who
brings Her all good fortune, is Bhagavati Paurnamasi.
TEXT 183
Specific Description of Various Gopis
Lalita-devi and the other eight principal gopis, the other gopis and the manjari have forms that are for the most
part like the transcendental form of Srimati Radharani, the queen of Vrndavana.
TEXT 184
Vrnda-devi, Kundalat-devi and their followaers assist the divine couple in Their pastimes in the various forests
of Vrndavana. Dhanistha-devi, Gunamala-devi and their followers remain in the home of Nanda Maharaja,the
cowherd king and assist the Lord's pastimes from there.
TEXT 185
Kamada-devi is the daughter of Srimati Radharani's nurse. Kamada is an especially close friend of Radharani.
Ragalekha-devi, Kalakeli-devi and Manjula-devi are some of Radharani's maidservants.
TEXT 186
Nandimukhi-devi and Bindumati-devi are the leaders of those gopis who arrange the rendezvous of Radha and
Krsna. Syamala-devi and Mangala-devi are the leaders of those gopis who act as well-wishers of Srimati
Radharani.
TEXT 187
Candravali-devi is the leader of those gopis who are Srimati Radharani's rivals.
TEXT 188
The talented musicians Rasollasa-devi, Gunatunga-devi,Kalakanthi-devi, Sukhanti-devi, and Pikakanti-devi
delight Lord Hari by singing Visakha's musical compositions.
TEXT 189
Maniki-devi, Narmada-devi, and Kusumapesala-devi serve the divine couple by playing drums, cymbals, string
instruments like the vina, and wind instruments like the flute.
TEXT 190

In this way we have described some of the sakhis (gopi friends), nitya-sakhis (eternal gopi friends), pranasakhis (gopi friends who are as dear as life), priya-sakhis (dear gopi friends) and parama-prestha-sakhis (dearest
gopi friends)
TEXT 191
Srimati Radharani's Maidservants
Ragalekha-devi, Kalakeli-devi and Bhurida-devi are the leaders fo those gopis who are Srimati Radharani's
maidservants. Among these maidservants are Sugandha-devi and Nalini-devi (the two daughters of Divakirtidevi) and Manjistha-devi and Rangaraga-devi (the two daughters of Nanda Maharaja's laundry washers).
TEXT 192
Palindri-devi serves Srimati Radharani by dressing and decorating Her. Citrini decorates Radharani with various
cosmetics. Mantriki-devi and Tantriki-devi are astrologers who reveal the future to Srimati Radharani.
TEXT 193
Katyayani-devi is the leader of those gopi messengers who are older than Srimati Radharani. Bhagyavati-devi
and Punyapunja-devi, the two daughters of Maharaja Nanda's sweeper, are also the maidservants of Srimati
Radharani.
TEXT 194
Tunga-devi, Malli-devi and Matalli-devi are the leaders of those girls descended from the uncivilized mountain
tribe known as the Pulindas. In Vrndavana some of the Pulinda girls act as the friends of Srimati Radharani and
some are the friends of Sri Krsna.
TEXT 195
Also included among Srimati Radharani's servants are Gargi-devi and other very respectable brahmana girls,
Bhrngarika-devi and other girls from the ceti community, Vijaya-devi, Rasala-devi, Payoda-devi and other girls
from the vita community, as well as the boys Subala, Ujjvala, Gandharva, Madhumangala and Raktaka.
TEXT 196
Tunga-devi, Pisangi-devi and Kalakandala-devi always remain near Srimati Radharani to serve Her. Manjualdevi, Bindula-devi, Sandha-devi, Mrdula-devi and others, although very young still engage in Radharani's
service.
TEXT 197
Sunada, Yamuna and Bahula are the most important of Srimati Radharani's pet surabhi cows. Tungi is Her
chubby pet calf, Kakkhati is Her old pet monkey, Rangini is Her pet doe and Carucnadrika is Her pet cakori
bird.
TEXT 198
Tundikeri is the name of Radharani's pet swan, who is fond of swimming in Radha-kunda. Madhuri is
Radharani's pet elephant and Suksmadhi and Subha are Her two pet parrots.
TEXT 199
The two parrots perfectly imitate Lalita-devi's playful jokes spoken to her master and mistress (Sri Sri RadhaKrsna). By this wonderful repetition the parrots astonish the gopis.
TEXT 200
Srimati Radharani's Ornaments
Srimati Radharani's tilaka marking is named Smarayantra. Her jeweled necklace is named Harimohana, Her
jeweled earrings are named Rocana and the pearl decorating Her nose is named Prabhakari.
TEXT 201

Her locket which contains a picture of Lord Krsna, is named Madana. Her Syamantaka jewel is also known as
Sankhacuda-siromani 9Sankhacuda's crest-jewel).
TEXT 202
The auspicious jewel She wears around Her neck is called Puspavan because it eclipses the simultaneous rising
of the sun and moon (puspavan0 with its splendor. Her anklets are called Catakarava because their tinkling
sounds resemble the warbling of cataka birds. Her bracelets are called Manikarvura.
TEXT 203
Srimati Radharani's signet ring is named Vipaksamardini. Her sash is named Kancanacitrangi and Her anklebells, which stun Lord Krsna with their tinkling sounds, are named Ratnagopura.
TEXT 204
Srimati Radharani's garments are named Meghambara. Her upper garment is red like a ruby and it is the favorite
of Lord Hari. Radharani's lower garment is the color of a blue cloud and it is Her own favorite.
TEXT 205
Srimati Radhrani's jeweled mirror is named Sudhamsudarpaharana, which means "that which removes (harana)
the moon's (sudhamsu) pride (darpa)."
TEXT 206
Her golden stick for applying mascara is named Narmada, Her jeweled comb is named Svastida and Her private
flower garden is named Kandarpakuhali.
TEXT 207
In Radharani's garden is a vine of golden jasmine flowers that She has named Tadidvalli ("the vine of
lightning"). Her private lake bears Her own name (Radha-kunda) and on the shore of that lake is a kadamba tree
that is the site of very confidential talks between Her and Lord Krsna.
TEXT 208
Her favorite ragas are mallara and dhanasri and Her favorite dances are chalikya and rudravallaki.
TEXT 209
Srimati Radharani's glorious birth occured on the eighth day of the bright moon in the month of Bhadra.
Although generally not full on that day, the moon appeared full to celebrate Radharani's appearance in this
world.
TEXT 210
In this way we have revealed a little about the countless associates of Sri Sri Radha and Krsna, the two
monarchs of Sri Vrndavana.

Shri Shri Radha Krishna Gannodesha Dipika by Shrila Rupa Goswami


A LAMP TO SEE THE ASSOCIATES OF SRI SRI RADHA-KRSNA BY SHRILA RUPA GOSWAMI
INTRODUCTION
TEXT 1
I offer my respectful obeisances to the lotus feet of my spiritual master. I offer my respectful obeisances to Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu, who appeared in this world with Nityananda Prabhu and is surrounded by His devotees.
TEXT 2
I offer my respectful obeisances to the two lotus feet Srimati Radharani. I offer my respectful obeisances Lord
Nandanandana, who is surrounded by the gopis and enchants the minds of the residents of Vrndavana.
TEXT 3

The celebrated personal associates of the King and Queen of Vrndavana are briefly but truthfully described with
great delight in both Vedic literatures and oral tradition. This book will also describe them.
TEXT 4 AND 5
These associates of the Lord are described by the residents of Mathura-mandala, by the various books written
by devotees , various Vedic literatures such as the Puranas and Agamas and by the great devotees and saintly
persons. For the satisfaction of my dear friends, these associates of the Lord will now be briefly describing in
writing, following the previous authorities in the path of ecstatic love of God.
TEXT 6
The associates of Krsna who reside in Vrajabhumi may be divided into three groups : 1. protectors of domestic
animals, 2. brahmanas, 3. others.
TEXT 7
The Protectors of Domestic Animals
These are descendants of the Yadu dynasty and they may be divided into three groups : 1. vaisyas, 2. abhiras, 3.
gurjaras.
TEXT 8
The Vaisyas
For the most part the most important vaisyas earn their livelihood by protecting cows. Some of the vaisyas are
born from lower-caste mothers and they are known as abhiras.
TEXT 9
The Abhiras
The abhiras are those who have vaisya fathers and sudra mothers. A little inferior to the vaisyas, who are
engaged in cow protection, the abhiras earn their livelihood by protecting buffalo. They are known by various
names, such as ghosa.
TEXT 10
The Garjaras
A little inferior to the abhiras, the garjaras earn their livelihood by protecting goats and similar animals. Their
bodily features are a little chubby and they reside on the outskirts of Vraja.
TEXT 11
The Brahmanas
Learned in all the Vedas, the brahmanas engage in performing sacrifices, worshiping the Deity and other
brahminical occupations.
TEXT 12
The Bahisthas
The bahisthas earn their livelihood by engaging in various trades and crafts. In this way we have described five
kinds of associates (vaisyas, abhiras, garjaras, brahmanas and bahisthas) of Lord Hari in Vrajabhumi.
TEXT 13
Lord Krsna's associates may also be divided into the following eight groups : 1. worshipable superiors, 2.
relatives who are on the same level (such as brothers and sisters) 3. gopi messengers, 4. servants, 5. craftsmen,
6. maidservants, 7. contemporary cowherd friends and 8. dear gopi friends. Included among the worshipable
superiors are the brothers and similar relatives of Nanda Maharaja, Nanda's contemporary friends, servants,
other associates and the elderly gopis. Krsna is always respectful to these superiors.
TEXT 14

1. Worshipable Superiors
The worshipable superiors include Krnsa's grandfather, other elderly relatives and also the community of
brahmanas.
TEXT 15 AND 16
Krsna's fair-complexion, white-haired and white-attired grandfather is named Parjanya Maharaja, because he is
like a great cloud (parjanya) showering the nectar of auspiciousness. He is the best of all the residents of Vraja.
Desiring a worthy descendant, he followed the advice of Devarsi Narada and engaged in the worship of Lord
Narayana, the husband of Laksmi. As he was worshiping Narayana at Nandisvara-pura, a pleasant voice spoke
the following words from the sky.
TEXT 17 AND 18
" Because of your pious austerities you will obtain five sons. Of these sons the middle one, named Nanda, will
be the best. Nanda's glorious son will delight the residents of Vraja. He will defeat all oppositions. Both the
demigods and demons will worship Him, touching the jewels of their crowns to His lotus feet."
TEXT 19
Hearing this, Parjanya Maharaja became happy and decided to reside at the place. He lived there until he saw
the Kesi demon arrive and at that time he became frightened and fled with all his associates to Mahavana.
TEXT 20
Krsna's grandmother Variyasi is respected in the land of Vraja. She is short in stature and her complexion is the
colour of a kusumbha flower. She is attired in green garments and her hair is the color of milk.
TEXT 21
Parjanya Maharaja's brothers are named Urjanya and Rajanya and his sister is an expert dancer named
Suverjana. Her husband is named Gunavira and they live in the town named Surya-kunja.
TEXT 22 and 23
Krsna's father is Nanda Maharaja. Nanda delights the residents of Vraja and he is worshiped by all the worlds.
He has a protuberant belly, his complexion is the colour of sandalwood, he is tall in stature and his garments are
the colour of a bandhujiva flower. His beard is a mixture of black and white hairs, like rice and toasted sesame
seeds mixed together.
TEXT 24
Nanda is the king of the cowherd men, the younger brother of Upananda and the intimate friend of Maharaja
Vasudeva. Nanda and his wife Yasoda are the king and queen of Vrajabhumi and the parents of Lord Krsna.
TEXT 25
Because he possesses the splendor (deva) of great wealth (vasu), Nanda Maharaja is also known as Vasudeva.
He is also famous by the name Anakadundubhi and it is known that in his previous birth he was named Drona.
TEXT 26
These names of Maharaja Nanda are described in the Mathura-mahima section of the Garuda Purana. Nanda's
most intimate friend is named Maharaja Vrsabhanu.
TEXT 27
Krsna's mother is named Yasoda because she bestows (da) fame (yasah) on the cowherd residents of Vraja. She
is like the personification of parental love for Krnsa. Her complexion is dark and her garments are like a
rainbow.
TEXT 28
Mother Yasoda's body is of a medium size, neither large nor small. She has long black hair. Her closest friends
are Aindavi and Kirtida.

TEXT 29
Yasoda is the wife of Nanda, the king of Gokula. She is the queen of the cowherd men in Vraja, the friend of
Devaki and the mother of Lord Krsna.
TEXT 30
The friendship of Yasoda is described in the following statement of the Adi Purana : " The wife of Maharaja
Nanda was known by two names, Yasoda and Devaki. Partly because they share the same name (Devaki) the
wife of Maharaja Nanda and the wife of Maharaja Vasudeva were great friends."
TEXT 31
Lord Balarama's mother is named Rohini, because she is filled with a constantly rising (arohini) flood of
transcendental bliss. Although she dearly loves her son Balarama, she loves Krsna millions of times more.
TEXT 32
Nanda Maharaja's elder brothers are Upananda and Abhinanda and his younger brothers are Sannanda and
Nandana. These are the names of Lord Krsna's parental uncles.
TEXT 33
Upananda's complexion is pink. He has a long beard and wears green garments. Tungi-devi is his dear wife.
Both her complexion and garments are the colour of a cataka bird.
TEXT 34
Abhinanda wears dark garments and his long beautiful beard is like a great conchshell. Pivari-devi is his wife.
She wears blue garments and her complexion is pink.
TEXT 35
Sannanda is also known as Sunanda. His complexion is white and he wears dark-colored clothing. He has two
or three white hairs and he is very dear to Lord Kesava.
TEXT 36
Kuvalaya-devi is Sannanda's wife. Her complexion is the colour of a blue lotus flower and she wears red
garments. Nandana wears garments the color of a candata flower and his complexion is like the color of a
peacock.
TEXT 37
Nandana lives in the same house with his father, Parjanya Maharaja. He is full of love for his yound nephew
Krsna. Atulya-devi is Nandana's wife. Her complexion is like lightning and her garments resemble a dark cloud.
TEXT 38
Krsna's father has two sisters, Sananda-devi and Nandini-devi. They both dress in garments of many different
colors. They have beautiful teeth and their complexions are the color of white foam. Sananda-devi's husband is
Mahanila and Nandini's husband is Sunila.
TEXT 39 and 40
Kandava and Dandava are the two sons of Upananda. Their faces are as beautiful as lotus flowers and they
become especially happy in the association of their friend Subala.
Catu and Batuka are Nanda Maharaja's two ksatriya cousins born in Vasudeva Maharaja's dynasty. Catu's wife
is Dadhisara and Batuka's wife is Havihsara.
TEXT 41
Krsna's energetic and enthusiastic maternal grandfather is named Sumukha. His long beard is like a great
conchshell and his complexion is the color of a ripe jambu fruit.
TEXT 42

Queen Patala-devi is Krsna's maternal grandmother and she is very famous in Vrajabhumi. Her hair is the white
color of yogurt, her complexion is the pink color of a patala flower and her garments are green.
TEXT 43
Patala-devi's dear friend is named Mukhara-gopi. Out of intense affection for her friend, Mukhara used to feed
the infant Yasoda with her own breast milk.
TEXT 44 AND 45
Carumukha is Sumukha's younger brother. His complexion is the color of black eye-cosmetics and his wife
Balaka-gopi was raised by her stepparents. Gola is the brother of Patala-devi, Krsna's maternal grandmother.
His garments are the color of smoke. His brother-in-law, Sumukha, used to make fun of him and laugh and
because of this Gola was very angry with him. Because he had worshiped Durvasa Muni in his previous birth,
Gola was allowed to take birth in Vrajabhumi in the family of Ujjvala.
TEXT 46
Jatila-devi is Gola's wife. She has a large belly and her complexion is the color of a cow. Her sons Yasodhara,
Yasodeva and Sudeva head the group of Krsna's maternal uncles.
TEXT 47
Krsna's maternal uncles have complexions like the color of a dark atasi flower and they dress in white garments.
Their wives have complexions like karkati flowers and they dress in smoke-colored garments.
TEXT 48
Rema-devi, Roma-devi and Surema-devi are the daughters of Krsna's parental uncle Pavana. Yasodevi and
Yasasvini are the sisters of Krsna's mother Yasoda. Yasasvini's husband is named Malla.
TEXT 49
Yasodevi is elder. Her complexion is dark and she is also known by the name Dadhisara. Yasasvini is younger.
Her complexion is fair and she is also known by the name Havihsara. Both dress in vermillion-colored
garments.
TEXT 50
Yasoda's sisters married the two ksatriyas Catu and Batuka (see text 40). Yasoda's uncle Carumukha has one
son who is named Sucaru.
TEXT 51
Sucaru's wife is Tulavati-devi, the daughter of Sumukha's brother-in-law Gola. Tundu, Kutera, Purata and
others are the comtemporary associates of Krsna's parental grandfather.
TEXT 52
Kila, Antakela, Tilata, Krpita, Purata, Gonda, Kallota, Karanda, Tarisana, Varisana, Viraroha and Vararoha are
among the contemporary associates of Krsna's maternal grandfather.
TEXT 53
The elderly ladies Silabheri, Sikhambara, Bharuni, Bhangur, Bhangi, Bharasakha and Sikha are among the
contemporary associates of Krsna's parental grandmother.
TEXT 54 AND 55
Bharunda, Jatila, Bhela, Karala, Karabalika, Gharghara, Mukhara, Ghora, Ghanta, Ghoni, Sughantika,
Dhvankarunti, Handi, Tundi, Dingima, Manjuranika, Cakkini, Condika, Cundi, Dindima, Pundavanika,
Damani, Damari, Dambi and Danka are among the contemporary associates of Krsna's maternal grandmother.
TEXT 56 - 58
Mangala, Pingala, Pinga, Mathura, Pitha, Pattisa, Sankara, Sangara, Bhrngaq, Ghrni, Ghatika, Saragha, Pathira,
Dandi, Kedara, Saurabheya, Kala, Ankura, Dhurina, Dhurva, Cakranga, Maskara, Utpala, Kambala, Supaksa,

Saudha, Harita, Harikesa, Hara and Upananda are among the contemporary associates of Krsna's father, Nanda
Maharaja.
TEXT 59
Having taken a vow of friendship in their youth, Parjanya and Sumukha always remain the best of friends.
Nanda Maharaja and many other of the cowherds are descended from their families.
TEXT 60 - 62
Vatsala, Kusala, Tali, Medura, Masrna, Krpa, Sankini, Bimbini, Mitra, Subhaga, Bhogini, Prabha, Sarika
Hingula, Niti, Kapila, Dhamanidhara, Paksati, Pataka, Pundi, Sutunda, Tusti, Anjana, Tarangaksi, Taralika,
Subhada, Malika, Angada, Visala, Sallaki, Vena and Vartika are among the contemporary associates of Krsna's
mother, Yasoda-devi.
TEXT 63
Ambika and Kilimba are the two nurses who fed Krsna with their breast milk. Of the two, Ambika, the dear
friend of Vraja's queen, is the most important.
TEXT 64 -65
The Brahmanas
Two groups of brahmanas reside in Gokula : those maintained by Nanda Maharaja and those who are priests
engaged in the performance of Vedic sacrifices. Among the priests, Vedagarbha, Mahayajva and Bhaguri are
prominent. Their respective wives are Samadheni, Mahakavya and Vedika.
TEXT 66
Sulabha, Gautami, Gargi, Candila, Kubjika, Vamani, Svaha, Sulata, Sandili, Svadha and Bhargavi are the most
important of the brahmana ladies respectfully worshiped by the residents of Vraja.
TEXT 67 - 69
Full of transcendental opulences, Paurnamasi-devi is the incarnation of the Lord's Yogamaya potency. She
makes the arrangements of Lord Krsna's pastimes to be properly performed. She is slightly tall in stature and
has a fair complexion. Her hair is the color of kasa flowers and she wears red garments. She is greatly respected
by Nanda Maharaja and all the other residents of Vrajabhumi. She was the dear student of Devarsi Narada and
on his advice she left her favorite son, Sandipani Muni, in Avantipura and came to Gokula, impelled by great
love for her worshipable Lord Krsna.
TEXT 70
Krsna's associates may be divided into two groups : gopis and gopas. The gopis may be divided into three
groups : 1. Gopi friends of the same age as Krsna, 2. maidservants and 3. gopi messengers.
TEXT 71 - 72
Learned scholars have also divided Lord Krsna's associates into the following nine categories : 1. yutha, 2. kula,
3. mandala, 4. varga, 5. gana, 6. samavaya, 7. sancaya, 8. samaja, 9. and samanvaya.
TEXT 73 - 75
Krsna's Gopi Friends :
Of the three kinds of gopi associates of the Lord of the three kinds of gopi associates of the Lord mentioned in
text 70, the first group, Krsna's contemporary gopi friends, are the most exalted, the second group, the
maidservants are the next most exalted, and the gopi messengers come after them. These three groups
correspond to the groups mentioned as samaja, mandala and gana respectively (in texts 71 - 72). The first group,
Krsna's contemporary gopi friends, may be further divided into varistha (the most exalted ) and vara (exalted).
TEXT 76
Varistha (The Most Exalted Gopis)

The varistha gopis are more famous than all the others. They are eternally the intimate friends of Sri Sri RadhaKrsna. No one can equal or exceed the love they bear for the divine couple.
TEXT 77
Of all Krsna's friends, the varistha gopis are the most worshipable. They are decorated with incomparable
transcendental qualities, bodily beauty and all other charming opulences.
TEXT 78
Krsna's Gopi Friends
Lalita, Visakha, Citra, Campakamallika, Tungavidya, Indulekha, Rangadevi and Sudevi are the most intimate of
Lord Krsna's gopi friends.
TEXT 79
Lalita
Of these eight gopis, the first one, Lalita-devi, is the best. She is a dear friend of the divine couple and she is 27
years old, the eldest of Krsna's gopi friends.
TEXT 80
Lalita is famous as Srimati Radharani's constant companion and follower. Lalita is contrary and hot-tempered
by nature. Her complexion is like the yellow pigment gorocana and her garments are like peacock feathers.
TEXT 81
Her mother is Saradi-devi and her father is Visoka. Her husband is named Bhairava. He is a close friend of
Govardhana-gopa.
TEXT 82 - 83
Visakha
Visakha is the second most important of these eight varistha-gopis. Her attributes, activities and resolve are all
muck like those of her friend Lalita. Visakha was born at the exact same moment as her dear friend Srimati
Radharani appeared in this world. Visakha's garments are decorated with stars and her complexion is like
lightning. Her father is Pavana, the son of the sister of Mukhara-gopi and her mother is Daksina-devi, the
daughter of the sister of Jatila. Her husband is Vahika-gopa.
TEXT 84
Campakalata
Campakalata is the third of the varistha-gopis. Her complexion is the color of a blossoming yellow campaka
flower and her garments are the color of a blue-jay's feature. She is one day younger than Srimati Radharani.
TEXT 85
Her husband is Arama, her mother is Vatika-devi and her husband is Candaksa. Her qualities are much like
those of Visakha.
TEXT 86
Citra
Citra is the fourth of the varistha gopis. Her fair complexion resembles the color of kunkuma and her garments
are the color of crystal. She is 26 days younger than Srimati Radharani. When Lord Madhava is full of blis, she
becomes satisfied.
TEXT 87
Her father is Catura, the paternal uncle of Suryamitra. Her mother is Carcika-devi. Her husband is Pithara.
TEXT 88
Tungavidya

Tungavidya is the fifth of the varistha gopis. Her complexion is the color of kunkuma and the fragrance of her
body is like sandalwood mixed with camphor. She is fifteen days younger than Srimati Radharani
TEXT 89
Tungavidya is hot-tempered and expert at dissimulation. She wears white garments. Her parents are Puskara
and Medha-devi and her husband is Balisa.
TEXT 90
Indulekha
Indulekha is the sixth of the varistha gopis. She has a tan complexion and wears garments the color of a
pomegranate flower. She is three days younger than Srimati Radharani.
TEXT 91
Her parents are Sagara and Vela-devi and her husband is Durbala. She is contrary and hot-tempered by nature.
TEXT 92
Rangadevi
Rangadevi is the seventh of the varistha gopis. Her complexion is the color of a lotus filament and her garments
are the color of a red rose. She is seven days younger than Srimati Radharani.
TEXT 93
Her personal qualities are much like those of Campakalata. Her parents are Karuna-devi and Rangasara.
TEXT 94
Sudevi
Sudevi is the eighth of the varistha gopis. She is sweet and charming by nature. She is the sister of Rangadevi.
Her husband is Vakreksana, the younger brother of Bhairava.
TEXT 95
Her marriage with Vakreksana was arranged by his younger brother. Her form and other qualities are so similar
to those of her sister Rangadevi that they are often mistaken for one another.
TEXT 96 - 97
The Vara-Gopis
Just as there are eight varistha (most exalted) gopis, the same way there are also eight vara (exalted) gopis. The
vara-gopis are all teenage girls. Their names are Kalavati, Subhangada, Hiranyangi, Ratnalekha, Sikhavati,
Kandarpa manjari, Phullakalika and Ananga manjari
TEXT 98
Kalavati's parents are Sindhumati-devi and Kalankura-gopa, the maternal uncle of Arkamitra.
TEXT 99
Her complexion is the color of yellow sandalwood and she wears garments the color of a parrot. Her husband is
Kapota, the youngest brother of Vahika.
TEXT 100
Subhangada
Subhangada is the younger sister of Visakha. She is a very fair complexion and is married to Patatri, the
younger brother of Pithara.
TEXT 101
Hiranyangi

Hiranyangi's complexion is the color of gold and she appears to be a temple or palace in which all beauty is
conserved. She was born from the womb of Harini-devi.
TEXT 102
Mahavasu-gopa is pious, famous and devoted to performing Vedic sacrifices. He is decorated with wonderful
good qualities and he is the close friend of Arkamitra.
TEXT 103
Mahavasu-gopa desired to beget a powerful and heroic son and a beautiful daughter. To attain this end the selfcontrolled Mahavasu engaged Bhaguri Muni in performing a Vedic sacrifice.
TEXT 104
Certain nectarean foodstuffs appeared from that sacrifice and the delighted Mahavasu gave them to his wife,
Sucandra-devi.
TEXT 105 - 106
As Sucandra-devi was hastily eating the sacred foodstuff on her front porch, she spilled some of it. At that time
the doe named Suranga, who was the mother of the doe named Rangini, was wandering in Vrajabhumi. Seeing
Sucandra-devi spill some of the foodstuff, the doe Suranga quickly came forward and ate some of it. As a result
of eating this sacred foodstuff, both the gopi Sucandra and the doe Suranga became pregnant.
TEXT 107
Sucandra-devi gave birth to a son whom the gopas called Stokakrsna and the deer gave birth to the girl
Hiranyangi in the village of Vraja.
TEXT 108
Hiranyangi is very dear to Srimati Radharani and Srimati Radharani is very dear to her. Hiranyangi is dressed in
beautiful garments that appear like a great multitude of unparalleled blossoming flowers.
TEXT 109
With great respect the father Mahavasu then promised the exalted Hiranyangi in marriage to an elderly gopa
who was completely unfit to become her husband.
TEXT 110 - 111
Ratnalekha
Maharaj Vrsabhanu's maternal cousin Payonidhi had a son but no daughter. His wife Mitra-devi desired to have
a daughter also and to achieve this end she faithfully worshiped the sun-god, Vivasvan. By Vivasvan's mercy
she gave birth to a daughter who was named Ratnalekha.
TEXT 112
Ratnalekha's complexion is the red color of the mineral manahsila and her garments appear like a beautiful
swarm of bumblebees. She is very dear to Srimati Radharani, the daughter of Maharaja Vrsabhanu. Her mother
engages both her and her friend Radharani in the devoted attentive worship of the sun-god. When Ratnalekha
sees Lord Madhava, her eyes begin to roll in ferocious anger and she severly rebukes Him.
TEXT 113
Sikhavati
Sikhavati's father is Dhanyadhanya and her mother is Susikha-devi. Sikhavati's complexion is the color of a
karnikara flower. She is the younger sister of Kundalatika.
TEXT 114
She is like sweetness and charm personified. Her garments are the spotted color of an old francoline partridge.
She is married to Garjara-gopa, who is also known as Garuda-gopa.
TEXT 115 AND 116

Kandarpa-manjari
Kandarpa-manjari's father is Puspakara and her mother is Kuruvinda-devi. Kandarpa-manjari's father did not
give her marriage to anyone, for he considered in his heart that Lord Hari is the only suitable husband for his
daughter. Kandarpa-manjari's complexion is the color of a kinkirata bird and her garments are decorated with
many different colors.
TEXT 117
Phullakalika
Phullakalika's father is Srimalla and her mother is Kamalini. Phullakalika's complexion is dark like a blue lotus
flower and her garments are like a rainbow.
TEXT 118
Her forehead is naturally marked with yellow tilaka lines. Her husband, Vidura has a loud voice and is able to
call the buffaloes from a great distance.
TEXT 119
Ananga-manjari
Ananga-manjari is exquistely beautiful and therefore it is very appropriate that she is named after Ananga
(cupid). Her complexion is the color of a springtime ketaki flower and her garments are the color of a blue lotus.
TEXT 120
Her proud husband Durmada is also her sister's brother-in-law. She is especially dear to Lalita and Visakha.
TEXT 121
General Description of the Activities of Krsna's Contemporary Gopi Friends
Krsna's contemporary gopi friends decorate their own dear friend Srimati Radharani. They cheat their husbands
parents and other guardians (by going to meet Radha and Krsna) and they take Srimati Radharani's side when
she has a lover's quarrel with Lord Hari.
TEXT 122
These gopis assist Radha and Krsna in Their secret rendezvous. These gopis serve palatable meals to the divine
couple and afterward relish tasting the remnants left by Them. These gopis carefully guard the secret of Radha's
and Krsna's confidential pastimes together.
TEXT 123
Their minds are pure and they are very expert and intelligent. They serve Radha and Krsna very appropriately.
They glorify their own group and criticize the followers of Candravali, Radharani's rival.
TEXT 124
They please Radha and Krsna by expertly singing, dancing and playing instrumental music. At the appropriate
time they beg to be engaged in various appropriate services.
TEXT 125
For the most part the learned devotees know about these activities of Krsna's gopi friends. All the gopis are
aware of these and all the other similar services and they actively serve Radha and Krsna by performing these
activities.
TEXT 126
The gopis who are close associates of the divine couple are directly engaged in these services, whereas other
gopis are not. We shall now describe, one by one, the gopis engaged in these intimate services.
TEXT 127
Among these most exalted gopis who are most dear to Krsna, the leader and controller is Lalita-devi.

TEXT 128
Lalita-devi is full of ecstatic love for the divine couple. She is expert at arranging both Their meeting and Their
conjugal struggle. Sometimes, for Radha's sake, she offends Lord Madhava.
TEXT 129
The beauty of all the other gopis appears to be conserved in the form of Lalita-devi. In an argument her mouth
becomes bent with ferocious anger and she expertly speaks the most outrageous and arrogant replies.
TEXT 130
When the arrogant gopis pick a quarrel with Krsna, she is in the forefront of the conflict. When Radha and
Krsna meet, she audaciously remains standing a little away from them.
TEXT 131
With the help of Purnamasi-devi and the other gopis she arranges for the meeting of Radha and Krsna. She
carries the parasol for the divine couple, she decorates Them with flowers and she decorates the cottage where
They rest at night and rise in the morning.
TEXT 132 - 133
Some gopis serve the divine couple in the garden known as Madanonmadini among the flowering creepers,
betel creepers and betel trees. Some gopis are expert at playing various magic tricks, some are expert at
composing riddles and some are appointed to provide betel nuts for the divine couple. All these gopis are the
servants of Srimati Radharani.
TEXT 134
Other gopis are specifically the friends of Lord Baladeva. Lalita-devi is the leader and controller of all these
exalted and worshipable young gopis.
TEXT 135
Ratnalekha and the eight other dear vara-gopis described here all follow the footsteps of Lalita-devi always and
in all respects.
TEXT 136
Among these eight gopis Ratnaprabha-dvie and Ratikala-devi are famous for their transcendental virtues,
beauty, experise and charming sweetness.
TEXT 137 - 138
Flower Decorations
The flower ornaments of the divine couple are 1. flower crown, 2. flowers in the hair, 3. flower earrings, 4.
flowers decorating the forehead, 5. flower necklaces, 6. flower armlets, 7. flower sashes, 8. flower braelets, 9.
flower anklets, 10. flower bodices and many other kinds of flower ornaments. Just as these ornaments may be
fashioned from precious jewels, gold or other materials, in the same way they may be made of flowers.
TEXT 139 - 140
Crown
The divine couple's crowns may be made of rangini flowers, yellow jasmine flowers, navamali flowers, sumali
flowers, dhrti gems, rubies, gomeda gems, pearls or splendid moonstones. These may be artistically arranged to
construct beautiful crowns.
TEXT 141
The crowns may be made with seven points and they may also have gold ketaki flowers or various flower buds
among their colorful and beautiful ingredients. These crowns enchant the mind of Lord Hari.
TEXT 142

The flower crowns known as puspapara are the best of all and they are more pleasing than even the best jeweled
crowns (ratnapara). Lalita-devi learned how to make these puspapara crowns from Srimati Radharani.
TEXT 143
These puspapara crowns are made with flowers and flower buds of five different colors arranged in five points.s
This crown is especially used to decorate Srimati Radharani.
TEXT 144
Balapasya
A garland of flower buds and similar ingredients closely strung together and placed on the hair is called
balapasya.
TEXT 145
Earrings
Skilled craftsmen say there are five kinds of earrings. They are known by the names tadanka, kundala, puspi,
karnika and karna-vestana.
TEXT 146
Tadanka
A hollow gold post worn in the ear is called a tadanka. This kind of earring is of two varieties. In the first
variety the petal of golden ketaki flower is attached to this earring. In the second kind the petal of some other
colorful flower is attached.
TEXT 147
Kundala
When an earring is fashioned from flowers in order to resemble a certain object, the earring is called kundala.
There are many different kinds of kundala earrings. The flowers may be arranged to resemble a peacock, shark,
lotus, half-moon or many other things.
TEXT 148
Puspi
The puspi earrings is fashioned from four different kinds of flowers placed in a circle with a large gunja berry in
the middle.
TEXT 149
Karnika
The karnika earring is fashioned from the whorl of a blue lotus surrounded by yellow flowers. In the middle are
a bhrngika flower and pomegranate flower.
TEXT 150
Karna-vestana
When the flower earring is so large it completely covers the ear, the earring is known as karna-vetsana.
TEXT 151
Decoration for the Forehead.
A garland of flowers placed on the upper forehead along the hairline is called lalatika. Such a garland should
have flowers of two colors : red in the middle of the garland and the other color flowers on the two sides.
TEXT 152
Graivekyaka (flower collar)
Made of a single kind of flower, a necklace strung four times around the neck is called graiveyaka.

TEXT 153
Angada (armlet)
A flower-armlet (angada) may be fashioned of three kinds of flowers strung one after another to resemble a
little flower creeper.
TEXT 154
Kanci (sash)
A sash made of flowers of five different colors, artistically strung together in a gently waving pattern, is called a
kanci.
TEXT 155
Kataka (flower anklets)
Anklets made of many different flower buds are called kataka. These are of many different varieties.
TEXT 156
Mani-bandhani (bracelet)
A bracelet made of flowers of four colors, with bunches of flowers hanging down at three places, is called
mani-bandhani.
TEXT 157
Hamsaka (flower shoes)
When the decoration of flowers covers the entire top and side parts of the feet and there are bunches of flowers
in four places, such a decoration is called hamsaka.
TEXT 158
Kanculi (flower bodice)
A bodice made of flowers of six colors, artistically arranged and perfumed with musk and which begins from
the neck, is called kanculi.
TEXT 159
Chatra (parasol)
Made of thin white sticks, decorated with white flowers and with a handle decorated with yellow jasmine
flowers, a flower parasol is called a chatra.
TEXT 160
Sayanam (couch)
The couch is fashioned of campaka and malli flowers and decorated with small bells. It has a large cushion of
navamali flowers.
TEXT 161
Ulloca (an awning)
An awning is made of a latticework of various colorful flowers, ketaki petals and various leaves. Many malli
flowers hang down from this awning.
TEXT 162
Candratapa (an awning)
When many sindhuvara flowers as white as pearls decorate the sides and fresh lotus flowers hang down in the
middle, the awning is called candratapa.
TEXT 163

Vesma (cottage)
With reeds as pillars and various colorful flowers as the roof and four walls, a vesma (flower cottage0 is
constructed.
TEXT 164 a
Gopi Messengers
Vrnda, Vrndarika, Mela and Murali are the most important gopi messengers. The gopi messengers expertly
know the geograhy of Vrndavana and they intimately know each grove and garden there. They are also learned
in the science of gardening.
TEXT 164 b
These exalted gopi messengers are all filled with great love for Sri Sri Radha and Krsna. The gopi messengers
are fair complexioned and they dress in colorful garments. Vrnda-devi is the most important among them.
TEXT 165
Visakha
Visakha-devi, the intimate friend of the divine couple, although she is more exalted than these younger gopis,
also takes up the work of carrying messages between Radha and Krsna and she is the most intelligent and expert
of all the gopi messengers. Loquacious Visakha is expert at joking with Lord Govinda and she is the perfect
counsellor of the divine couple. She is expert at all aspects of amorous diplomacy and she knows all the arts of
how to conciliate an angered lover, how to bribe him and how to quarrel with him.
TEXT 166
Rangavali-devi and other gopis are expert at drawing various designs in tilaka, artistically stringing flower
garlands, composing clever verses and acrostics such as sarvatobhadra, conjuring magical illusions by chanting
mantras, worshipable the sun god with various paraphernalia, singing in various foreign languages and
composing different kinds of poetry.
TEXT 167
Maidservants who dress Srimati Radharani.
Madhavai, Malati, and Candrarekha are the leaders the gopi servants who dress and decorate Srimati Radharani.
TEXT 168 - 169
The gopi messengers appointed by Vrnda-devi have the flowering trees of Vrndavana under their jurisdiction.
Malika-devi isthe leader of these wonderfully blissful gopis. In addition to these two groups of gopi messengers
(1. Visakha and 2. the followers of Vrnda-devi), Campakalata-devi is the third of the gopi messengers.
TEXT 170
Campakalata veils her activities in great secrecy. She is expert at the art of logical persuasion, and she is killed
diplomat who knows how to thwart Srimati Radharani's rivals.
TEXT 171
Campakalata is expert at collecting fruits, flowers, and roots from the forest. Using only the skill of her hands
shecan artistically fashion things from clay.
TEXT 172
Campakalata is an expert cook who knows all the literature describing the six flavors of gourmet cooking.
Sheis so expert at making various kinds of candythat she has become famous by the name Mistahasta (sweet
hands).
TEXT 173
There are also eight gopi maidservants expert at cooking various preparations from the milk products Vraja
village. Kurangaksi-devi is the leader of these gopi cooks.

TEXT 174
Activities of the Eight Principal Gopies
Of all these gopis who are appointed as protectoresses of the trees, creepers, and bushes of Vrndavana, the
leader is Campakalata-devi.
TEXT 175
Citra
Citra-devi is wonderfully expert in all the activities wehavejust described. She is especially expert in the lover's
quarrel between Radha and Krsna (the third of the six definitions of the word abhisarana).
TEXT 176
Citra-devi can read between the lines of books and letters written in many different languages, perceiving the
hidden intentions of the author. She is a skilled gourmet and can understand the testes of various foods made
with honey, milk, and other ingredients simply by glancing at them.
TEXT 177
She is expert in playing music on pots filled with varying degrees of water. She is learned in the literature
describing astronomy and astrology, and she is well versed in the theoretical and practical activities of
protecting domestic animals.
TEXT 178
She is especially expert at gardenting and she can nicely make various kinds of nectarean beverages.
TEXT 179
There are also eight other gopi maidservants, headed by Rasalika-devi, who are expert at making various kinds
of nectarean beverages.
TEXT 180
There are other gopis who mostly collect transcendental herbs and medicinal creepers from the forest and do not
collect flowers or anything else. Citra-devi is the leader of these gopis.
TEXT 181
Tungavidya
Tungavidya is one of the leaders of the gopis. She is learned in the eighteen branches of knowledge.
TEXT 182
She has full faith in Krsna. She is very expert at arranging the meeting of the divine couple. She is learned in
rasa-sastra (transcendental mellows), niti-sastra(morality), dancing, drama, literature and all other arts and
sciences.
TEXT 183
She is a celebrated music teacher expert at playing the vina and singing in the style known as marga.
TEXT 184
Eight gopi messengers headed by Manjumedha-devi are especially expect at arranging political alliances
(sandhi) the first of diplomatic maneuvers in the art of politics between Radha and Krsna.
TEXT 185
These gopis are the best of dancers. They are musicians expert at playing the mrdanga and singing in recital
halls.
TEXT 186
These gopis are especially engaged in fetching water from the streams in Vrndavana. Tungavidya is the leader
of these gopis.

TEXT 187
Indulekha
Noble Indulekha is learned in the science and mantras of the Naga-sastra, which describes various methods of
charming snakes. She is also learned in the Samudraka-sastra, which describes the science of palmistry.
TEXT 188
She is expert at stringing various kinds of wonderful necklaces, decorating the teeth with red substances,
gemology and weaving various kinds of cloth.
TEXT 189
In her hand she carries the auspicious messages of the divine couple. In this way she creates the good fortune of
Radha and Krsna by creating Their mutual love and attraction.
TEXT 190
The group of gopis headed by Tungabhadra-devi are the friends and neighours of Indulekha. Among these gopis
is a group, headed by Palindhika-devi, which acts as messengers for the divine couple.
TEXT 191
Indulekha-devi is fully aware of the confidential secrets of the divine couple. Some of her friends are engaged
in providing ornaments for the divine couple, others provide exquisite garments and others guard the divine
couple's treasury.
TEXT 192
Indulekha-devi is thus the leader of all the gopis engaged in these services in the various parts of Vrndavana.
TEXT 193
Ranga-devi
Ranga-devi is always like a great ocean of coquettish words and gestures. She is very fond of joking with her
friend Srimati Radharani in the presence of Lord Krishna.
TEXT 194
Among the six activities of diplomacy she is especially expert in the fourth : patiently waiting for the enemy to
make the next move. She is an expert logician and because of previous austerities she has attained a mantra by
which she can attract Lord Krsna.
TEXT 195
Kalakanti-devi is the leader of the eight most important friends of Ranga-devi. These friends are all expert in
the use of perfumes and cosmetics.
TEXT 196
Ranga-devi's friends are expert at burning aromatic incense, carrying coal during the winter and fanning the
divine couple in the summer.
TEXT 197
Ranga-devi's friends are able to control the lions, deer and other wild animals in the forest. Ranga-devi is the
leader of all these gopis.
TEXT 198
Sudevi
Sudevi always remains at the side of her dear friend Srimati Radharani. Sudevi arranges Radharani's hair,
decorates Her eyes with mascara and massages Her body.
TEXT 199

She is expert in training male and female parrots and she is also expert in the pastimes of roosters. She is an
expert sailor and she is fully aware of the auspicious and inauspicious omens described in the Sakuna-sastra.
TEXT 200
She is expert at massaging the body with scented oils, she knows how to start fires and keep them burning and
she knows which flowers blossom with the rising of the moon.
TEXT 201
Kaveri-devi and the other friends of Sudevi are expert at constructing leaf-spitoons, playing music on bells and
decorating couches in various ways.
TEXT 202 - 203
Sudevi's friends are also entrusted with the decoration of the divine couple's sitting place. Sudevi's friends act as
clever spies, disguising themselves in various ways and moving among Radharani's rivals (Candravali and her
friends) to discover their secrets. Sudevi's friends are the deities of Vrndavana forest and they are charged with
the protection of the forest birds and bees. Sudevi is the leader of these gopis.
TEXT 204
Description of the Various Gopis
The wonderful arts, crafts and other duties that comprise the activities of the gopis will now be described.
TEXT 205 - 206
Pindaka-devi, Nirvitandika-devi, Pundarika-devi, Sitakhandi-devi, Carucandi-devi, Sudantika-devi, Akunthitadevi, Kalakanthi-devi, Ramaci-devi and Mecika-devi are among the gopis who are very strong and stubborn
when there is an argument or conflict. Among them Pindaka-devi is the leader. She dresses in red garments. She
is very beautiful. When Lord Krsna comes she embarrasses Him by attacking Him with many ferocious witty
puns.
TEXT 207
Haridrabha-devi, Hariccela-devi and Harimitra-devi speak many illogical and frivolous objections as they lead
Lord Krsna to the place where Srimati Radharani waits for Him.
TEXT 208
Pundarika-devi's garments and complexion are both the color of a white lotus flower. She ferociously mocks
lotus-eyed Lord Krsna.
TEXT 209
Gauri-devi always wears white garments. Her complexion is the color of a peacock. Because her sweet and
charming words are often laced with acid sarcasms, Lord Krsna jokingly calls her Sitakhandi (always sweet).
TEXT 210
Gauri-devi's sister is known as Carucandi because her words are sometimes mild and pleasant (caru) and
sometimes harsh and violent (candi). Carucandi's complexion is the color of a black bee and her garments are
the color of lightning.
TEXT 211
Sudantika-devi wears garments the color of a kurunthaka flower. Her complexion is the color of a sirisa flower.
She is expert at inflaming the amorous sentiments of ujjvala-rasa.
TEXT 212
Akunthita-devi's complexion is the color of a lotus stem. She wears white garments the color of the fibers
within a lotus stem. She likes to insult Krsna for the amusement of her gopi friends.
TEXT 213

Kalakanthi-devi's complexion is the color of a kuli flower and her garments are the color of milk. She speaks to
Lord Krnsa, describing Radharani's jealous anger and advising Him to beg forgiveness from Her.
TEXT 214
Ramaci-devi's is the daughter of Lalita-devi's nurse. Ramaci's complexion is golden and her garments are the
color of a parrot. She takes pleasure in jokingly insulting Krsna and laughing at Him.
TEXT 215
Ramaci-devi always wears white garments. Her complexion is the color of a pinda flower. She is expert at
insulting Lord Krnsa.
TEXT 216 - 217
Petari-devi, Varuda-devi, Cari-devi, Kotari-devi, Kalatippani-devi, Marunda-devi, Morata-devi, Cuda-devi,
Cundari-devi and Gondika-devi are the leaders of those gopi messengers who are past the prime of youth. These
older gopis can argue with great stubbornness and they can also nicely sing as the divine couple take their meal.
These gopis are always engaged in making arrangements for the forest pastimes of the divine couple.
TEXT 218
Petari-devi is an elderly Gujarati lady whose hair is the color of fibers within a lotus stem. Varudi-devi is a
native of Garuda-desa and her braided hair is like the current of a river.
TEXT 219
Cari-devi, who is Kucari-devi's siste, is also known by the name Tapahkatyayani, because she performed severe
austerities (tapah) and took shelter of goddess Katyayani (Durga). Kotari-devi was born in the abhira caste. Her
hair is a mixture of black and white resembling rice mixed with toasted sesame seeds.
TEXT 220
Kalatippani-devi is an elderly washerwoman with white hair. Marunda-devi has white eyebrows and a shaved
head.
TEXT 221
Agile Morata-devi has hair the color of a kasa flower. Cuda-devi has a wrinkled face and a forehead decorated
with many grey hairs.
TEXT 222
The brahmani Cundari-devi is not as old as the others. Lotus-eyed Lord Krsna glorifies her and treats her with
great respect. Gondika-devi shaves the splendid white hairs on her head. Her cheeks are wrinkled with age.
TEXT 223 - 224
Gopi Messengers who Arrange the Meeting of the Divine Couple
Sivada-devi, Saumyadarsana-devi, Suprasada-devi, Sadasanta-devi, Santida-devi and Kantida-devi are the
leaders of the gopi messengers who expertly arrange the meeting of Radha and Krsna. These gopis consider
Lalita-devi to be their dearmost life and soul. They are counted among the intimate associates of Lord Krsna.
TEXT 225
At a certain time Srimati Radharani quarrels with Lord Krsna and refuses to see Him. Understanding the hints
of Lalita-devi, these gopis then approach Lord Krsna.
TEXT 226 - 227
These gopis appease Lord Krsna and please Him in different ways. With great effort they convince Him that
His actual desire is to meet Radha again. When These gopis bring to Her the gift that Lord Krsna gave them as a
peace offering, Srimati Radharani becomes very pleased with them and grants them Her mercy.
TEXT 228 - 229

Sivada-devi was born in the Ragyhu dynasty, Saumyadarsana-devi in the dynasty of the moon-god, Suprasadadevi in the Puru dynasty, Sadasanta-devi in a family of ascetics and Santida and Kantida in brahmana families.
By the mercy of Narada Muni they were all able to reside in Vraja.
TEXT 230
The Second Gruop of Gopis
After this first group of gopis there is a second group of gopis, whose love for the divine couple is a little less
than that of the first group. This second group of gopis may again be divided into two groups : sama-prema and
asama-prema. These gopis will be described in the following verses.
TEXT 231
The sama-prema gopis may be divided into two groups - those who are eternally perfect and those who have
attained perfection by engaging in devotional service.
TEXT 232
Out of one hundred million gopis, eight hundred thousand are eternally perfect.
TEXT 233 - 234
The direct followers of the eight principal gopis are counted in different ways. Some say they number five
thousand, others say they number four or five thousand, still others say they number three or four thousand and
still others say they number one thousand.
TEXT 235
Some say the followers of the eight principal gopis are divided into many groups and others say they are not
divided into groups at all. Some say they are divided into sixteen groups according to the nature of their love for
the divine couple.
TEXT 236
Some say these gopis are divided into twenty groups, some say there are twenty-five groups, some say there are
thirty, some say there are sixty and some say there are sixty-four groups of gopis.
TEXT 237
Some say this group of gopis is in turn divided into two subgroups. Others say it is divided into two or three
subgroups and others say it is divided into three or four subgroups.
TEXT 238
The entire gopi community may be divided in different ways. Some say there are forty groups of gopis and
others that there are five hundred groups.
TEXT 239 - 246
Aside from the eight varistha-gopas and the eight vara-gopis, sixty four gopis are considered most important.
Their names are : 1. Ratnaprabha, 2. Ratikala, 3. Subhadra, 4. Ratika,
5. Sumukhi, 6. Dhanistha, 7. Kalahamsi, 8. Kalapini, 9. Madhavi, 10. Malati, 11. Candrarekha, 12. Kunjari, 13.
Harini,
14. Capala, 15. Damni, 16. Surabhi, 17. Subhanana, 18. Kurangaksi, 19. Sucarita, 20. Mandali, 21.
Manikundala, 22. Candrika, 23. Candralatika, 24. Pankajaksi, 25. Sumandira,
26. Rasalika, 27. Tilakini, 28. Sauraseni, 29. Sugandhika,
30. Ramani, 31. Kamanagari, 32. Nagari, 33. Nagavenika,
34. Manjumedha, 35. Sumadhura, 36. Sumadhya, 37. Madhureksana,
38. Tanumadhya, 39. Madhuspanda, 40. Gunacuda, 41. Varangada,
42. Tungabhadra, 43. Rasottunga, 44. Rangavati, 45. Susangata,

46. Citrarekha, 47. Vicitrangi, 48. Modini, 49. Madanalasa, 50. Kalakanthi, 51. Sasikala, 52. Kamala, 53.
Madhurendira,
54. Kandarpa-sundari, 55. Kamalatika, 56. Prema-manjari,
57. Kaveri, 58. Carukavara, 59. Sukesi, 60. Manjukesi,
61. Harahira, 62. Mahahira, 63. Harakanthi, 64. Manohara.
TEXT 247
The Sammohana-tantra's Description of Srimati Radharani's Eight Principal Friends
A different list of Srimati Radharani's eight principal gopi friends is found in the following statement of
Sammohana-tantra : " Lilavati, Sadhika, Candrika, Madhavi, Lalita, Vijaya, Gauri and Nandi are the eight
principal gopi friends of Srimati Radharani."
TEXT 248
Another Description of the Eight Principal Gopis
Another quotation from Vedic literature gives the following description : " Kalavati, Srimati, Sudhamukhi,
Visakha, Kaumudi, Madhvi and Sarada are the eight prinicpal gopis.
TEXT 249 - 250
The numbers presented in this description of the gopis has no actual relevance to the number of eternally
liberated gopis in the spiritual world. There the associates of the king and queen of Vrndavana are unlimited in
number. No one can count them. We have simply given some hints so the reader may understand the vast
number of the associates of the divine couple.
TEXT 251
Preparing the divine couple's couch, food, drink and betel nuts, swinging Them on a swing and decorating
Them with tilaka are among the many services performed by the gopis. The learned devotees may research this
and enumerate all these services.
TEXT 252
Rupa Goswami prays that the effulgent Krsna-sun may remove the blindness from his eyes and enable him to
properly see and understand the various rasa-sastras that describe Sri Sri Radha-Krsna and Their associates.
TEXT 253
In the year 1472 of the Saka era (1550 A.D.) on Sunday, the sixth day of the month of Sravana, at Nandagrama,
the home of the king of Vraja, this book, the Radha-Krsna-ganoddesa-dipika was completed.
PART TWO
TEXT 1
Sri Krsna's Transcendental Form and Attributes
Sri Krsna's form glistens with the black mascara of the sweetness of His nectarean handsomeness. His
complexion is the color of a blue lotus flower or a sapphire.
TEXT 2
His complexion is as enchanting as an emerald, a tamala tree, or a group of beautiful dark clouds. He is an
ocean of nectarean handsomeness.
TEXT 3
He wears yellow garments and a garland of forest flowers. He is decorated with various jewels and He is a great
reservoir of the nectar of many transcendental pastimes.
TEXT 4

He has long, curling hair and He is anointed with many fragrant scents. His handsome crown is decorated with
many different flowers.
TEXT 5
His handsome forehead is splendidly decorated with tilaka markings and curling locks of hair. The playful
movements of His raised, dark eyebrows enchant the hearts of the gopis.
TEXT 6
His rolling eyes are as splendid as red and blue lotus flowers. The tip of His nose is as handsome as the beak of
Garuda, the king of birds.
TEXT 7
His charming ears and cheeks are decorated with earrings made of various jewels.
TEXT 8
His handsome lotus face is as splendid as millions of moons. He speaks many charming jokes and His chin is
exquisitely handsome.
TEXT 9
His handsome, smooth and charming neck bends in three places. Decorated with a necklace of pearls, the
beauty of His neck enchants the residents of the three planetary systems.
TEXT 10
Decorated with a necklace of pearls and with the Kaustubha gem, which shines like lightning, Krsna's
handsome chest longs to enjoy the company of the beautiful gopis.
TEXT 11
Decorated with bracelets and armlets, Krsna's arms hang down to His knees. His reddish lotus hands are
decorated with various auspicious signs.
TEXT 12
Krsna's hands are beautifully decorated with the auspicious signs of a club, conchshell, barleycorn, parasol,
half-moon, rod for controlling elephants, flag, lotus flower, sacrificial post, plow, pitcher and fish.
TEXT 13
Krsna's charming abdomen is the pastime abode of handsomeness. His nectarean back seems to long for the
playful touch of the beautiful gopis.
TEXT 14
The nectarean lotus flower that is Lord Krsna's hips bewilders the demigod Cupid. Krsna's thighs are like two
beautiful plantain trees that charm the hearts of all women.
TEXT 15
Krsna's knees are very splendid, charming and handsome. His charming lotus feet are decorated with jeweled
ankle-bells.
TEXT 16 - 17
Krsna's feet have the luster of roses, and they are decorated with various auspicious markings, such as the
markings of the disc, half-moon, octagon, triangle, barleycorn, sky, parasol, waterpot, conchshell, cow's
hoofprint, svastika, rod for controlling elephants, lotus flower, bow and jambu fruit.
TEXT 18
Krsna's handsome lotus feet are like two oceans filled with the happiness of pure love. His reddish toes are
decorated with the row fo full moons that are His toenails.
TEXT 19

Although we have sometimes compared Krsna's handsomeness to various things, nothing can actually be equal
to it. In this place we have given a small indication of Krsna's handsomeness to arouse the attraction of the
reader.
TEXY 20
Krsna's Friends
Now Lord Krsna's friends will be described. The most important of Krsna's friends is His elder brother,
Balarama.
TEXT 21
Different Kinds of Friends
Krsna's friends are divided into four groups : 1. well-wishing friends (suhrt), 2. ordinary friends (sakha), 3.
more confidential friends (priya-sakha), and 4. initmate friends
(priya-narma-sakha)
TEXT 22
Well-wishing Friends (suhrt)
The well-wishing friends include Krsna's cousins :
Subhadra, Kundala, Dandi and Mandala. Sunandana, Nandi, Anandi and others who accompany Krsna as He
herds the cows and calves in Vrndavana forest are also well-wishing friends.
TEXTS 23 - 24
Also included among the well-wishing friends are Subhadra, Mandalibhadra, Bhadravardhana, Gobhata,
Yaksendra, Bhata, Bhadranga, Virabhadra, Mahaguna, Kulavira, Mahabhima, Divyasakti, Suraprabha,
Ranasthira and others. These well-wishing friends are older than Krsna and they try to protect Him from any
danger.
TEXT 25
Krsna's parents love their son very dearly. They consider Him many millions of times more important than their
own life's breath. Very frightened that the demon Kamsa would harm their son, they engaged these wellwishing friends (suhrt) to protect Him. The leader of these well-wishing friends is a boy named Vijayaksa,
whose mother, Ambika-devi, was Krsna's nurse. Ambika-devi worshiped goddess Parvati and performed great
austerities to get a powerful son who could protect Krsna.
TEXT 26
Subhadra
Subhadra has a splendid dark complexion. He wears yellow garments and various ornaments.
TEXT 27
Subhadra's father is Upananda, and his mother the chaste and faithful Tula-devi. Kundalata-devi will become
his wife. Subhadra is full of the glory of youth.
TEXT 28 - 29
Krsna's Ordinary Friends (sakha)
Visala, Vrsabha, Ojasvi, Devaprastha, Varuthapa, Mandara, Kusumapida, Manibandhakara, Mandara, Candana,
Kunda, Kalindi, Kulika and many others are included in the group of Krsna's ordinary friends (sakha). These
friends are younger than Krsna and are always eager to serve Him.
TEXTS 30 - 31
Krsna's confidential friends (priya-sakha)

Krsna's confidential friends are Sridama, Sudama, Dama, Vasudama, Kinkini, Bhadrasena, Amsu, Stokakrsna,
Vilasi, Pundarika, Vitankaksa, Kalavinka and Priyaskara. These friends are the smae age of Krsna. Their leader
is Sridama, who is also known as Pithamardaka.
TEXT 32
Bhadrasena is the general who leads Krsna's childhood friends in military pastimes. Stokakrsna is very
appropriately named, for he is just like a small (stoka) Krsna.
TEXT 33
These confidential friends (priya-sakha) delights Lord Krsna with their enthusiastic and jubliant wrestling,
stick-fighting and other sports.
TEXT 34
These confidential friends are all very peaceful by nature. Each of them considers Lord Krsna equal to his own
life's breath.
TEXT 35
Krsna's Intimate Friends (priya-narma-sakha)
Subala, Arjuna, Gandharva, Vasanta, Ujjvala, Kokila, Sanandana and Vidagdha are the msot important of
Krsna's intimate friends.
TEXT 36
Krsna keeps no secrets from these intimate friends. Among them Madhumangala, Puspanka and Hasanka are
the leaders of those fond of joking. Handsome Sanandana is very pleased by his close friendship with Krsna and
splendid Ujjvala appears like the personified ruler of all transcendental mellows. Lord Krsna, the crest jewel of
playful boys, is submissive to His dear friend Ujjvala.
TEXT 37
Sridama has a handsome dark complexion. He wears yellow garments and a necklace of jewels.
TEXT 38
He is a splendid youth sixteen years old. He is a great resevoir of the nectar of innumerable transcendental
pastimes. He is Lord Krsna's dearest friend.
TEXT 39
His father is Maharaj Vrsabhanu and His mother is the chaste Kirtida-devi. Srimati Radharani and Anangamanjari are his two younger sisters.
TEXT 40
Sudama
Sudama's handsome complexion is somewhat fair. He is decorated with jeweled ornaments and wears blue
garments.
TEXT 41
His father's name is Matuka and His mother is Rocana-devi. He is very young and fond of playing many kinds
of games.
TEXT 42
Subala
Subala has a fair complexion. He wears handsome blue garments and he is decorated wtih many kinds of jewels
and flowers.
TEXT 43

He is twelve-and-a-half years old and He glows with youthful luster. Although he is Krsna's friend, he is
immersed in serving Krsna in many different ways.
TEXT 44
He is expert at arranging the meeting of the divine couple. He is charming and full of transcendental love for
Them. He is cheerful and full of good qualities. He is very dear to Krsna.
TEXT 45
Arjuna
Arjuna's glistening complexion is the color of a red lotus flower. His garments are the color of moonlight and
He is decorated with many kinds of jewels.
TEXT 46
His father is Sudaksina, his mother Bhadra-devi, and his elder brother Vasudama. He is always plunged in
transcendental love for the divine couple.
TEXT 47
He is fourteen-and-a half and full of the luster of youth. He wears a garland of forest flowers and many other
kinds of flower-ornaments.
TEXT 48
Gandharva
Handsome Gandharva has a complexion the color of moonlight. He wears red garments and many different
ornaments.
TEXT 49
He is twelve years old and full of youthful luster. He is decorated with many kinds of flowers.
TEXT 50
His mother is the saintly Mitra-devi and his father the great soul Vinoka. He is very playful and very dear to Sri
Krsna.
TEXT 51
Vasanta
Vasanta has a splendid fair complexion. His garments glitter like the moon and he is decorated with various
jewels.
TEXT 52
He is eleven years old. He is decorated with many different flower garlands. His mother is the saintly Saradidevi and his father is the great soul Pingala.
TEXT 53
Ujjvala
Ujjvala has a splendid reddish complexion. His garments are decorated with star patterns and he is decorated
with pearls and flowers.
TEXT 54
His father is named Sagara and his mother is the chaste Veni-devi. He is thirteen years old and full of youthfull
luster.
TEXT 55
Kokila

Kokila is fair-complexioned and very handsome. He wears blue garments and is decorated with many kinds of
jewels.
TEXT 56
He is eleven years and four months of age. His father is named Puskara and his mother is the famous Medhadevi.
TEXT 57
Sanandana
Handsome Sanandana has a fair complexion. He wears blue garments and is decorated with many different
ornaments.
TEXT 58
He is fourteen years old. He wears garlands of flowers. His father is Arunaksa and his mother is Mallika-devi.
TEXT 59
Handsome Sanandana is very happy to have the friendship of Lord Krsna. He is like the splendid monarch of all
transcendental mellows.
TEXT 60
Vidagdha has a splendid complexion the color of a yellow campaka flower. He wears blue garments and a
necklace of pearls.
TEXT 61
He is fourteen years old and full of youthful luster. His father is named Matuka and his mother is Rocana-devi.
TEXT 62
His elder brother is Sudama and his sister is Susila-devi. He is very dear to Sri Krsna. He is full of
transcendental love for the divine couple.
TEXT 63
Madhumangala
Madhumangala has a slightly dark complexion. He wears yellow garments and a garlands of forest flowers.
TEXT 64
His father is the saintly Sandipani Muni, his mother the chaste Sumukhi devi, his sister is Nandimukhi-devi and
his parental grandmother is Paurnamasi-devi.
TEXT 65
An expert comedian who always plays the buffoon, Sri Madhumangala is the constant companion of Lord
Krsna.
TEXT 66 - 67
Sri Balarama
Powerful Lord Balarama has a fair complexion the color of crystal. He wears blue garments and a garland of
forest flowers.
TEXT 68
His handsome hair is tied in a graceful topknot. Splendid earrings decorate His ears.
TEXT 69
His neck is splendidly decorated with garlands of flowers and strings of jewels. His arms are splendidly
decorated with bracelets and armlets.
TEXT 70

His feet are decorated with splendid jeweled anklets. His father is Maharaja Vasudeva and His mother is
Rohini-devi.
TEXT 71
Nanda Maharaja is the friend of His father. Yasoda-devi is His mother, Sri Krsna His younger brother and
Subhadra His sister.
TEXT 72
He is sixteen years old and full of the luster of youth. He is Sri Krsna's dearest friend. He is a great reservoir of
the nectar mellows of many kinds of transcendental pastimes.
TEXT 73
Vitas
Expert in music, drama, literature, the science of various kinds of scents and a host of ther arts, the vitas are
very happy to serve Lord Krsna in many different ways.
TEXT 74 - 75
Krsna's Servants
Bhangura, Brngara, Sandhika, Grahila, Raktaka, Patraka, Patri, Madhukantha, Madhuvrata, Salika, Talika,
Mali, Mana and Maladhara are the most prominent of Lord Krsna's servants.
TEXT 76
These servants carry Krsna's venu and murali flutes, buffalo-horn bugle, stick, rope and other paraphernalia.
They also bring the mineral dyes (the cowherd boys use to decorate their bodies).
TEXT 77 - 78
Betel-nut Servants
Pallva, Mangala, Phulla, Komala, Kapila, Suvilasa, Vilasaksa, Rasala, Rasasali and Jambula are the most
important of Lord Krsna's betel-nut servants. They are younger than Krsna and always expert at singing and
playing musical instruments. They are younger than Krsna and always stay near Him.
TEXT 79
Water Carriers
Payoda and Varida are the most important of the servants engaged in carrying water for Lord Krsna.
Clothing Washers
Saranga and Bakula are the most important of the servants engaged in expertly washing Lord Krsna's laundry.
TEXT 80
Decorators
Premakanda, Mahagandha, Sairindhra, Madhu, Kandala and Makaranda are the most important of the servants
constantly engaged in decorating Lord Krsna with various ornaments and clothing.
TEXT 81
Servants Who Provide Aromatic Substances
Sumanah, Kusumollasa, Puspahara, Hara and others expertly provide Krsna with various aromatic substances
such as flowers, flower ornaments, flower garlands and camphor.
TEXT 82
The Napitas
Svaccha, Susila, Praguna and others are engaged in various services, such as caring for the Lord's hair,
massaging Him, giving Him a mirror and guarding over His treasury.

Others
Vimala, Komala and others are engaged in various services, such as caring for the Lord's kitchen.
TEXT 83
Maidservants
Dhanistha-devi, Candanakala-devi, Gunamala-devi, Ratiprabha-devi, Taruni-devi, Induprabha-devi, Sobha-devi
and Rambha-devi are the leaders of the gopis engaged in Krsna's service. These gopis are expert at cleaning and
decorating Krsna's home, anointing it with various aromatic substances, carrying milk and performing other
duties.
TEXT 84
Other Maidservants
Kurangi-devi, Bhrngari-devi, Sulamba-devi, Alambika-devi and other gopis also serve Krsna in these ways.
TEXT 85
Spies
Catura, Carana, Dhiman and Pesala are the leaders of Krsna's expert spies, who travel in various disguises
among the cowherd men and gopis.
TEXT 86
Gopa Messengers
Visarada, Tunga, Vavaduka, Manorama and Nitisara are the leaders of the gopa messengers. They carry Krsna's
messages to the gopis to arrange for pastimes and also to settle quarrels.
TEXT 87
Krsna's Gopi Messengers
Paurnamasi-devi, Vira-devi, Vrnda-devi, Vamsi-devi, Nandimukhi-devi, Vrndarika-devi, Mela-devi and
Murali-devi are the leaders of Krsna's gopi messengers.
TEXT 88
Among all these gopi messengers Vrnda-devi is the best. She is expert at arranging the meeting of Radha and
Krsna and she is fully conversant with the geography of Vrndavana, knowing the best places for the divine
couple's rendezvous.
TEXT 89
Paurnamasi
Paurnamasi's complexion is like molten gold. She wears white garments and many jeweled ornaments.
TEXT 90
Paurnamasi is very learned and famous. Her father is Suratadeva and her chaste mother is Candrakala. Her
husband is Prabala.
TEXT 91
Her brother is Devaprastha. She is like a perfect crest jewel decorating the land of Vraja. She is expert at
making various arrangements for the meeting of Radha and Krsna.
TEXT 92(A)
Vira
Another gopi messenger is Vira-devi. She is very famous and is much respected in Vraja. She can speak very
arrogantly and boldly and she can also speak sweet and flattering words, as Vrnda-devi does.
TEXT 92(B)

She has a dark complexion. She wears splendid white garments and various jewels and flower garlands.
TEXT 93
Her husband is Kavala, her mother is the chaste Mohini-devi, her father Visala and her sister is Kavala-devi.
She is very dear to Jatila-devi. She resides in the village of Javata
TEXT 94
She is expert at making various arrangements for the meeting of Radha and Krsna.
TEXT 95
Vrnda-devi
Vrnda-devi has a beautiful complexion the color of molten gold. She wears blue garments and is decorated with
pearls and flowers.
TEXT 96
Her father is Candrabhanu and her mother is Phullara-devi. Her husband is Mahipala and her sister is Manjaridevi.
TEXT 97
She always remains in Vrndavana, immersed in love for Radha and Krsna and yearning to both arrange for
Their meeting and taste the nectar of assisting in Their transcendental pastimes.
TEXT 98
Nandimukhi-devi
Nandimukhi-devi has a fair complexion and wears exquisite garments. Her father is Sandipani Muni and her
mother is the chaste Sumukhi-devi.
TEXT 99
Her brother is Madhumangala and her paternal grandmother is Paurnamasi-devi. She wears various jeweled
ornaments and she glows with youthful luster.
TEXT 100
She is expert at various arts and crafts. Full of love for Radha and Krsna, she is expert at making various
arrangements for Their rendezvous.
TEXT 101
A General Description of Lord Krsna's Servants
Sobhana, Dipana and other provide lamps for the Lord and Sudhakara, Sudhanada, Sananda and others play the
mrdanga for His satisfaction.
TEXT 102
Vicitrarava and Madhurarava are the leaders of the talented an virtuous poets who compose prayers glorifying
Sri Krsna, while Candrahasa, Induhasa and Candramukha are leaders of the servants who dance for the Lord's
satisfaction.
TEXT 103
Kalakantha, Sukantha, Sudhakantha, Bharata, Sarada, Vidyavilasa, Sarasa and others are learned in the arts of
all kinds of literary composition. They carry their books and papers with them and they are fully aware of all the
mellows fo devotional service.
TEXT 104
Raucika is the tailor who sews clothes for the Lord. Sumukha, Durlabha, Ranjana and others wash the Lord's
laundry.
TEXT 105

Punyapunja and Bhagyarasi are the two sweepers who clean the area around Krsna's home.
TEXT 106
Rangana and Tankana are goldsmiths who make ornaments for the Lord. Pavana and Karmatha are potters who
make drinking vessels and jugs for churning butter.
TEXT 107
Vardhaki and Vardhamana are carpenters who serve the Lord by building carts, couches and other objects.
Sucitra nd Vicitra are talented artists who paint pictures for the Lord.
TEXT 108
Kunda, Kanthola, Karanda and others are craftsmen who make ropes, churning rods, axes, baskets, balances for
carrying heavy objects and various other ordinary utensils.
TEXT 109
Mangala, Pingala, Ganga, Pisangi, Manikastani, Hamsi and Vamsipriya are the most important of the surabhi
cows, who are all very dear to Lord Krsna.
TEXT 110
Padmagandha and Pisangaksa are Krsna's pet oxen. Suranga is His pet deer and Dadhilobha is His pet monkey.
TEXT 111
Vyaghra and Bhramaraka are Krsna's pet dogs. Kalasvana is His pet swan, Tandavika His pet peacock and
Daksa and Vicaksana His pet parrots.
TEXT 112
Places of Krsna's Pastimes Described
The best of all places of Krsna's pastimes is the great garden known as Vrndavana forest. Another important
place of the Lord's pastimes is the beautiful and opulent Govardhana Hill. This Hill is very appropriately named
for it nourishes (vardhana) Krsna's cows (go) with its grasses.
TEXT 113
On Govardhana Hill is the cave known as Manikandali and the river-landing place named Nilamandapika. On
the Manasa-ganga river is the famous landing place named Paranga.
TEXT 114
The boat named Suvilasatara remains at this Paranga landing place. Another important place is Nandisvara Hill,
Krsna's home, where the goddess of fortune is personally present.
TEXT 115
On Nandisvara Hill is the splendid white stone house where Krsna grew up. This house is named
Amodavardhana because it is always filled with (vardhana) the pleasant fragrance (amoda) of incense and other
aromatic substances.
TEXT 116
The lake near Krsna's home is named Pavana and on its shore there are many groves where the Lord enjoys
pastimes. Also near Krsna's home is the grove named Kama Mahatirtha and the jeweled pathway named
Mandara.
TEXT 117
The splendid kadamba trees named Kadambaraj and the king of the banyan trees named Bhandira grow in the
forest of Vrndavana. On the sandy bank of the Yamuna is the pastime place named Anagaranga-bhu.
TEXT 118

On the shore of the Yamuna River is the sacred place known as Khela-tirtha, where Lord Krsna eternally enjoys
pastimes with His dearmost Srimati Radharani.
TEXT 119
Sri Krsna's Paraphernalia
Krsna's mirror is named Saradindu and His fan is named Marumaruta. His toy lotus flower is named Sadasmera
and His toy ball is named Citrakoraka.
TEXT 120
Krsna's golden bow is named Vilasakarmana. The two ends of this bow are studded with jewels and it has a
bowstring named Manjulasara.
TEXT 121
His glistening jewel-handled scissors are named Tustida. His buffalo-horn bugle is named Mandraghosa and
His flute is named Bhuvanamohini.
TEXT 122
Krsna has another flute named Mahananda, which is like a fishook that captures the fish of Srimati Radharani's
heart and mind. Another flute, which has six holes is known as Madanajhankrti.
TEXT 123
Krsna's flute named Sarala makes a low, soft tone like the sound of a softly singing cuckoo. Krsna is very fond
of playing this flute in the ragas gaudi and garjari.
TEXT 124
The wonderful sacred mantra He chants is the name of His dearmost Radharani. His cane is named Mandana,
His vina is named Tarangini, the two ropes He carries are named Pasuvasikara and His milk bucket is named
Amrtadohani.
TEXT 125
Krsna's ornaments
On Krsna's arm is an amulet studded with nine jewels and placed there by His mother for His protection.
TEXT 126
His two armlets are named Rangada, His two bracelets are named Sobhana, His signet ring is named
Ratnamukhi and His yellow garments are named Nigamasobhana.
TEXT 127
Krsna's string of small bell is named Kalajhankara and His two anklets are named Hamsaganjana. The tinkling
sounds of these ornaments enchant the deer that are the minds of the deer-eyed gopis.
TEXT 128
Krsna's pearl necklace is named Taravali and His jewel necklace is named Taditprabha. The locket He wears on
His chest is named Hrdayamodana and within it is a picture of Srimati Radharani.
TEXT 129
Krsna's jewel is named Kaustubha. In the Kaliya lake the Kaliya serpent's wives gave this jewel to the Lord
with their own hands.
TEXT 130
Krsna's shark-shaped earrings are named Ratiragadhidaivata, His crown is named Ratnapara and its crest-jewel
is named Camaradamari.
TEXT 131

Krsna's peacock feather crown is named Navaratnavidamba, His gunja necklace is named Ragavalli and His
tilaka marking is named Drstimohana.
TEXT 132
Krsna's garland of forest flowers and leaves, which reaches down to His feet and contains flowers of five
different colors, is called Vaijayanti.
TEXT 133
The eighth night of the dark moon in the month of Bhadra, when the moon rose together with its dear
companion, the star Rohini, is the sacred time decorated by the birth of Lord Krsna in this world.
TEXT 134
Krsna's Dear Gopis
Now the very wonderful gopis, who are decorated with the good fortune of pure love of God to a greater degree
than even Laksmi-devi and the other goddesses of fortune, will be glorified.
TEXT 135
Srimati Radharani
Among all the beautiful gopis Srimati Radharani is the best. Radharani is the queen of Vrndavana. She has
many famous friends, headed by Lalita and Visakha.
TEXT 136 - 139
Srimati Radharani's rival is Candravali. Among Candravali's friends are Padma, Syama, Saibya, Bhadra,
Vicitra, Gopali, Palika, Candrasalika, Mangala, Vimala, Lila, Taralaksi, Manorama, Kandarpa-manjari,
Manjubhasini, Khanjaneksana, Kumuda, Kairavi, Sari, Saradaksi, Visarada, Sankari, Kunkuma, Krsna, Sarangi,
Indravali, Siva, Taravali, Gunavati, Sumukhi, Keli-manjari, Haravali, Cakoraksi, Bharati and Kamala.
TEXT 140
The beautiful gopis may be considered in hundreds of groups, each group containing hundreds of thousands of
gopis.
TEXT 141
Among all these gopis the most important are Srimati Radharani, Candravali, Bhadra, Syama and Palika. These
gopis are full of all transcendental good qualities.
TEXT 142
Of these gopis Srimati Radharani and Candravali are the best. Each of them has millions of doe-eyed gopi
followers.
TEXT 143
Because She possesses all charm and sweetness, Srimati Radharani is the better of the two. She is supremely
famous. In the Sruti-sastra She is known by the name Gandharva-devi.
TEXT 144
Sri Krsna, the cowherd prince whose charming sweetness has no equal or superior, is very dear to Srimati
Radharani. She considers Him millions and millions of times more dear than Her own life's breath.
TEXT 145
Now the beauty of Srimati Radharani's trancendental form will be described. Srimati Radharani is expert in all
the fine arts and Her transcendental form is like an ocean of nectar.
TEXT 146
Her splendid bodily luster is like the yellow pigment gorocana, molten gold, or stationary lightning.
TEXT 147

She wears wonderfully beautiful blue garments and She is decorated with various pearls and flowers.
TEXT 148
She is very beautiful and She has long nicely braided hair. She is decorated with a garland of flowers and a
beautiful pearl necklace.
TEXT 149
Her splendid forehead is decorated with the red pigment sindura and with beautiful locks of curling hair.
TEXT 150
Decorated with blue bangles, Her arms have defeated Cupid's staff with their beauty.
TEXT 151
Decorated with black mascara and reaching back almost to Her ears, Srimati Radharani's lotus eyes are the most
beautiful in all the three planetary systems.
TEXT 152
Her nose is as beautiful as a sesame flower and it is nicely decorated with a pearl. She is anointed with various
perfumes. She is splendidly beautiful.
TEXT 153
Her ears are decorated with wonderful earrings and Her nectarean lips defeat the red lotus flowers.
TEXT 154
Her teeth are like a row of pearls and Her tongue is very beautiful. Decorated with a nectarean smile of pure
love for Krsna, Her beautiful face is a splendid as millions of moons.
TEXT 155
The beauty of Her chin has defeated and bewildered the demigod Cupid. Decorated with a drop of musk, Her
chin appears like a golden lotus flower with a bumblebee.
TEXT 156
Bearing all the marks of wonderful beauty, Her neck is decorated with a string of pearls. Her neck, back and
sides are enchantingly beautiful.
TEXT 157
Her beautiful breasts are like two splendid waterpots covered with a bodice and decorated with a necklace of
pearls.
TEXT 158
Her beautiful enchanting arms are decorated with jeweled armlets.
TEXT 159
Her arms are also decorated with jeweled bracelets and other kinds of jeweled ornaments. Her hands are like
two red lotus flowers illuminated by the series of moons that are Her fingernails
TEXT 160
Auspicious Markings on Srimati Radharani's Hands
Srimati Radharani's hands are decorated with many auspicious markings such as the signs of the bumblebee,
lotus, crescent moon, earring, parasol, sacrificial post, conchshell, tree, flower, camara and svastika.
TEXT 161
These auspicious marks are manifest in various ways on Srimati Radharani's lotus hands. Her splendidly
beautiful fingers are also decorated with jeweled rings.
TEXT 162

Charming, full of sweet nectar and decorated with a deep navel, Srimati Radharani's beautiful waist enchants
the three worlds.
TEXT 163
Her sloping hips lead to Her charmingly beautiful slender waist, which is bound by a creeper of three beautiful
folds of skin and decorated with a sash of tinkling bells.
TEXT 164
As beautiful as two exquisite plantain trees, Her thighs enchant the mind of Cupid. Her beautiful knees are like
two reservoirs filled with the nectar of various transcendental pastimes.
TEXT 165
Her beautiful lotus feet are decorated with jeweled ankle-bells and Her toes with toe rings as beautiful as the
treasure of Varuna.
TEXT 166
The Auspicious Markings on Srimati Radharani's Lotus Feet
The auspicious markings on Srimati Radharani's lotus feet include the signs of the conchshell, moon, elephant,
barleycorn, rod for controlling elephants, chariot flag, small drum, svastika and fish.
TEXT 167
Srimati Radharani is fifteen years old and full of the luster of youth.
TEXT 168
Yasoda-devi, the queen of the cowherds, is more affectionate to Radharani than millions of mothers can be.
Radharani's father is King Vrsabhanu, who is as splendid as the sun.
TEXT 169
Srimati Radharani's mother is Kirtida-devi, who is also known in this world as Ratnagarbha-devi. Radharani's
paternal grandfather is Mahibhanu and Her maternal grandfather is Indu.
TEXT 170
Her maternal grandmother is Mukhara-devi and Her paternal grandmother is Sukhada-devi. Her father's
brothers (Her uncles) are Ratnabhanu, Subhanu and Bhanu.
TEXT 171
Bhadrakirti, Mahakirti and Kirticandra are Radharani's materal uncles. Menaka-devi, Sasthi-devi, Gauri-devi,
Dhatri-devi and Dhataki-devi are Radharani's materal aunts.
TEXT 172
Radharani's mother's sister is Kirtimati-devi, whose husband is Kasa. Radharani's father's sister is Bhanumudradevi, whose husband is Kusa.
TEXT 173
Radharani's elder brother is Sridama and Her younger sister is Ananga-manjari. Radharani's father-in-law is
Vrkagopa and Her brother-in-law is Durmada.
TEXT 174
Jatila-devi is Radharani's mother-in-law and Abhimanyu is Radharani's so-called husband. Kutila-devi, who is
always eager to find fault, is Radharani's sister-in-law.
TEXT 175
Lalita, Visakha, Sucitra, Campakalata, Ranga-devi, Sudevi, Tungavidya and Indulekha are the eight dearest
friends of Srimati Radharani. These gopis are considered the leaders of all the others.
TEXT 176

Kurangaksi, Mandali, Mankiundala, Matali, Candralalita, Madhavi, Madanalasa, Manjumedha, Sasikala,


Sumadhya, Madhureksana, Kamala, Kamalatika, Gunacuda, Varangada, Madhuri, Candrika, Prema-manjari,
Tanumadhyama, Kandarpa-sundari and Manjukesi are among the millions of dear friends (priya-sakhi) of
Srimati Radharani.
TEXT 177
Lasika, Kelikandali, Kadambari, Sasimukhi, Candrarekha, Priyamvada, Madonmada, Madhumati, Vasanti,
Kalabhasini, Ratnavali, Manimati and Karpuralatika are among those friends (jivita-sakhi) for whom Srimati
Radharani is as dear as life.
TEXT 178
Kasturi, Manojna, Manimanjari, Sindura, Candanavati, Kaumudi and Madira are among Sriamti Radharani's
eternal friends (nitya-sakhi).
TEXT 179- 181
Srimati Radharani's Manjari Friends.
Ananga-manjari, Rupa-manjari, Rati-manjari, Lavanga-manjari, Raga-manjari, Rasa-manjari, Vilasa-manjari,
Prema-manjari, Mani-manjari, Suvarna-manjari, Kama-manjari, Ratna-manjari, Kasturi-manjari, Gandhamanjari, Netra-manjari, Sripadma-manjari, Lila-manjari and Hema-manjari are among Srimati Radharani's
manjari friends. Prema-manjari and Rati-manjari are both also known by the name Bhanumati-devi.
TEXT 182
The Objects of Srimati Radharani's Worship
Srimati Radharani's worshipable deity is the sun-god, who enlivens the lotus flowers and acts as an eye for the
entire world. Srimati Radharani's maha-mantra is the name of Lord Krsna. Srimati Radharani's benefactor, who
brings Her all good fortune, is Bhagavati Paurnamasi.
TEXT 183
Specific Description of Various Gopis
Lalita-devi and the other eight principal gopis, the other gopis and the manjari have forms that are for the most
part like the transcendental form of Srimati Radharani, the queen of Vrndavana.
TEXT 184
Vrnda-devi, Kundalat-devi and their followaers assist the divine couple in Their pastimes in the various forests
of Vrndavana. Dhanistha-devi, Gunamala-devi and their followers remain in the home of Nanda Maharaja,the
cowherd king and assist the Lord's pastimes from there.
TEXT 185
Kamada-devi is the daughter of Srimati Radharani's nurse. Kamada is an especially close friend of Radharani.
Ragalekha-devi, Kalakeli-devi and Manjula-devi are some of Radharani's maidservants.
TEXT 186
Nandimukhi-devi and Bindumati-devi are the leaders of those gopis who arrange the rendezvous of Radha and
Krsna. Syamala-devi and Mangala-devi are the leaders of those gopis who act as well-wishers of Srimati
Radharani.
TEXT 187
Candravali-devi is the leader of those gopis who are Srimati Radharani's rivals.
TEXT 188
The talented musicians Rasollasa-devi, Gunatunga-devi,Kalakanthi-devi, Sukhanti-devi, and Pikakanti-devi
delight Lord Hari by singing Visakha's musical compositions.
TEXT 189

Maniki-devi, Narmada-devi, and Kusumapesala-devi serve the divine couple by playing drums, cymbals, string
instruments like the vina, and wind instruments like the flute.
TEXT 190
In this way we have described some of the sakhis (gopi friends), nitya-sakhis (eternal gopi friends), pranasakhis (gopi friends who are as dear as life), priya-sakhis (dear gopi friends) and parama-prestha-sakhis (dearest
gopi friends)
TEXT 191
Srimati Radharani's Maidservants
Ragalekha-devi, Kalakeli-devi and Bhurida-devi are the leaders fo those gopis who are Srimati Radharani's
maidservants. Among these maidservants are Sugandha-devi and Nalini-devi (the two daughters of Divakirtidevi) and Manjistha-devi and Rangaraga-devi (the two daughters of Nanda Maharaja's laundry washers).
TEXT 192
Palindri-devi serves Srimati Radharani by dressing and decorating Her. Citrini decorates Radharani with various
cosmetics. Mantriki-devi and Tantriki-devi are astrologers who reveal the future to Srimati Radharani.
TEXT 193
Katyayani-devi is the leader of those gopi messengers who are older than Srimati Radharani. Bhagyavati-devi
and Punyapunja-devi, the two daughters of Maharaja Nanda's sweeper, are also the maidservants of Srimati
Radharani.
TEXT 194
Tunga-devi, Malli-devi and Matalli-devi are the leaders of those girls descended from the uncivilized mountain
tribe known as the Pulindas. In Vrndavana some of the Pulinda girls act as the friends of Srimati Radharani and
some are the friends of Sri Krsna.
TEXT 195
Also included among Srimati Radharani's servants are Gargi-devi and other very respectable brahmana girls,
Bhrngarika-devi and other girls from the ceti community, Vijaya-devi, Rasala-devi, Payoda-devi and other girls
from the vita community, as well as the boys Subala, Ujjvala, Gandharva, Madhumangala and Raktaka.
TEXT 196
Tunga-devi, Pisangi-devi and Kalakandala-devi always remain near Srimati Radharani to serve Her. Manjualdevi, Bindula-devi, Sandha-devi, Mrdula-devi and others, although very young still engage in Radharani's
service.
TEXT 197
Sunada, Yamuna and Bahula are the most important of Srimati Radharani's pet surabhi cows. Tungi is Her
chubby pet calf, Kakkhati is Her old pet monkey, Rangini is Her pet doe and Carucnadrika is Her pet cakori
bird.
TEXT 198
Tundikeri is the name of Radharani's pet swan, who is fond of swimming in Radha-kunda. Madhuri is
Radharani's pet elephant and Suksmadhi and Subha are Her two pet parrots.
TEXT 199
The two parrots perfectly imitate Lalita-devi's playful jokes spoken to her master and mistress (Sri Sri RadhaKrsna). By this wonderful repetition the parrots astonish the gopis.
TEXT 200
Srimati Radharani's Ornaments

Srimati Radharani's tilaka marking is named Smarayantra. Her jeweled necklace is named Harimohana, Her
jeweled earrings are named Rocana and the pearl decorating Her nose is named Prabhakari.
TEXT 201
Her locket which contains a picture of Lord Krsna, is named Madana. Her Syamantaka jewel is also known as
Sankhacuda-siromani 9Sankhacuda's crest-jewel).
TEXT 202
The auspicious jewel She wears around Her neck is called Puspavan because it eclipses the simultaneous rising
of the sun and moon (puspavan0 with its splendor. Her anklets are called Catakarava because their tinkling
sounds resemble the warbling of cataka birds. Her bracelets are called Manikarvura.
TEXT 203
Srimati Radharani's signet ring is named Vipaksamardini. Her sash is named Kancanacitrangi and Her anklebells, which stun Lord Krsna with their tinkling sounds, are named Ratnagopura.
TEXT 204
Srimati Radharani's garments are named Meghambara. Her upper garment is red like a ruby and it is the favorite
of Lord Hari. Radharani's lower garment is the color of a blue cloud and it is Her own favorite.
TEXT 205
Srimati Radhrani's jeweled mirror is named Sudhamsudarpaharana, which means "that which removes (harana)
the moon's (sudhamsu) pride (darpa)."
TEXT 206
Her golden stick for applying mascara is named Narmada, Her jeweled comb is named Svastida and Her private
flower garden is named Kandarpakuhali.
TEXT 207
In Radharani's garden is a vine of golden jasmine flowers that She has named Tadidvalli ("the vine of
lightning"). Her private lake bears Her own name (Radha-kunda) and on the shore of that lake is a kadamba tree
that is the site of very confidential talks between Her and Lord Krsna.
TEXT 208
Her favorite ragas are mallara and dhanasri and Her favorite dances are chalikya and rudravallaki.
TEXT 209
Srimati Radharani's glorious birth occured on the eighth day of the bright moon in the month of Bhadra.
Although generally not full on that day, the moon appeared full to celebrate Radharani's appearance in this
world.
TEXT 210
In this way we have revealed a little about the countless associates of Sri Sri Radha and Krsna, the two
monarchs of Sri Vrndavana.

Advent of Lord Krishna


Chapter One: Advent of Lord Krsna
from the book Krsna, The Supreme Personality of Godhead by His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami
Prabhupada
Once the world was overburdened by the unnecessary defense force of different kings, who were actually
demons, but were posing themselves as the royal order. At that time, the whole world became perturbed, and the
predominating deity of this earth, known as Bhumi, went to see Lord Brahma to tell of her calamities due to the
demoniac kings. Bhumi assumed the shape of a cow and presented herself before Lord Brahma with tears in her
eyes. She was bereaved and was weeping just to invoke the lord's compassion. She related the calamitous
position of the earth, and after hearing this, Lord Brahma became much aggrieved, and he at once started for the
ocean of milk, where Lord Visnu resides. Lord Brahma was accompanied by all the demigods headed by Lord
Siva, and Bhumi also followed. Arriving on the shore of the milk ocean, Lord Brahma began to pacify the Lord
Visnu who formerly saved the earthly planet by assuming the transcendental form of a boar.
In the Vedic mantras, there is a particular type of prayer called Purusa-sukta. Generally, the demigods offer
their obeisances unto Visnu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, by chanting the Purusa-sukta. It is
understood herein that the predominating deity of every planet can see the supreme lord of this universe,
Brahma, whenever there is some disturbance in his planet. And Brahma can approach the Supreme Lord Visnu,
not by seeing Him directly, but by standing on the shore of the ocean of milk. There is a planet within this
universe called Svetadvipa, and on that planet there is an ocean of milk. It is understood from various Vedic
literatures that just as there is the ocean of salt water within this planet, there are various kinds of oceans in
other planets. Somewhere there is an ocean of milk, somewhere there is an ocean of oil, and somewhere there is
an ocean of liquor and many other types of oceans. Purusa-sukta is the standard prayer which the demigods
recite to appease the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Ksirodakasayi-Visnu. Because He is lying on the ocean
of milk, He is called Ksirodakasayi-Visnu. He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, through whom all the
incarnations within this universe appear.
After all the demigods offered the Purusa-sukta prayer to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, they apparently
heard no response. Then Lord Brahma personally sat in meditation, and there was a message-transmission from
Lord Visnu to Brahma. Brahma then broadcast the message to the demigods. That is the system of receiving
Vedic knowledge. The Vedic knowledge is received first by Brahma from the Supreme Personality of Godhead,
through the medium of the heart. As stated in the beginning of Srimad-Bhagavatam, tene brahma hrda: the
transcendental knowledge of the Vedas was transmitted to Lord Brahma through the heart. Here also, in the
same way, only Brahma could understand the message transmitted by Lord Visnu, and he broadcast it to the
demigods for their immediate action. The message was: The Supreme Personality of Godhead will appear on
the earth very soon along with His supreme powerful potencies, and as long as He remains on the earth planet to
execute His mission of annihilating the demons and establishing the devotees, the demigods should also remain
there to assist Him. They should all immediately take birth in the family of the Yadu dynasty, wherein the Lord
will also appear in due course of time.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself, Krsna, personally appeared as the son of Vasudeva. Before He
appeared, all the demigods, along with their wives, appeared in different pious families in the world just to
assist the Lord in executing His mission. The exact word used here is tatpriyartham, which means the demigods
should appear on the earth in order to please the Lord. In other words, any living entity who lives only to satisfy
the Lord is a demigod. The demigods were further informed that the plenary portion of Lord Krsna, Ananta,
who is maintaining the universal planets by extending His millions of hoods, would also appear on earth before
Lord Krsna's appearance. They were also informed that the external potency of Visnu (maya), with whom all
the conditioned souls are enamored, would also appear just to execute the purpose of the Supreme Lord.
After instructing and pacifying all the demigods, as well as Bhumi, with sweet words, Lord Brahma, the father
of all prajapatis, or progenitors of universal population, departed for his own abode, the highest material planet,
called Brahmaloka.

The leader of the Yadu dynasty, King Surasena, was ruling over the country known as Mathura (the district of
Mathura), as well as the district known as Surasena. On account of the rule of King Surasena, Mathura became
the capital city of all the kings of the Yadus. Mathura was also made the capital of the kings of the Yadu
dynasty because the Yadus were a very pious family and knew that Mathura is the place where Lord Sri Krsna
lives eternally, just as He also lives in Dvaraka.
Once upon a time, Vasudeva, the son of Surasena, just after marrying Devaki, was going home on his chariot
with his newly wedded wife. The father of Devaki, known as Devaka, had contributed a sufficient dowry
because he was very affectionate toward his daughter. He had contributed hundreds of chariots completely
decorated with gold equipment. At that time, Kamsa, the son of Ugrasena, in order to please his sister, Devaki,
had voluntarily taken the reins of the horses of Vasudeva's chariot and was driving. According to the custom of
the Vedic civilization, when a girl is married, the brother takes the sister and brother-in-law to their home.
Because the newly married girl may feel too much separation from her father's family, the brother goes with her
until she reaches her father-in-law's house. The full dowry contributed by Devaka was as follows: 400 elephants
fully decorated with golden garlands, 15,000 decorated horses, and 1800 chariots. He also arranged for 200
beautiful girls to follow his daughter. The ksatriya system of marriage, still current in India, dictates that when a
ksatriya is married, a few dozen of the bride's young girlfriends (in addition to the bride) go to the house of the
king. The followers of the queen are called maidservants, but actually they act as friends of the queen. This
practice is prevalent from time immemorial, traceable at least to the time before the advent of Lord Krsna 5,000
years ago. So Vasudeva brought home another 200 beautiful girls along with his wife.
While the bride and bridegroom were passing along on the chariot, there were different kinds of musical
instruments playing to indicate the auspicious moment. There were conchshells, bugles, drums and kettledrums;
combined together, they were vibrating a nice concert. The procession was passing very pleasingly, and Kamsa
was driving the chariot, when suddenly there was a miraculous sound vibrated from the sky which especially
announced to Kamsa: "Kamsa: you are such a fool. You are driving the chariot of your sister and your brotherin-law, but you do not know that the eighth child of this sister will kill you."
Kamsa was the son of Ugrasena, of the Bhoja dynasty. It is said that Kamsa was the most demoniac of all the
Bhoja dynasty kings. Immediately after hearing the prophecy from the sky, he caught hold of Devaki's hair and
was just about to kill her with his sword. Vasudeva was astonished at Kamsa's behavior, and in order to pacify
the cruel, shameless brother-in-law, he began to speak as follows, with great reason and evidence. He said, "My
dear brother-in-law Kamsa, you are the most famous king of the Bhoja dynasty, and people know that you are
the greatest warrior and a valiant king. How is it that you are so infuriated that you are prepared to kill a woman
who is your own sister at this auspicious time of her marriage? Why should you be so much afraid of death?
Death is already born along with your birth. From the very day you took your birth, you began to die. Suppose
you are twenty-five years old; that means you have already died twenty-five years. Every moment, every
second, you are dying. Why then should you be so much afraid of death? Final death is inevitable. You may die
either today or in a hundred years; you cannot avoid death. Why should you be so much afraid? Actually, death
means annihilation of the present body. As soon as the present body stops functioning and mixes with the five
elements of material nature, the living entity within the body accepts another body, according to his present
action and reaction. It is just as when a man walks on the street; he puts forward his foot, and when he is
confident that his foot is situated on sound ground, he lifts the other foot. In this way, one after another, the
body changes and the soul transmigrates. See how the plantworms change from one twig to another so
carefully! Similarly, the living entity changes his body as soon as the higher authorities decide on his next body.
As long as a living entity is conditioned within this material world, he must take material bodies one after
another. His next particular body is offered by the laws of nature, according to the actions and reactions of this
life.
"This body is exactly like one of the bodies which we always see in dreams. During our dream of sleep, we
create so many bodies according to mental creation. We have seen gold and we have also seen a mountain, so in
a dream we can see a golden mountain by combining the two ideas. Sometimes in dreams, we see that we have
a body which is flying in the sky, and at that time we completely forget our present body. Similarly, these
bodies are changing. When you have one body, you forget the past body. During a dream, we may make contact

with so many new kinds of bodies, but when we are awake we forget them all. And actually these material
bodies are the creations of our mental activities. But at the present moment we do not recollect our past bodies.
"The nature of the mind is flickering. Sometimes it accepts something, and immediately it rejects the same
thing. Accepting and rejecting is the process of the mind in contact with the five objects of sense gratification:
form, taste, smell, sound, and touch. In its speculative way, the mind comes in touch with the objects of sense
gratification, and when the living entity desires a particular type of body, he gets it. Therefore, the body is an
offering by the laws of material nature. The living entity accepts a body and comes out again into the material
world to enjoy or suffer according to the construction of the body. Unless we have a particular type of body, we
cannot enjoy or suffer according to our mental proclivities inherited from the previous life. The particular type
of body is actually offered to us according to our mental condition at the time of death.
"The luminous planets like the sun, moon or the stars reflect themselves in different types of reservoirs, like
water, oil or ghee. The reflection moves according to the movement of the reservoir. The reflection of the moon
is on the water, and the moving water makes the moon also appear to be moving, but actually the moon is not
moving. Similarly, by mental concoction, the living entity attains different kinds of bodies, although actually he
has no connection with such bodies. But on account of illusion, being enchanted by the influence of maya, the
living entity thinks that he belongs to a particular type of body. That is the way of conditioned life. Suppose a
living entity is now in a human form of body. He thinks that he belongs to the human community, or a
particular country or particular place. He identifies himself in that way and unnecessarily prepares for another
body which is not required by him. Such desires and mental concoctions are the cause of different types of
body. The covering influence of material nature is so strong that the living entity is satisfied in whatever body
he gets, and he identifies with that body with great pleasure. Therefore, I beg to request you not to be
overwhelmed by the dictation of your mind and body."
Vasudeva thus requested Kamsa not to be envious of his newly married sister. One should not be envious of
anyone, because envy is the cause of fear both in this world and in the next when one is before Yamaraja (the
lord of punishment after death). Vasudeva appealed to Kamsa on behalf of Devaki, stating that she was his
younger sister. He also appealed at an auspicious moment, at the time of marriage. A younger sister or brother is
supposed to be protected as one's children. "The position is overall so delicate," Vasudeva reasoned, "that if you
kill her, it will go against your high reputation."
Vasudeva tried to pacify Kamsa by good instruction as well as by philosophical discrimination, but Kamsa was
not to be pacified because his association was demoniac. Because of his demoniac associations, he was always a
demon, although born in a very high royal family. A demon never cares for any good instruction. He is just like
a determined thief; one can give him moral instruction, but it will not be effective. Similarly, those who are
demoniac or atheistic by nature can hardly assimilate any good instruction, however authorized it may be. That
is the difference between demigod and demon. Those who can accept good instruction and try to live their lives
in that way are called demigods, and those who are unable to take such good instruction are called demons.
Failing in his attempt to pacify Kamsa, Vasudeva wondered how he would protect his wife Devaki. When there
is imminent danger, an intelligent person should try to avoid the dangerous position as far as possible. But if, in
spite of endeavoring by all intelligence, one fails to avoid the dangerous position, there is no fault on his part.
One should try his best to execute his duties, but if the attempt fails, he is not at fault.
Vasudeva thought of his wife as follows: "For the present let me save the life of Devaki, then later on, if there
are children, I shall see how to save them." He further thought, "If in the future I get a child who can kill
Kamsa--just as Kamsa is thinking--then both Devaki and the child will be saved because the law of Providence
is inconceivable. But now, some way or other, let me save the life of Devaki."
There is no certainty how a living entity contacts a certain type of body, just as there is no certainty how the
blazing fire comes in contact with a certain type of wood in the forest. When there is a forest fire, it is
experienced that the blazing fire sometimes leaps over one tree and catches another by the influence of the
wind. Similarly, a living entity may be very careful and fearful in the matter of executing his duties, but it is still
very difficult for him to know what type of body he is going to get in the next life. Maharaja Bharata was very
faithfully executing the duties of self-realization, but by chance he contacted temporary affection for a deer, and
he had to accept his next life in the body of a deer.

Vasudeva, after deliberating on how to save his wife, began to speak to Kamsa with great respect, although
Kamsa was the most sinful man. Sometimes it happens that a most virtuous person like Vasudeva has to flatter a
person like Kamsa, a most vicious person. That is the way of all diplomatic transactions. Although Vasudeva
was deeply aggrieved, he presented himself outwardly as cheerful. He addressed the shameless Kamsa in that
way because he was so atrocious. Vasudeva said to Kamsa, "My dear brother-in-law, please consider that you
have no danger from your sister. You are awaiting some danger because you have heard a prophetic voice in the
sky. But the danger is to come from the sons of your sister, who are not present now. And who knows? There
may or may not be sons in the future. Considering all this, you are safe for the present. Nor is there cause of fear
from your sister. If there are any sons born of her, I promise that I shall present all of them to you for necessary
action."
Kamsa knew the value of Vasudeva's word of honor, and he was convinced by his argument. For the time
being, he desisted from the heinous killing of his sister. Thus Vasudeva was pleased and praised the decision of
Kamsa. In this way, he returned to his home.
After due course of time, Vasudeva and Devaki gave birth to eight male children, as well as one daughter.
When the first son was born, Vasudeva kept his word of honor and immediately brought the child before
Kamsa. It is said that Vasudeva was very much elevated and famous for his word of honor, and he wanted to
maintain this fame. Although it was very painful for Vasudeva to hand over the newly born child, Kamsa was
very glad to receive him. But he became a little compassionate with the behavior of Vasudeva. This event is
very exemplary. For a great soul like Vasudeva, there is nothing considered to be painful in the course of
discharging one's duty. A learned person like Vasudeva carries out his duties without hesitation. On the other
hand, a demon like Kamsa never hesitates in committing any abominable action. It is said, therefore, that a
saintly person can tolerate all kinds of miserable conditions of life, a learned man can discharge his duties
without awaiting favorable circumstances, a heinous person like Kamsa can act in any sinful way, and a devotee
can sacrifice everything to satisfy the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Kamsa became satisfied by the action of Vasudeva. He was surprised to see Vasudeva keeping his promise, and
being compassionate upon him and pleased, he began to speak as follows: "My dear Vasudeva, you need not
present this child to me. I am not in danger from this child. I have heard that the eighth child born of you and
Devaki will kill me. Why should I accept this child unnecessarily? You can take him back."
When Vasudeva was returning home with his first-born child, although he was pleased by the behavior of
Kamsa, he could not believe in him because he knew that Kamsa was uncontrolled. An atheistic person cannot
be firm in his word of honor. One who cannot control the senses cannot be steady in his determination. The
great politician, Canakya Pandita, said, "Never put your trust in a diplomat or in a woman." Those who are
addicted to unrestricted sense gratification can never be truthful, nor can they be trusted with any faith.
At that time the great sage Narada came to Kamsa. He was informed of Kamsa's becoming compassionate to
Vasudeva and returning his first-born child. Narada was very anxious to accelerate the descent of Lord Krsna as
soon as possible. He therefore informed Kamsa that personalities like Nanda Maharaja and all the cowherd men
and girls and the wives of the cowherd men in Vrndavana, and, on the other side, Vasudeva, his father Surasena
and all his relatives born in the family of Vrsni of the Yadu dynasty, were preparing for the appearance of the
Lord. Narada warned Kamsa to be careful of the friends and well-wishers and all the demigods taking birth in
those families. Kamsa and his friends and advisors were all demons. Demons are always afraid of demigods.
After being thus informed by Narada about the appearance of the demigods in different families Kamsa at once
became alert. He understood that since the demigods had already appeared, Lord Visnu must be coming soon.
He at once arrested both his brother-in-law Vasudeva and Devaki and put them behind prison bars.
Within the prison, shackled in iron chains, Vasudeva and Devaki gave birth to a male child year after year, and
Kamsa, thinking each of the babies to be the incarnation of Visnu, killed them one after another. He was
particularly afraid of the eighth child, but after the visit of Narada, he came to the conclusion that any child
might be Krsna. Therefore it was better to kill all the babies who took birth of Devaki and Vasudeva.
This action of Kamsa is not very difficult to understand. There are many instances in the history of the world of
persons in the royal order who have killed father, brother, or a whole family and friends for the satisfaction of

their ambitions. There is nothing astonishing about this, for the demoniac can kill anyone for their nefarious
ambitions.
Kamsa was made aware of his previous birth by the grace of Narada. He learned that in his previous birth he
was a demon of the name Kalanemi and that he was killed by Visnu. Having taken his birth in the Bhoja family,
he decided to become the deadly enemy of the Yadu dynasty; Krsna was going to take birth in that family, and
Kamsa was very much afraid that he would be killed by Krsna, just as he was killed in his last birth.
He first of all imprisoned his father Ugrasena because he was the chief king among the Yadu, Bhoja, and
Andhaka dynasties, and he also occupied the kingdom of Surasena, Vasudeva's father. He declared himself the
king of all such places.
Thus ends the Bhaktivedanta purport of the First Chapter of Krsna, "Advent of Lord Krsna."

Prayers by the Demigods for Lord Krsna in the Womb


Chapter 2: Prayers by the Demigods for Lord Krsna in the Womb
from the book Krsna, The Supreme Personality of Godhead by His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami
Prabhupada
King Kamsa not only occupied the kingdoms of the Yadu, Bhoja, and Andhaka dynasties and the kingdom of
Surasena, but he also made alliances with all the other demoniac kings, as follows: the demon Pralamba, demon
Baka, demon Canura, demon Trnavarta, demon Aghasura, demon Mustika, demon Arista, demon Dvivida,
demon Putana, demon Kesi and demon Dhenuka. At that time, Jarasandha was the king of Magadha province
(known at present as Bihar state). Thus by his diplomatic policy, Kamsa consolidated the most powerful
kingdom of his time, under the protection of Jarasandha. He made further alliances with such kings as Banasura
and Bhaumasura, until he was the strongest. Then he began to behave most inimically towards the Yadu
dynasty into which Krsna was to take His birth.
Being harassed by Kamsa, the kings of the Yadu, Bhoja and Andhaka dynasties began to take shelter in
different states such as the state of the Kurus, the state of the Pancalas and the states known as Kekaya, Salva,
Vidarbha, Nisadha, Videha and Kosala. Kamsa broke the solidarity of the Yadu kingdom, as well as the Bhoja
and Andhaka. He made his position the most solid within the vast tract of land known at that time as
Bharatavarsa.
When Kamsa killed the six babies of Devaki and Vasudeva one after another, many friends and relatives of
Kamsa approached him and requested him to discontinue these heinous activities. But all of them became
worshipers of Kamsa.
When Devaki became pregnant for the seventh time, a plenary expansion of Krsna known as Ananta appeared
within her womb. Devaki was overwhelmed both with jubilation and lamentation. She was joyful, for she could
understand that Lord Visnu had taken shelter within her womb, but at the same time she was sorry that as soon
as her child would come out, Kamsa would kill Him. At that time, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna,
being compassionate upon the fearful condition of the Yadus, due to atrocities committed by Kamsa, ordered
the appearance of His Yogamaya, or His internal potency. Krsna is the Lord of the universe, but He is especially
the Lord of the Yadu dynasty.
The Yogamaya is the principal potency of the Personality of Godhead. In the Vedas it is stated that the Lord, the
Supreme Personality of Godhead, has multipotencies. Parasya saktir vividhaiva sruyate. All the different
potencies are acting externally and internally, and Yogamaya is the chief of all potencies. He ordered the
appearance of Yogamaya in the land of Vrajabhumi, in Vrndavana, which is always decorated and full with
beautiful cows. In Vrndavana, Rohini, one of the wives of Vasudeva, was residing at the house of King Nanda
and Queen Yasoda. Not only Rohini, but many others in the Yadu dynasty were scattered all over the country
due to their fear of the atrocities of Kamsa. Some of them were even living in the caves of the mountains.
The Lord thus informed Yogamaya: "Under the imprisonment of Kamsa are Devaki and Vasudeva, and at the
present moment, My plenary expansion, Sesa, is within the womb of Devaki. You can arrange the transfer of

Sesa from the womb of Devaki to the womb of Rohini. After this arrangement, I am personally going to appear
in the womb of Devaki with My full potencies. Then I shall appear as the son of Devaki and Vasudeva. And
you shall appear as the daughter of Nanda and Yasoda in Vrndavana.
"Since you will appear as My contemporary sister, people within the world will worship you with all kinds of
valuable presentations: incense, candles, flowers and offerings of sacrifice. You shall quickly satisfy their
desires for sense gratificiation. People who are after materialistic affection will worship you under the different
forms of your expansions, which will be named Durga, Bhadrakali, Vijaya, Vaisnavi, Kumuda, Candika, Krsna,
Madhavi, Kanyaka, Maya, Narayani, Isani, Sarada and Ambika."
Krsna and Yogamaya appeared as brother and sister--the Supreme Powerful and the supreme power. Although
there is no clear distinction between the Powerful and the power, power is always subordinate to the Powerful.
Those who are materialistic are worshipers of the power, but those who are transcendentalists are worshipers of
the Powerful. Krsna is the Supreme Powerful, and Durga is the supreme power within the material world.
Actually people in the Vedic culture worship both the Powerful and the power. There are many hundreds of
thousands of temples of Visnu and Devi, and sometimes they are worshiped simultaneously. The worshiper of
the power, Durga, or the external energy of Krsna, may achieve all kinds of material success very easily, but
anyone who wants to be elevated transcendentally must engage in worshiping the Powerful in Krsna
consciousness.
The Lord also declared to Yogamaya that His plenary expansion, Ananta Sesa, was within the womb of Devaki.
On account of being forcibly attracted to the womb of Rohini, He will be known as Sankarsana and would be
the source of all spiritual power or bala, by which one could be able to attain the highest bliss of life which is
called ramana. Therefore the plenary portion Ananta would be known after His appearance either as Sankarsana
or Balarama.
In the Upanisads it is stated, Nayam atma bala-hinena labhyah. The purport is that one cannot attain the
supreme or any form of self-realization without being sufficiently favored by Balarama. Bala does not mean
physical strength. No one can attain spiritual perfection by physical strength. One must have the spiritual
strength which is infused by Balarama or Sankarsana. Ananta or Sesa is the power which sustains all the planets
in their different positions. Materially this sustaining power is known as the law of gravitation, but actually it is
the display of the potency of Sankarsana. Balarama or Sankarsana is spiritual power, or the original spiritual
master. Therefore Lord Nityananda Prabhu, who is also the incarnation of Balarama, is the original spiritual
master. And the spiritual master is the representative of Balarama, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who
supplies spiritual strength. In the Caitanya-caritamrta it is confirmed that the spiritual master is the
manifestation of the mercy of Krsna.
When Yogamaya was thus ordered by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, she circumambulated the Lord and
then appeared within this material world according to His order. When the Supreme Powerful Personality of
Godhead transferred Lord Sesa from the womb of Devaki to the womb of Rohini, both of them were under the
spell of Yogamaya, which is also called yoga-nidra. When this was done, people understood that Devaki's
seventh pregnancy was a miscarriage. Thus although Balarama appeared as the son of Devaki, He was
transferred to the womb of Rohini to appear as her son. After this arrangement, the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, Krsna, who is always ready to place His full potencies in His unalloyed devotees, entered as the Lord
of the whole creation within the mind of Vasudeva. It is understood in this connection that Lord Krsna first of
all situated Himself in the unalloyed heart of Devaki. He was not put into the womb of Devaki by seminal
discharge. The Supreme Personality of Godhead, by His inconceivable potency, can appear in any way. It is not
necessary for Him to appear in the ordinary way by seminal injection within the womb of a woman.
When Vasudeva was sustaining the form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead within his heart, he appeared
just like the glowing sun whose shining rays are always unbearable and scorching to the common man. The
form of the Lord situated in the pure unalloyed heart of Vasudeva is not different from the original form of
Krsna. The appearance of the form of Krsna anywhere, and specifically within the heart, is called dhama.
Dhama does not only refer to Krsna's form, but His name, His form, His quality and His paraphernalia.
Everything becomes manifest simultaneously.

Thus the eternal form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead with full potencies was transferred from the mind
of Vasudeva to the mind of Devaki, exactly as the setting sun's rays are transferred to the full moon rising in the
east.
Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, entered the body of Devaki from the body of Vasudeva. He was
beyond the conditions of the ordinary living entity. When Krsna is there, it is to be understood that all His
plenary expansions, such as Narayana, and incarnations like Lord Nrsimha, Varaha, etc., are with Him, and
They are not subject to the conditions of material existence. In this way, Devaki became the residence of the
Supreme Personality of Godhead who is one without a second and the cause of all creation. Devaki became the
residence of the Absolute Truth, but because she was within the house of Kamsa, she looked just like a
suppressed fire, or like misused education. When fire is covered by the walls of a pot or is kept in a jug, the
illuminating rays of the fire cannot be very much appreciated. Similarly, misused knowledge, which does not
benefit the people in general, is not very much appreciated. So Devaki was kept within the prison walls of
Kamsa's palace, and no one could see her transcendental beauty which resulted from her conceiving the
Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Kamsa, however, saw the transcendental beauty of his sister Devaki, and he at once concluded that the Supreme
Personality of Godhead had taken shelter in her womb. She had never before looked so wonderfully beautiful.
He could distinctly understand that there was something wonderful within the womb of Devaki. In this way,
Kamsa became perturbed. He was sure that the Supreme Personality of Godhead would kill him in the future
and that He had now come. Kamsa began to think: "What is to be done with Devaki? Surely she has Visnu or
Krsna within her womb, so it is certain that Krsna has come to execute the mission of the demigods. And even
if I immediately kill Devaki, His mission cannot be frustrated." Kamsa knew very well that no one can frustrate
the purpose of Visnu. Any intelligent man can understand that the laws of God cannot be violated. His purpose
will be served in spite of all impediments offered by the demons. Kamsa thought: "If I kill Devaki at the present
moment, Visnu will enforce His supreme will more vehemently. To kill Devaki just now would be a most
abominable act. No one desires to kill his reputation, even in an awkward situation; if I kill Devaki now, my
reputation will be spoiled. Devaki is a woman, and she is under my shelter; she is pregnant, and if I kill her,
immediately all my reputation, the result of pious activities and duration of life, will be finished."
He also further deliberated: "A person who is too cruel, even in this lifetime is as good as dead. No one likes a
cruel person during his lifetime, and after his death, people curse him. On account of his self-identification with
the body, he must be degraded and pushed into the darkest region of hell." Kamsa thus meditated on all the pros
and cons of killing Devaki at that time.
Kamsa finally decided not to kill Devaki right away but to wait for the inevitable future. But his mind became
absorbed in animosity against the Personality of Godhead. He patiently waited for the deliverance of the child,
expecting to kill Him, as he had done previously with the other babies of Devaki. Thus being merged in the
ocean of animosity against the Personality of Godhead, he began to think of Krsna and Visnu while sitting,
while sleeping, while walking, while eating, while working--in all the situations of his life. His mind became so
much absorbed with the thought of the Supreme Personality of Godhead that indirectly he could see only Krsna
or Visnu around him. Unfortunately, although his mind was so absorbed in the thought of Visnu, he is not
recognized as a devotee because he was thinking of Krsna as an enemy. The state of mind of a great devotee is
also to be always absorbed in Krsna, but a devotee thinks of Him favorably, not unfavorably. To think of Krsna
favorably is Krsna consciousness, but to think of Krsna unfavorably is not Krsna consciousness.
At this time Lord Brahma and Lord Siva, accompanied by great sages like Narada and followed by many other
demigods, invisibly appeared in the house of Kamsa. They began to pray for the Supreme Personality of
Godhead in select prayers which are very pleasing to the devotees and which award fulfillment of their desires.
The first words they spoke acclaimed that the Lord is true to His vow. As stated in the Bhagavad-gita, Krsna
descends in this material world just to protect the pious and destroy the impious. That is His vow. The demigods
could understand that the Lord had taken His residence within the womb of Devaki in order to fulfill this vow.
The demigods were very glad that the Lord was appearing to fulfill His mission, and they addressed Him as
satyam param, or the Supreme Absolute Truth.

Everyone is searching after the truth. That is the philosophical way of life. The demigods give information that
the Supreme Absolute Truth is Krsna. One who becomes fully Krsna conscious can attain the Absolute Truth.
Krsna is the Absolute Truth. Relative truth is not truth in all the three phases of eternal time. Time is divided
into past, present and future. Krsna is Truth always, past, present and future. In the material world everything is
being controlled by supreme time, in the course of past, present and future. But before the creation, Krsna was
existing, and when there is creation, everything is resting in Krsna, and when this creation is finished, Krsna
will remain. Therefore, He is Absolute Truth in all circumstances. If there is any truth within this material
world, it emanates from the Supreme Truth, Krsna. If there is any opulence within this material world, the cause
of the opulence is Krsna. If there is any reputation within this material world, the cause of the reputation is
Krsna. If there is any strength within this material world, the cause of such strength is Krsna. If there is any
wisdom and education within this material world, the cause of such wisdom and education is Krsna. Therefore
Krsna is the source of all relative truths.
This material world is composed of five principal elements: earth, water, fire, air and ether, and all such
elements are emanations from Krsna. The material scientists accept these primary five elements as the cause of
the material manifestation, but the elements in their gross and subtle states are produced by Krsna. The living
entities who are working within this material world are also products of His marginal potency. In the Seventh
Chapter of the Bhagavad-gita, it is clearly stated that the whole manifestation is a combination of two kinds of
energies of Krsna, the superior energy and the inferior energy. The living entities are the superior energy, and
the dead material elements are His inferior energy. In its dormant stage, everything remains in Krsna.
The demigods continued to offer their respectful prayers unto the supreme form of the Personality of Godhead,
Krsna, by analytical study of the material manifestation. What is this material manifestation? It is just like a
tree. A tree stands on the ground. Similarly, the tree of the material manifestation is standing on the ground of
material nature. This material manifestation is compared with a tree because a tree is ultimately cut off in due
course of time. A tree is called vrksa. Vrksa means that thing which will be ultimately cut off. Therefore, this
tree of the material manifestation cannot be accepted as the Ultimate Truth. The influence of time is on the
material manifestation, but Krsna's body is eternal. He existed before the material manifestation, He is existing
while the material manifestation is continuing, and when it will be dissolved, He will continue to exist.
The Katha Upanisad also cites this example of the tree of material manifestation standing on the ground of
material nature. This tree has two kinds of fruits, distress and happiness. Those who are living on the tree of the
body are just like two birds. One bird is the localized aspect of Krsna known as the Paramatma, and the other
bird is the living entity. The living entity is eating the fruits of this material manifestation. Sometimes he eats
the fruit of happiness, and sometimes he eats the fruit of distress. But the other bird is not interested in eating
the fruit of distress or happiness because he is self-satisfied. The Katha Upanisad states that one bird on the tree
of the body is eating the fruits, and the other bird is simply witnessing. The roots of this tree extend in three
directions. That means the root of the tree is the three modes of material nature: goodness, passion and
ignorance. Just as the tree's root expands, so, by association of the modes of material nature (goodness, passion
and ignorance), one expands his duration of material existence. The taste of the fruits are of four kinds:
religiosity, economic development, sense gratification and ultimately, liberation. According to the different
associations in the three modes of material nature, the living entities are tasting different kinds of religiosity,
different kinds of economic development, different kinds of sense gratification and different kinds of liberation.
Practically all material work is performed in ignorance, but because there are three qualities, sometimes the
quality of ignorance is covered with goodness or passion. The taste of these material fruits is accepted through
five senses. The five sense organs through which knowledge is acquired are subjected to six kinds of whips:
lamentation, illusion, infirmity, death, hunger and thirst. This material body, or the material manifestation, is
covered by seven layers: skin, muscle, flesh, marrow, bone, fat and semen. The branches of the tree are eight:
earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, intelligence and ego. There are nine gates in this body: the two eyes, two
nostrils, two ears, one mouth, one genital, one rectum. And there are ten kinds of internal air passing within the
body: prana, apana, udana, vyana, samana, etc. The two birds seated in this tree, as explained above, are the
living entity and the localized Supreme Personality of Godhead.

The root cause of the material manifestation described here is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The
Supreme Personality of Godhead expands Himself and takes charge of the three qualities of the material world.
Visnu takes charge of the modes of goodness, Brahma takes charge of the modes of passion, and Lord Siva
takes charge of the modes of ignorance. Brahma, by the modes of passion, creates this manifestation, Lord
Visnu maintains this manifestation by the modes of goodness, and Lord Siva annihilates it by the modes of
ignorance. The whole creation ultimately rests in the Supreme Lord. He is the cause of creation, maintenance
and dissolution. And when the whole manifestation is dissolved, in its subtle form as the energy of the Lord, it
rests within the body of the Supreme Lord.
"At the present," the demigods prayed, "the Supreme Lord Krsna is appearing just for the maintenance of this
manifestation." Actually the Supreme Cause is one, but, being deluded by the three modes of material nature,
less intelligent persons see that the material world is manifested through different causes. Those who are
intelligent can see that the cause is one, Krsna. As it is stated in the Brahma-samhita: sarva-karana-karanam.
Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is the cause of all causes. Brahma is the deputed agent for creation,
Visnu is the expansion of Krsna for maintenance, and Lord Siva is the expansion of Krsna for dissolution.
"Our dear Lord," the demigods prayed, "it is very difficult to understand Your eternal form of personality.
People in general are unable to understand Your actual form; therefore You are personally descending to exhibit
Your original eternal form. Somehow people can understand the different incarnations of Your Lordship, but
they are puzzled to understand the eternal form of Krsna with two hands, moving among human beings exactly
like one of them. This eternal form of Your Lordship is ever increasing in transcendental pleasure for the
devotees, but for the nondevotees, this form is very dangerous." As stated in the Bhagavad-gita, Krsna is very
pleasing to the sadhu. It is said, paritranaya sadhunam. But this form is very dangerous for the demons because
Krsna also descends to kill the demons. He is, therefore, simultaneously pleasing to the devotees and dangerous
to the demons.
"Our dear lotus-eyed Lord, You are the source of pure goodness. There are many great sages who simply by
samadhi, or transcendentally meditating upon Your lotus feet and thus being absorbed in Your thought, have
easily transformed the great ocean of nescience created by the material nature to no more than water in a calf's
hoofprint." The purpose of meditation is to focus the mind upon the Personality of Godhead, beginning from
His lotus feet. Simply by meditation on the lotus feet of the Lord, great sages cross over this vast ocean of
material existence without difficulty.
"O self-illuminated one, the great saintly persons who have crossed over the ocean of nescience, by the help of
the transcendental boat of Your lotus feet, have not taken away that boat. It is still lying on this side." The
demigods are using a nice simile. If one takes a boat to cross over a river, the boat also goes with one to the
other side of the river. And so when one reaches the destination, how can the same boat be available to those
who are still on the other side? To answer this difficulty, the demigods say in their prayer that the boat is not
taken away. The devotees still remaining on the other side are able to pass over the ocean of material nature
because the pure devotees do not take the boat with them when they cross over. When one simply approaches
the boat, the whole ocean of material nescience is reduced to the size of water in a calf's hoofprint. Therefore,
the devotees do not need to take a boat to the other side; they simply cross the ocean immediately. Because the
great saintly persons are compassionate toward all conditioned souls, the boat is still lying at the lotus feet of the
Lord. One can meditate upon His feet at any time, and by so doing, one can cross over the great ocean of
material existence.
Meditation means concentration upon the lotus feet of the Lord. Lotus feet indicate the Supreme Personality of
Godhead. Those who are impersonalists do not recognize the lotus feet of the Lord, and therefore their object of
meditation is something impersonal. The demigods express their mature verdict that persons who are interested
in meditating on something void or impersonal cannot cross over the ocean of nescience. Such persons are
simply imagining that they have become liberated. "O lotus-eyed Lord! Their intelligence is contaminated
because they fail to meditate upon the lotus feet of Your Lordship." As a result of this neglectful activity, the
impersonalists fall down again into the material way of conditioned life, although they may temporarily rise up
to the point of impersonal realization. Impersonalists, after undergoing severe austerities and penances, merge
themselves into the Brahman effulgence or impersonal Brahman existence. But their minds are not free from

material contamination; they have simply tried to negate the material ways of thinking. That does not mean that
they have become liberated. Thus they fall down. In the Bhagavad-gita it is stated that the impersonalist has to
undergo great tribulation in realizing the ultimate goal. At the beginning of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, it is also
stated that without devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, one cannot achieve liberation
from the bondage of fruitive activities. The statement of Lord Krsna is there in the Bhagavad-gita, and in the
Srimad-Bhagavatam the statement of the great sage Narada is there, and here also the demigods confirm it.
"Persons who have not taken to devotional service are understood to have come short of the ultimate purpose of
knowledge and are not favored by Your grace." The impersonalists simply think that they are liberated, but
actually they have no feeling for the Personality of Godhead. They think that when Krsna comes into the
material world, He accepts a material body. They therefore overlook the transcendental body of Krsna. This is
also confirmed in the Bhagavad-gita: Avajananti mam mudhah. In spite of conquering material lust and rising
up to the point of liberation, the impersonalists fall down. If they are engaged just in knowing things for the
sake of knowledge and do not take to the devotional service of the Lord, they cannot achieve the desired result.
Their achievement is the trouble they take, and that is all. It is clearly stated in the Bhagavad-gita that to realize
Brahman identification is not all. Brahman identification may help one become joyful without material
attachment or detachment and to achieve the platform of equanimity, but after this stage, one has to take to
devotional service. When one takes to devotional service after being elevated to the platform of Brahman
realization, he is then admitted into the spiritual kingdom for permanent residence in association with the
Supreme Personality of Godhead. That is the result of devotional service. Those who are devotees of the
Supreme Personality of Godhead never fall down like the impersonalists. Even if the devotees fall down, they
remain affectionately attached to their Lordship. They can meet all kinds of obstacles on the path of devotional
service, and freely, without any fear, they can surmount such obstacles. Because of their surrender, they are
certain that Krsna will always protect them. As it is promised by Krsna in the Bhagavad-gita: "My devotees are
never vanquished."
"Our dear Lord, You have appeared in Your original unalloyed form, the eternal form of goodness, for the
welfare of all living entities within this material world. Taking advantage of Your appearance, all of them can
now very easily understand the nature and form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Persons who belong to
the four divisions of the social order (the brahmacaris, the grhasthas, the vanaprasthas and the sannyasis) can all
take advantage of Your appearance.
"Dear Lord, husband of the goddess of fortune, devotees who are dovetailed in Your service do not fall down
from their high position like the impersonalists. Being protected by You, the devotees are able to traverse over
the heads of many of Maya's commanders-in-chief, who can always put stumbling blocks on the path of
liberation. My dear Lord, You appear in Your transcendental form for the benefit of the living entities so that
they can see You face to face and offer their worshipful sacrifices by ritualistic performance of the Vedas,
mystic meditation and devotional service as recommended in the scriptures. Dear Lord, if You did not appear in
Your eternal transcendental form, full of bliss and knowledge--which can eradicate all kinds of speculative
ignorance about Your position--then all people would simply speculate about You according to their respective
modes of material nature."
The appearance of Krsna is the answer to all imaginative iconography of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Everyone imagines the form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead according to his mode of material nature.
In the Brahma-samhita it is said that the Lord is the oldest person. Therefore a section of religionists imagine
that God must be very old, and therefore they depict a form of the Lord like a very old man. But in the same
Brahma-samhita, that is contradicted; although He is the oldest of all living entities, He has His eternal form as
a fresh youth. The exact words used in this connection in the Srimad-Bhagavatam are vijnanam ajnanabhid
apamarjanam. Vijnanam means transcendental knowledge of the Supreme Personality. Vijnanam is also
experienced knowledge. Transcendental knowledge has to be accepted by the descending process of disciplic
succession as Brahma presents the knowledge of Krsna in the Brahma-samhita. Brahma-samhita is vijnanam as
realized by Brahma's transcendental experience, and in that way he presented the form and the pastimes of
Krsna in the transcendental abode. Ajnanabhid means that which can match all kinds of speculation. In
ignorance, people are imagining the form of the Lord; sometimes He has no form and sometimes He has form,
according to their different imaginations. But the presentation of Krsna in the Brahma-samhita is vijnanam--

scientific, experienced knowledge given by Lord Brahma and accepted by Lord Caitanya. There is no doubt
about it. Sri Krsna's form, Sri Krsna's flute, Krsna's color--everything is reality. Here it is said that this vijnanam
is always defeating all kinds of speculative knowledge. "Therefore, without Your appearing as Krsna, as You
are, neither ajnana-bhida (nescience of speculative knowledge) nor vijnanam would be realized. Ajnanabhid
apamarjanam--by Your appearance the speculative knowledge of ignorance will be vanquished and the real
experienced knowledge of authorities like Lord Brahma will be established. Men influenced by the three modes
of material nature imagine their own God according to the modes of material nature. In this way God is
presented in various ways, but Your appearance will establish what the real form of God is."
The highest blunder committed by the impersonalists is to think that when the incarnation of God comes, He
accepts the form of matter in the modes of goodness. Actually the form of Krsna or Narayana is transcendental
to any material idea. Even the greatest impersonalist, Sankaracarya, has admitted that narayanah paro 'vyaktat:
the material creation is caused by the avyakta impersonal manifestation of matter or the nonphenomenal total
reservation of matter, and Krsna is transcendental to that material conception. That is expressed in the SrimadBhagavatam as suddha-sattva, or transcendental. He does not belong to the material mode of goodness, and He
is above the position of material goodness. He belongs to the transcendental eternal status of bliss and
knowledge.
"Dear Lord, when You appear in Your different incarnations, You take different names and forms according to
different situations. Lord Krsna is Your name because You are all attractive; You are called Syamasundara
because of Your transcendental beauty. Syama means blackish, yet they say that You are more beautiful than
thousands of Cupids. Kandarpa-koti-kamaniya. Although You appear in a color which is compared to the
blackish cloud, because You are transcendental Absolute, Your beauty is many many times more attractive than
the delicate body of Cupid. Sometimes You are called Giridhari because You lifted the hill known as
Govardhana. You are sometimes called Nandanandana or Vasudeva or Devakinandana because You appear as
the son of Maharaja Nanda or Devaki or Vasudeva. Impersonalists think that Your many names or forms are
according to a particular type of work and quality because they accept You from the position of a material
observer.
"Our dear Lord, the way of understanding is not to study Your absolute nature, form and activities by mental
speculation. One must engage himself in devotional service; then one can understand Your absolute nature,
transcendental form, name and quality. Actually only a person who has a little taste for the service of Your lotus
feet can understand Your transcendental nature or form and quality. Others may go on speculating for millions
of years, but it is not possible for them to understand even a single part of Your actual position." In other words,
the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, cannot be understood by the nondevotees because there is a curtain
of Yogamaya which covers Krsna's actual features. As confirmed in the Bhagavad-gita, naham prakasah
sarvasya. The Lord says, "I am not exposed to anyone and everyone." When Krsna came, He was actually
present on the Battlefield of Kuruksetra, and everyone saw Him. But not everyone could understand that He
was the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Still, everyone who died in His presence attained complete liberation
from material bondage and was transferred to the spiritual world.
"O Lord, the impersonalists or nondevotees cannot understand that Your name is identical with Your form."
Since the Lord is absolute, there is no difference between His name and His actual form. In the material world
there is a difference between form and name. The mango fruit is different from the name of the mango. One
cannot taste the mango fruit simply by chanting, "mango, mango, mango." But the devotee who knows that
there is no difference between the name and the form of the Lord chants Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna,
Hare Hare, Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare and realizes that he is always in Krsna's company.
For persons who are not very advanced in absolute knowledge of the Supreme, Lord Krsna exhibits His
transcendental pastimes. They can simply think of the pastimes of the Lord and get the full benefit. Since there
is no difference between the transcendental name and form of the Lord, there is no difference between the
transcendental pastimes and the form of the Lord. For those who are less intelligent (like women, laborers or the
mercantile class), the great sage Vyasadeva wrote Mahabharata. In the Mahabharata, Krsna is present in His
different activities. Mahabharata is history, and simply by studying, hearing and memorizing the transcendental
activities of Krsna, the less intelligent can also gradually rise to the standard of pure devotees.

The pure devotees, who are always absorbed in the thought of the transcendental lotus feet of Krsna and who
are always engaged in devotional service in full Krsna consciousness, are never to be considered to be in the
material world. Sri Rupa Gosvami has explained that those who are always engaged in Krsna consciousness, by
body, mind and activities, are to be considered liberated even within this body. This is also confirmed in the
Bhagavad-gita: those who are engaged in the devotional service of the Lord have already transcended the
material position.
Krsna appears to give a chance both to the devotees and nondevotees for realization of the ultimate goal of life.
The devotees get the direct chance to see Him and worship Him. Those who are not on that platform get the
chance to become acquainted with His activities and thus become elevated to the same position.
"O dear Lord," the demigods continued, "You are unborn; therefore we do not find any reason for Your
appearance other than for Your pleasurable pastimes." Although the reason for the appearance of the Lord is
stated in the Bhagavad-gita (He descends just to give protection to the devotee and vanquish the nondevotee),
actually He descends for His pleasure-meeting with the devotees, not really to vanquish the nondevotees. The
nondevotees can be vanquished simply by material nature. "The action and reaction of the external enregy of
material nature (creation, maintenance and annihilation) are being carried on automatically. But simply by
taking shelter of Your holy name--because Your holy name and Your personality are nondifferent--the devotees
are sufficiently protected." The protection of the devotees and the annihilation of the nondevotees are actually
not the business of the Supreme Personality of Godhead when He descends. They are just for His transcendental
pleasure. There cannot be any other reason for His appearance.
"Our dear Lord, You are appearing as the best of the Yadu dynasty, and we are offering our respectful humble
obeisances unto Your lotus feet. Before this appearance, You also appeared as the fish incarnation, the horse
incarnation, the tortoise incarnation, the swan incarnation, as King Ramacandra, as Parasurama, and as many
other incarnations. You appeared just to protect the devotees, and we request You in Your present appearance
as the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself to give us similar protection all over the three worlds and
remove all obstacles for the peaceful execution of our lives.
"Dear mother Devaki, within your womb is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, appearing along with all His
plenary extensions. He is the original Personality of Godhead appearing for our welfare. Therefore you should
not be afraid of your brother, the King of Bhoja. Your son Lord Krsna, who is the original Personality of
Godhead, will appear for the protection of the pious Yadu dynasty. The Lord is appearing not only alone but
accompanied by His immediate plenary portion, Balarama."
Devaki was very much afraid of her brother Kamsa because he had already killed so many of her children. She
used to remain very anxious about Krsna. In the Visnu Purana it is stated that in order to pacify Devaki, all the
demigods, along with their wives, used to always visit her to encourage her not to be afraid that her son would
be killed by Kamsa. Krsna, who was within her womb, was to appear not only to diminish the burden of the
world but specifically to protect the interest of the Yadu dynasty, and certainly to protect Devaki and Vasudeva.
Thus ends the Bhaktivedanta purport of the Second Chapter of Krsna, "Prayers by the Demigods for Lord Krsna
in the Womb."

Birth of Lord Krsna


Chp 3. Birth of Lord Krsna
from the book Krsna, The Supreme Personality of Godhead by His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami
Prabhupad
As stated in the Bhagavad-gita, the Lord says that His appearance, birth, and activities, are all transcendental,
and one who understands them factually becomes immediately eligible to be transferred to the spiritual world.
The Lord's appearance or birth is not like that of an ordinary man who is forced to accept a material body
according to his past deeds. The Lord's appearance is explained in the Second Chapter: He appears out of His

own sweet pleasure. When the time was mature for the appearance of the Lord, the constellations became very
auspicious. The astrological influence of the star known as Rohini was also predominant because this star is
considered to be very auspicious. Rohini is under the direct supervision of Brahma. According to the
astrological conclusion, besides the proper situation of the stars, there are auspicious and inauspicious moments
due to the different situations of the different planetary systems. At the time of Krsna's birth, the planetary
systems were automatically adjusted so that everything became auspicious.
At that time, in all directions, east, west, south, north, everywhere, there was an atmosphere of peace and
prosperity. There were auspicious stars visible in the sky, and on the surface in all towns and villages or
pasturing grounds and within the minds of everyone there were signs of good fortune. The rivers were flowing
full of waters, and lakes were beautifully decorated with lotus flowers. The forests were full with beautiful birds
and peacocks. All the birds within the forests began to sing with sweet voices, and the peacocks began to dance
along with their consorts. The wind blew very pleasantly, carrying the aroma of different flowers, and the
sensation of bodily touch was very pleasing. At home, the brahmanas, who were accustomed to offer sacrifices
in the fire, found their homes very pleasant for offerings. Due to disturbances created by the demoniac kings,
the sacrificial fire alter had been almost stopped in the houses of brahmanas, but now they could find the
opportunity to start the fire peacefully. Being forbidden to offer sacrifices, the brahmanas were very distressed
in mind, intelligence and activities, but just on the point of Krsna's appearance, automatically their minds
became full of joy because they could hear loud vibrations in the sky of transcendental sounds proclaiming the
appearance of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
The denizens of the Gandharva and Kinnara planets began to sing, and the denizens of Siddhaloka and the
planets of the Caranas began to offer prayers in the service of the Personality of Godhead. In the heavenly
planets, the angels along with their wives, accompanied by the Apsaras, began to dance.
The great sages and the demigods, being pleased, began to shower flowers. At the seashore, there was the sound
of mild waves, and above the sea there were clouds in the sky which began to thunder very pleasingly.
When things were adjusted like this, Lord Visnu, who is residing within the heart of every living entity,
appeared in the darkness of night as the Supreme Personality of Godhead before Devaki, who also appeared as
one of the demigoddesses. The appearance of Lord Visnu at that time could be compared with the full moon in
the sky as it rises on the eastern horizon. The objection may be raised that, since Lord Krsna appeared on the
eighth day of the waning moon, there could be no rising of the full moon. In answer to this it may be said that
Lord Krsna appeared in the dynasty which is in the hierarchy of the moon; therefore, although the moon was
incomplete on that night, because of the Lord's appearance in the dynasty wherein the moon is himself the
original person, the moon was in an overjoyous condition, so by the grace of Krsna he could appear just as a full
moon.
In an astronomical treatise by the name Khamanikya, the constellations at the time of the appearance of Lord
Krsna are very nicely described. It is confirmed that the child born at that auspicious moment was the Supreme
Brahman or the Absolute Truth.
Vasudeva saw that wonderful child born as a baby with four hands, holding conchshell, club, disc, and lotus
flower, decorated with the mark of Srivatsa, wearing the jeweled necklace of kaustubha stone, dressed in yellow
silk, appearing dazzling like a bright blackish cloud, wearing a helmet bedecked with the vaidurya stone,
valuable bracelets, earrings and similar other ornaments all over His body and an abundance of hair on His
head. Due to the extraordinary features of the child, Vasudeva was struck with wonder. How could a newly
born child be so decorated? He could therefore understand that Lord Krsna had now appeared, and he became
overpowered by the occasion. Vasudeva very humbly wondered that although he was an ordinary living entity
conditioned by material nature and was externally imprisoned by Kamsa, the all-pervading Personality of
Godhead, Visnu or Krsna, was appearing as a child in his home, exactly in His original position. No earthly
child is born with four hands decorated with ornaments and nice clothing, fully equipped with all the signs of
the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Over and over again, Vasudeva glanced at his child, and he considered
how to celebrate this auspicious moment: "Generally, when a male child is born," he thought, "people observe
the occasion with jubilant celebrations, and in my home, although I am imprisoned, the Supreme Personality of

Godhead has taken birth. How many millions of millions of times should I be prepared to observe this
auspicious ceremony!"
When Vasudeva, who is also called Anakadundubhi, was looking at his newborn baby, he was so happy that he
wanted to give many thousands of cows in charity to the brahmanas. According to the Vedic system, whenever
there is an auspicious ceremony in the ksatriya king's palace, the king gives many things in charity. Cows
decorated with golden ornaments are delivered to the brahmanas and sages. Vasudeva wanted to perform a
charitable ceremony to celebrate Krsna's appearance, but because he was shackled within the walls of Kamsa's
prison, this was not possible. Instead, within his mind he gave thousands of cows to the brahmanas.
When Vasudeva was convinced that the newborn child was the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself, he
bowed down with folded hands and began to offer Him prayers. At that time Vasudeva was in the
transcendental position, and he became completely free from all fear of Kamsa. The newborn baby was also
flashing His effulgence within the room in which He appeared.
Vasudeva then began to offer his prayers. "My dear Lord, I can understand who You are. You are the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, the Supersoul of all living entities and the Absolute Truth. You have appeared in Your
own eternal form which is directly perceived by us. I understand that because I am afraid of Kamsa, You have
appeared just to deliver me from that fear. You do not belong to this material world; You are the same person
who brings about the cosmic manifestation simply by glancing over material nature."
One may argue that the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who creates the whole cosmic manifestation simply
by His glance, cannot come within the womb of Devaki, the wife of Vasudeva. To eradicate this argument,
Vasudeva said, "My dear Lord, it is not a very wonderful thing that You appear within the womb of Devaki
because the creation was also made in that way. You were lying in the Causal Ocean as Maha-Visnu, and by
Your breathing process, innumerable universes came into existence. Then You entered into each of the
universes as Garbhodakasayi Visnu. Then again You expanded Yourself as Ksirodakasayi Visnu and entered
into the hearts of all living entities and entered even within the atoms. Therefore Your entrance in the womb of
Devaki is understandable in the same way. You appear to have entered, but You are simultaneously allpervading. We can understand Your entrance and nonentrance from material examples. The total material
energy remains intact even after being divided into sixteen elements. The material body is nothing but the
combination of the five gross elements--namely earth, water, fire, air and ether. Whenever there is a material
body, it appears that such elements are newly created, but actually the elements are always existing outside of
the body. Similarly, although You appear as a child in the womb of Devaki, You are also existing outside. You
are always in Your abode, but still You can simultaneously expand Yourself into millions of forms.
"One has to understand Your appearance with great intelligence because the material energy is also emanating
from You. You are the original source of the material energy, just as the sun is the source of the sunshine. The
sunshine cannot cover the sun globe, nor can the material energy--being an emanation from You--cover You.
You appear to be in the three modes of material energy, but actually the three modes of material energy cannot
cover You. This is understood by the highly intellectual philosophers. In other words, although You appear to
be within the material energy, You are never covered by it."
We hear from the Vedic version that the Supreme Brahman exhibits His effulgence, and therefore everything
becomes illuminated. We can understand from Brahma-samhita that the brahmajyoti, or the Brahman
effulgence, emanates from the body of the Supreme Lord. And from the Brahman effulgence, all creation takes
place. It is further stated in the Bhagavad-gita that the Lord is also the support of the Brahman effulgence.
Originally He is the root cause of everything. But persons who are less intelligent think that when the Supreme
Personality of Godhead comes within this material world, He accepts the material qualities. Such conclusions
are not very mature, but are made by the less intelligent.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead is directly and indirectly existing everywhere; He is outside this material
creation, and He is also within it. He is within this material creation not only as Garbhodakasayi Visnu; He is
also within the atom. Existence is due to His presence. Nothing can be separated from His existence. In the
Vedic injunction we find that the Supreme Soul or the root cause of everything has to be searched out because
nothing exists independent of the Supreme Soul. Therefore the material manifestation is also a transformation of

His potency. Both inert matter and the living force--soul--are emanations from Him. Only the foolish conclude
that when the Supreme Lord appears He accepts the conditions of matter. Even if He appears to have accepted
the material body, He is still not subjected to any material condition. Krsna has therefore appeared and defeated
all imperfect conclusions about the appearance and disappearance of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
"My Lord, Your appearance, existence and disappearance are beyond the influence of the material qualities.
Because Your Lordship is the controller of everything and the resting place of the Supreme Brahman, there is
nothing inconceivable or contradictory in You. As You have said, material nature works under Your
superintendence. It is just like government officers working under the orders of the chief executive. The
influence of subordinate activities cannot affect You. The Supreme Brahman and all phenomena are existing
within You, and all the activities of material nature are controlled by Your Lordship.
"You are called suklam. Suklam, or 'whiteness' is the symbolic representation of the Absolute Truth because it
is unaffected by the material qualities. Lord Brahma is called rakta, or red, because Brahma represents the
qualities of passion for creation. Darkness is entrusted to Lord Siva because he annihilates the cosmos. The
creation, annihilation and maintenance of this cosmic manifestation is conducted by Your potencies, yet You
are always unaffected by those qualities. As confirmed in the Vedas, harir hi nirgunah saksat: the Supreme
Personality of Godhead is always free from all material qualities. It is also said that the qualities of passion and
ignorance are nonexistent in the person of the Supreme Lord.
"My Lord, You are the supreme controller, the Personality of Godhead, the supreme great, maintaining the
order of this cosmic manifestation. And in spite of Your being the supreme controller, You have so kindly
appeared in my home. The purpose of Your appearance is to kill the followers of the demoniac rulers of the
world who are in the dress of royal princes but are actually demons. I am sure that You will kill all of them and
their followers and soldiers.
"I understand that You have appeared to kill the uncivilized Kamsa and his followers. But knowing that You
were to appear to kill him and his followers, he has already killed so many of Your predecessors, elder brothers.
Now he is simply awaiting the news of Your birth. As soon as he hears about it, he will immediately appear
with all kinds of weapons to kill You."
After this prayer of Vasudeva, Devaki, the mother of Krsna, offered her prayers. She was very frightened
because of her brother's atrocities. Devaki said, "My dear Lord, Your eternal forms, like Narayana, Lord Rama,
Sesa, Varaha, Nrsimha, Vamana, Baladeva, and millions of similar incarnations emanating from Visnu, are
described in the Vedic literature as original. You are original because all Your forms as incarnations are outside
of this material creation. Your form was existing before this cosmic manifestation was created. Your forms are
eternal and all-pervading. They are self-effulgent, changeless and uncontaminated by the material qualities.
Such eternal forms are ever-cognizant and full of bliss; they are situated in transcendental goodness and are
always engaged in different pastimes. You are not limited to a particular form only; all such transcendental
eternal forms are self-sufficient. I can understand that You are the Supreme Lord Visnu.
"After many millions of years, when Lord Brahma comes to the end of his life, the annihilation of the cosmic
manifestation takes place. At that time the five elements--namely earth, water, fire, air and ether--enter into the
mahat-tattva. The mahat-tattva again enters, by the force of time, into the nonmanifested total material energy;
the total material energy enters into the energetic pradhana, and the pradhana enters into You. Therefore after
the annihilation of the whole cosmic manifestation, You alone remain with Your transcendental name, form,
quality and paraphernalia.
"My Lord, I offer my respectful obeisances unto You because You are the director of the unmanifested total
energy, and the ultimate reservoir of the material nature. My Lord, the whole cosmic manifestation is under the
influence of time, beginning from the moment up to the duration of the year. All act under Your direction. You
are the original director of everything and the reservoir of all potent energies.
"Therefore my Lord, I request You to save me from the cruel hands of the son of Ugrasena, Kamsa. I am
praying to Your Lordship to please rescue me from this fearful condition because You are always ready to give
protection to Your servitors." The Lord has confirmed this statement in the Bhagavad-gita by assuring Arjuna,
"You may declare to the world, My devotee shall never be vanquished."

While thus praying to the Lord for rescue, mother Devaki expressed her motherly affection: "I understand that
this transcendental form is generally perceived in meditation by the great sages, but I am still afraid because as
soon as Kamsa understands that You have appeared, he might harm You. So I request that for the time being
You become invisible to our material eyes." In other words, she requested the Lord to assume the form of an
ordinary child. "My only cause of fear from my brother Kamsa is due to Your appearance. My Lord
Madhusudana, Kamsa may know that You are already born. Therefore I request You to conceal this four-armed
form of Your Lordship which holds the four symbols of Visnu--namely the conchshell, the disc, the club and
the lotus flower. My dear Lord, at the end of the annihilation of the cosmic manifestation, You put the whole
universe within Your abdomen; still by Your unalloyed mercy You have appeared in my womb. I am surprised
that You imitate the activities of ordinary human beings just to please Your devotee."
On hearing the prayers of Devaki, the Lord replied, "My dear mother, in the millennium of Svayambhuva
Manu, My father Vasudeva was living as one of the Prajapatis, and his name at that time was Sutapa, and you
were his wife named Prsni. At that time, when Lord Brahma was desiring to increase the population, he
requested you to generate offspring. You controlled your senses and performed severe austerities. By practicing
the breathing exercise of the yoga system, both you and your husband could tolerate all the influences of the
material laws: the rainy season, the onslaught of the wind, and the scorching heat of the sunshine. You also
executed all religious principles. In this way you were able to cleanse your heart and control the influence of
material law. In executing your austerity, you used to eat only the leaves of the trees which fell to the ground.
Then with steady mind and controlled sex drive, you worshiped Me, desiring some wonderful benediction from
Me. Both of you practiced severe austerities for twelve thousand years, by the calculation of the demigods.
During that time, your mind was always absorbed in Me. When you were executing devotional service and
always thinking of Me within your heart, I was very much pleased with you. O sinless mother, your heart is
therefore always pure. At that time also I appeared before you in this form just to fulfill your desire, and I asked
you to ask whatever you desired. At that time you wished to have Me born as your son. Although you saw Me
personally, instead of asking for your complete liberation from the material bondage, under the influence of My
energy, you asked Me to become your son."
In other words, the Lord selected His mother and father--namely Prsni and Sutapa--specifically to appear in the
material world. Whenever the Lord comes as a human being, He must have someone as a mother and father, so
He selected Prsni and Sutapa perpetually as His mother and father. And on account of this, both Prsni and
Sutapa could not ask the Lord for liberation. Liberation is not so important as the transcendental loving service
of the Lord. The Lord could have awarded Prsni and Sutapa immediate liberation, but He preferred to keep
them within this material world for His different appearances, as will be explained in the following verses. On
receiving the benediction from the Lord to become His father and mother, both Prsni and Sutapa returned from
the activities of austerity and lived as husband and wife in order to beget a child who was the Supreme Lord
Himself.
In due course of time Prsni became pregnant and gave birth to the child. The Lord spoke to Devaki and
Vasudeva: "At that time My name was Prsnigarbha. In the next millennium also you took birth as Aditi and
Kasyapa, and I became your child of the name Upendra. At that time My form was just like a dwarf, and for this
reason I was known as Vamanadeva. I gave you the benediction that I would take birth as your son three times.
The first time I was known as Prsnigarbha, born of Prsni and Sutapa, the next birth I was Upendra born of Aditi
and Kasyapa, and now for the third time I am born as Krsna from you, Devaki and Vasudeva. I appeared in this
Visnu form just to convince you that I am the same Supreme Personality of Godhead again taken birth. I could
have appeared just like an ordinary child, but in that way you would not believe that I, the Supreme Personality
of Godhead, have taken birth in your womb. My dear father and mother, you have therefore raised Me many
times as your child, with great affection and love, and I am therefore very pleased and obliged to you. And I
assure you that this time you shall go back to home, back to Godhead, on account of your perfection in your
mission. I know you are very concerned about Me and afraid of Kamsa. Therefore I order you to take Me
immediately to Gokula and replace Me with the daughter who has just been born to Yasoda."
Having spoken thus in the presence of His father and mother, the Lord turned Himself into an ordinary child
and remained silent.

Being ordered by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vasudeva attempted to take his son from the delivery
room, and exactly at that time, a daughter was born of Nanda and Yasoda. She was Yogamaya, the internal
potency of the Lord. By the influence of this internal potency, Yogamaya, all the residents of Kamsa's palace,
especially the doorkeepers, were overwhelmed with deep sleep, and all the palace doors opened, although they
were barred and shackled with iron chains. The night was very dark, but as soon as Vasudeva took Krsna on his
lap and went out, he could see everything just as in the sunlight.
In the Caitanya-caritamrta it is said that Krsna is just like sunlight, and wherever there is Krsna, the illusory
energy, which is compared to darkness, cannot remain. When Vasudeva was carrying Krsna, the darkness of the
night disappeared. All the prison doors automatically opened. At the same time there was a thunder in the sky
and severe rainfall. While Vasudeva was carrying his son Krsna in the falling rain, Lord Sesa in the shape of a
serpent spread His hood over the head of Vasudeva so that he would not be hampered by the rainfall. Vasudeva
came onto the bank of the Yamuna and saw that the water of the Yamuna was roaring with waves and that the
whole span was full of foam. Still, in that furious feature, the river gave passage to Vasudeva to cross, just as
the great Indian Ocean gave a path to Lord Rama when He was bridging over the gulf. In this way Vasudeva
crossed the river Yamuna. On the other side, he went to the place of Nanda Maharaja situated in Gokula, where
he saw that all the cowherd men were fast asleep. He took the opportunity of silently entering into the house of
Yasoda, and without difficulty he replaced his son, taking away the baby girl newly born in the house of
Yasoda. Then, after entering the house very silently and exchanging the boy with the girl, he again returned to
the prison of Kamsa and silently put the girl on the lap of Devaki. He again clamped the shackles on himself so
that Kamsa could not recognize that so many things had happened.
Mother Yasoda understood that a child was born of her, but because she was very tired from the labor of
childbirth, she was fast asleep. When she awoke, she could not remember whether she had given birth to a male
or a female child.
Thus ends the Bhaktivedanta purport of the Third Chapter of Krsna, "Birth of Lord Krsna."

Chp 6: Before the Advent of Lord Krishna


What happened in Goloka just before Krsna advented?
Brahma-vaivarta Purana Chp 6
63 I will go to the earth. O demigods, first return to your homes, and then, by your amsa expansions, quickly go
to the earth.
64 After speaking to the demigods, Lord Krsna, the master of the universes, called the gopas and gopis and
spoke to them words that were sweet, truthful and appropriate.
65 Sri Krsna said: O gopas and gopis, please listen. All of you please go to Nanda's land of Vraja. O Radha,
please go at once to the home of King Vrsabhanu.
66 King Vrsabhanu's dear wife is the saintly gopi named Kalavati. She is Subala-gopa's daughter. She is a
partial incarnation of the goddess of fortune.
67 She is fortunate and glorious among women. She was the mind-born daughter of the pitas, but by Durvasa's
curse she was born in a house in Vraja.
68 At once go to Nanda's Vraja and take birth in her womb. O girl with the lotus face, I will assume the form of
a small boy and I will marry You.
69 O Radha, to Me You are more dear than life. To You I am more dear than life also. We are not different. We
are one body eternally.
70 Listening, Sri Radha wept, overcome with love. O sage, with Her cakora-bird eyes She drank the moonlight
of Lord Krsna's face.
71 Sri Krsna said: O gopas and gopis, please take birth on the earth in the beautiful palaces of the noble gopas.
72 Then everyone saw the arrival of a great chariot covered with diamonds, the king of jewels,...
73 ...a chariot decorated with a hundred thousand white camaras, ten thousand mirrors, red cloth pure as fire,...
74 ...a thousand jewel domes, and networks of parijata garlands,...
75 ...filled with glorious people, made of gold, beautiful, without compare, glorious and splendid as a hundred

suns.
76 They also saw handsome and charming Lord Narayana, who wore yellow garments, held a conch, disc, club
and lotus,...
77 ...wore a glorious crown and glorious earrings, was decorated with a forest garland and anointed with sandal,
aguru, musk and kunkuma,...
78 ...had four arms, smiled, was overcome with compassion for His devotees, and was decorated with the best
of ornaments made of the kings of jewels.
79 At His left side they saw beautiful, charming, and fair Goddess Sarasvati, who held a flute, vina and book in
her hand, who was the queen of the higher planets, and who was knowledge personified.
80 At His right side they saw another beautiful and charming goddess, who smiled sweetly and was fair as
molten gold and splendid as the autumn moon,...
81 ...whose cheeks were splendid with jewel earrings, who wore priceless garments and priceless jewels,...
82 ...who was decorated with bracelets and armlets of priceless jewels, who wore tinkling jewel anklets,...
83 ...whose breast was splendid with a parijata garland, whose braids were beautiful with a jasmine garland,...
84 ...whose beautiful face robbed the autumn moon of its splendour,...
85 ...who was anointed with musk dots and red sindura tilaka, whose beautiful autumn-lotus eyes were
decorated with mascara,...
86 ...who held a pastime lotus of a thousand petals, and who with crooked eyes gazed at Lord Narayana as He
gazed at Her.
87 Accompanied by His two wives and His many associates, Lord Narayana quickly descended from the chariot
and entered the beautiful assembly of gopas and gopis.
88 O demigods, the gopas and gopis at once rose and with folded hands joyfully recited the divine sages'
prayers from the Sama Veda.
89 Then Lord Narayana approached, entered Lord Krsna's form and disappeared. When they saw this, everyone
became filled with wonder.
90 Then Lord Visnu, the protector of the universes came, and descended from His golden chariot.
91-92 O sage, when handsome, smiling four-armed Lord Visnu, decorated with forest garlands, dressed in
yellow garments, glorious with all ornaments and splendid as ten million suns, entered the assembly, everyone
rose, gazed at Him, bowed down, and offered prayers.
93 Then Lord Visnu also merged into the form of Lord Krsna. Seeing this, everyone became filled with wonder.
94-95 Then the Lord's incarnation that resides in Svetadvipa also came and merged into Lord Krsna's body.
Then hastily came Lord Sankarsana, the thousand-headed purusa-avatara, who was splendid like pure crystal
and effulgent like a hundred suns.
96 Seeing this incarnation of Lord Visnu everyone offered many prayers. Then, with bowed head He Himself
offered prayers to Lord Krsna, the husband of Radha.
97 O Narada, with His thousand heads He bowed down with devotion to Lord Krsna. Then Nara and Narayana
Rsi, the two sons of Dharma Rsi, also came.
98 Then I merged into Lord Krsna's lotus feet and Nara Rsi became Arjuna. Then Brahma, Siva, Sesa and
Yamaraja came to that place.
99 There the demigods saw a great chariot of gold and jewels,...
100 ...a chariot decorated with the kings of jewels, cloth pure as fire, many white camaras and ten thousand
mirrors,...
101 ...splendid with many jewel domes, beautiful with networks of parijata garlands,...
102 ...beautiful, with a thousand wheels, fast as the mind, robbing the splendour of the summer's midday sun,...
103 ...splendid with many pearls, rubies, and diamonds, wonderful with paintings, designs, statues, flowers,
lakes and forests,...
104 ...a chariot that was, O sage, the best of all chariots owned by demigods or demons, a chariot Visvakarma
carefully made for Lord Siva's pleasure,...
105 A chariot four hundred miles high and eight hundred miles across, and splendid with a hundred palaces
gracefully appointed with many beautiful couches and beds.
106 Then they saw a goddess decorated with jewel ornaments, her splendour robbing molten gold of its glory,...
107 ...a goddess who was very splendid, peerless, the root of material nature, the controller of material nature,

with a thousand arms holding many weapons,...


108 ...gently smiling, overcome with compassion for her devotees, her cheeks splendid with jewel earrings,
splendid with tinkling anklets made of the kings of jewels,...
109 ...decorated with jewel bracelets and armlets, her graceful waist decorated with a jewel belt,...
110 ...her chest glorious with many mandara garlands, her thighs firm and her raised breasts full,...
111 ...her beautiful face eclipsing the autumn moon's splendour, her autumn lotus eyes splendid with graceful
mascara,...
112 ...decorated with pictures and designs drawn in sandal, aguru, and musk, her beautiful lips splendid like
new bandhujiva flowers,...
113 ...her teeth robbing pearls of their splendour, her braids decorated with blossomed jasmine flowers,...
114 ...an elephant pearl decorating the tip of her nose graceful like the bird king's beak,...
115 ...a goddess splendid with garments pure as fire, and accompanied by her two sons as she cheerfully rode
on a lion's back.
116 Descending from the chariot, the goddess and her sons at once bowed down before Lord Krsna, the perfect
Supreme Personality of Godhead. Then she sat on a great throne.
117 Ganesa and Karttikeya bowed down first to Lord Krsna, who is greater than the greatest, and then to Siva,
Yamaraja, Sesa, and Brahma.
118 The demigoddess rose. Seeing the two boys, the demigods blessed them, had them sit in their midst, and
happily began to talk with them.
119 As the goddess and the demigods stood before Lord Krsna in the assembly, the many gopas and gopis
became filled with wonder.
120 Then, His lotus face smiling, Lord Krsna said to Goddess Laksmi: Please go to King Bhismaka's jewel
palace.
121 Eternal goddess, please take birth in Queen Vidabhi's womb. O saintly one, I will go to Kundina and take
your hand in marriage.
122 Seeing Goddess Parvati, the demigoddess quickly rose and had her sit on a beautiful jewel throne.
123 O king of brahmanas, Parvati, Laksmi and Sarasvati sat together and talked among themselves.
124 the gopis happily talked with the three goddesses. Some gopis happily sat by their side.
125 Then Sri Krsna, the master of the universes, said to Parvati: O beautiful goddess, in an amsa incarnation
please go to Nanda's Vraja.
126 O beautiful one, O goddess of material nature, O creator and destroyer of the worlds, please take birth in
Yasoda's womb from Nanda's seed.
127 I will arrange that in every village and city on the earth the people will worship you with devotion.
128 Offering you many splendid gifts, the people will worship you as their goddess.
129 O auspicious wife of Lord Siva, the moment you touch the earth My father will take you from the maternity
room and place Me in your stead.
130 For a moment you will see Kamsa and then you will return to Lord Siva. Then I will remove the earth's
burden and return to My own abode.
131 After speaking these words, Lord Krsna said to Karttikeya: Child, in an amsa incarnation you will go to the
earth.
132 O great demigod, then you should take birth in Jambavati's womb. All the demigods should go in amsa
incarnations to the earth. Then I will remove the earth's burden.
133 O Narada, after speaking these words, Lord Krsna, the husband of Radha, sat on His beautiful throne, and
the demigods, demigoddesses, gopas and gopis also sat in His company.
134 Then Brahma stood up and with folded hands humbly addressed Lord Krsna, the master of the universes.
135 Sri Brahma said: O Lord, please hear Your servant's request. O great one, how and where we should
descend to the earth? Please give us Your command.
136 A proper master always maintains, protects and rescues his servants. A proper servant always devotedly
follows his master's commands.
137 What demigods and demigoddesses in what forms, in what incarnations, with what names, and performing
what actions, should descend to the earth?
138 Hearing Brahma's words, Lord Krsna, the master of the universes, replied: Now I will tell you all of this.

139 Sri Krsna said: Kamadeva will become Rukmini's son Pradyumna. Rati will be reflected in Sambarasura's
house as saintly Mayavati.
140 You will become Pradyumna's son Aniruddha. Sarasvati will go to Sonitapura and become Banasura's
daughter Usa.
141 Lord Sesa, the master of the universes, will go to Devaki's womb. Then Yogamaya will pull (sankars) Him
into Rohini's womb. For this reason He will be called Sankarsana.
142 Ganga will come to the earth in a partial incarnation as Yamuna. Tulasi will appear in a half-incarnation as
princess Laksmana.
143 Saintly Savitri, the mother of the Vedas, will be named Nagnajiti. Vasundhara will become Satyabhama.
Goddess Sarasvati will become Saibya.
144 Rohini will become Princess Mitravinda, and the sun-god's wife will partially appear as Ratnamala.
145 Svaha will partially appear as Susila. In this way, beginning with Rukmini, I will have nine wives. Goddess
Durga will partially appear as Jambavati. Including her, I will have ten queens.
146 One day on Mount Kailasa, Lord Siva ordered Parvati: By a partial incarnation Parvati must go to
Jambavan's house.
147 Beloved, you must embrace Lord Visnu, who stays in Svetadvipa, and who once came to Mount Kailasa.
Because I command you to do this, there will be no sin on your part.
148 Sri Brahma said: O Krsna, O husband of Radha, why did Lord Siva give this command to Parvati, that she
should approach Lord Visnu, who resides in Svetadvipa?
149 Sri Krsna said: When all the demigods came to see the newborn infant Ganesa, on Lord Siva's request Lord
Visnu also came from Svetadvipa.
150 Lord Visnu happily saw Ganesa and then sat on a comfortable seat. Then all the demigods blissfully gazed
on Lord Visnu, whose form enchanted the three worlds,...
151 ...who wore yellow garments, a crown and earrings, whose youthful dark forms was very handsome,...
152 ...who was anointed with sandal, aguru, musk and kunkuma, who was decorated with jewel ornaments,
whose lotus face smiled,...
153 ...who sat on a jewel throne, who was surrounded by His associates, to whom all the demigods offered
obeisances, to whom Lord Siva offered worship and prayers.
154 When Parvati saw Lord Visnu she became filled with a happiness that showed in her face and eyes.
Embarrassed, chaste Parvati covered her face with her sari.
155-6 Her face covered, with unblinking crooked eyes chaste Parvati gazed again and again at Lord Visnu's
very handsome, wonderfully dressed form. The hairs of her body erect,, she became plunged in an ocean of
bliss.
157 For a moment she gazed at splendid Lord Siva, more handsome than ten million Kamadevas, grasping a
trident and axe, and three eyes on each of his five faces.
158 In the next moment she gazed at dark Lord Visnu, wearing yellow garments,, decorated with a forest
garland, with one face and four arms.
159 Gazing at the one Supreme Lord who appears in many forms, Goddess Parvati, the controller of material
bewilderment, fell under the control of Lord Visnu's spiritual power of bewilderment. She became filled with
passionate desire.
160 She thought: The three demigods Brahma, Visnu, and Siva, are my partial incarnations. Still Visnu is best,
for He is in the mode of goodness.
161 Parvati gazed at Lord Visnu and in her thoughts devotedly worshipped Him, the Supreme Personality of
Godhead and the Supersoul in everyone's heart.
162 Lord Siva, who was also the Personality of Godhead, the master of the universes, and the Supersoul in
everyone's heart, knew what Parvati was thinking.
163 Taking her to a secluded place, Lord Siva spoke to Parvati. He taught her all that was auspicious and true.
164 Sri Siva said: O Parvati, please understand my words. You must become the passionate lover of Lord
Visnu, the all-pervading Supersoul and Supreme Personality of Godhead.
165 Visnu, Brahma, and I are the one eternal Supreme Lord. We are not different. We are the one Lord manifest
in different forms.
166 You are the potency of the Supreme Lord. You are the mother of all. You appear in many forms. You are

Brahma's wife Sarasvati. You are Goddess Laksmi who rests on Lord Narayana's chest.
167 O saintly one, you are also Parvati, who rests on my chest.
After hearing Lord Siva's words, Parvati, the queen of the demigods, spoke to him.
168 Sri Parvati said: O friend of the poor, O ocean of mercy, why have you no mercy for me? For a long time I
performed austerities to attain you, the master of the universes.
169 Lord, you cannot reject a servant like me. O Siva, please do not speak these improper words to me.
170 Lord, I will obey your command. I will take birth in another body. Then I will become Lord Visnu's lover.
171 Hearing these words, Lord Siva burst into laughter. In this way he reassured Parvati and removed her fears.
172 To keep her word chaste Parvati will take birth in Jambavan's house. O Brahma, she will be named
Jambavati.
173 Sri Brahma said: On the earth there are many different kinds of kings. Why will Parvati take birth in the
home of a bear?
174 Sri Krsna said: In Treta-yuga, during the incarnation of Lord Rama, the demigods incarnated on the earth.
At that time the king of the Himalaya's incarnated as the bear Jambavan, a great servant of Lord Rama.
175 Because of a boon from Lord Rama, Jambavan is long-lived, handsome, and strong like ten million lions.
176 In this way Parvati will go to the earth and take birth in the house of Jambavan, who is an incarnation of her
father, the king of the Himalayas. Now please hear more explanations from My mouth.
177 All the demigods should partially incarnate on the earth. O Brahma, as warrior-princes they will assist Me
in battle.
178 Goddess Laksmi will partially incarnate as 16 000 princesses who will become My queens.
179 Yamaraja will partially incarnate as Pandu's son Yudhisthira. Vayu will partially incarnate as Bhimasena.
Indra will partially incarnate as Arjuna.
180 The Asvini-kumaras will partially incarnate as Nakula and Sahadeva. Surya will partially incarnate as the
heroic warrior Karna. Yamaraja will personally appear as Vidura.
181 Kali will partially incarnate as Duryodhana. Varuna will partially incarnate as Santanu. Siva will partially
incarnate as Asvatthama. Agni will partially incarnate as Dronacarya.
182 Candra will partially incarnate as Abhimanyu. Vasu will partially incarnate as Bhisma. Kasyapa will
partially incarnate as Vasudeva. Aditi will partially incarnate as Devaki.
183 Vasu will partially incarnate as Nanda-gopa. Vasu's wife will partially incarnate as Yasoda. Laksmi will
partially incarnate as Draupadi, who was born from a yajna pond.
184 Agni will partially incarnate as noble and powerful Dhrstadyumna. Satarupa will partially incarnate as
Subhadra, born from Devaki's womb.
185 In this way the demigods must go, by their partial expansions, to the earth and help to remove its burden.
The demigods' wives must also go, by their partial expansions, to the earth.
186 At that point Lord Krsna stopped speaking. O Narada, Brahma stood there, listening.
187 Sarasvati was at Lord Krsna's left and Laksmi at His right. Parvati and all the demigods were before Him.
188 The gopis and gopas were before Him. Sri Radha rested on His chest. At that moment Sri Radha, the queen
of Vraja spoke to Lord Krsna.
189 Sri Radha said: O Lord, please hear the words of Your maidservant. My life has become a blazing fire that
burns without stop. My mind trembles, swinging to and fro.
190 When I look at You I cannot even blink. O Lord, how can I go to the earth without You?
191 O friend, how much time must pass before I will meet You again in Gokula? O master of My life, please
tell the truth.
192 An eyeblink without You will be a hundred yugas for Me. What will I look on? Where will I go? Who will
protect Me?
193 O master of My life, how can I for a moment think of mother, father, relatives, friends, brother, sister, or
children when You are gone?
194 O master of illusions, please promise me that when I am on the earth You will not cover Me with illusion
and make Me forget Your glories.
195 O Krsna, please turn My mind into a bumblebee always wandering among the nectar lotus-flowers of Your
feet.
196 Wherever I may be born, please give Me service to You and remembrance of You.

197 You are Krsna and I am Radha. When I am on the earth may I never forget the glory of Our love. O Lord,
please give Me this benediction.
198 As breath always stays with the body and as the body always stays with its shadow, may We two always
stay together when We take birth. O Lord please give Me this benediction.
199 When We are on the earth let Us not be separated for even an eyeblink. O Lord, please give Me this
benediction.
200 Who was it that used My life-breath to create Your body, feet, and flute?
201 How many glorious kinds of women are there? How many kinds of glorious men praised again and again?
No woman is attached to her lover as I am to You.
202 How is it that I was created from half of Your body? There is no difference between Us. That is why My
mind always thinks of You.
203 How is it that My mind, heart, and life were placed in Your body. And Your mind, heart and life were
placed in Mine?
204 That is why an eyeblink's separation from You brings a great catastrophe to My mind. That is why, when it
hears that We may be separated, My life-force burns in an unending fire.
205 After speaking these words in the assembly of demigods, again and again Sri Radha grasped Lord Krsna's
lotus feet and loudly wept.
206 Then, placing Her on His lap and with His own garment wiping the tears from Her face, Lord Krsna spoke
many true and beneficial words.
207 Sri Krsna said: Goddess, please listen and I will describe to You the yoga of the Supreme, a yoga even the
kings of the yogis cannot understand, a yoga that cuts grief into many pieces.
208 O beautiful one, consider this: The entire universe is constructed of two things: resting places and things
that rest in them. It is not possible for a resting thing to be separated from its resting place.
209 For the fruit the resting place is the flower. For the flower the resting place is the twig. For the twig the
resting place is the branch. For the branch the resting place is the tree itself.
210 For the tree the resting place is the sapling. For the sapling, which is manifest from the seed, the resting
place is the seed. For the seed the resting place is the earth.
211 For the earth the resting place is Lord Sesa. For Lord Sesa the resting place is the great tortoise beneath
Him. For the tortoise the resting place is the wind. For the wind the resting place is I Myself.
212 For Me the resting place is You. I always rest in You. You have all powers. You are the root from which
the material nature has sprung. You are the Supreme Goddess.
213 You are the resting place of all bodies. You are the resting place of the three mode of nature. You are the
resting place of Me, for I am Your heart. Without You I cannot act. Only by Your grace have I the power to act.
214 From the man the seed is manifest. From the seed children are manifest. The resting place of both seed and
children is the woman, who is manifest from material nature.
215 How can the spirit soul exist without the body? How can the body exist without the spirit soul? They are
both the first cause. O goddess, how can the creation be manifest without them both?
216 O Radha, We are not different. We are the seed and the world grown from the seed. I am the soul and You
are the body. Where the soul is present, there also is the body. We are not different. Why must You be so
humble?
217 As whiteness is present in milk, as heat is present in fire, as fragrance is present in earth, and as coolness is
present in fire, so I am always present in You.
218 As milk and its whiteness, fire and its heat, earth and its fragrance, and water and its coolness are one and
cannot be separated, We are one also. We cannot be separated.
219 Without Me, You are lifeless. Without You, I am invisible. O beautiful one, without You I cannot exist.
220 Without clay a potter cannot make a pot. Without gold a goldsmith cannot make a gold ornament.
221 As the spirit soul is eternal, Your are also eternal. You are the material nature. You are all powerful. You
are the eternal resting place of everything.
222 Laksmi, all-auspicious Sarasvati, Brahma, Siva, Sesa, and Yamaraja are dear as life to Me. But You are
more dear than life to Me.
223 If this were not so, then why do the demigods and demigoddesses stay nearby, but You rest on My chest, O
Radha?

224 O Radha, give up Your tears. I saintly one, give up this fruitless and mistaken worry and go to King
Vrsabhanu's house.
225 O beautiful one, use Your powers to create an artificial pregnancy in Kalavati. For nine months fill her
womb with air.
226 When the tenth month comes leave Your natural form behind, accept the form of an infant girl and go to the
earth.
227 At the time of giving birth, place Your form of a naked infant on the ground by Kalavati and cry like a
newborn child.
228 O saintly one, in this way, without entering a mother's womb, You will appear in Gokula. I also will appear
without entering a mother's womb. You and I do not enter a mother's womb.
229 The moment I come to earth Vasudeva will carry Me to Gokula. Pretending to fear Kamsa, I will go there
for Your sake.
230 I will be Nanda's son in Yasoda's house. O beautiful one, again and again You will happily see me and
tightly embrace Me.
231 O Radha, because of the benediction I give You, You will remember everything. Following My own wish, I
will enjoy pastimes with You in Vrndavana forest again and again.
232 Therefore, accompanied by thirty three virtuous friends and twenty one billion gopi-associates, please go to
Vraja.
233-4 O Radha, after comforting with eloquent nectar words the numberless gopas and gopis left behind in
Goloka, I will go to Vasudeva's home in Mathura City.
235 The ten million gopas most dear to Me should take birth in the homes of the gopas. To enjoy pastimes with
Me they should go to Vraja.
236 O Narada, then Lord Krsna stopped speaking. The demigods, demigoddesses, gopas and gopis were silent.
237 Then Brahma, Siva, Yama, Sesa, Parvati, Laksmi and Sarasvati joyfully offered prayers to Lord Krsna.
238 Overcome with love and burning in the flames of imminent separation, the devoted gopas and gopis offered
prayers to Lord Krsna and bowed down before Him.
239 Burning in the flames of imminent separation even though Her desires were all fulfilled, Sri Radha
devotedly offered prayers to Her lover Krsna, who is more dear to Her than life.
240 Seeing that Sri Radha was weeping many tears of distress, Lord Krsna spoke to Her truthful words of
enlightenment.
241 Sri Krsna said: O goddess more dear than life, please be peaceful. Give up You fears. What You feel I also
feel. Why should You be unhappy while I am with You.
242 However, I will tell You something that is not good. You will be separated from Me for a hundred years.
243 O beautiful one, I will go to Mathura and because of Sridama's curse, We will be separated.
244 In Mathura I will remove the earth's burden, release My parents from bondage and give liberation to a
florist, a tailor and a hunchback girl.
245 Then I will kill Kalayavana, deliver Mucukunda, build the city of Dvaraka, and see a Rajasuya-yajna.
246 Then I will marry 16 100 princesses and defeat many enemies.
247 Then I will help My friends, burn Varanasi, make Siva yawn and cut Banasura's arms.
248 I will forcibly take the Parijata tree, see many saintly sages when I go on pilgrimage, and perform many
other activities.
249 While on pilgrimage I will speak with My friends and relatives, help My father perform a yajna, and, at an
auspicious moment, see You again.
250 There I will also see the gopis and again I will teach You the truth of spiritual philosophy.
251 From that time We will never really be separated for even a moment of the day or night. Then, after some
time, I will return to Vraja.
252 Beloved, during the hundred years We are separated We will meet in Our dreams again and again.
253 In My Narayana form I will go to Dvaraka for those hundred years. In that way I will enjoy My pastimes
there.
254 Then I will return to live with You in the forest. Then I will wipe away all the sufferings of My parents and
the gopas and gopis.
255 When I have removed the earth's burden I will return to Goloka with the gopas, gopis and You.

256 O Radha, in My form as eternal Lord Narayana I will return to Vaikuntha with Laksmi and Sarasvati.
257 My various incarnations will return to Svetadvipa, the home of religion, and the partial incarnations of the
demigods and demigoddesses will all return to their respective abodes.
258 Then You and I will again live in Goloka. Beloved, now I have told You everything both good and bad.
Who can stop from happening what I have foretold?
259 After speaking these words, Lord Krsna had Radha rest against His chest. All the demigods and their wives
were astonished.
260 Then Lord Krsna said to the demigods and demigoddesses: O demigods, please return to your homes and
prepare for your mission.
261 O Parvati, please go to Mount Kailasa with your husband and sons. At the proper time you will execute the
mission I have given you.
262 As I have said, you will take birth as a partial incarnation. You will not be accompanied by Ganesa, who is
the lord of the great and the small.
263-4 Bowing down before Lord Krsna, the demigods happily returned to their homes. Then, bowing again
before Lord Krsna and before Laksmi and Sarasvati, they went, eager to execute their mission, to the earth.
Then Lord Krsna described Sri Radha's mission, a mission beyond what the demigods can attain.
265 Lord Krsna said to Sri Radha: Accompanied by the many gopas and gopis I have already named, please go
to King Vrsabhanu's home.
266 Beloved, first I will go to Vasudeva's home in Mathura, and then, on the pretext of fearing Kamsa, I will go
to Gokula, where You will be.
267 Radha bowed down before Lord Krsna. Tormented with the thought of being separated from Her love, She
wept, Her eyes now red lotus flowers, again and again.
268 She began to go and then She returned. Again and again and again and again She left, returned, and gazed
and gazed at Lord Krsna's face.
269 With the cakora birds of Her unblinking eyes saintly Radha drank the nectar moonlight of Lord Krsna's
face.
270 Seven times the supreme goddess Radha circumambulated Lord Krsna. Seven times She bowed down and
respectfully stood before Him.
271 Then twenty-one billion gopis and ten million gopas came there.
272 O Narada, accompanied by the multitudes of gopas and gopis, Sri Radha bowed down before Lord Krsna
and respectfully stood before Him.
273 Accompanied by Her thirty-three close friends and by the many gopas and gopis, beautiful Radha bowed
down before Lord Krsna and then went to the earth.
274 Then Radha-gopi went to Vrsabhanu-gopa's home, the place Lord Krsna arranged for Her in Nanda's
Gokula.
275 When Radha went with the gopas and gopis to the earth, Lord Krsna became eager to go there also.
276 After speaking to the gopas and gopis and giving them their various duties, Lord Krsna, the master of the
universes, travelling as fast as the mind, went to Mathura.
277 Before all this Vasudeva and Devaki had six sons and Kamsa killed each one as soon as they were born.
278 By Lord Krsna's order, Yogamaya pulled from Devaki's womb the seventh embryo, who was an incarnation
of Lord Sesa, and place it in Rohini's womb in Gokula.

Chp 7: Lord Krishna's Advent


Chp 7: Sri Krsna-janma-kirtana: The Story of Lord Krsna's Birth
1 Sri Narada said: O glorious one, please describe Lord Krsna's glorious and sacred birth. This description frees
the hearer from birth, death and old-age.
2 Whose son was Vasudeva? Whose daughter was Devaki? Who were Vasudeva and Devaki? Please describe
their marriage.
3 Why did cruel Kamsa kill their six sons? On what day was Lord Krsna born? I wish to hear this. Please
describe it.

4 Sri Narayana Rsi said: Vasudeva was Kasyapa Muni in his previous birth, and Devaki was Aditi, the mother
of the demigods. As a result of their previous deeds they attained Lord Krsna as their son.
5 Vasudeva was born from King Devamidha in the womb of Marisa. At the moment of his birth jubilant
demigods sounded anaka and dundubhi drums. For this reason the elder saintly devotees gave Lord Krsna's
father the name Anakadundubhi.
6 Devaka, a king in the Yadu dynasty, was the son of King Ahuka. Devaka has a son, Jnanasindhu, and a
daughter, Devaki.
8 Carefully following the rules of scripture, Garga Muni, the guru of the Yadu dynasty, performed the wedding
ceremony of Vasudeva and Devaki.
9 There was a great reception for Vasudeva. At an auspicious moment King Devaka gave Devaki in marriage to
Vasudeva.
10 O Narada, King Devaka then gave a dowry of a thousand horses and golden cups, a hundred beautiful and
opulently decorated maidservants,...
11 ...many different kinds of gifts, many different kinds of jewels, many diamonds, which are the king of
jewels, and many jewel cups.
12-14 Then Vasudeva took his bride, who was splendid as a hundred moons, decorated with splendid jewels,
noble, glorious, able to enchant the three worlds, the best of women, a treasury of beauty, a treasury of virtue,
smiling with crooked eyes, in full bloom of youth, and a perfect bride, placed her in his chariot and began to
depart. Kamsa, who was filled with joy on the occasion of his sister's marriage, accompanied them.
15 As Kamsa approached the chariot, a disembodied voice spoke from the sky. 16 The voice said: Why are you
so happy, the king of kings? Hear these truthful words meant for your welfare. Devaki's eight son will kill you.
17 Hearing this, powerful and sinful Kamsa, frightened by the oracle and filled with anger, grasped a sword in
his hand and was about to kill Devaki.
18 Seeing Kamsa about to kill Devaki, intelligent Vasudeva, who was learned in the scriptures of ethics, spoke.
19 Sri Vasudeva said: You don't know how a king should act. Please hear my auspicious words, which are
perfectly appropriate, which are spoken by scripture, and which bring fame and destroy sin.
20 O king, if her eighth son will be your death, and you kill her instead of him, your reputation will be
destroyed and you will go to hell.
21 If somehow he kills a ferocious beast that is attacking him, a wise man gives in charity coins equal to one
karsapana. In this way, at the moment of his death, he is released from the sin of killing the beast.
22 In he kills an animal that is not attacking him, then, in order at the time of his death to be released from the
sin, a wise man should perform an atonement a hundred times greater than the previous one. This is said by the
demigod Brahma.
23 If without provocation he kills a higher animal, such as a goat, then the sin is a hundred times greater. Manu
has said this.
24-26 If he kills a human being that is a mleccha, the sin is a hundred times grater than killing a higher animal.
If he kills a pious sudra, the sin is a hundred times greater than killing a mleccha. If he kills a cow the sin is a
hundred times greater than killing a pious sudra. If he kills a brahmana the sin is ten time greater than killing a
cow.
27 By killing a woman one commits a sin equal to killing a brahmana. 28 O king, if one kills his own sister,
who has taken shelter of him and deserves to be protected by him, he commits a sin a hundred times greater
than killing a woman.
29 A person performs austerities, chants mantras, performs worship, sees holy places, feeds brahmanas, and
performs yajnas in order that he may go to Svargaloka.
30 The saintly devotees see that this fearful material life is temporary like a dream or like bubbles in water.
Therefore they always follow the principles of religion.
31 O saintly one, let your sister go. How many wise men are there? Ask them what you should do.
32 Friend, I will give you my eighth son. Why must I have an eighth son? 33 Or I will give you all my children.
O best of the wise, none of them would be very dear to me.
34 O king of kings, let your sister go. She is like your own daughter. You, yourself reared her, every day giving
her delicious foods to eat.
35 Hearing Vasudeva's words, King Kamsa released his sister. Then Vasudeva took his bride to their palace.

36 O Narada, in the course of time six sons were born. Vasudeva gave each one to Kamsa, and Kamsa killed
them all, one by one.
37 When Devaki was pregnant the seventh time, frightened Kamsa posted guards at her door. Then goddess
Yogamaya protected the unborn child, pulling it out of Devaki's womb and placing it in Rohini's womb.
38 The guards said there was a miscarriage. Because the seventh child, who was the Personality of Godhead
Himself, was pulled (sankarsana) from the womb, He was called Sankarsana.
39 Then Devaki became pregnant for an eight time. This time there was no child in her womb. It was filled with
air.
40 When the ninth month passed and the tenth came, Lord Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead who
sees everything, glanced at Devaki's womb.
41 As a result of the Lord's glance, Devaki, who was naturally the most beautiful of all women, suddenly
became four times more beautiful.
42 Kamsa noticed that Devaki, her eyes and face blossoming with happiness, filled the ten directions with her
splendour like the goddess Yogamaya.
43 She was splendid like all the stars together. Kamsa, the king of demons, gazed at her and became filled with
wonder.
44 Kamsa said, "From this pregnancy will come the child that is the seed of my death." Then he posted guards
at the seven gates to guard Devaki and Vasudeva with great care.
45 O Narada, when the tenth month came Devaki's pregnancy was complete. Numb and stunned, she began to
tremble.
46 When Devaki's womb was thus filled with air, Lord Krsna, the original Supreme Personality of Godhead,
entered the lotus of her heart.
47 When the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who maintains all the universes entered her womb, Devaki
became stunned and filled with pain as she stayed in the confines of her palace.
48 Devaki became restless. One moment she would sit down, the next moment she would stand up, the next
moment she would pace back and forth, and the next moment she would sleep.
49 Observing Devaki, and aware that the time of giving birth had come, noble-hearted Vasudeva meditated on
Lord Krsna.
50 In the beautiful palace lit with jewel lamps Vasudeva reverently placed a sword, iron, water, fire,...
51 ...a person learned in chanting mantras, a learned brahmana, his relatives and their frightened wives.
52 When two hours of night had passed the sky became filled with clouds and lightning.
53 Great winds blew. The eight guards fell asleep. In their sleep they became motionless and unconscious as if
dead.
54 Then the demigods Brahma, Siva, and Yamaraja came and offered prayers to the Supreme Personality of
Godhead in Devaki's womb.
55 The demigods said: You are the origin of the universes, but You have no origin. You are limitless,
immutable, effulgent, sinless, and supremely exalted. You have no material qualities, for Your qualities are all
spiritual. You are beyond the three modes of material nature.
56 Out of love for them You show Your transcendental form to the devotees. Your form is not material. You are
independent. Your every desire is automatically fulfilled. You are the master of all. You are everything. You are
the shelter of all transcendental qualities.
57 You are the origin of happiness and distress. You are the origin of all. You put an end to the demons. You
are perfect. You are the shelter of everything. You are always fearless and free from any distress.
58 You are not material. You are not touched by matter. Your actions are not material. Your desires are all
fulfilled. You are self-satisfied. You are eternal and free from any imperfection.
59 You are gentle, ferocious, difficult to please, unattainable, the author of the Vedas, the Vedas, the Vedangas,
the knower of the Vedas, and the all-powerful Lord.
60 After speaking these words the demigods bowed down again and again. Tears of joy in their eyes, they
showered flowers on the Lord.
61 A person who rises early and chants these forty-two names attains firm devotion for Lord Krsna. His desire
to serve the Lord is fulfilled.
62 Sri Narayana Rsi said: After speaking these prayers, the demigods returned to their own abode. Then a great

rain suddenly fell and no one moved about in Mathura City.


63 O sage, a terrible darkness covered the night. Seven muhurtas passed and the eighth muhurta came.
Note: One muhurta equals forty-eight minutes.
64 Then, at the most auspicious moments, a moment even the Vedas cannot properly glorify, a moment beyond
all understanding, a moment when all auspicious planets were visible on the horizon and no inauspicious
planets could be seen,...
65 ...a moment on the eighth tithi, O sage, when a half-moon had risen with the star Rohini and the auspicious
Jayanti-yoga was present,...
66 ...at that moment the sun and the other planets both auspicious and inauspicious, gazed again and again at the
horizon, became filled with awe, left their regular places and met in the sign Pisces.
67 Staying there, all the planets became auspicious. In this way, by the demigod Brahma's order, all the planets
happily stayed in the eleventh house for one muhurta.
68 Then the clouds rained, pleasantly cool winds blew, the earth became happy, and the ten directions became
filled with joy.
69 Filled with joy, the sages, manus, yaksas, gandharvas, kinnaras, apsaras, demigods, and demigoddesses
danced.
70 O Narada, the gandharva kings and the vidyadharis sang, the rivers happily flowed and the fires happily
blazed.
71 In Svargaloka there was beautiful music of dundubhi and anaka drums. There was a great shower of parijata
flowers.
72 The earth-goddess assumed the form of a human woman and visited Devaki's maternity-room, there were
loud sounds of conchshells and the sounds of 'Victory!' and 'Hari!'
73 Then saintly Devaki fell to the ground and the air suddenly passed from her belly.
74 Then Lord Krsna, the original Supreme Personality of Godhead, left the lotus-whorl of Devaki's heart and
manifested His transcendental form before her.
75-80 O sage, then Vasudeva and Devaki saw before them the supremely handsome and charming Supreme
Personality of Godhead, who had two arms, a flute in His hand, glittering shark-earrings, a gentle smile, great
mercy for His devotees, ornaments of the kings of jewels, a form dark like a monsoon cloud, yellow garments,
limbs anointed with sandal, aguru, musk and kunkuma, an autumn moon face, handsome bimba fruit lips, a
peacock feather crown, a splendid jewel-crown, a threefold bending form, and a forest garland, who had the
mark of Srivatsa on His chest, who was youthful, peaceful and handsome, and who was the Lord of both
Brahma and Siva.
81 His hands respectfully folded, his neck bent with devotion, tears in his eyes and the hairs of his body erect,
the Supreme Personality of Godhead's father, Vasudeva, filled with wonder, and his wife Devaki by his side,
offered prayers to the Lord.
82-86 Sri Vasudeva said: O almighty one, how can I properly glorify You, who are beyond the material senses,
not manifest in the material world, imperishable, beyond the modes of nature, all-powerful, not attainable by
meditation, the Supersoul present in everyone's heart, the supreme controller whose every desire is at once
fulfilled, the Lord who assumes any form at will, the Supreme Spirit, untouched by matter, the seed of all
existence, eternal, bigger than the biggest, smaller than the smallest, the most subtle, all-pervading, invisible,
the witness present in all bodies, the Lord who has a transcendental form with a host of transcendental qualities,
the Lord who has no material form, the material world, the master of the material world, beyond the material
world, the master of all, present in all forms, the death that puts an end to all that is material, deathless,
immutable, the resting place on which all depends, depends on no one, and the supreme perfect one?
87 Lord Sesa is not able to glorify You properly. Goddess Sarasvati is not able. Lord Siva is not able.
Karttikeya is not able.
88 Lord Brahma, the author of the Vedas is not able to glorify You properly. Ganesa is not able. The guru of the
guru of the kings of the yogis is not able.
89 The great sages, demigods, manus, and human beings cannot see You, even in their dreams. How can they
glorify You properly?
90 Even the personified Vedas cannot glorify You properly. How can the scholars of this world glorify You? O
Lord, please leave this present form and now become a small boy.

91 A person who at sunrise, noon, and sunset recites these prayers of King Vasudeva attains devotional service
for the lotus feet of Lord Krsna.
92 He attains a noble and virtuous son devoted to serving Lord Krsna. He quickly passes through all dangers.
He is delivered from the fears of his enemies.
93 Sri Narayana Rsi said: After hearing Vasudeva's words, handsome and glorious Lord Krsna, overcome with
feelings of kindness for His devotee, and His face beaming with happiness, spoke to him.
94 Sri Krsna said: Because of your great austerities I have now become your son. Please ask for a boon. Your
future will be auspicious. Of this there is no doubt.
95 Formerly you were the prajapati Sutapa, the best of ascetics. You and your austere wife worshipped Me with
great austerities.
96 When you saw Me you asked for the boon of having a son like Me. I gave you the boon of having a son like
Me.
97 After giving you that boon I thought, "In the whole world there is no one like Me." For that reason I have
now become your son.
98 By the power of your austerities you were the great sage Kasyapa and your wife was chaste Aditi, the mother
of the demigods.
99 You are Kasyapa, now appearing as My f father Vasudeva, Your wife is Aditi, the mother of the demigods,
who is now Devaki.
100 As a partial incarnation, I appeared as Vamana and became the son of You and Aditi. Now, by the power of
your austerities, I have appeared in My original form.
101 Thinking of Me either as your son or as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, you will attain Me. O wise
one, you will be liberated even in this life.
102 O father, take me at once to Yasoda's home in Vraja. Leave Me there and put Goddess Maya in My place.
103 After speaking these words, Lord Krsna assumed the form of a newborn infant. Vasudeva gazed at his
sleeping, dark, infant son, on the ground before him.
104-5 Vasudeva said, "What happened when I looked at this child? Was I bewildered by Lord Visnu's illusory
potency? Did I, overcome with exhaustion, see a dream in this maternity room?" Vasudeva and his wife gazed
at the infant in their lap. Then Vasudeva took the infant to Nanda's Gokula.
106 Vasudeva quickly went to Nanda's Vraja, entered the maternity room there, and saw that Yasoda was asleep
on her bed, Nanda was asleep, and everyone in the house was also asleep.
107 He saw a gently smiling infant girl, naked and gazing at the housetop. 108 When he saw the infant girl,
Vasudeva became filled with wonder. 109 Taking the girl with him, and leaving his son in her place, he quickly
returned to his wife's maternity room in Mathura.
110 There he placed the infant girl, who was the goddess Maha-maya. When she saw the girl cry again and
again, Devaki became afraid.
111 Crying, the infant girl awakened the guards, who quickly came and took her away.
112 As they took the child to Kamsa, grieving Vasudeva and Devaki followed them.
113 O great sage, when he saw the beautiful infant girl crying again and again, Kamsa was not at all pleased. He
did not feel any mercy for her.
114 Grabbing the infant, cruel Kamsa was about to throw her against the stone and kill her, when Vasudeva and
Devaki very respectfully addressed him.
115 They said: O Kamsa, O best of kings, O philosopher wise in the science of morality, Please hear our
beautiful, true, and righteous words.
116-7 O kinsman, you killed our six sons. You had no mercy on them. If you kill our eighth child, who is a
weak girl, how will your power and glory triumph on the face of the earth? How can a weak girl attack and kill
you in battle?
118 After speaking these words Vasudeva and Devaki openly wept before wicked Kamsa and his assembly.
119 After hearing their words, cruel Kamsa said to them, "Listen to my words. Try to understand and I will
explain.
120 Kamsa said: Destiny can kill a mountain with a blade of grass, a lion or a tiger with a tiny worm, an
elephant with a mosquito,...
121 ...a great warrior with a child, an enormous animal with tiny creatures, a cat with a mouse, a snake with a

frog,...
122 ...a father with his son, an eater with his food, water with fire, and a fire with hay.
123 A single brahmana once drank the seven seas. In the seven worlds the wonderful workings of destiny are
beyond our understanding.
124 By destiny a girl will be able to kill me. Therefore, I will not kill this girl. Here I will not think whether the
time is right.
125 After speaking these words, Kamsa grabbed the infant girl and was about to kill her, when Vasudeva spoke.
126 He said, "O King, you will kill this girl for no reason. O ocean of kindness, please give her to me." O great
sage, when he heard these words, intelligent Kamsa became a little pacified.
127 Then a disembodied voice said, "Fool Kamsa, who is this girl you would kill? You do not understand how
destiny works.
128 "Your killer is somewhere else. In time He will reveal Himself." Hearing the words of destiny, King Kamsa
released the infant girl.
129 Taking the girl with them, Vasudeva and Devaki returned to their own home. They pressed her to their
heart and accepted her as their own daughter.
130 As if they had recovered their daughter from the grip of death, they gave charity to the brahmanas. O
brahmana, that girl,who was named Ekanamsa, was a partial incarnation of Parvati.

Ananda Vrindavana Champu by Shrila Kavi Karnapura


Chapter Two: The Appearance of Lord Krsna
Now we will discuss the truth about the transcendental birthplace of Bhagavan and the appearance of Lord Sri
Krsna. Once upon a time, Bhumi, the predominating deily of the earth, felt overburdened by different demons
posing as members of the royal order. Feeling aggrieved upon seeing her miserable condition, the lotus-born
Brahma appealed to Ksirodakasayi Visnu, the maintainer of the universe, saying, "Please deliver Goddess
Bhumi who is feeling greatly distressed by these demoniac kings. Only You can remove this terrible influence
from the earth."
The time for an appearance of the Lord coincided with two internal desires of the Supreme Personality of
Godhead. First the Lord desired to descend on earth to increase the fortune of Yasoda and Nanda. Also at that
time Krsna wanted to relish the sweet mellow of smgara rasa (paramour love) while enacting His worldly
pastimes. For these two reasons the Lord appeared within the material creation on Bhuloka, (earth planet), along
with His parents, friends, and other eternal associates.
Another distinction of Lord Krsna's earthly pastimes is that when the eternally liberated gopis such as Srimati
Radharani, Candravali, and others appeared, the Srutis personified also appeared in the homes of other gopis,
because they had previously cultivated the desire to serve Sri Krsna as Vraja gopis. The Dandakaranya sages,
upon seeing the svakiya bhava (the sweet conjugal relationship) of Lord Ramacandra and Siladevi, desired to
have the same relationship with their Lord Madana Gopala. Upon attaining perfection in their sadhana they
achieved the fortunate position of appearing as gopis in Vrndavana. Yogamaya, Lord Krsna's pastime potency
who possesses unlimited abilities, appeared invisibly in Gokula to arrange this, and perform other difficult tasks
on behalf of the Lord.
Sri Nanda, Yasoda, and others appeared in Brhadvana (Mahavana) before the Lord. The gopas, gopis, and other
eternally liberated associates appeared after the Lord. Then those who had attained perfection by sadhana,
namely the sruti-caris and muni-caris, took birth in Vrndavana.
Learning of Krsna's imminent appearance, the earth personified, feeling like a wife happily greeting her
husband after a long separation, immersed in unlimited Joy. At the time of Krsna's birth the general mass of
people tasted the inner bliss that devotees forever relish. Auspicious signs abounded everywhere. As Visnu's
conchshell Pancajanya opens in a clockwise fashion, similarly, auspicious sacrificial fires glowed in ail
directions. Pure gentle breezes brought a refreshing coolness like devotees who satisfy and sanctify everyone
with their calm, sweet, and affectionate behavior.

The whole atmosphere became as completely purified as the heart of a devotee. The devotees once again found
peace and prosperity in worshiping the lotus feet of Lord Hari. Fruits filled the jubilant trees. But the envious
demons exhibited various inauspicious signs of degradation such as rapidly aging bodies and symptoms of
imminent death. The desire vines of the celestial deni7ens seemed to be hanging in the air as if eager to produce
fruits. At that time all the directions became felt as pure and joyful as the mind of a devotee who has received
the mercy of Lord Hari. Just as gems, mantras, or medicines can a remove a poisonous disease from the body of
a man, the advent of the Lord relieved the world from the contamination of material existence and the sinful
effect of the demons. Happiness gradually replaced the distress in everyone's hearts.
The bodies of all creatures manifested extraordinary beauty and youthful vitality. Men felt extremely Joyful and
displayed virtuous qualities. Throughout the world people behaved cordially and interacted amicably.
Happiness twinkled in everyone's eye. At the end of Dvapara-yuga, which completely destroys faults and
doubts, an auspicious, favorable, obstacle-free time appeared on the eighth day of the waning moon in Bhadra
month-Just at that sweet moment the Rohini Naksatra, along with the good qualities of the moon and an
auspicious conjunction of stars called Ayusman, appeared in the sky to give shelter to gentle persons.
As the living entity comes out from the womb of his mother and the moon appears on the lap of the eastern
direction, Yogesvara Sri Krsna, the personification of complete bliss, appeared amidst great festivities. As the
moon appears in the lap of the eastern direction, which is like a beautiful bride, Krsna manifested the wonderful
pastime of His appearance out of His love and compassion for the conditioned souls.
Due to austerities performed in previous lives, Vasudeva and Devaki received the opportunity to momentarily
relish parental affection for Lord Sn Krsna when He appeared before them in His form as Vasudeva. Thereafter
in fear of Kamsa, Vasudeva brought Vasudeva Krsna to Gokula. There the Supreme Lord appeared as Govinda
before Nanda and Yasoda, His eternal parents who have been smothering Him with the sweetest form of
parental love since time immemorial. The four symbols of Visnu (sankha, cakra, gada, padma) adorned His
hands and feet. The flute, flower garland, and kaustubha mani, although present within Him, had not yet
manifested.
In fear of cruel Kamsa, Vasudeva decided to transfer all his wives except Devaki to Gokula. He sent Rohini to
the house of VraJaraja Nanda. By the sweet will of the Lord, Yogamaya arranged for the seventh child of
Devaki (Balarama) to enter the womb of Rohini. As a result, Balarama appeared in the home of Vrajaraja
Nanda before the birth of Krsna.
Lord Hari, who is bliss personified, appeared in the home of Nanda Maharaja, the king of Vmdavana for three
reasons: to engage the self satisfied sages in devotional service, to please the devotees by performing sweet
transcendental pastimes, and to relieve the earth's burden caused by the demons. At the time of His majestic
birth Krsna employed His inconceivable powers to appear in a body of eternity, bliss and knowledge. Everyone
in the maternity room swelled with joy upon seeing the Lord's exquisite transcendental form that looked like a
creeper of beauty.
Mother Yasoda resembled a lake of spiritual ecstasy in which a brilliant blue lotus of personified bliss had
appeared. Neither the wind nor the bees relished the fragrance of that blue lotus. That unborn lotus was never
touched by the waves of the modes of nature. Even Lord Brahma could not see it, what to speak of ordinary
men.
After Yasoda and her family members fell asleep in the maternity room, Hari cried beautifully like a newbom
baby. His crying sounded like the maha-vakya omkara announcing the auspicious arrival of His pastimes.
Omkara is a transcendental vibration that had previously emanated from the mouth of Lord Brahma. When the
ladies of Vrndavana heard the sweet sound of Krsna's crying, they woke up and ran to see the Lord. With the
mellow of their matchless overflowing affection they anointed His body.
The natural fragrance of Krsna's body smelled just like musk. After the ladies bathed Krsna in sweet ambrosia,
He looked cleansed and beautiful. Then they smeared His body with fragrant sandalwood pulp. The presiding
deity of the house sent a campaka flower resembling the flame of a lamp into the maternity room to worship
that ornament of the three worlds. With the strength of His little amis, delicate as the tender leaves of a tree,
Krsna made all the lamps in the maternity room look like a garland of lotus flower buds.

The ladies of Vrndavana saw baby Krsna like a blossoming flower made of the best of blue sapphires, or like a
newly unfurled leaf of a tamala tree. Krsna looked like a fresh rain cloud decorated with the musk tilaka of the
goddess of fortune of the three worlds. The ointment of the greatest auspidousness lined His eyes. His presence
filled the maternity room with good fortune. Although a mere baby, Krsna had a head full of curly hair. To hide
the unique signs on His hands (goad, fish, conch etc.) the Lord folded His delicate petal-like fingers into His
lotus palm. At that time Krsna laid on His back with His eyes closed.
Mother Yasoda awoke amidst the joyous chattering of the elderly gopis. Leaning over the bed she admired her
gorgeous son. But upon noticing her own reflection on Krsna's body, she imagined it another woman. Thinking
that a witch had assumed her form to kidnap Krsna, Yasoda became bewildered and yelled, "Get out of here!
You go away!" Spontaneously she cried out to Nrsimhadeva to protect her precious son. Beholding Krsna's
tender face, Yasoda showered tears of affection that looked like an offering of a pearl necklace.
Yasoda saw Krsna's body as a mound of dark blue musk, softer than the butter churned from the milk ocean.
Overflowing with nectar, His charming body appeared like the foam of milk, but being dark blue in color it
seemed the foam was full of musk juice- Admiring the supremely delicate form of her son, Yasoda worried
about His safety and feared the touch of her body might hurt his tender body.
As she leaned over the bed Yasoda bathed Krsna with the milk dripping from her breasts. The elderly gopis
instructed Yasoda how to caress the baby in her lap, and affectionately push the nipple other breast into Krsna's
mouth to feed Him. Due to Yasoda's intense love, personified bliss flowed from her breasts as steady streams of
milk. When milk sometimes spilled out of Krsna's bimba fruit red lips onto His cheeks, Mother Yasoda would
wipe His face with the edge of her cloth. After feeding her son, Yasoda gazed affectionately at Him in wonder,
She saw her child's body as made of dazzling blue sapphires. His mouth resembled a red bimba fruit and His
hands and feet looked like exquisite rubies. Krsna's nails shone like precious gems. In this way, Yasoda thought
her child was completely made of jewels. Then .she perceived that His naturally reddish lips looked like
bandhuka flowers. His hands and feet resembled Java flowers, His nails looked like maflika flowers. Yasoda
then thought, "Krsna's whole body seems to be made of blue lotus flowers. He does not appear to be mine."
After thus deliberating within herself Yasoda became stunned in amazement.
The beautiful, soft curly hairs on the right side of Krsna's chest resembled the tender stems of a lotus. Seeing the
mark of Srivatsa on His chest, Yasoda thought it was breast milk that had previously spilled out of His mouth.
She tried unsuccessfully to remove these 'milk stains' with the edge of her cloth. Struck with wonder, Yasoda
thought this must be the sign of a great personality. Observing the sign of Laksmi (a small golden line) on the
left side of Krsna's chest, Yasoda thought a small yellow bird had made a nest amidst the leaves of a tamala
tree. Could this be a streak of lightning resting on a rain cloud, or could it be the golden streaks marking a black
gold-testing stone? Krsna's delicate, leaf-like hands and feet, glowing pink like the rising sun, looked like
clusters of lotus flowers floating in the Yamuna.
Sometimes Yasoda saw the curly, dark blue locks of baby Krishna as a swarm of bumblebees surrounding His
face. Intoxicated from drinking too much honey nectar, the bees just hovered in the sky. His thick, beautiful
blue hair appeared like the dark night. The two lotus eyes of Krsna looked tike a pair of blue lotus buds. His
cheeks resembled two huge bubbles floating in a lake of liquefied blue sapphires. Krsna's attractive ears looked
like a pair of fresh unfurled leaves growing on a blue creeper.
The tip of Krsna's dark nose appeared like the sprout of a tree, and His nostrils looked like bubbles in the
Yamuna River, the daughter of the sun god. His lips resembled a pair of red Java flower buds. Krsna's chin rivaled a pair of ripe, red jambu fruits. Seeing the extraordinary beauty of her son fulfilled the purpose of her eyes
and submerged Yasoda in an ocean of bliss.
The elderly Vrajavasi ladies addressed VraJaraJa Nanda, "0 most fortunate one, you fathered a son!" Previously
Nanda Maharaja had felt deeply aggrieved over his long-standing inability to obtain a son. His heart was like a
small lake that had completely dried up during a long hot summer. But when Nanda Maharaja heard of his son's
birth he felt as if the dry lake of his heart had been blessed with a sudden downpour of nectar. The gentle sound
of Krsna's voice removed all his grief and lamentation. Now he bathed in the rains of bliss, swam in the ocean
of nectar, and felt embraced by the joyful stream of the celestial Ganges.

Eager to see his son, Nanda's body thrilled with astonishment and waves of ecstasy as he stood outside the
maternity room. Because he had accumulated heaps of pious activities, it appeared that the King of Vmdavana
was now shaking hands with the personification of pious deeds. Anxiously standing in the background,
Yogamaya induced Nanda Maharaja to enter the maternity room. He rushed in to see his son, the personified
seed of condensed bliss- It seemed that all the auspiciousness of the three worlds now resided within Krsna, the
original cause of everything. Nanda saw his son as a perfectly charming person. The kajala around Krsna's eyes
looked like lines on a black creeper of beauty. As the very embodiment of Nanda's good fortune, Sri Krsna
bloomed like a beautiful flower in a garden of desire trees.
The aparajita flower is compared to the body of the Queen of Vmdavana. Her son is like the representative of
the Upanisads that are compared to the fruit of the desire creepers. By seeing his glorious son Nanda felt that he
had attained happiness, perfection, and the fulfillment of all his desires. Meeting that embodiment of bliss
overwhelmed Nanda with immeasurable satisfaction. He stood motionless, stunned; his hair stood erect and
tears flowed from his eyes. He appeared like a person carved in stone or a figure drawn in a painting. For some
time Nanda Maharaja remained in this semi-conscious state like a sleeping man about to awaken.
Upananda, Sunanda, and other relatives felt extremely joyful while observing the best of brahmanas perform the
rites of purification for Krsna's birth. To insure his son's welfare Nanda Maharaja donated newborn calves to
each and every brahmana, thus turning their homes into abodes of surabhi cows. These cows had gold and silver
plated homs and hooves, and jeweled necklaces adorning their necks. In addition, Vrajapati Nanda filled the
courtyards of their homes with hills of gold, jewels, and sesame seeds. While Nanda distributed charity, the
kamadhenus, touch- stones, and desire-trees lost their power to produce valuable items- Even the jewelproducing oceans lost their stock of jewels, and the goddess of fortune, the abode of lotuses, had but one lotus
in her hand. The auspicious news of Krsna's wonderful appearance spread in all directions by word of mouth.
Delight danced in the hearts of Nanda, his brothers Upananda and Sunanda, and all the other gopas.
The gopas brought many varieties of delicious dairy products such as milk, yogurt, butter, wet cheese, and hard
cheese in jewel-studded pots. The pots were tied to the ends of bamboo poles with jute straps and carried on
their shoulders. Bedecked with many precious Jeweled ornaments, the gopas appeared very handsome. They
dressed in beautiful yellow cloth defeating the brilliance of lightning, and held staffs topped with gold and
jewels in their lotus hands. As a great ocean spreads its waves in all directions, the birth of Krsna filled the
Vrajavasis with unbounded bliss. The gopas and gppis enjoyed a grand festival by happily eating and by splashing each other's bodies with a mixture of yogurt, butler, milk, and condensed milk.
The society girls visiting Nanda Maharaja's house experienced more happiness than they had ever felt since
their birth. Their minds saturated with joy and satisfaction- Hearing the delightful description of Krsna's birth
carried away the chariots of their minds and made them abandon all other duties. They became possessed with
the desire to see Krsna.
Sparkling rubies hung from the necklaces adorning the society girls. Their diamond-studded armlets shown
more beautifully than drops of crystal clear water. Their jewel inlaid golden bangles boasted unparalleled elegance. For this unique festival they took out some highly ornamental waist-belts from their jewel boxes and
tied them around their hips. The sweet jingling of the waist-bells resting on their broad hips enhanced the
beauty of these society girls. They attracted the minds of everyone with their bulky golden anklets, loosened
hair braids, and graceful gait, which resembled the smooth gliding of swans. Their minds entered a state of
enchantment as they gazed upon the captivating beauty of Krsna's transcendental body. To worship Krsna they
brought golden trays full of auspicious articles such as fruits, flowers, yogurt, durva grass, uncooked rice, and
jewel bedecked lamps. They covered the offering plates with splendid yellow silk cloth and held them in their
soft lotus hands. Their Jeweled ankle-bells vibrated pleasantly as they walked.
Beholding the astounding beauty of the delicate baby, the society girls considered the purpose of their eyes
fulfilled. They perceived Krsna's perfect birth to be like the appearance of the leaves of an important herbal
medicine. Krsna resembled a blue lotus floating in the lake of His parent's affection. After bestowing iheir
blessings for Krsna's prosperity, they worshiped Krsna with fresh flowers and a constant shower of loving
glances. With great enthusiasm the society girls glorified Vrajesvari Yasoda since she had attained the essence
of all good fortune by having Krsna as her son.

Leaving the maternity room, the society girls entered the assembly hall of Nanda Maharaja's palace. Their faces
looked exceedingly beautiful as they sung melodious songs, which resembled the soft sweet humming of bees
moving amidst a cluster of lotus flowers. All the guests bathed in a nectar shower produced by these soothing
sounds. Overwhelmed with love, they filled their lotus palms with fragrant oil, turmeric paste, and fresh butter
and started smearing each other's faces and bodies. They looked very attractive with their smiling faces and
glittering white teeth.
Their red lips seemed more beautiful than red bandhuka flowers. This incredible display of elegance smashed
the pride of the goddess of fortune of the three worlds. Carried away with joy over Krsna's birth, they. fearlessly
threw cheese balls, butter, and yogurt at each other. One could mistake the white balls of cheese for hailstones,
solidified moonlight, or white mud from the floor of the milk ocean. Then they showered each other with
buttermilk, aromatic oils, and water mixed with turmeric.
Cymbals, damm drums, bherries, and big drums vibrated auspicious sounds in specific melodies. A celestial
concert of precise poetical meters, proper rhythms, and metrical compositions suddenly manifested there. The
musical ensemble inspired the society girls to sing and dance in mirth and merriment. Though not good singers,
by the will of the Lord they sang with great virtuoso. Their wonderful songs filled Nanda Maharaja's heart with
joy. The combined vibrations of brahmanas' chanting Vedic hymns, the recitation of Puranic lore, and the
panegyrists' prayers transformed the ethers into sabda brahman.
The joy of Krsna's birth celebration taxed the drains of Nanda's capital city as they swelled to the brim with
milk, yogurt, and other auspicious liquids. Soon rivers of this nectar flooded the streets of the town and
permeated the entire atmosphere with a sweet fragrance. Disguising themselves as birds, the demigods
descended to Vrajapura to happily drink the flood of nectar. The VraJavasis decorated their cows with gold and
jeweled ornaments. Then in great excitement they smeared them with oil, fresh butter, and turmeric paste.
Beholding Krsna in their hearts, these fortunate cows looked like the essence of the earth's auspicious-ness. The
whole world resounded with their jubilant bellowing. Absorbed in the ecstasy of Krsna's birth, they forgot about
eating and drinking.
The festival drowned the gopis in an ocean of joy. After offering oil, vermilion, garlands, and utensils in charity
to all the assembled gopis, Rohini, the wife of Vasudeva, asked them to bless Krsna. Upon completion of the
sacrifice, Upananda and the other relatives felt constant happiness while taking their baths. Keeping the King of
Vrndavana in the front, Nanda's relatives offered opulent cloth. Jeweled ornaments, tambula, garlands, and
sandalwood pulp to the guests. Then they humbly requested all in attendance to bless that wonderfully
auspicious boy who had just appeared in Vrndavana. (Translated by Bhanu Swami, Subhaga Swami, edited and
published by Mahanidhi Swami).

Brahma Vaivarta Purana


Vows, Worship, and Fasting on Shri Janmashtami
Chapter Eight: Sri Brahma-vaivarta Purana
Sri Janmastami-vrata-pujopavasa-nirupana
1 Sri Narada said: Now please tell me of the vow of Janmastami, which is the great vow of vows. Please tell me
the result attained by following the ceremony of Jayanti-yoga.
2 O great sage, what sinful reaction does one meet by not following this vow or by eating on that day? What
pious result does one attain by fasting on that day?
3 O Lord, please describe the result of following this vow, including the rules governing the day before the fast,
and breaking the fast on the following day.
4 Sri Narayana Rsi said: On the saptami (seventh day) and on the day after the fast (the navami or ninth day)
one should eat havisya (rice and ghee) only. On the day of Janmastami (the eight day) one should rise at dawn.
5 O brahmana, one should rise early, bathe, perform his morning duties, and be determined to follow the vow
and the fast for the pleasure of Lord Krsna.
6 O brahmana, by bathing and worshipping the Lord during the eight day (Janmastami) of the month of Bhadra
(August-September) one attains the result of bathing and worshipping the Lord for a manvantara.
7 If on this day one offers only a little water to the pitas, he attains the result of performing sraddha at Gaya for
a hundred years.
8 On that day, after bathing and performing his regular duties, a wise person should arrange for a maternityroom, place in it water, fire, and an iron sword, post guards,...
9 ...place many things there, place there an instrument for cutting the umbilical cord, have a midwife there,...
10 ...place there, O Narada, sixteen articles for worshipping the Lord, eight fruits and candies,...
11 ...the eight fruits and candies being jatiphala, kakkola, pomegranate, sriphala, coconut, jambira, kusmanda,
and manohara,...
12-13 ...and the sixteen articles for worship being a sitting place, garments, padya, madhuparka, arghya, water
for acamana, water for bathing, a bed, fragrances, flowers, food-offerings, betel nuts, ointments, incense, lamps,
and ornaments,...
14 ...wash his feet, put on clean clothes, perform acamana, say the word 'svasti', sit on the seat,...
15 ...place a pot there, worship the five deities, invite Sri Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, to appear
there,...
16 ...invite Vasudeva, Devaki, Yasoda, Nanda, Rohini, Balarama, Goddess Sasthi, Goddess Vasundhara,...
17 ...Rohini, Brahma, Asthami, the Sthana-devata, Asvatthama, Bali, Hanuman, Vibhisana,...
18 ...Krpacarya, Parasurama, Vyasadeva, and Markandeya and then meditate on Lord Krsna.
19 Then a wise person should place a flower to his head and meditate on the description of the Lord spoken in
the Sama Veda. O Narada, please listen and I will tell you that description, which Lord Brahma told the
Kumaras in ancient times.
20 I worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is an infant boy, who is splendid as a dark monsoon
cloud, who is very handsome, whose lotus face is smiling, whom Brahma, Siva, Sesa and Yama glorified for
how many days? Whom the kings of sages cannot approach in their meditations, whom the munis, siddhas, and
sons of Manu cannot attain, whom the kings of the yogis cannot imagine in their thoughts, who is the greatest,
who is without peer, who is all-seeing witness.
21 The follower of this vow should thus meditate on the Lord. Then, reciting mantras, he should offer the
flower, and all the other articles to the Lord. Please hear these mantras.
22 Here are the mantras: O Lord Krsna, please accept this all-beautiful jewel throne, wonderfully decorated
with graceful and colourful pictures and designs.
23 O Lord Krsna, please accept these wonderful and colourful garments pure as fire and made by Visvakarma
from threads of pure gold.
24 O Lord Krsna, please accept this golden pot filled with water to wash Your feet. Please accept this pure
padya water and this beautiful flower.
25 O Lord Krsna, please accept these gold pots of honey, ghee, yoghurt, milk and sugar.

26 O Lord Krsna, please accept this durva grass, whole rice, white flower, clear water, sandal, aguru, and musk.
27 O Supreme Lord, please accept this clear, pure, sweet, scented acamana water.
28 O Lord Krsna, please accept this scented Visnu-oil, amalaki paste, and bath water.
29 O Lord Krsna, please accept this beautiful bed made of the best of jewels and covered with exquisite cloth.
30 O Lord Krsna, please accept this scented paste made of musk the powdered tree-roots.
31 O Supreme Lord, please accept this fragrant flower so dear to all the demigods and grown from a blossoming
tree.
32 O Lord Krsna, please accept this offering of ripe fruits, sugar-candy, svastika candy and other candies.
33 O Lord Krsna, please accept this laddu, modaka, ghee, milk, molasses, honey, fresh yoghurt, and buttermilk.
34 O Lord Krsna, please accept these betel nuts mixed with camphor and other things, which I offer to You with
devotion.
35 O Supreme Lord, please accept this beautiful avira powder made with sandal, aguru, musk and kunkuma.
36 O Lord Krsna, please accept this incense made by cooking the nectars of many trees, incense very dear to all
the demigods.
37 O Lord Krsna, please accept this splendid and auspicious lamp that destroys the terrible blinding darkness.
38 O Lord Krsna, please accept this pure drinking-water scented with camphor and other fragrances, water that
is the life of all living entities.
39 O Lord Krsna, as an ornament for Your transcendental body please accept this garland of many flowers on a
fine thread.
40 O Supreme Lord, please accept these fruits, which are the seeds of trees, and which make one's dynasty
prosper.
41 In this way, at that place, one should offer many appropriate things to Lord Krsna.
42 The person following this vow should then devotedly worship the many deities there and then offer them all
three palmfuls of flowers.
43-45 In this way one should worship Sunanda, Nanda, Kumuda, the gopas, the gopis, Sri Radha, Ganesa,
Karttikeya, Brahma, Siva, Parvati, Laksmi, Sarasvati, the dik-palas, the planets, Sesa, Sudarsana, the liberated
associates of the Lord, and all the demigods, and one should offer obeisances to them, falling to the ground like
a stick. Then one should offer food and daksina to the brahmanas.
46 Then the person following this Janmastami vow should hear the chapter of scripture describing Lord Krsna's
birth, and then he should, sitting on a seat of kusa grass, keep an all-night vigil.
47 At dawn he should perform his regular duties and then he should worship Lord Krsna. Then he should feed
the brahmanas and then he should chant the glories of Lord Krsna.
48-49 Sri Narada said: When a person follows the Janmastami vow, fasts, and keeps the all-night vigil, what
result does he attain? What is the sin one commits by eating on this holy day? O best of the knowers of the
Vedas, referring to the Vedas, Vedangas and ancient Samhitas, please, please describe this.
50 Sri Narayana Rsi said: If (in the dark fortnight of the month of Bhadra) even only a quarter of the astami is
present at midnight, that day is considered Janmastami, the time when Lord Krsna was born.
51 Because it brings victory (jaya) and piety, this day is called Jayanti. A wise person should fast, follow the
Janmastami vow, and keep an all-night vigil on this day.
52 This is the most auspicious of all times. The demigods Brahma and knowers of the Vedas say this.
53 One who fasts, follows the Janmastami vow, and keeps an all-night vigil on this day becomes freed from the
sins of ten million births. Of this there is no doubt.
54 One should not celebrate Janmastami on an astami mixed with the saptami. Even if the star Rohini (is
conjoined with the moon) this astami is not considered Janmastami.
55 Lord Krsna, the son of Devaki, was born on an astami unmixed with the saptami, an astami when the star
Rohini was conjoined with the moon. When this most auspicious moment, an astami when the moon is
conjoined with Rohini, is passed, a person who has followed the Janmastami vow should break his fast.
56 When the tithi of Janmastami is over, one should remember Lord Krsna, worship the devas and asuras, and
break his fast. Breaking the fast in this way is very purifying and destroys all sins.
57 Breaking the fast in this way, an essential part of the fast, brings purification and the attainment of other
results. The breaking of the fast should be performed during daytime.
58 Otherwise, if the fast is not broken during the daytime, the results of fasting, following the Janmastami vow,

and breaking the fast are all destroyed.


59 One should not break the fast at night. The only exception is the Rohini-vrata, when the fast may be broken
at night, but not at midnight.
60 In the morning one should worship the brahmanas and demigods and then break the fast. All the saintly
persons agree this is the best time to break the fast. Only in the Rohini-vrata is it not the best time.
61 If follows the Janmastami vow on a Janmastami when Mercury is conjoined with the moon, he will never
again enter a mother's womb.
62-63 If one a certain Janmastami the navami begins at sunrise and the moon is conjoined with Mercury or the
star Rohini, that Janmastami is very auspicious. Such a Janmastami occurs perhaps in a hundred years. One who
follows the Janmastami vow on that day delivers ten million of his relatives.
64 Lord Krsna is pleased with His devotees that observe the fast of Janmastami, even though, because of not
having sufficient wealth, they cannot perform the Janmastami vow.
65 To one who follows the vow, worshipping the Lord with various articles and keeping an all-night vigil, Lord
Krsna, the enemy of the demons, gives the result of following the Janmastami vow.
66 A person who observes Janmastami in a way appropriate to his financial means attains the proper result, but
a wealth person who does not observe Janmastami in a way appropriate to his wealth does not attain the same
result.
67 A wise person should not break his fast during Janmastami or while the star Rohini is still conjoined with the
moon. To do that is to destroy his past pious deeds and the transcendental result earned by fasting.
68 Breaking the fast during the tithi of Janmastami destroys one's pious deeds eight times over, and breaking the
fast while the star Rohini is conjoined with the moon destroys one's pious deeds four times over. Therefore one
should be careful to break his fast when Janmastami and the star Rohini have passed.
69 O best of sages, when the tithi of Janmastami and the star Rohini both end at midnight, a person following
the Janmastami vow should break his fat on the third day from Janmastami.
70 O Narada, one who eats during the midnight of Janmastami attains the sinful reaction of killing a brahmana.
71 On a pure Janmastami (not mixed with the saptami) one should not eat even fruit or betel nuts, or even drink
water. Eating these is like eating stool or cow's flesh, or like drinking urine. What, then, can be said of eating
rice?
72 The wise say that night lasts for 9 hours and is bounded, at its beginning and end, by sunrise and sunset,
which last for 48 minutes each.
73 A person who on a pure Janmastami (not mixed with the saptami) follows the Janmastami vow and keeps an
all-night vigil becomes free from the sins of a hundred births. Of this there is no doubt.
74 A person who on a pure Janmastami (not mixed with the saptami) fasts but does not follow the Janmastami
vow or keep the all-night vigil, attains the result of performing an asvamedha-yajna.
75 He is freed from the sins performed in the infancy, childhood, youth, and age of seven lifetimes.
76 One who eats on Lord Krsna's birthday is lowest of mankind. His sinful reaction like that of having raped his
mother and murdered a hundred brahmanas.
77 His pious credits of ten million births are at once destroyed. He become impure. He becomes unfit to
worship the demigods or the pitas.
78 At the end of his life he enters the hell called Kalasutra (the rope of time). As long as the sun and moon shine
in the sky he is devoured by worms with teeth sharp like spears.
79 When his time in hell is over he rises to the earth, where he becomes a worm in stool for sixty thousand
years.
80 Then he becomes a vulture for ten billion births, a pig for a hundred births, a dog for a hundred births, and a
jackal for a hundred births.
81 Then he becomes a snake for seven births and then a row for seven births. Then he takes birth as a human
being, where he is unable to speak and where he becomes a leper, always suffering.
82 Then he becomes a butcher and then a hunter of wild beasts. At the end he becomes a thief and a murderer, a
man with no scruples.
83 Then he becomes a washerman, then an oil-merchant, and then a professional brahmana, always impure at
heart.
84 If one is unable to fast he should feed a brahmana and give him charity equal to twice the value of the food.

85 Or, he should chant mantras to Goddess Laksmi a thousand times, or he should practice pranayama twelve
times.
86 Thus I have described, as I heard it from Yamaraja's mouth, the fasting, vows and worship performed on
Janmastami.

Hari Bhakti Vilasa


Shri Janmashtami Vow
Hari Bhakti Vilasa: Shri Janmashtami Vrata
Fifteenth Vilasa, Volume Two
Text 246

atha bhdra-ktyam
bhdre bhagavato janmadine kryo mahotsava
vieea mah-pj
vrata-prena vaiavai
atha-now; bhdra-ktyam-the duties of Bhadra; bhdre-in Bhadra; bhagavata-of the Supreme Personality of
Godhead; janma-of ther birth; dine-the day; krya-to be done; mahotsava-great festival; vieeaspecifically; mah-pjm-great worship; vrata-prena-with a a vow fulfilled; vaiavai-by the Vaiavas.
Duties in the Month of Bhdra (August-September)
In the month of Bhdra the Vaiavas should celebrate a great festival on the birthday of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead. They should perform great worship and fulfill a vow.
Text 247

atha janmam-vratam
sarvair avaya kartavya
janmam-vrata narai
nityatvt ppa-hritvt
sarvrtha-prpand api
atha-now; janmam-vratam-the vow of Janmam; sarvai-by all; avayam-compulsory; kartavyam-to be
done; janmam-vratam-the vow of Janmam; narai-by people; nityatvt-because of regularity; ppahritvt-because of removing sins; sarvrtha-all benefirs; prpant-because of attainment; api-also.
The Vow of Janmam
The vow of Janmam is compulsory for everyone. This is because it is a regular observance, it removes
sins, and it grants all benefits.
Text 248
atha r-janmam-vratotpatti
bhaviyottare r-yudhihira uvca
janmam-vratam- brhi
vistrea mamcyuta
kasmin kle samutpanna
ki puya ko vidhi smta

atha-now; r-janmam-vratotpatti-the creation of the Janmam vow; bhaviyottare-in the Bhavisya


Purana, Uttara-khanda; r-yudhihira uvca-r Yudhihira said; janmam-vratam-the vow of
Janmam; brhi-please tell; vistrea-elaborately; mama-to me; acyuta-O infallible Lord; kasmin-at what;
kle-time; samutpannam-manifested; kim-what; puyam-piety; ka-what; vidhi-rules; smta-considered.
The Origin of r Janmam
In the Bhaviya Pura, Uttara-khaa, r Yudhihira says:
O infallible Lord, please describe to me the vow of Janmam in great detail. When did this vow begin?
What piety does it grant? How is it performed?
Text 249
r-ka uvca
hate kassure due
mathury yudhihira
devak m parivajya
ktvotsage ruroda ha
r-ka uvca-r Ka said; hate-killed ; kassure-the demon Kamsa; due-wicked; mathurym-in
Mathura; yudhihira-O Yudhihira; devak-Devaki; mm-Me; parivajya-embracing; ktv-placing;
utsage-on the lap; ruroda-wept; ha-indeed.
r Ka said: O Yudhihira, after I had killed the demon Kasa, Devak embraced Me, placed Me on her
lap, and wept.
Text 250
tatraiva raga-ve s
macrh janotsave
malla-yuddhe pur vtte
sastut kukurndhakai
tatra-there; eva-indeed; raga-vte-in teh arena; s-she; maca-on the grandstand; rh-high; janotsave-in
the festival; malla-yuddhe-in the wrestling; pur-before; vtte-done; sastut-praised; kukurndhakai-by
the Kukuras and Andhakas.
When the wrestling was over she stood up in the grandstand. The Kukuras and Andhakas praised her.
Text 251
svajanair bahubhi snigdhais
te strbhi samvt
vasudevo 'pi tatraiva
vatsalyt praruroda me
samgamya parivajya
putra putrety uvca ha
svajanai-own people; bahubhi-many; snigdhai-affectionate; tem-of them; strbhi-by the women;
samvt-surrounded; vasudeva-Vasudeva; api-also; tatra-there; eva-indeed; vatsalyt-out of parental
affection; praruroda-wept; me-Me; samgamya-approaching; parivajya-embracing; putra-son!; putra-son!;
iti-thus; uvca-said; ha-indeed;.

Her affectionate kinsmen and their wives surrounded her. Vasudeva came, embraced me, said, "Son! Son!"
and wept with a father's love.
Text 252
sa gadgada-svaro dino
bpa-parykulekaa
balabhdra ca m caiva
parivajyedam abravt
sa-he; gadgada-svara-his voice choked up; dina-poor; bpa-parykulekaa-his eyes filled with tears;
balabhdram-Balarma; ca-and; mm-Me; ca-and; eva-indeed; parivajya-embracing; idam-this; abravt-said.
His eyes filled with tears, he embraced Balarma and Me. In a choked voice he said:
Text 253
adya me saphala janma
jvita ca sujvitam
yadu-bhbhy sutbhy me
samudbhta samgama
adya-today; me-of me; saphalam-fruitful; janma-birth; jvitam-lived; ca-and; sujvitam-well lived; yadubhbhym-the two lights of the Yadus; sutbhym-with the sons; me-of me; samudbhta-born;
samgama-met.
Today my birth has born fruit. Today my life is lived well. Now I have met my sons, the two glories of the
Yadu dynasty.
Text 254
eva harea dam-patyor
ha sarva tad npa
praipatya jan sarve
mm cus te praharit
evam-thus; harena-with joy; dam-patyo-of the husband and wife; ham-happy; sarvam-all; tad-then;
npa-O king; praipatya-bowing down; jan-people; sarve-all; mm-to Me; cu-said; te-they; praharithappy.
O king, seeing My parents' happiness, everyone else became happy. Bowing before Me, everyone spoke
these words:
Text 255
adya praharo hy asmka
adya jto janrdana
adya mallga-yuddhena
dua kaso niptita
adya-today; prahara-happiness; hi-indeed; asmkam-of us; adya-today; jta-born; janrdana-Ka;
adya-today; mallga-yuddhena-in the wrestling battle; dua-wicked; kasa-Kamsa; niptita-fallen.
Today we are happy. Today Ka is born. Today the demon Kasa has fallen in a wrestling match.
Text 256

eva mahotsava dv
samje madhusdana
prasda kriyatm asya
lokasynyo 'pi ghrata
evam-thus; mahotsavam-a great festival; dv-seeing; samje-in the assembly; madhusdana-O Ka;
prasda-mercy; kriyatm-should be done; asya-of him; lokasya-of the people; anya-another; api-also;
ghrata-quickly.
O Lord Ka, please glance at the people in this festival. Please give Your mercy to them and to others also.
Text 257
yasmin dine prasyeta
devak tv janrdana
tad-dina dehi vaikuha
kurmas te tatra cotsavam
samyag-bhakti-prpannnmprasdam- kuru keava
yasmin-in which; dine-day; prasyeta-gave birth; devak-Devcak; tvm-to You; janrdana-O Ka; taddinam-that day; dehi-please give; vaikuha-O Lord who destroys all sufferings; kurma-we will do; te-for
You; tatra-there; ca-and; utsavam-a festival; samyag-bhakti-prpannnm-of Your sincere devotees;
prasdam-mercy; kuru-please do; keava-O Ka.
O Ka, O Lord who removes all sufferings, please give to us the day when Devak gave birth to You. We
will celebrate a festival in Your honor. O Ka, please be kind to Your sincere devotees.
Text 258
evam ukte janaughena
vasudevo 'pi vismita
vilokya balabhdra ta
sampraha-tanruha
evam-thus; ukte-spoken; janaughena-by the multitude of people; vasudeva-Vasudeva; api-also; vismitasurprised; vilokya-seeing; balabhdram-Balarma; tam-Him; sampraha-tanruha-the hairs of his body
erect in ecstasy.
Filled with wonder to hear the people speak these words, and the hairs of his body now erect in ecstasy,
Vasudeva glanced at Balarma and said:
Text 259
evam ast iti lokn
kathayasva yath-tatham
evam-so; astv-be it; iti-thus; loknm- -of the people; kathayasva'please tell; yath-tatham-as it is.
It should be so. Please tell the people.
Text 260
tatas tta-samden
may janmam-vratam

mathury janaughaya
prtha samyak prakitam
tata-then; tta-of father; samdet-because of the instruction; may-by Me; janmam-vratamJanmam; mathurym-in Mathur; janaughya-to the people; prtha-O son of Pth; samyak-properly;
prakitam-revealed.
O son of Pth, then, on My father's order, I revealed the vow of Janmam to the people of Mathur.
Text 261
paur ca taj-janma-dina
vare garbhame gate
punar janmam lok
kurvantu brhmadaya
katriy vaiya-jty
dr ye 'nye 'pi dharmia
paur-the people of the city; ca-and; ta-janma-dinam-on the borthday; vare-in the year; garbhame-the
eighth; gate-had come; puna-again; janmamm-Janmam; lok-the people; kurvantu-should do;
brhmadaya-beginning with the brahmanas; katriy-the ksatriyas; vaiya-jty-the vaisyas; dr-the
sudras; ye-who; anye-others; api-also; dharmia-pious.
The brhmaas, katriyas, vaiyas, dras, and all others who are pious, from the age of eight years and
older, should observe this vow of Janmam.
rla Santana Gosvm comments:
The same is true for observing ekda. In the scriptures it is said:
aa-vardhiko bla
"Children eight years and older should also observe ekda."
Text 262
siha-ri-gate srye
gagane jaladgame
msi bhdra-pade 'amy
ka-pake 'rdha-rtrake
ake va-ri-sthe
prjpatyarka-samyute
vasudevena devaky
aha jto jana svayam
siha-ri-gate-in Leo; srye-when the sun; gagane-in the sky; jalada-of clouds; game-at the arrival; msiin the month; bhdra-pade-of Bhadra; aamym-on the aam; ka-pake-on the dark fortnight; ardhartrake-in the middle of the night; ake-the moon; va-ri-sthe-in Taurus; prjpatyarka-samyute'with
the star Rohi; vasudevena-by Vasudeva; devakym-in Devak; aham-I; jta-born; jan-O people;
svayam-personally.
O people, during the monsoon season, on the aam of the dark fortnight (ka-paka, of the month of
Bhdra, when the sun was in Leo and the moon and the star Rohi were both in Taurus, in the middle of
the night I was born as the son of Vasudeva and Devak.

Text 264
evam etat samkhyta
loke janmam-vratam
bhagavaty ca tatraiva
kurudhva su-mahotsava
mathury tata pacl
loke khyti gamiyati
evam-thus; etat-that; samkhytam-called; loke-in the world janmam-vratam-the vow of Janmam;
bhagavaty-of the goddess; ca-also; tatra-there; eva-indeed; kurudhvam-should do; su-mahotsavam-a great
festival; mathurym-in Mathur; tata-then; pact-after; loke-in the world; khytim-fame; gamiyati-will
go.
This day will be known in this world as the vow of Janmam. On this day celebrate a great festival
honoring both Me and the goddess. First this festival will be celebrated in Mathur. Later it will become
famous in the whole world.
rla Santana Gosvm comments:
The word "bhagavaty" (goddess, here refers to Devak. It may also refer to Durg.
Text 265
ity karya yathkhyta
tath lokair anuhitam
ntir astu sukha cstu
lok santu nirmay. iti.
iti-thus; karya-hearing; yathkhytam-as called; tath-so; lokai-by the people; anuhitam-established;
nti-peace; astu-may be; sukham-happiness; ca-also; stu-may be; lok-people; santu-may be;
nirmay.-free of disease; iti.-thus.
Hearing of this festival, the people began to observe it. May there be peace amongst them. May they be
happy. May they have good health.
Text 266
nityatva ca para tasya
bhagavat-prann matam
vidhi-vkya-viec cakrae pratyavyata
nityatvam-regularity; ca-and; param-then; tasya-of that; bhagavat-prant-because of pleasing the Lord;
matam-considered; vidhi-method; vkya-statement; viet-specifically; ca-and; akrae-in nonperformance; pratyavyata-because of obstacles.
This festival should be observed every year, for that is pleasing to the Lord. The scriptures also describe
some offenses in its observance.
Text 267
atha r-janmam-vrata-nityatvam
tatra r-bhagavat-pranam- vidhis" ca sknde
prahlddyai ca bh-plai

kt janmam ubh
raddhay paray vio
prtaye ka-vallabh
atha-now; r-janmam-vrata-nityatvam.-the regular performance of this vow; tatra-there; r-bhagavat-the
Supreme Personality of Godhead; pranam-pleasing; vidhi-method; ca-and; sknde-in the Skanda Purana;
prahlddyai-beginning with Prahlada; ca-and; bh-plai-by kings; kt-done; janmam-Janmam;
ubh-auspicious; raddhay-with faith; paray-great; vio-of Lord Viu; prtaye-for the pleasure; kavallabh-dear to Lord Ka.
r Janmam Should Be Observed Every Year
The Observance of r Janmam Is Pleasing to the Supreme Personality of Godhead
In the Skanda Pura it is said:
Prahlda and other great kings very faithfully observe the auspicious vow of Janmam, which is dear to
Lord Ka. Their purpose is to please Lord Viu,
Text 268
ki ca
prjpatyarka-samyukt
rvaasysitam
vare vare tu kartavy
tuy-artha cakra-pina
kim- ca-furthermore; prjpatyarka-samyukt-with the star Rohini; rvaasya-of Sravana; asita-dark;
aam-astami; vare-in year; vare-after year; tu-indeed; kartavy-to be done; tuy-artham-for the pleasure;
cakra-pina-of Lord Ka, who holds the cakra in His hand.
It is also said:
To please Lord Ka, who holds a cakra in His hand, the aam of the dark fortnight in the month of
rvaa, when the star Rohi is conjoined with the moon, should be observed year after year.
Text 269
athkaraa-pratyavye
prathamam- bhojane pratyavya
r-viu-rahasye brahma-nrada-samvde
drnnena tu yat ppa
ava-hasta-stha-bhojane
tat ppa labhate pumbhir
jayanty bhojane kte
atha-now; akaraa-pratyavye-obstacles; prathamam-first; bhojane-in eating; pratyavya-obstacles; rviu-rahasye-in r Viu-rahasya; brahma-nrada-samvde-in a conversdation of Brahma and Narada;
dra-of sudras; annena-by food; tu-but; yat-what; ppam-sin; ava-of a corpse; hasta-in the hand; sthasituated; bhojane-in food; tat-that; ppam-sin; labhyate-is attained; pumbhi-by the people; jayantym-on
Jayanti; bhojane-eating; kte-done.
Offenses in This Vow
First, the Offense of Eating

In the r Viu-rahasya, Brahma' tells Nrada:


By eating on Jayant one commits a sin equal to the sin of eating a dra's food or eating the food in the
hand of a corpse.
Text 270
ghdhra-msa khara kka
syena v muni-sattama
msa ca dvipad bhukta
bhukta janmam-dine
ghdhra-of a vulture; msam-flesh; kharam-heron; kkam-crow; syenam-hawk; v-or; muni-sattama-O
best of sages; msam-flesh; ca-and; dvipadm-of two-legged creatures; bhuktam-eated; bhuktam-eaten;
janmam-dine-on Janmam day.
A person who eats on Janmam day commits the sin of eating the flesh of a vulture, heron, crow, or
hawk, or the flesh of a human being.
Text 271
janmam-dine prpte
yena bhukta dvijottama
trailokya-sambhava ppa
bhuktam eva na saaya
janmam-dine-on Janmam day; prpte-attained; yena-by whom; bhuktam-eaten; dvijottama-O best of
brahmanas; trailokya-in the three worlds; sambhavam-born; ppam-sin; bhuktam-eaten; eva-indeed; na-not;
saaya-doubt.
O best of brhmaas, one who eats on Janmam day commits all the sins in the three worlds. Of this
there is no doubt.
Text 272
ki ca
jayant-vsare prpte
karoty udara-puram
pyate tila-mtra tu
yama-dtai kalevaram
kim- ca-furthermore; jayant-vsare-on Jayanti day; prpte-attained; karoti-does; udara-puram-filling the
belly; pyate-is tortured; tila-mtram-only a sesamum seed; tu-indeed; yama-dtai-by the messengers of
Yama; kalevaram-the body.
It is also said:
A person who fills his belly in the Jayant day is tortured by the messengers of Yamarja. They will not allow
him to eat anything more than a single sesamum seed.
Text 273
yo bhukte yo vimhtm
jayant-vsare npa
na tasya narakottro
dvda ca prakurvata

ya-who; bhukte-eats; ya-who; vimhtm-bewildered; jayant-vsare-in Jayanti day; npa-O king; nanot; tasya-of him; naraka-from hell; uttra-deliverance; dvdam-dvadasi; ca-and; prakurvata-doing.
O king, a fool who eats on the Jayant day will not easily be delivered from hell, even if he observes the vow
of dvda.
Text 274
attngata tena
kulam ekottara atam
patita narake ghore
bhujat ka-vsare
atta-passed; angatam-not yet arrived; tena-by him; kulam-family; eka-une; uttaram-more; atam-hundred;
patitam-fallen; narake-into hell; ghore-horrible; bhujat-eating; ka-vsare-on Lord Ka's day.
A person who eats on Lord Ka's holy day pushes into a horrible hell a hundred and one generations of
his relatives past and yet to come.
Text 275
athopavsa-prvaka-pj-viea-mahotsavdi-vrata-tyga-pratyavya
tatraiva
ye na kurvanti jnanta
ka-janmam-vratam
te bhavanti mah-prja
vyl mahati knane
atha-now; upavsa-fasting; prvaka-first; pj-worship; viea-specific; mahotsava-great festuval; dibeginning with; vrata-vow; tyga-abandoning; pratyavya-offense; tatra-there; eva-indeed; ye-who; na-not;
kurvanti-do; jnanta-knowing; ka-janmam-vratam-the vow of Ka Janmam; te-they; bhavantiare; mah-prja-O wise one; vyl-beasts of prey; mahati-in the great; knane-jungle.
The Offense of Failing to Follow the Vow by Fasting, Worshiping, Observing a Great Festival, and
Performing Other Duties
In the r Viu-rahasya it is said:
O wise sage, they who knowingly neglect the vow of r Ka-janmam become ferocious beasts in the
jungle.
Text 276
brahma-haty sur-pna
go-vadha strc-vadho 'pi v
na loko muni-rdla
jayant-vimukhasya ca
brahma-haty-killing a brahmana; sur-pnam-drinking liquor; go-vadha-killing a cow; str...-vadhakilling a woman; api-even; v-or; na-not; loka-world; muni-rdla-O tiger of the sages; jayantvimukhasya-averse to Jayant; ca-and.
O tiger of the sages, a person averse to observing the holy day of Jayant will not find happiness in this life
or the next. His sin is equal to that of killing a brhmaa, a cow, or a woman, or drinking liquor.
Text 277

vare vare tu y nr
ka-janmam-vratam
na karoti mah-prja
vyl bhavati knane
vare vare-year aftyer year; tu-indeed; y-who; nr-woman; ka-janmam-vratam-the vow of Ka
Janmam; na-not; karoti-does; mah-prja-O wise onme; vyl-a ferocious beast; bhavati-is; knane-in
the jungle.
O wise sage, a woman who year after year declines to observe the vow of r Ka-janmam becomes in
her next birth a ferocious beast in the jungle.
Text 278
rvae bahule pake
ka-janmam-vratam
na karoti naro yas tu
sa bhavet krra-rkasa
rvae-in Sravana; bahule-great; pake-side; ka-janmam-vratam-the vow of r Ka-Janmam;
na-not; karoti-does; nara-a man; ya-who; tu-indeed; sa-he; bhavet-becomes; krra-rkasa-a cruel
raksasa.
A man who does not observe r Ka-janmam in the bahula-paka of the month of rvaa becomes in
his next life a cruel rkasa.
Text 279
rvae bahule pake
na karoti yadamm
krryudha krra-mukh
hisanti yama-kikar
rvae-in Sravana; bahule pake-in the bahula-paksa; na-not; karoti-does; yad-when; aamm-astami;
krryudha-with cruel weapons; krra-mukh-with cruel faces; hisanti-torture; yama-kikar-the
servants of Yamarja.
With cruel faces and cruel weapons the servants of Yamarja torture whoever does not observe the aam
day in the bahula-paka of the month of rvaa.
Text 280
na karoti yad vior
jayant-sambhava vratam
yamasya vaam panna
sahate nrak vyathm
na-not; karoti-does; yad-when; vio-of Lord Viu; jayant-sambhavam-the Jayanti day; vratam-vow;
yamasya-of Yama; vaam-the abode; panna-attains; sahate-suffers; nrakm-of hell; vyathm-the torments.
Whoever does not observe the vow of Lord Viu's Jayant day goes to Yama's world where he suffers the
torments of hell.
Text 281
ki ca tatraiva

ka-janmam tyaktv
yo 'nya-vratam upsate
npnoti sukta kicid
da rutam athpi v
kim- ca-furthermore; tatra-there; eva-indeed; ka-janmamm-Ka-Janmam; tyaktv-abandoning;
ya-who; anya-another; vratam-vow; upsate-observes; na-not; pnoti-attains; suktam-piety; kicitsomething; dam-seen; rutam-heard; atha-then; api-even; v-or.
In that scripture it is also said:
A person who neglects the vow of r Ka-janmam and observes another vow instead does not attain
any pious benefit seen or heard anywhere.
Text 282
ki ca
tuy-artha devak-snor
jayant-sambhava vratam
kartavya vitta-hyena
bhakty bhakta-janair api
akurvan yti niraya
yvad indra caturdasa
kim- ca-furthermore; tuy-artham-for satisfaction; devak-sno-of the son of DEvak; jayant-sambhavamin the day of Jayant; vratam-the vow; kartavyam-to be done; vitta-hyena-by cheating on wealth; bhaktywith devotion; bhakta-janai-by devotees; api-even; akurvan-not doing; yti-goes; nirayam-to hell; yvat-as
long as; indr-Indras; caturdasa-fourteen.
It is also said:
One should observe the vow of Jayant to please Lord Ka, the son of Devak. If one does not devotedly
observe this vow with the devotees, or if one does not observe it in a way appropriate to his financial
situation, he will go to hell for as long as the fourteen Indras rule in their posts.
Text 283
atha janmam-mhtmyam
bhaviyottare r-ka-yudhihira-samvde janmam-vrata-kathane
ekenaivopavsena
ktena kuru-nandana
sapta-janma-ktt ppn
mucyate ntra saaya
atha-now; janmam-mhtmyam-the glories of Janmam; bhaviyottare-in the Bhavisya Purana, Uttarakhanda; r-ka-yudhihira-samvde-in a conversatuon of r Ka and King Yudhisthira; janmamvrata-kathane-in the description of the vow of Janmam; ekena-by one; eva-indeed; upavsena-fasting;
ktena-done; kuru-nandana-O delioght of the Kurus; sapta-janma-ktt-done in seven births; ppn-from
the sins; mucyate-released; na-not; atra-here; saaya-doubt.
The Glories of Janmam
In the Bhaviya Pura, Uttara-khaa, Lord Ka tells King Yudhihira:

O delight of the Kurus, by once fasting during Janmam a person becomes free from the sins of seven
births. Of this there is no doubt.
Text 284
putra-santnam rogya
saubhgyam atula labhet
satya-dharma-rato bhtv
mto vaikuham pnuyt
putra-santnam-descendents; rogyam-healthy; saubhgyam-fortune; atulam-peerless; labhet-attains; satyadharma-rata-devoted to religion and truth; bhtv-becoming; mta-dead; vaikuham-Vaikuntha;
pnuyt-attains.
His descendants are righteous. He attains health and peerless good fortune. He becomes devoted to truth
and religion, and when he dies he goes to Vaikuha.
Text 285
tatra nitya vimnena
vara-laka yudhihira
bhogn nn-vidhn bhuktv
puya-ed ihgata
tatra-there; nityam-always; vimnena-by airplane; vara-lakam-a hundred thousand years; yudhihira-O
Yudhisthira; bhogn-enjoyments; nn-vidhn-many kinds; bhuktv-enjoying; puya-et-with the
remnants of his piety; iha-here; gatacome.
O Yudhihira, that person travels on an airplane, sightseeing the universe and enjoying many pleasures.
This he does for a hundred thousand years. Then, with what remains of his pious credits, he returns here, to
this earth.
Texts 286 and 287
sarva-kma-samddhe tu
sarvsukha-vivarjite
sarva-dharma-yute prtha
sarva-gokula-sakule
tasmin rre prabhur bhukte
drghyur manasepsitn
bhogn ante ca parama
pada yty apunar-bhavam
sarva-kma-samddhe-filled with all desires; tu-indeed; sarvsukha-vivarjite-without any sufferings; sarvadharma-all piety; yute-with; prtha-O Partha; sarva-gokula-sakule-filled with many cows; tasmin-in that;
rre-kingdom; prabhu-master; bhukte-enjoys; drghyu-long life; manas-by the mind; psitn-desired;
bhogn-enjoyment; ante-at the end; ca-and; paramam-the supreme; padam-abode; yti-goes; apunarbhavam-where there is no repeated birth.
Here on this earth He becomes the ruler of a great kingdom, a kingdom filled with all desirable things, all
pious deeds, and many cows, and free of any sufferings. There he lives for a long time and enjoys whatever
his heart desires. At the end he goes to the spiritual world, where there is no repetition of birth and death.
Text 288

tat-kule rpa-vikhyt
jyante hdayagam
tat-kule-in his family; rpa-handsome; vikhyt-famous; jyante'born; hdayagam-dear to the heart.
His descendants are famous for their handsome forms. They are all saintly and pleasing to everyone's hearts.
Text 289
yasmin sadaiva dee tu
likhita vpi carcitam
mama janma-dina puyasarvlakra-obhita
pjyate pava-reha
janair utsava-samyutam
yasmin-in which; sad-always; eva-indeed; dee-country; tu-indeed; likhitam-written; v-or; api-indeed;
carcitam-anointed; mama-of Me; janma-dinam-the birthday; puya-piety; sarva-all; alakra-ornaments;
obhitam-decorated; pjyate-worshiped; pava-reha-O best of the Pandavas; janai-by people; utsavasamyutam-with a festival.
A country where the day of My birth is always shown in pictures and anointed with sandal paste becomes
beautiful with all the ornaments of spiritual life. It becomes a great festival. It is worshiped by all.
rla Santana Gosvm comments
If the word "likhitam" is interpreted to mean "written" and "carcitam" to mean "studied", then the first
phrase of this verse may be interpreted to mean, "a country where the day of My birth is always written in
many books and studied with care".
Text 290
para-cakra-bhaya tatra
na kadcid bhavaty uta
parjanya kma-var syd
tibhyo na bhaya bhavet
para-cakra-bhayam-fear of others; tatra-there; na-not; kadcit-ever; bhavati-is; uta-indeed; parjanya-rain;
kma-as desired; var-raining; syt-is; tibhya-from plagues and calamities; na-not; bhayam-fear; bhavet-is.
In that country there is no fear of others and no fear of plagues or other calamities. There the rain falls as
much as could be desired.
rla Santana Gosvm comments
There are si kinds of calamities (ti): 1. excessive rain, 2. drought, 3. plague of locusts, 4. plague of rats, 5.
plague of birds, and 6. invasion of foreign armies.
Text 291
ghe v pjyate yasmin
devaky carita mama
tatra sarva-samddhi syn
nopasargdika bhayam

ghe-in the home; v-or; pjyate-is worshiped; yasmin-in which; devaky-of Devak; caritam-pastimes;
mama-of Me; tatra-there; sarva-samddhi-all opulences; syt-are; na-not; upasarga-with disease; dikambeginning; bhayam-fear.
All opulences come to a home where My pastimes with Devak are worshiped. Fearful diseases and other
calamities can never enter there.
Text 292
pauto nakuld vylt
ppa-rogc ca ptakt
rjata caurato vpi
na kadcid bhaya bhavet
pauta-from a bull; nakult-from a mongoose; vylt-from a snake or a tiger; ppa-rogt-from sinful
diseases; ca-and; ptakt-from sins; rjata-from a king; caurata-from a thief; v-or; api-also; na-not;
kadcit-ever; bhayam-fear; bhavet-is.
In that home there is no fear of bulls, a mongoose, snakes, tigers, sinful diseases, sins, thieves, or the king.
Text 293
ki ca
yasmin ghe pu-putra
likhyate devak-vratam
na tatra mta-nikrntir
na garbha-patana tath
kim- ca-furthermore; yasmin-in which; ghe-home; pu-putra-O son of Pu; likhyate-is written;
devak-vratam-the vow of Devak; na-not; tatra-there; mta-dead; nikrnti-birth; na-not; garbha-patanammiscarriage; tath-so.
The Lord also said:
O son of Pu, in a home where there is a book describing this vow of worshiping Devak-dev, there will
never be a miscarriage. Nor will any child be born dead.
Text 294
na ca vydhi-bhaya tatra
bhaved iti mata mama
na vaidhavya na daurbhgya
na dambha kalaho ghe
na-nor; ca-and; vydhi-bhayam-fear of disease; tatra-there; bhavet-is; iti-thus; matam-considered; mama-by
Me; na-not; vaidhavyam-widowhood; na-not; daurbhgyam-misfortune; na-not; dambha'deception;
kalaha-quarrel; ghe-in the home.
In that home there need be no fear of disease. That is My opinion. In that home no woman will become a
widow. In that home there will be no misfortune, deception, or quarrel.
Text 295
samparkepi ya kuryt
kaci janmam-vratam
viulokam avpnoti

so 'pi prtha na saaya


samparkea-by contact; api-even; ya-who; kuryt-does; kacit-someone; janmam-vratam-the
Janmam vow; viulokam-Viukloka; avpnoti-attains; so 'pi-that person; prtha-O Partha; na-no;
saaya-doubt.
Even a person who accidentally observes the vow of Janmam will go to the spiritual world of Lord
Viu. Of this there is no doubt.
Text 296
janmam jana-mano-nayanotsavhy
pppah sapadi nandita-nanda-gop
yo devak sadayit yajatha tasy
putrn avpya samupaiti pada sa vio
janmam-Janmam; jana-of the people; mana-of the mind; nayana-of the eyes; utsava-festival; hyenriched; ppa-sins; apah-removing; sapadi-at once; nandita-delighted; nanda-gop-the gopa Nanda; yawho; devakm-Devak; sadayitm-with her dear husband; yajati-worships; iha-here; tasym-on this; putrngood children; avpya-attaining; samupaiti-attains; padam-the abode; sa-he; vio-of Lord Viu.
Janmam is a festival of happiness for the eyes and the heart. It delights Nanda Mahrja. It removes all
sins. A person who on Janmam worships Devak and her husband Vasudeva attains many good children
and at the end goes to the spiritual world of Lord Viu.
Text 297
viu-dharme
rohi ca yad kapake 'amy dvijottama
jayant nma s prokt
sarva-ppa-har tithi
viu-dharme-in the Viu-dharma Pura; rohi-Rohi; ca-and; yad-when; ka-pake-in the kapaka; aamym-on thwe astami; dvijottama-O best of brahmanas; jayant-Jayant; nma-named; s-that;
prokt-called; sarva-ppa-har-removing all sins; tithi-the day.
In the Viu-dharma Pura it is said:
O best of brhmaas, when the star Rohi is conjoined with the moon on the atam of the dark fortnight,
that day is called Jayant, a day that removes all sins.
Text 298
yad blye y ca kaumre
yauvane vardhake 'pi yat
sapta-janma-kta ppa
s-alpa v yadi v bahu
tat kalayati govinda
tasym abhyarcya bhaktita
yat-what; blye-in balya; yat-what; ca-also; kaumre-in kaumara; yauvane-in yauvana; vardhake-in
vardhaka; api-also; yat-what; sapta-janma-ktam-done in seven births; ppam-sins; s-alpam-slight; v-even;
yadi-if; v-or; bahu-great; tat-that; kalayati-washes away; govindam-Lord Ka; tasym-onnthat day;
abhyarcya-worshiping; bhaktita-with devotion.

A person who on that day worships Lord Govinda washes away his sins, either great or small, or performed
in childhood, youth, or maturity, in seven births.
Text 299
homa-yajdi-dnn
phala ca ata-sammitam
samprpnoti na sandeho
y cnyan manasepsitam
homa-yajdi-dnnm-of homa, yajna, and charity; phalam-the result; ca-and; ata-sammitam-a hundred
times; samprpnoti-attains; na-no; sandeha-doubt; yat-what; ca-and; anyat-others; manas-by the mind;
psitam-desired.
He attains the results of homas, yajas, and charity multiplied a hundred times. He attains whatever his
heart desires.
Text 300
upavsa ca tatrokto
mah-ptaka-nana
upavsa-fasting; ca-and; tatrqa-there; ukta-said; mah-ptaka-nana-destroying the greatest sins.
A person who fasts on that day becomes freed from the greatest sins.
Text 301
viu-rahasye
jayantym upavsa tu
ktv yo 'rcayate harim
tasya janma-atodbhta
ppa nayati sarvath
viu-rahasye-in the Viu-rahasya; jayantym-on Jayant; upavsam-fasting; tu-indeed; ktv-doing; yawho; arcayate-worships; harim-Lord Hari; tasya-of him; janma-atodbhtam-created in a hundred births;
ppam-sin; nayati-destroys; sarvath-completely.
In the Viu-rahasya it is said:
A person who on Jayant fasts and worships Lord Hari completely destroys the sins of a hundred births.
Text 302
kaumre yauvane blye
vrdhakye yad uprjitam
tat ppa amayet kas
tithv asy su-pjita
kaumre-in kumara years; yauvane-in youth; blye-in childhood; vrdhakye-in maturity; yat-what;
uprjitam-gained; tat-that; ppam-sin; amayet-pacifies; ka-Lord Ka; tithau-day; asym-on that; supjita-nicely worshiped.
Lord Ka forgives the sins of a child, youth, or adult who carefully worships Him on this day.
Text 303
snna dna tath homa

svadhyyo 'tha japas tapa


sarva ata-gua prokta
jayanty yat kta hare
snnam-bathign; dnam-charity; tath-so; homa-homa; svadhyya-Ved study; atha-then; japa-japa;
tapa-austerity; sarvam-all; ata-guam-multiplied a hundred times; proktam-said; jayantym-on Jayant;
yat-what; ktam-done; hare-of Lord Hari.
When they are done to please Lord Hari, bathing, charity, homa, Ved study, japa, and austerity are
multiplied a hundred times when performed on Jayant.
Text 304
dhana-dhnya-vah puy
sarva-ppa-har ubh
samupoy janair yatnj
jayant ka-bhakti-d
dhana-wealth; dhnya-and grain; vah-bringing; puy-piety; sarva-ppa-har-removing all sins; ubhauspicious; samupoy-to be fasted; janai-by the people; yatnt-carefully; jayant-Jayant; ka-bhakti-dbringing devotion to Lord Ka.
Jayant is sacred and auspicious. It brings wealth and grains. It brings devotion to Lord Ka. On Jayant
the people should carefully observe a fast.
Text 305
brahma-pure prva-khae janmam-mhtmye r-stoktau
y tu kam nma
virut vaiav tithi
tasy prabhvam ritya
pt sarve kalau jan
brahma-pure-in the Brahma Purana; prva-khae-Purva-khanda; janmam-mhtmye-Janmammahatmya; r-stoktau-in the words of r Suta Gosvami; y-which; tu-indeed; kam-Ka
Janmam; nma-named; virut-famous; vaiav-Vaiava; tithi-day; tasy-of that; prabhvam-power;
ritya-taking shelter; pt-purified; sarve-all; kalau-in kali-yuga; jan-people.
In the Brahma Pura, Prva-khaa, Janmam-mhtmya, rla Sta Gosvm explains:
Ka Janmam is a famous Vaiava holy day. They who in Kali-yuga take shelter of the glory of that day
become purified of all sins.
Text 306
rvae msi bahul
rohi-samyutam
jayantti samkhyt
sarvghaugha-vinin
rvae-of rvaa; msi-in the month; bahul-great; rohi-samyutam-the astami with Rohini; jayantJayant; iti-thus; samkhyt-called; sarva-all; agha-of sins; augha-a flood; vinin-destroying.
When the star Rohi is conjoined with the moon on the aam of the ravaa month, that day is called
Jayant. That day destroys a flood of sins.

Texts 307 and 308


tasy viu-tithau kecid
dhany kali-yuge jan
ye 'bhyarcayanti devea
jgrata samupoit
na te vidyate kvpi
sasra-bhayam ulbaam
yatra tihanti te dee
kalis tatra na tihati
tasym-on that; viu-tithau-day holy to Lord Viu; kecit-some; dhany-fortunate; kali-yuge-in Kali-yuga;
jan-people; ye-who; abhyarcayanti-worship; deveam-the master of the demigods; jgrata-keeping a
vigil; samupoit-fasting; na-not; tem-of them; vidyate-is; kvpi-anywhere; sasra-bhayam-fear of the
material world; ulbaam-great; yatra-where; tihanti-stay; te-they; dee-in the country; kali-Kali; tatrathere; na-not; tihati-stays.
The fortunate persons who on that day sacred to Lord Viu fast, keep an all-night vigil, and worship Lord
Hari, the master of the demigods, never fear having to take birth again in this world. Wherever they stay,
Kali-yuga cannot enter.
Text 309
tatraiva r-uka-janamejaya-samvde
ya ea bhagavn viur
devaky vasudevata
jta kasa-vadhrtha hi
tad-dina magalyanam
tatra-there; eva-indeed; r-uka-janamejaya-samvde-in a conversation of r Sukadeva Gosvami and King
Janamejaya; ya-who; ea-He; bhagavn-Lord; viu-Viu; devakym-in Devaki; vasudevata-from
Vasudeva; jta-born; kasa-vadhrtham-to kill Kamsa; hi-indeed; tad-dinam-that day; magalyanamauspicious.
In that scripture rla ukadeva Gosvm tells King Janamejaya:
Then, in order to kill Kasa, Lord Viu took birth as the son of Vasudeva and Devak. That day is the
abode of auspiciousness.
Text 310
y s praty-abdam yti
rvae bahulam
sagat rohiyarkena
n mukti-phala-prad
y-which; s-that; praty-abdam-every year; yti-comes; rvae-in Sravana; bahulam-Bahulam;
sagat-meeting; rohiyarkena-with the star Rohini; nm-of people; mukti-phala-prad-giving liberation.
When, as happens every year, there is a day when the star Rohi is conjoined with the moon during the
month of rvaa, that day is called Bahulami. That day brings liberation to the people.
Text 311

yasy santana sakt


pura puruottama
avatra kitau sai
mukti-deti kim adbhutam
yasym-on which; santana-eternal; sakt-directly; pura-ancient; puruottama-Supreme Personality
of Godhead; avatra-descended; kitau-to the earth; s e-that; mukti-d-giving liberation; iti-thus; kimwhat?; adbhutam-wonder.
On that day the eternal and primeval Supreme Personality of Godhead descended to the earth. Why should
it be a source of wonder that this day brings liberation?
Text 312
tatraivgre vrata-vidhi-kathane
idam eva para reya
idam eva para tapa
idam eva paro dharmo
yad-viu-vrata-dhraam
tatra-there; eva-indeed; agre-in the presence; vrata-vidhi-kathane-description of the vow; idam-this; evaindeed; param-supreme; reya-good; idam-this; eva-indeed; param-supreme; tapa-austerity; idam-this; evaindeed; para-supreme; dharma-religion; yad-viu-vrata-dhraam-following this vow for Lord Viu.
In that scripture this vow is described in these words:
Following this vow for Lord Viu is the greatest good, the greatest austerity, and the greatest religious
duty.
Text 313
sknde brahma-nrada-samvde
ka-janmam loke
prasiddh ppa-nin
kratu-koi-sam t e
trthayuta-atai sam
sknde-in the Skanda Purana; brahma-nrada-samvde-in a conversation of Brahma and Narada; kajanmam-Ka Janmam; loke-in the world; prasiddh-famous; ppa-nin-destroying sins; kratukoi-sam-equal to ten million yajnas; tv-indeed; e-this; trthayuta-atai-to many millions of pilgrimages;
sam-equal.
In the Skanda Pura, Brahma' tell Nrada:
Ka Janmam is famous in this world. It destroys sins. It is equal to many millions of yajas. It is equal
to many millions of pilgrimages.
Text 314
kapil-go-sahasra tu
yo dadti dine dine
tat-phala samavpnoti
jayanty samupoae

kapil-go-sahasram-a thousand cows; tu-indeed; ya-who; dadti'gives; dine-day; dine-after day; tat-phalamthat result; samavpnoti-attains; jayantym-on Jayanti; samupoae-in fasting.
By fasting on Jayant one attains the same pious result attained by giving a thousand cows in charity day
after day.
Text 315
hema-bhra-sahasra tu
kuruketre prayacchati
tat phala samavpnoti
jayanty samupoae
hema-bhra-sahasram-a thousand bharas of gold; tu-indeed; kuruketre'at Kuruksetra; prayacchati-gives;
tat-that; phalam-result; samavpnoti-attains; jayantym-on Jayanti; samupoae-by fasting.
By fasting on Jayant one attains the same pious result attained by giving a thousand bhras of gold in
charity at Kuruketra.
Text 316
ratna-koi-sahasri
yo dadti dvijottama
tat-phala samavpnoti
jayanty samupoae
ratna-koi-sahasri-many billions opf jewels; ya-who; dadti'gives; dvijottama-O best of brahmanas; tatthat; phalam-result; samavpnoti-attains; jayantym-on Jayanti; samupoae-by fasting.
O best of brhmaas, by fasting on Jayant one attains the same pious result attained by giving many
millions of jewels in charity.
Text 317
vp-kpa-sahasri
devatyatanni ca
kany-koi-pradnena
yat-phalam- kavibhi smtam
mt-pitror gurm- ca
bhaktim udvahat phalam
vp-kpa-sahasri-thousands of lakes and ponds; devatyatanni-temples; ca-and; kany-girls; koimillions; pradnena-by giving; yat-phalam-which result; kavibhi-by philosophers; smtam-considered;
mt-pitro-of father and mother; gurm-of gurus; ca-and; bhaktim-devotion; udvahatm-carring;
phalam-the result.
By fasting on Jayant one attains the same pious result attained by digging thousands of wells and ponds,
building many temples, giving millions of daughters in charity to their prospective bridegrooms, and
devotedly serving parents and gurus.
Text 318
gurv-arthe brhmarthe v
svmy-arthe v tyajet tanum
paropkra-yuktn

trtha-seva-rattmanm
satya-vratn yat puya
jayanty samupoae
gur-arthe-for the sake of the guru; brhmarthe-for the sake of the brahmanas; v-or; svmy-arthe-fro the
sake of the master; v-or; tyajet-should abandon; tanum-body; paropkra-yuktnm-of they who are
engaged in helping others; trtha-seva-rattmanm-of they who devotedly go on pilgrimages; satyavratnm-of they who follow a vow of truthfulness; yat-what; puyam-piety; jayantym-on Jayant;
samupoae-fasting.
By fasting on Jayant one attains the same pious result attained by one who gives up his body for the sake of
his guru, or for the sake of the brhmaas, or for the sake of his master, or the same pious result attained by
they who have dedicated their lives to helping others, or by they who devotedly go on pilgrimages, or by
they who follow a vow of truthfulness.
Text 319
nirrayeu vasat
tapasn tu yat phalam
rjasya-sahasreu
ata-vargnihotrata
ekenaivopavsena
jayantym- tat phala smtam
nirrayewithout a shelter; vasatm-residing; tapasnm-of austerities; tu-indeed; yat-what; phalam-result;
rjasya-of rajasuya-yajnas; sahasreu-in thousands; ata-vara-a hundred years; agnihotrata-from an
agnihotra-yajna; ekena-by one; eva-indeed; upavsena-fasting; jayantym-on Jayanti; tat-that; phalam-result;
smtam-considered.
By once fasting on Jayant one attains the result of performing austerities and remaining homeless, of
performing a thousand rjasya-yajas, or of performing an agnihotra-yaja of a hundred years.
Text 320
ktv rjya mah bhuktv
prpya krti ca svatm
jayanty copavsena
vior bhmau laya gata
ktv-doing; rjyam-a kingdom; mahm-the earth; bhuktv-enjoying; prpya-attaining; krtim-fame; ca-and;
svatm-eternal; jayantym-on jayanti; ca-and; upavsena-by fasting; vio-of Lord Viu; bhmau-in the
realm; layam-liberation; gata-attained.
By fasting on Jayant one attains a great kingdom and eternal fame, enjoys the pleasures of the earth, and at
the end enters the spiritual world of Lord Viu.
Text 321
dharmam artha ca kma ca
mukti ca muni-pugava
dadti vchitn kmn
rvae msi cam

dharmam-piety; artham-wealth; ca-and; kmam-sense gratification; ca-and; muktim-liberation; ca-and;


muni-pugava-O best of sages; dadti-gives; vchitn-desires; kmn-pleasures; rvae-in Sravana; msimonth; ca-and; aam-the aam.
O best of sages, the aam day of the month of rvaa brings piety, wealth, sense gratification, and
liberation. It fulfills all desires.
Text 322
janmam-vrata ye vai
prakurvanti narottam
krayanti ca viprendra
lakms te sad sthir
janmam-vratam-the vow of Janmam; ye-who; vai-indeed; prakurvanti-do; narottam-the best of
people; krayanti-cause to do; ca-and; viprendra-O king of brahmanas; lakm-the goddess of fortune;
tem-of them; sad-always; sthir-steady.
O king of brhmaas, Goddess Lakm always stays among those great souls who observe the vow of
Janmam.
Text 323
na vedair na purai ca
may da mah-mune
yat-sama cdhika vpi
ka-janmam-vratt
na-not; vedai-by the Vedas; na-not; purai-by the Puranas; ca-and; may-by me; dam-seen; mahmune-O great sage; yat-samam-equal to that; ca-and; adhikam-better; v-or; api-also; ka-janmamvratt-than the vow of Ka-janmam.
O great sage, I have not seen anything in the Vedas or the Puras equal to or better than the vow of r
Ka-janmam.
Text 324
niyama-stha nara dv
janmamy dvijottama
vivara-vadano bhtv
tal-lipi marjayed yama
niyama-stham-restraining the senses; naram-a person; dv-seeing; janmamym-on Janmam;
dvijottama-O best of brahmanas; vivara-without color; vadana-face; bhtv-becopming; tal-lipim-the
writing of him; marjayet-wipes away; yama-Yamarja.
O best of brhmaas, when he sees a self-controlled person observing the vow of Janmam, Yamarja, his
face turned white, at once erases what is written of him.
Text 325
ki ca
vratenrdhya ta deva
devak-sahita harim
tyaktv yama-patha ghora

yti vio para padam


kim- ca-furthermore; vratena-with a vow; rdhya-worshiping; tam-Him; devam-the Supreme Personality of
Godhead; devak-sahitam-with Devak; harim-Lord Ka; tyaktv-leaving; yama-patham-the path to Yama;
ghoram-horrible; yati-goes; vio-of Lord Viu; param-to the supreme; padam-abode.
It is also said:
A person who with a vow worships Lord Ka and Devak leaves the horrible path to Yamaloka and goes to
the supreme abode of Lord Viu.
Text 326
smaraa vsudevasya
mtyu-kle bhaven mune
sidhyanti sarva-kryi
kte janmam-vrate
mamjay kurudhva
ta-jayant muktaye tath
smaraam-remembering; vsudevasya-of Lord Ka; mtyu-kle-at the moment of death; bhavet-does;
mune-O sage; sidhyanti-becomes perfect; sarva-kryi-all duties; kte-done; janmam-vrate-in the vow
of Janmam; mama-of Me; jay-by the order; kurudhvam-please do; ta-jayantm-Janmam;
muktaye-for liberation; tath-so.
O sage, a person who at the moment of his death remembers Lord Ka, attains perfection. In the same
way when a person follows the vow of Janmam, all he has done becomes perfect. Therefore, by my
order, please observe the vow of Janmam and thus attain liberation from this world of birth and death.
Text 327
brahma-khae r-stoktau ca tad-vrata-mahimnuvarannte
ity etat kathitam aea-stra-guhya
r-ka-vrata-mahimnuvarana yat
rutvaitat sakd api ptakair vimukto
dehnte vrajati naro murri-lokam
brahma-khae-in the Brahma-khaa; r-sta-of r Suta; uktau-in the statement; ca-and; tad-vratamahimnuvarannte-after describing the glories of that vow; iti-thsu; etat-this; kathitam-said; aea-straguhyam-hidden in all the scriptures; r-ka-vrata-mahimnuvaranam-the description of the glories of
this vow to please Lord Ka; yat-what; rutv-hearing; etat-this; sakt-once; api-even; ptakai-by sins;
vimukta-freed; dehnte-at the end of the body; vrajati-goes; nara-a pwerson; murri-lokam-to the world
of Lord Ka.
In the Brahma-khaa, after describing the glories of this vow, r Sta Gosvm says:
Thus I have described the glories of the r Ka-Janmam vow, which is very confidential and hidden in
all the scriptures. By once hearing this description a person becomes free from all his sins. At the end of his
body he goes to the world of Lord Ka.
Text 328
atha r-janmam-vrata-niraya
kopsyam bhdre
rohiy-hy mah-phal

nithe 'trpi ki cendau


je vpi navam-yut
atha-now; r-janmam-vrata-niraya-following the vow of Janmam; ka-Lord Ka; upsy-to be
worshiped; aam-the astami; bhdre-in the month of Bhadra; rohiy-hy-opulent with the star Rophini;
mah-phal-a great result; nithe-in the middle of the night; atra-here; api-also; kim-what?; ca-and; indauin the moon; je-knowing; v-or; api-also; navam-yut-with the navami.
The Method of Observing Janmam
When at midnight of Janmam in the month of Bhdra the star Rohi is conjoined with the moon, that
Janmam brings a specially great result. Janmam also brings a great result when it falls on a Monday
or a Wednesday, or when there is a navam-yoga.
Text 329
atha rohi-yukta-janmam
viu-rahasye
prjpatyarka-samyukt
k nabhasi cam
muhrtam api labhyeta
saivopoy mah-phal
atha-now; rohi-yukta-janmam-Janmam with Rohini; viu-rahasye-in the Viu-rahasya;
prjpatyarka-the star Rohini; samyukt-with; k-dark; nabhasi-in the sky; ca-and; aam-astami;
muhrtam-moment; api-even; labhyeta-is attained; sa-that; eva-indeed; upoy-to be fasted; mah-phal-a
greta result.
Janmam When Rohi Is Conjoined With the Moon
In the Viu-rahasya it is said:
When on the aam of the dark fortnight the star Rohi is conjoined with the moon for even a single
muhrta, fasting on that aam day brings a great result.
Text 330
muhrtam apy aho-rtre
yasmin yukta tu labhyate
aamy rohi-ka
ta su-puyam upvaset
muhrtam-a muhurta; api-even; aho-rtre-day and night; yasmin-in which; yuktam-joined; tu-indeed;
labhyate-is obtained; aamy-of the astami; rohi-kam-the star Rohini; tam-that; su-puyam-very sacred;
upvaset-should fast.
When on the aam the star Rohi is conjoined with the
moon for even a single muhrta of the day or night, that time is
very sacred. On that day one should observe a fast.
Text 331
ki ca tatraiva
am ka-pakasya
rohi-ka-samyut

bhavet prauha-pade msi


jayant nma s smt
kim- ca-furthermore; tatra-there; eva-inded; am-aam; ka-pakasya-of the krsna-paksa; rohi-kasamyut-with the star Rohi; bhavet-is; prauha-pade-Bhadra; msi-in the month; jayant-Jayant; nmanamed; s-that; smt-considered.
In that scripture it is also said:
When the star Rohi is conjoined with the moon on the Ka-paka aam of the month of Bhdra, that
day is called Jayant.
Text 332
viu-dharmottare
rohiy-ka yad kapake 'amy dvijottama
jayant nma s prokt
sarva-ppa-har tithi
viu-dharmottare-in the Viu-dharma Pura, Uttara-khaa; rohiy-kam-with the star Rohi; yadwhen; ka-pake-in the Ka-paksa; aamym-on the aam; dvijottama-O best of brahmanas; jayantJayant; nma-named; s-that; prokt-said; sarva-ppa-har-removing all sins; tithi-say.
In the Viu-dharma Pura, Uttara-khaa it is said:
O best of brhmaas, when the star Rohi is conjoined with the moon on the Ka-paka aam of the
month of Bhdra, that day is called Jayant. That day removes all sins.
Text 333
yad blye y ca kaumre
yauvane vrdhake tath
bahu-janma-kta ppa
hanti sopoit tithi
yat-what; blye-in childhoopd; yat-what; ca-and; kaumre-in kumara; yauvane-in youth; vrdhake-in
maturity; tath-so; bahu-many; janma-births; ktam-done; ppam-sin; hanti-kills; sa-with; upoit-fasting;
tithi-day.
By fasting on that day one destroys many births' sins of
childhood, youth, and maturity.
Text 334
sknde
prjpatyena samyukt
am tu yad bhavet
rvae bahule pake
sarva-ppa-prain
sknde-in the Skanda Pura; prjpatyena-the star Rohii; samyukt-with; am-aam; tu-indeed; yadwhen; bhavet-is; rvae-in the month of Sravana; bahule pake-in the Ka-paksa; sarva-ppa-praindestroying all sins.
In the Skanda Pura it is said:

When the star Rohi is conjoined with the moon on the ka-paka of the rvaa month, that day
destroys all sins.
Text 335
jaya puya ca kurute
jayant tena ta vidu
jayam-victory; puyam-piety; ca-and; kurute-does; jayantm-Jayant; tena'by that; tam-that; vidu-they
know.
Because it brings victory (jaya, and piety, the wise call
that day "Jayant".
Text 336
viu-pure
kamy bhaved yatra
kalaik rohi npa
jayant nma s jey
upoy sa prayatnata
viu-pure-in the Viu Pura; kamym-on kami; bhavet-is; yatra-where; kal-phase; ekone; rohi-Rohi; npa-O king; jayant-Jayant; nma-called; s-that;
jey-to be known; upoy-to be fasted; sa-that;
prayatnata-carefully.
In the Viu Pura it is said:
O king, when, on the aam of the ka-paka, the star Rohi is conjoined with the moon for even a
single kal, that day is called Jayant. One should carefully fast on that day.
Text 337
sapta-janma-kta ppa
rjan yat tri-vidha nm
tat phlayati govindas
titthau tasy tu bhvita
sapta-janma-ktam-done in seven births; ppam-sin; rjan-O king; yat-what; tri-vidham-three kinds; nmof the people; tat-that; phlayati-gives result; govinda-Lord Ka; tithau-day; tasym-on that; tu-indeed;
bhvita-meditated upon.
O king, Lord Govinda destroys seven births of the three
kinds of sins for one who worships Him or meditates on Him during
that day.
Text 338
upavsa ca tatrokto
mah-ptaka-nana
jayanty jagat-pla
vidhintra na saaya

upavsa-fasting; ca-and; tatra-there; ukta-said; mah-ptaka-nana-destroying the greatest sins;


jayantym-on Jayant; jagat-the world; pla-protector; vidhin-by rules; atra-here; na-no; saaya-doubt.
O king, proper fasting on Jayant destroys the greatest
sins. Of this there is no doubt.
Text 339
trety dvpare caiva
rjan kta-yuge tath
rohi-samyut ceya
vidvadbhi samupoit
tretym-in Treta-yuga; dvpare-in Dvapara-yuga; ca-and; eva-indeed; rjan-O king; kta-yuge-in Satyayuga; tath-so; rohi-samyut-with Rohi; ca-and; iyam-this; vidvadbhi-by the wise; samupoit-to be
fasted.
O king, wise persons in Satya, Tret, and Dvpara yuga fast
on that day, when Rohi is conjoined with the moon.
Text 340
agni-pure
ardha-rtrd adha cordhva
kalay v yad bhavet
jayant nma s prokt
sarva-ppa-prain
agni-pure-in the Agni Pura; ardha-rtrt-from half the
night; adha-below; ca-and; urdhvam-above; kalay-by a kala; v-or;
yad-when; bhavet-is; jayant-Jayant; nma-named; s-that;
prokt-said; sarva-ppa-prain-destroying all sins.
In the Agni Pura it is said:
When for one kala' before or after the middle of the night the star Rohi is conjoined with the moon, that
day is called Jayant, a day that destroys all sins.
Text 341
atha ardha-rtra-yut janmam
bhaviya-viudharmayo
rohiym ardha-rtre ca
yad kam bhavet
tasym abhyarcana aure
hanti ppa tri-janma-jam
atha-now; ardha-rtra-yut-with the middle of the night; janmam-Janmam; bhaviyaviudharmayo-in the Bhavisya and Viu-dharma Puras; rohiym-when Rohi; ardha-rtre-in the
middle of the night; ca-and; yad-when; kam-Janmam; bhavet-is; tasyam-then; abhyarcanamworship; aure-O descendent of King Durasena; hanti-kills; ppam-sin; tri-janma-jam-created in three
births.

Janmam When the Star Rohi Is Conjoined With the Moon


in the Middle of the Night
In both the Bhaviya and Viu-dharma Puras it is said:
O descendant of rasena, when one worships Lord Ka on a Kam day when the star Rohi is
conjoined with the moon in the middle of the night, that worship destroys the sins of three births.
Text 342
prjpatyarka-samyukt
k nabhasi cam
sopavso hare pj
tatra ktv na sdati
ardha-rtre ca yoge 'ya
trpaty-udaye sati
prjpatyarka-samyukt-with the star Rohi; k-Ka; nabhasi-in the sky; ca-and; aam-aam;
sopavsa-with fasting; hare-of Lord Ka; pjm-worship; tatra-there; ktv-doing; na-not;
sidati-stays; ardha-rtre-in the middle of the night; ca-and; yoge-in yoga; ayam-this; trpati-of the moon;
udaye-the rising;
sati-being.
When the star Rohi is conjoined with the moon on the
Ka-paka aam, one should fast and worship Lord Hari.
This is so even if the rising moon is not conjoined with Rohi
in the middle of the night.
Texts 343 and 344
ki ca
rohi-sahit k
msi bhdra-pade 'am
ardha-rtrd adha cordhva
kalaypi yad bhavet
tatra jto jagan-ntha
kauubh harir avyaya
tam evopavaset kla
kuryt tatraiva jgaram
kim- ca-furthermore; rohi-sahit-with Rohi; k-Ka; msi-in the month; bhdra-pade-of Bhadra;
aam-ther aam; ardha-half; rtrt-night; adha-below; ca-and; rdhvam-above; kalay-by a kala; apialso; yad-when; bhavet-may be; tatra-there; jta-born; jagan-ntha-the master ofn the universes;
kauubh-who wears a Kaustubha jewel; hari-Lord Ka; avyaya-eternal and infallible; tam-that; evaindeed; upavaset-should fast; klam-time; kuryt-should do; tatra-there; eva-indeed; jgaram-vigil.
It is also said:
When for one kala' before or after the middle of the night the star Rohi is conjoined with the moon on the
ka-paka aam of the month Bhdra, that is the moment of the birth of Lord Hari, the infallible

Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the master of the universes, and who is decorated with the
Kaustubha jewel. On that day one should fast and keep an all-night vigil.
Text 345
jayant nma s rtris
tatra jto janrdana
niyattm uci sntv
pj tatra pravartayet
jayant-Jayant; nma-named; s-that; rtri-night; tatra-there; jta-born; janrdana-Lord Ka;
niyattm-self-controlled; uci-pure; sntv-bathing; pjm-worship; tatra-then; pravartayet-should
perform.
On that night, which bears the name Jayant, Lord Ka was born. At that time a self-controlled and purehearted person
should bathe himself and then worship Lord Ka.
Text 346
vahni-pure
sama-yoge tu rohiyc
nithe rja-sattama
samajyata govindo
bla-rp catur-bhuja
tasmt tam- pjayet tatra
yath-vittnusarata
vahni-pure-in the Agni Pura; sama-yoge-conjoined; tu-indeed; rohiyc-with Rohi; nithe-in the
middle of the night; rja-sattama-O best of kings; samajyata-was born; govinda-Ka; bla-rp-in the
form of a child; catur-bhuja-with four arms; tasmt-then; tam-Him; pjayet-should worship; tatra-there;
yath-vittnusarata-as one has the wealth.
In the Agni Pura it is said:
O best of kings, in the middle of the night, at a time when the star Rohi was conjoined with the moon,
Lord Govinda was born as a four-armed infant. At that time one should worship the Lord in a way
appropriate to one's own wealth.
Text 347
bhaviyottare
msi bhdra-pade 'amy
ka-pake 'rdha-rtrake
ake va-ri-sthe
prjpatyarka-samyute
upoito 'rcayet ka
yaod devak tath
bhaviyottare-in the Bhavisya Pura, Uttara-khanda; msi-in the month; bhdra-pade-of Bhadra;
aamym-on the aam; ka-pake-on the Ka-paksa; ardha-rtrake-in the middle of the night;

ake-the moon; va-ri-sthe-in Taurus; prjpatyarka-samyute-withthe star Rohi; upoita-fasting;


arcayet-should worship; kam-Lord Ka; yaodm-Yaod; devakm-Devak; tath-so.
In the Bhaviya Pura, Uttara-khaa it is said:
On the ka-paka aam of the month of Bhdra, in the middle of the night, when the moon is with the
star Rohi in Taurus, one should fast and worship Lord Ka along with Yaoda' and Devak.
Text 348
ki ca
msi bhdra-pade 'amy
nithe ka-pakake
ake va-ri-sthe
ke rohi-samjake
yoge 'smin vasudevd dhi
dev devam ajjanat
kim- ca-furthermore; msi-in the month; bhdra-pade-of Bhadra; aamym-on the astmami; nithe-in the
middle of the night; ka-pakake'in the Ka-paksa; ake-the moon; va-ri-sthe-in taurus; ke-the
star; rohi-samjake-named Rohi; yoge-in conjunction; asmin-in this; vasudevt-from Vasudeva; hiindeed; dev-Devak; devam'the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ajjanat-gave birth.
It is also said:
On the ka-paka aam of the month of Bhdra, in the middle of the night, when the moon was with the
star Rohi in Taurus, Devak gave birth to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who was begotten by
Mahrja Vasudeva.
Text 349
tasmt sampjayed atra
uci samyag-upoita
tasmt-therefore; sampjayet-one should worship; atra-then; uci'pure; samyag-upoita-properly fasting.
On that day a pure-hearted person should properly fast and
worship Lord Ka.
Text 350
pdme
preta-yoni gatn tu
pretatva nita narai
yai ktv rvae msi
aam rohi-yut
pdme-in the Padma Pura; preta-yonim-birth as a preta; gatnm-attained; tu-indeed; pretatvam-status as
a preta; nitam-dcestroyed; narai-by people; yai-who; ktv-doing; rvae-of Sravabna; msi-in the
month; aam-the aam; rohi-yut-with Rohi.
In the Padma Pura it is said:
Ghosts who observe the aam when Rohi is conjoined with the moon in the month of ravaa become
free from having to be ghosts.
Text 351

ki punar budha-vrea
somenpi vieata
ki punar navam-yukt
kula-koyas tu mukti-d
kim-what?; puna-more; budha-vrea-by Wednesday; somena-by the moon; api-also; vieata-especially;
kim-what?; puna-more; navam-navami; yukt-with; kula-koya-ten million relatives; tu-indeed; muktid-giving liberation.
How much more is this true when this day falls on a Wednesday
or Monday? How much more is this true when this day is joined
with the navam? At that time this day brings liberation to ten
million of one's kinsmen.
Text 352
sknde
udaye cam kicin
navam sa-kal yadi
bhavate budha-samyukt
prjpatyarka-samyut
api vara-atenpi
labhyate v na v vibho
sknde-Skanda; udaye-rising; ca-and; aam-aam; ki.sy 241cit-something; navam-navami; sa-kal-with
the kala; yadi-if; bhavate-is; budha-samyukt-with mercury; prjpatyarka-samyut-with Rohi; api-also;
vara-atena-with a hundred years; api-also; labhyate-is attained; v-or; na-not; v-or; vibha-O almighty
Lord.
In the Skanda Pura it is said:
If a kala' of the navam is present in the aam, and if both Mercury and Rohi are conjoined with the
moon, that is a very rare occurrence. Such a time may come after a hundred years, or then, O almighty
Lord, it may not come, even after a hundred years.
Text 353
bhaviye ca
navamy yoga-nidray
janmamy hares tata
navamy sahitopoy
rohi-budha-samyut. iti.
bhaviye-in the Bhavisya Pura; ca-and; navamym-on the navami; yoga-nidray-with yoga-nidra;
janmamym-on Janmam;
hare-of Lord Ka; tata-then; navamy-by the navami;
sahitopoy-to be fasted; rohi-budha-samyut-with Rohi and
Mercury; iti-thus.
In the Bhaviya Pura it is said:

One should fast on Ka-janmam when there is navam and yoga-nidra' and when Rohi and Mercury
are conjoined with the moon.
Text 354
indu prve 'hani je v
pare ced rohi-yut
keval cam vddh
sopoy navam-yut
indu-the moon; prve-on the previous; ahani-day; j.sy 241e-Mercury; v-or; pare-on the nexct; cet-if;
rohi-yut-with Rohi; keval-alone; ca-and; am-aam; vddh-increased; sopoy-increased; navamyut-with the navam.
One should fast on the aam when on the previous day
the moon is conjoined with Mercury, or when on the following day
the moon is conjoined with Rohi, or when the aam is
joined with the navam.
Text 355
tath ca pdme
muhrtenpi samyukt
sampr cam bhavet
ki punar navam-yukt
kula-koyas tu mukti-d
tath-so; ca-and; pdme-in the Padma Pura; muhrtena-with a muhurta; api-even; samyukt-conjpined;
sampr-full; ca-and; aam-aam; bhavet-is; kim-what?; puna-more; navam-yukt-with the navami;
kula-koya-ten million relatives; tu-indeed; mukti-d-giving liberation.
How much more is this true when on the aam even for a
muhta the moon is conjoined with Rohi and this day is joined
with the navam? At that time this day brings liberation to ten
million of one's kinsmen.
Text 356
stoktau ca
msi bhdra-pade k
aam navam bhavet
pjyam tata pumbhi
strbhi cpi vieata
sta-of Sta Gosvami; uktau-in the statement; ca-and; msi-in the month; bhdra-pade-of Bhadra; kKa; aam-aam; navam-navami; bhavet-is; pjy-to be worshiped; aam-aam; tata-then;
pumbhi-by men; strbhi-by women; ca-and; api-and; vieata-especially.
r Sta Gosvm explains:
When in the month of Bhdra the ka-paka aam is joined with the navam, that aam should be
worshiped by all men and women.

Text 357
rohiy-der viyuktpi
sopoy kevalam
tat-tad-yogas tu vaisiye
vrata-lopo 'nyath bhavet
rohiy-de-beginning with Rohi; viyukt-separtaed; api-even; sopoy-tpo be fasted; keval-only; aamaam; tat-tad-yoga-conjoined to that; tu-but; vaisiye-specifically; vrata-of the vow; lopa-omission;
anyath-otherwise; bhavet-should be.
Even if the auspicious conjunction of Rohi and other
luminaries are not present, one should still fast on Janmam.
However, in the absence of these especially auspicious situations
it is possible not to observe the vow.
Text 358
ittha uddhaiva likhit
yogd bahu-vidham
tyjy viddh ca saptamy
s viddhaikda yath
ittham-thus; uddh-pure; eva-indeed; likhit-written; yogt-from yoga; bahu-vidh-many kinds; aamaams; tyjy-to be abandoned; viddh-wounded; ca-and; saptamy-by the saptami; s-and; viddhawounded; ekdaelkadasi; yath-as.
In this way the many different kinds of pure aams are
described in the writing of the scriptures. However, when it is
mixed with the saptam, the aam should not be observed. This
is like an ekda that should not observed.
Text 359
atha saptam-viddha-janmam-niedha
brahma-vaivarte
varjany prayatnena
saptam-sahitam
sa-rkpi na kartavy
saptam-samyutam
atha-; saptam-viddha-viddha by the saptami; janmam-Janmam; niedha-forbidden; brahmavaivarte-in Brahma-vaivarta Pura; varjany-to be avoided; prayatnena-carefully; saptam-sahitam-the
saptami; sa-rk-with the star; api-even; na-not; kartavy-to be done; saptam-samyut-with the saptami;
aam-the aam.
When It Is Viddha by the Saptam, Janmam Should Not Be
Observed
In the Brahma-vaivarta Pura it is said:

One should carefully avoid the aam that is viddha by the saptam. Even if Rohi is conjoined with the
moon, one should not observe an aam that is viddha by the saptam.
Text 360
pdme
paca-gavya yath uddha
na grhya madya-samyutam
ravi-viddh tath tyjy
rohi-sahit yadi
pdme-in the Padma Pura; paca-gavyam-pancay-gavya; yath-as; uddham-pure; na-not; grhyam-to be
ataken; madya-with wine; samyutam-mixed; ravi-viddh-wounded by the saptami; tath-so; tyjy-to be
rejected; rohi-sahit-with Rohi; yadi-if.
In the Padma Pura it is said:
As one should not accept pure paca-gavya if it is mixed with wine, so one should not observe Janmam
if it is viddha by the saptam. This is so even if Rohi is conjoined with the moon.
Text 361
prva-viddh yath nand
varjit rvanvit
tatham prva-viddh
sa-ka ca vivarjayet
prva-viddh-prteviously wounded; yath-as; nand-ekadasi; varjit'avoided; rvanvit-with Sravana;
tath-so; aamm-aam; prva-viddhm-wounded by the previous; sa-kam-with the star; ca-and;
vivarjayet-should avoid.
As ekda should not observed when it is viddha by the
previous day, so Janmam should not be observed when it is
viddha by the previous day. This is so even when the star Rohi
is conjoined with the moon.
Text 362
varjany prayatnena
saptam-samyutam
vin kena kartavy
navam-samyutam
varjany-to be avoided; prayatnena-carefully; saptam-samyutam-Janmam viddha by the saptami;
vin-with;
kena-the star; kartavy-to be done; navamsamyutam-Janmam viddha by the navam.
One should take care not to observe Janmam when it is
viddha by the saptam. However one should observe Janmam when
it is viddha by the navam. This is true even if the star Rohi
is not conjoined with the moon.

Text 363
aviddhy sa-ky
jto devak-nandana
aviddhym-not viddha; sa-kym-with the star; jta-born; devak-nandana-the son of Devak.
Lord Ka, the son of Devak, was born when the aam
was not viddha and when the star Rohi was conjoined with the
moon.
Text 364
vsare v nirdhe v
saptamy ca yadam
prva-mir tad tyjy
prjpatyarka-samyut
vsare-in the day; v-or; nirdhe-in the middle of the night; v-or; saptamym-on the saptami; ca-and;
yad-when; aam-the aam; prva-mir-mixed with the previous day; tad-then; tyjy-to be rejected;
prjpatyarka-samyut-with the star Rohi.
If, during the day or in the middle of the night, the
atam is mixed with the saptam, that aam should not be
observed, even if the star Rohi is conjoined with the moon.
Text 365
pdme
janmam prva-viddh
sa-k sa-kalm api
vihya navam uddh
upoya vratam caret
pdme-in the Padma Pura; janmamm-Janmam; prva-viddhm-viddha by the previous day; sakm-with the star; sa-kalm-with a kala; api-even; vihya-rejecting; navamm-navami; uddhm-pure;
upoya-fasting; vratam-vow; caret-should observe.
In the Padma Pura it is said:
If it is viddha by the previous day, Janmam should not be observed. This is true even if it is sa-kala' and
even if the star Rohi is conjoined with the moon. In that situation one should fast and observe the vow on
the pure navam instead of on the aam.
Text 366
sa-kalpi sa-kpi
navam-samyutpi ca
janmam prva-viddh
na kartavy kadcana
sa-kal-with kala; api-even; sa-k-with the star; api-even; navam-samyut-with the navami; api-even; caand; janmam'Janmam; prva-by the previous day; viddh-viddhq; na-not; kartavy-to be done;
kadcana-ever.

Even if it is sa-kala' and even if the star Rohi is


conjoined with the moon, Janmam should never be observed on
an atam that is viddha by the previous day.
Text 367
palavedhe tu viprendra
saptamy cam tyajet
suray bindun spa
gagmbha-kalasa yath
palavedhe-for a moment; tu-but; viprendra-O king of brahmanas; saptamy-with the saptami; ca-and;
aamm-aam; tyajet-sghould abandon; suray-with wine; bindun-with adrop; spam-touched;
gagmbha-kalasam-a pot of Ganges water; yath-as.
As one should reject a pitcher of Ganges water that has been
touched by a single drop of liquor, so one should reject a
Janmam touched for even a moment by the saptam.
Text 368
vin rkea kartavy
navam-samyutam
sa-kpi na kartavy
saptam-samyutam
vin-without; rkea-the star; kartavy-to be done; navam-samyut-with the navami; aam-aam; sak-with the star; api-even; na-not; kartavy-to be done; saptam-samyut-with the saptami; aam-aam.
Even if the star Rohi is not conjoined with the moon, one
should observe the Janmam that is touched by the navam. But,
even if the star Rohi is conjoined with the moon, one should
not observe the Janmam that is touched by the saptam.
Text 369
tasmt sarva-prayatnena
tyjyam evubha budhai
vedhe puya-kaya yti
tama sryodaye yath
tasmt-there; sarva-prayatnena-with all care; tyjyam-to be avoided; eva-in deed; aubham-inauspicious;
budhai-by the wise; vedhe-a moment; puya-of piety; kayam-destruction; yti-attains; tama-darkness;
srya-of the sun; udaye-in the rising; yath-as.
Therefore the wise should carefully avoid celebrating
Janmam at that inauspicious time. By celebrating at that time
all one's piety is at once destroyed in the same way the darkness
of night is destroyed when the sun rises.
Text 370

yjavalkya-smtau
sampr crdha-rtre tu
rohi yadi labhyate
kartavy s prayatnena
prva-viddh vivarjayet. iti.
yjavalkya-smtau-in the Yajnavalkya-smrti; sampr-full; ca-and; ardha-rtre-in the middle of the night;
tu-indeed; rohi-Rohi; yadi-if; labhyate-is attained; kartavy-to be done; sa-that; prayatnena-with care;
prva-viddhm-viddha by the previous day; vivarjayet-should avoid; iti-thus.
In the Yjavalkya-smti it is said:
Even if the star Rohi is perfectly conjoined with the moon in the middle of the night, an aam that is
viddha by the previous day should not be celebrated.
Text 371
y ca vahni-puradau
prokta viddham-vratam
avaiava-para t ca
kta tad deva-myay
yat-what; ca-aznd; vahni-puradau-in the Agni Pura and other scriptures; proktam-said; viddhamvratam-an aam that is viddha;; avaiava-param-not dear to the Vaiavas; tat-that; ca-and; ktam-done;
tat-that; deva-myay-by the illusory potency of the Lord.
In the Agni Pura and other scriptures it is said that the
aam that is viddha in this way is not dear to the
Vaiavas. Such an aam is a creation of the Lord's illusory
potency, my.
Text 372
tath ca sknde
pur devair i-gaai
sva-pada-cyuti-akay
saptam-vedha-jlena
gopita hy aam-vratam
tath-so; ca-and; sknde-in the Skanda Pura; pur-previously; devai-by the demigods; i-gaai-by the
sages; sva-pada-from the status; cyuti-falling; akay-by the fear; saptam-of the spatami; vedha-of
moments; jlena-by the network; gopitam-hidden; hi-indeed; aam-vratam-the vow odf the aam.
In the Skanda Pura it is said:
Fearing that they would fall from their exalted posts, in ancient times the demigods and sages carefully
avoided observing this vow on an aam viddha by the saptam.
Text 373
iya prmikai kadevcrydi-vaiavai
vyavasthny ca nirt

likhitcrata satm
iyam-this; prmikai-by the evidence; ka-devcrya-Kadevacarya; di-beginning with; vaiavaiby the Vaiavas; vyavasth-situation; any-another; ca-and; nirt-concluded; likhit-written; cratafrom the activities; satm-of the saintly devotees.
In this way, following the evidence presented by r
Kadevcrya and other saintly Vaiavas and also following the
practical actions of the great devotees, the way of observing
Janmam and other holy days is described in this book.
Text 374
uddh ca rohi-yukt
prve 'hani paratra ca
aamy upoy prvaiva
tithi-bhnte ca praam
uddh-pure; ca-and; rohi-yukt-with Rohi; prve-on the previous; ahani-day; paratra-on the next; caand; aami-the aam; upoy-to be fasted; prva-previous; eva-indeed; tithi-of the day; bh-of the star;
ante-after; ca-and; praam-breaking the fast.
On a pure aam, when the star Rohi is conjoined with
the moon and when the previous and following days are also pure,
one should fast. One should break the fast after both the tithi
and conjunction of the star Rohi have ended.
Texts 375 and 376
kevala-kopsan-stre gautamya-tantre tantra-dkm
uddiya yathoktam
atha bhdrsitamy
prdurst svaya hari
brahma prrthita prva
devaky kpay vibhu
rohiy-ke ubha-tithau
daityn na-hetave
mahotsava prakurvta
yatnatas tad-dine ubhe
kevala-kopsan-stre-scripture describing pure devotional service to Lord Ka; gautamya-tantre-in
the Gautamiya Tantra; tantra-Tantric; dkm-initiation; uddiya-in relation to; yath-as; uktam-said; athathen; bhdra-of the month of Bhadra; asita-in the Ka-paksa; aamym-on the aam; prdurstappeared; svayam-personally; hari-Lord Ka; brahma-by Brahm; prrthita-requested; prvampreviously; devakym-in Devak; kpay-mercifully; vibhu-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; rohiyke-the star Rohi; ubha-tithau-on the auspicious day; daitynm-of the demigopds; na-hetave-for
destructionm; mahotsavam-a great festival; prakurvta-should do; yatnata-carefully; tad-dine-on that day;
ubhe-auspicious.
In the Gautamya Tantra, which describes pure devotional

service to Lord Ka, in the course of describing Vaiava


tantr initiation, it is said:
On the demigod Brahm's request, Lord Ka, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, mercifully appeared in
the wom of Devak on the ka-paka aam of the month Bhdra, an auspicious day when the star
Rohi was conjoined with the moon. The Lord's mission then was to kill the demons. One should carefully
celebrate a great festival on that auspicious day.
Text 377
rjanyair brhmaair vaiyai
drai caiva sva-aktita
upavsa prakartavyo
na bhoktavya kadcana
rjanyai-by ksatriyas; brhmaai-by brahmanas; vaiyai-by vaisyas; drai-by sudras; caiva-and; svaaktita-according to therir ability; upavsa-fasting; prakartavya-to be done; na-not; bhoktavyam-to
beeaten; kadcana-ever.
On that day brhmaas, katriyas, vaiyas, and dras
should all observe a fast, each according to his own ability. At
no time on that day should anything be eaten.
Text 378
ka-janma-dine yas tu
bhukte sa tu nardhama
nivasen narake ghore
yvad hta-samplavam
ka-janma-dine-on the day of Lord Ka's birth; ya-who; tu-indeed; bhukte-eats; sa-he; tu-indeed;
nardhama-the lowest of men; nivaset-will reside; narake-in hell; ghore-horrible; yvat-as long as; htasamplavam-the time of cosm devastation.
One who eats on the day of Lord Ka's birth is the lowest
of men. He will live in a horrible hell until the time when the
material universe is destroyed.
Text 379
aam rohi-yukt
crdha-rtra yad spet
upoya ta tithi vidvn
koi-yaja-phala labhet
aam-the aam; rohi-yukt-with Rohi; ca-and; ardha-half; rtram-the night; yad-when; spettouches; upoya-fasting; tam-that; tithim-day; vidvn-the wise; koi-yaja-phalam-the result of ten million
yajnas; labhet-attains.
A wise devotee who fasts on the aam when the star
Rohi is conjoined with the moon at the middle of the night
attains the result of performing ten million yajas.

Text 380
somhni budha-vre v
cam rohi-yut
jayant nma s khyt
ta labhet puya-sacayai
somhni-Monday; budha-vre-on Wednesday; v-or; ca-and; aam-the aam; rohi-yut-with Rohi;
jayant-Jayant; nma-named; s-that; khyt-called; tam-that; labhet-attains; puya-sacayai-with great
piety.
When the aam falls on a Monday or Wednesday when the
star Rohi is conjoined with the moon, that day is called
Jayant. That day brings great piety.
Text 381
tasym upoya yat ppa
loka koi-bhavodbhavam
vimucya nivased vipra
vaikuhe viraje pure
tasym-on that day; upoya-fastring; yat-what; ppam-sin; loka-the people; koi-bhavodbhavam-in ten
million births; vimucya-becoming free; nivaset-resides; vipra-O brahmanas; vaikuhe-in the spiritual
world; viraje-pure; pure-in the city.
One who fasts on that day becomes free from the sins of ten
million births. He resides in the pure spiritual world.
Text 382
aam navam-viddh
um-mahevar-tithi
saivopoy sad puyakakibh rohi vin
aam-aam; navam-viddh-viddha by the navami; um-mahevar-tithi-the day of Goddess Um; sathat; eva-indeed; upoy-to be fasted; sad-always; puya-piety; kakibhi-by they who desire; rohimRohi; vin-without.
The atam viddha by the navam is also sacred to Goddess
Um. They who desire piety should fast on that day, even if the
star Rohi is not conjoined with the moon.
Text 383
para-viddh sad kry
prva-viddh tu varjayet
aam saptam-viddh
hanyt puya pur-ktam

para-viddh-viddha by the following day; sad-always; kry-to be observed; prva-viddhm-viddha by the


previous day; tu-but; varjayet'should avoid; aam-aam; saptam-viddh-viddha by the saptami; hanytdestroys; puyam-piety; pur-ktam-previous acquired.
One should observe the Janmam that is viddha by the
following day and one should not observe it when it is viddha by
the previous day. When it is viddha by the previous day, the
aam destroys one's previously acquired piety.
Text 384
brahma-haty-phala dadyd
dhari-vaimukhya-krat
kevalas t arka-yogena
upavsa-sthitim- vin
na yacchati ubham- kryammunibhi parikrtitam
brahma-haty-phalam-the result of killing a brahmana; dadyt-gives; hari-vaimukhya-krat-from being
averse to Lord Ka; kevala-only; tu-indeed; arka-yogena-with the star; upavsa-sthitim-fasting; vinwithout; na-not; yacchati-gives; ubham-auspoiciousness; kryam-to be done; munibhi-by the sages;
parikrtitam-glorified.
One who, because he is averse to Lord Ka, does not
observe a fast on the Janmam when the star Rohi is
conjoined with the moon attains the sinful reaction of murdering
a brhmaa. He does not attain the pious benefits described by
the sages.
Text 385
pare 'hni praa kuryt
tithy-ante vtha kata
pare-on the following; ahni-day; praam-breaking the fast; kuryt-should do; tithy-ante-at the end of the
tithi; v-or; atha-then; kata-from the star.
On the following day one should break his fast. The fast
should be broken either at the end of the tithi or at the end of
the time when the star Rohi is conjoined with the moon.
Text 386
yad-ka v tithir vpi
rtri vypya vyavasthit
divase praa kuryd
anyath patana bhavet. iti
yad-kam-the star; v-or; tithi-the tithi; v-or; api-also; rtrim-the night; vypya-extending; vyavasthitsituated; divase-in the day; praam-breaking the fast; kuryt-should do; anyath-otherwise; patanamfalling down; bhavet-may be; iti-thus.

If either the tithi or the Rohi-moon conjunction extend


through the entire night, then one should break his fast on the following day. By failing to do this one falls
down.
Text 387
um-mahevar-tithi. iti tat-samjety artha.
um-mahevar-tithi-Um-mahevar-tithih; iti-thus; tat-samj-named that; iti-thus; artha-the meaning.
This day is also called Um-mahevar-tithi.
Text 388
atra kraa yathokta bhoja-rjye
aamy pjayec chambhu
navamy aktir ijyate
tayor yoge tu samprpte
dvayo puj mah-phal. iti.
atra-here; kraam-the reason; yath-as; uktam-said; bhoja-rjye-in the Bhoja-rajiya; aamym-on the
aam; pjayet-should worship; ambhum-ambhu; navamym-on the navami; akti-akti; ijyate-is
worshiped; tayo-of them; yoge-in the meeting; tu-indeed; samprpte-attained; dvayo-of them both; pujworship; mah-phal-great result; iti-thus.
The reason this is so is given in the following words of the
Bhoja-rjya:
On the aam one should worship Lord iva, and on the navam one should worship his potency. When
these two holy days meet, the performance of worship brings a great result.
Text 389
atra kevalam ity dv
um-mahevar tithi
tithi prokt saiva yasmd
upoyatvena nicit
atra-here; kevalam-only; iti-thus; du-beginning; um-mahevar-Uma-mahevar; tithi-day; tithi-day;
prokt-said; sa-that; eva-indeed; yasmt-from which; upoyatvena-because of being suitable for fasting;
nicit-is considered.
The passage beginning with the word "kevalam"
declares that this day is also called Uma'-mahevar-tithi.
Therefore one should fast on this day (the atam that is
viddha by the navam).
Text 390
api-abdas tu tatra syd
yad-ukta rohi vin
tasmd atrpi saptamy
viddhamy eva varjit

api-abda-the word api; tu-indeed; tatra-there; syt-is; yad-uktam-said; rohim-Rohi; vin-without;


tasmt-therefore; atra-here; api-even; saptamy-by the saptami; viddha-viddha; aami-the aam; evaindeed; varjit-to be avoided.
The word "api" here means "even if the star
Rohi is not conjoined with the moon." However, the aam
should not be observed when it is viddha by the saptam.
Text 391
yad-ka ceti yad-vkya
tat tu smnya-tad-yutau
prasagd uktam asmin hi
viddh tyaktaiva sgraham
yad-kam-the star; ca-and; iti-thus; yad-vkyam-which statement; tat-that; tu-indeed; smnya-tad-yutauwith that; prasagt-from contact; uktam-said; asmin-in that; hi-indeed;
viddh-viddha; tyakt-to be avoided; eva-indeed;
sgraham-carefully.
Therefore, even if the star Rohi is conjoined with the
moon, one should take care not to observe an atam that is
viddha by the saptam.
Text 392
ruti-ligdika-nyyc
chruter eva hi mukhyat
tad evam aam-hnau
vrata-lopa prasajyate
tan-nirastam- prvam eva
sknda-vkynusrata
ruti-ligdika-nyyt-from the indications of Sruti-sastra; chrute-from Sruti; eva-indeed; hi-indeed;
mukhyat-predominence; tat-that; evam-thus; aam-aam; hnau-destroying; vrata-lopa-breaking the
ow; prasajyate-is attached; tan-nirastam-leaving that; prvam-before; eva-indeed; sknda-vkynusrataaccroding to the words of Skanda Pura.
Both the ruti-stra and the Skanda Pura affirm that one
should not observe the aam that is viddha by the saptam.
Text 393
janmam prva-viddh
ity dya yad-udritam
nsiha-paricaryy
dnta ca pradar#ita
janmamm-Janmam; prva-viddhm-viddha by the previous
day; iti-thus; dyam-beginning; yad-udritam-said; nsihaparicaryym-in the Nsiha-paricary; dnta-an example;

ca'and; pradar#ita-shown.
This is described in the passage beginning with the words
"Janmamm- prva-viddhm". The Nsiha-paricary also
gives an example to show this.
Text 394
daam-vedha-yogena
uddha hi dvda-vratam
saptamy-avedha-vedhoktivyavasth y kt parai
nirast s pur devair
ity di vacaso balt
daam-vedha-yogena-with the touch of the dasami; uddham-pure; hi-indeed; dvda-vratam-dvadasi vow;
saptamy-a-not; vedha-vedhokti-vyavasth-with the saptami; y-which; kt-done; parai-by thers; nirastrejected; s-that; pur-in ancient times; devai-by the devas; iti-thus; di-beginning; vacasa-of words;
balt-by the power.
A dvda that is viddha by the daam is still pure.
However, an atam that is viddha by the saptam is rejected.
This is confirmed by the passage beginning with the words .sy
168nirast s pur devai".
Text 395
vaiavvaiava-dvaidhd
dvyasthaiva tad arhati
vaiava-of Vaiavas; avaiava-and non-Vaiavas; dvaidht-because of the difference; dvyasth-two
positions; eva-indeed; tat-that; arhati-should be.
It is because the Vaiavas and non-Vaiavas are different
that there are two opinions about this.
Text 396
yata uktam gneya-viudharmayo
dvau bhta-sargau loke 'smin
daiv sura eva ca
viu-bhakta smto daiva
suras tad-viparyaya
yata-because; uktam-said; gneya-viudharmayo-in the Agni
Pura and Visnu-dharma Pura, Uttara-khanda; dvau-two; bhta' of
the living beings; sargau-dispositions; loke-in the world; asmin-in this; daiv-godly; sura-demonic; evacertainly; ca-and;
viu-bhakta-a devotee of Lord Viu; smta-remembered;
daiva-godly; sura-demon tad-viparyaya-the oppoiste of that.

In both the Agni Pura and the Viu-dharma Pura, Uttarakhaa, it is said:
There are two classes of men in the created world. One
consists of the demoni and the other of the godly. The devotees
of Viu are the godly, whereas those who are just the opposite
are called demons.*
Text 397
atha janmam-praa-kla-niraya
uddhy kevaly caam-vddhau tu praam
tithy-ante bhe 'dhike bhnte
dvi-vddhau caika-bhedata
atha-now; janmam-praa-kla-niraya-the time of breaking the fast after Janmam; uddhypure; kevaly-only; ca-and; aam-aam; vddhau-in maturity; tu-indeed; praam-breaking the fast;
tithy-ante-at the end of the tithi; bhe-at the star; adhike-more; bhnte-at rthe star; dvi-two; vddhau-mature;
ca-and; eka-one; bhedata-because of the difference.
The Time of Breaking the Janmam Fast
When the pure atam comes to an end, one should break the fast. The fast may be broken at the end of the
tithi or at the end of the Rohi-moon conjunction.
Text 398
tath ca vahni-pure
bhnte kuryt tither vpi
asta bhrata praam
tath-so; ca-and; vahni-pure-in the Agni Pura; bhnte-the star; kuryt-should do; tithe-of the tithi; vor; api-also; astam-renjoined; bhrata-O Bharata; praam-breaking the fast.
In the Agni Pura it is said:
O descendant of Bharata, one may break the fast at the end of the tithi or at the end of the Rohi-moon
conjunction.
Text 399
ki ca
rohi-samyut ceya
vidvadbhi samupoit
viyoge praa kuryur
munayo brahma-vdina
kim- ca-furthermore; rohi-samyut-with Rohi; ca-and; iyam-this; vidvadbhi-bythe wise; samupoitfasted; viyoge-in separation; praam-breaking the fast; kuryu-should do; munaya-the sages; brahmavdina-who speak of Brahman.
It is also said:

The wise fast during the Rohi-moon conjunction. When the conjunction is over, the brahmavd sages
break their fast.
Text 400
samyaugike tu samprpte
yatra ko 'pi viyujyate
tatraiva praa kuryd
eva veda-vido vidu
samyaugike-conjunction; tu-indeed; samprpte-attained; yatra-where; ko 'pi-something; viyujyate-is
separated; tatra-there; eva-indeed; praam-breaking the fast; kuryt-should do; evam-thus; veda-vida-the
knowers of the Vedas; vidu-wise.
The wise fast during the Rohi-moon conjunction. When the
conjunction is over, the knowers of the Vedas should break their fast.
Text 401
yad v
tithy-kayor eva
dvayor ante tu praam
samarthnm aaktn
dvayor eka-viyogata
yat-what; v-or; tithy-kayo-of the tithi or the star; eva-indeed; dvayo-both; ante-at the end; tu-indeed;
praam-breaking the fast; samarthnm-able; aaktnm-unable; dvayo-of both; eka-viyogata-because of
bthe absence of one.
It is also said:
They who are able should break their fast after both the tithi and the Rohi-moon conjunction have come
to an end. They who are not able may break their fast after one of these comes to an end.
Text 402
ata evoktam yjavalkyena
y kacit tithaya prokt
puya-nakatra-samyut
knte praa kuryd
vin ravaa-rohi
ata eva-therefore; uktam-said; yjavalkyena-by Yajnavalkya; y-which; kacit-some; tithaya-tithis;
prokt-said; puya-nakatra-samyut-wioth the star; knte-at the end of the star; praam-fasting;
kuryt-should do; vin-without; ravaa-rohi-the star Rohi.
Yjavalkya explains:
When auspicious tithis are connected to auspicious stars one should break his fast at the time when the
star's conjunction with the moon ends. The star Rohi is an exception to this rule.
Text 403
ata eva brahma-vaivarte
aamym atha rohiy

na kuryt praa kvacit


hanyt pur-kta karma
upavsrjita phalam
ata eva-therefore; brahma-vaivarte-in the Brahma-vaivarta Pura; aamym-on the aam; atha-then;
rohiym-in Rohi; na-not; kuryt-should do; praam-breaking the fast; kvacit-sometime; hanytdestroys; pur-ktam-previously done; karma-pious deeds; upavsa-by fasting; arjitam-earned; phalamresult.
In the Brahma-vaivarta Pura it is said:
One should break his fast after both the aam and the Rohi-moon conjunction come to an end. If he
does not, he destroys the pious merit he earned by fasting.
Text 404
tithir aa-gua hanti
nakatra ca catur-guam
tasmt prayatnata kuryt
tithi-bhnte ca praam
tithi-day; aa-guam-eight times; hanti-kills; nakatram-star; ca-and; catur-guam-four times; tasmttherefore; prayatnata-with care; kuryt-should do; tithi-bhnte-at the end of the tithi and the star; ca-and;
praam-breaking the fast.
By breaking the fast before the tithi's end one destroys his
piety eight times over. By breaking the fast before the Rohi-moon conjunction's end one destroys his piety
four times over.
Text 405
kec ca bhagavaj-janmamahotsava-dine ubhe
bhaktyotsavnte kurvanti
vaiav vrata-praam
kecit-some; ca-and; bhagava-janma-of the birtth of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; mahotsava-dineonm the day opf the festival; ubhe-auspicious; bhakty-with devotion; utsava-the festival; ante-at the end;
kurvanti-do; vaiav-Vaiavas; vrata-praam-breaking the fast.
The Vaiavas observe a great festival on the birthday of
the Supreme Personality of Godhead. At the festival's end, the
devotees break their fast.
Text 406
tath cokta grue
tithy-ante cotsavnte v
vrat kurvta praam
tath-so; ca-and; uktam-saisd; grue-in the Garua Pura; tithy-ante-at the tithi's end; ca-and; utsavnteat the festuival's end; v-or; vrat-observing the vow; kurvta-should do; praam-breaking the fast.
In the Garua Pura it is said:
At the tithi's end or the festival's end, one should break his fast.

Text 407
vyu-pure ca
yadcchet sarva-ppni
hantu niravaeata
utsavnte sad vipra
jagannthnnam ayet. iti.
vyu-pure-in the Vayu Pura; ca-and; yadi-if; icchet-desires; sarva-ppni-all sins; hantum-to destroy;
niravaeata-completely; utsavante-at the festival's end; sad-always; vipra-O brahmana; jagannthnnamthe prasadam remnant's of Lord Jaganntha; ayet-should eat; iti-thus.
In the Vyu Pura it is said:
If one desires to destroy all his sins, without a single sin remaining alive, one should, at the festival's end,
break his
fast by eating the prasda remnants from Lord Jaganntha.
Text 408
atha janmam-vrata-vidhi
vrata-sdharanatvc ca
saptamy-di-dina-traye
kartavy niyam sarve
daamy-di-dine iva
atha -now;janmam-vrata-vidhi vrata-sdharanatvc-the method to observe the vow of Janmam; caand; saptamy-di-beginning with the saptami; dina-days; traye-three; kartavy-to be done; niyam-self
control; sarve-all; daamy-di-begionning with the dasami; dineu-in days; iva-like.
The Method of Observing the Janmam Vow
As one should be austere and self-controlled during the three-day period of daam, ekda, and dvda, so
one should also be austere and self-controlled during the three-day period of saptam, Janmam, and
navam.
Text 409
atha vidhi-viea
bhaviyottare r-yudhihira uvca
tad vrata kda deva
lokai sarvair anuhitam
janmam-vrata nma
pavitra puruottama
atha-now; vidhi-viea-the sepcif method; bhaviyottare-in the Bhavisya Pura, Uttara-khanda; ryudhihira-r Yudhihira; uvca-said; tat-that; vratam-vow; kdam-like what?; deva-O Lord; lokai-by the
people; sarvai-all; anuhitam-established; janmam-vratam-Janmam vow; nma-named; pavitrampurifying; puruottama-O Supreme Personality of Godhead.
The Method of Observing the Vow
In the Bhaviya Pura, Uttara-khanda, r Yudhihira said:

O Supreme Person, what is the nature of this vow named Janmam-vrata, which should be observed by all
people?
Text 410
tena tva tuim ysi
lokn prabhavvyaya
etan me bhagavan brhi
prasdn madhusdana
tena-by this; tvam-You; tuim-happiness; ysi-attained; loknm-of the people; prabhavvyaya-O Lord
whose power is limitless; etat-this; me-to me; bhagavan-O Lord; brhi-please tell; prasdt-mercifully;
madhusdana-O Ka.
This vow pleases You. O all-powerful Lord Ka, please
kindly describe this vow to me.
Text 411
r-ka uvca
prtha tad-divase prpte
danta-dhvana-prvakam
upavsasya niyama
grhyd yata-mnasa
r-ka uvca-r Ka; prtha-O Partha; tad-divase-on the day; prpte-attaineed; danta-dhvanaprvakam-first brushing the teeth; upavsasya-of fasting; niyamam-rule; grhyt-should accept; yatamnasa-with a controlled mind.
r Ka said: O Prtha, on that day one should first brush
one's teeth, and then, with a controlled mind, follow the rules
of fasting.
Text 412
ekenaivopavsena
ktena kuru-nandana
sapta-janma-ktn ppn
mucyate ntra saaya
ekena-once; eva-indeed; upvsena-by fasting; ktena-done; kuru-nandana-O delight of the Kurus; saptajanma-ktn-done in seven births; ppt-from sins; mucyate-freed; na-not; atra-here; saaya-doubt.
O delight of the Kurus, by once fasting on this day a person
becomes freed from the sins of seven births. Of this there is no
doubt.
Text 413
upavttasya ppebhyo
yas tu vso guai saha
upavsa sa vijeyo
nopavsas tu laghanam

upavttasya-freed; ppebhya-from sins; ya-who; tu-indeed;


vsa-the home; guai-virtues; saha-wiuth; upavsa-fasting;
sa-he; vijeya-known; na-not; upavsa-fasting; tu-but;
laghanam-rebellion.
One who fasts on this day becomes free from sin. He becomes
the home of many virtues. One who does not fast jumps over the
rules of religion.
Text 414
atha tatra mantra
adya sthitva nirhra
sarva-bhoga-vivarjita
bhokye 'ha puarkka
araam me bhavcyuta
atha-now; tatra-there; mantrah-situated; adya-today; sthitva-standing; nirhra-fasting; sarva-bhogavivarjita-without eating any food; bhokye-will eat; aham-I; puarkka'O lotus-eyed one; araamshelter; me-to me; bhava-please become; acyuta-O infallible.
The Mantra For That
Today I stand before You. I am fasting. I have not eaten anything. Only tomorrow will I eat. O infallible,
lotus-eyed Lord, please become my shelter.
Text 415
tata sntv tu madhyhne
nady-dau vimale jale
devaky obhana kuryt
su-gupta stik-gham
tata-then; sntv-bathing; tu-indeed; madhyhne-at midday; nady-dau-in a river or other like place;
vimale-pure; jale-in water; devaky-of Devak; obhanam-decoration; kuryt-should do; su-guptamhidden; stik-gham-maternity-room.
Then, at midday, one should bathe in the pure water of a
river or other appropriate place. Then one should decorate the
prison maternity-room of Devak.
Text 416
atha stik-gha-nirma-vidhi
padmargair paair netrair
maita carcita ubhai
ramya vandana-mlbh
rak-mai-vibhitam
atha-now; stik-gha-nirma-vidhi-the method of
constructing the maternity room; padmargai-with rubies;

paai-with cloth; netrai-fine silk; maitam-decorated;


carcitam-anointed; ubhai-with auspicious ointments;
ramyam-beautiful; vandana-mlbhi-with garlands strung across
the entrances; rak-mai-with jewel amulets;
vibhitam-decorated.
The Method of Constructing the Maternity-room
The maternity-room should be decorated with rubies, fine silk, and jewel-amulets. Garlands should be
strung across the entrances. The room should be anointed with auspicious ointments.
Text 417
sarva gokula-vat krya
gopjana-samkulam
gha-mardula-sagta
mgalya-kalasnvitam
sarvam-all; gokula-vat-like Gokula; kryam-to be done; gopjana-samkulam-filled with gops; gha-bells;
mardula-sweet; sagtam-singing and music; mgalya-kalasnvitam-with auspicious waterpots.
Everything should be like Gokula. There should be many
gops. There should be auspicious waterpots. There should be
sweet singing and the sounds of bells.
Text 418
yavrdra-svastikbjdyai
akha-vditra-sakulam
bandhakar-loha-khagair
dpa-chga-samanvitam
yava-barelycorns; adra-moistened; svastika-svastikas; abja-lotus flowers; dyai-beginning with; akhavditra-sakulam'filled with the sounds of conchshells; bandhakar-shackles; loha-iron; khagai-with
swords; dpa-lamps; chga-a chaga; samanvitam-with.
There should be moistened barleycorns, svastikas, lotus
flowers, and other like things. There should be the sounds of
conchshells. There should be shackles, an iron sword, a lamp, and
a chga.
Text 419
manthna-vri-ypai ca
bhti-sarapa-vahnibhi
dvri vinasta-muala
rakita raksa-plakai
manthna-churnig rod; vri-water; ypai-yupa; ca-and;
bhti-bhuti; sarapa-sarsapa; vahnibhi-with fire;
dvri-at the door; vinasta-placed; mualam-a club;

rakitam-guarded; raksa-plakai-by guards.


There should be a churning rod, water, a ypa, a bhti, a
sarapa, and a fire. A clu should be placed at the door. the
room should be protected by guards.
Text 420
ahy devy ca tatraiva
vidhna vidhi-vat tath
evam-vidha yath-akti
kartavya stik-gham
ahy devy-of Goddess ah; ca-and; tatra-there; eva-indeed; vidhnam-establihsment; vidhi-vatproperly; tath-so; evam-vidham-in this way; yath-akti-as one is able; kartavyam-should be done; stikgham-the maternity room.
Goddess ah should also be placed there. Thus, as far as
one is able, one should construct the maternity-room.
Text 421
tan-madhye pratim sthpy
s cpy aa-vidh smt
kcan rjat tmr
paittal mnmay tath
vrk maimay caiva
varik likhitthav
tan-madhye-in the midts of that; pratim-a Deity; sthpy-should be placed; s-that; ca-and; api-also; aavidh-eight kinds; smt-considered; kcan-golden; rjat-silver; tmr-copper; paittal-brass; mnmayclay; tath-so; vrk-wood; maimay-jewel; ca-and; eva-indeed; varik likhit-a picture; athav-or.
In the midst of that room a Deity should be placed. The
Deity may be made of one of these eight substances: 1. gold, 2.
silver, 3. copper, 4. brass, 5. clay, 6. wood, or 7. jewels, or
8. the Deity may be a picture.
Text 422
sarva-lakaa-sampann
paryake crdha-suptik
pratapta-kcanbhs
kt s tu tapasvin
prast ca prasnt ca
tat-kac ca praharit
sarva-lakaa-sampann-endowed with all virtues;
paryake-on the bed; ca-also; ardha-suptik-half asleep;
pratapta-kcanbhs-splendid like molten gold; kt-done;

s-she; tu-indeed; tapasvin-austere; prast-mother; ca-and;


prasnt-affectionate; ca-and; tat-kat-from that moment;
ca-and; praharit-joyful.
Devak should should be resting, half-asleep, on the bed.
She should be splendid like molten gold, filled with all virtues,
austere, filled with maternal love, and, at that moment, joyful.
Texts 423 and 424
m cpi blaka supta
paryake stana-pyinam
rvatsa-vakasa deva
nlotpala-dala-prabham
ankha-cakra-gad-rgavana-ml-vibhitam
catur-bhuja maha-pra
sthpayet tatra bhaktita
mm-Me; ca-and; api-also; blakam-child; suptam-asleep; paryake-on the bed; stana-pyinam-drinking
from the breast; rvatsa-vakasam-chest marked with rvatsa; devam-the Supreme Personality of Godhead;
nlotpala-dala-prabham-splendid like a blue lotus petal ankha-cakra-gad-rga-vana-ml-vibhitamdecorated with conchshell, cakra, club, rga bow, and forest garland; catur-bhujam-with four arms;
maha-pram-effulent; sthpayet-should place; tatra-there; bhaktita-with devotion.
With devotion one should place Me there on the bed. I should
be a sleeping infant splendid like a blue lotus petal, My chest
marked with rvatsa, effulgent, decorated with a forest garland,
and in My four hands a conchshell, cakra, clu, and arga bow.
Text 425
yaod cpi tatraiva
prasta-vara-kanyakm
yaodm-Yasoda; ca-and; api-also; tatra-there; eva-indeed; prasta-vara-kanyakm-the recently born
beautiful infant girl.
Yaoda' and her beautiful newborn daughter should also be
there.
Text 426
tatra dev grah ng
yaka-vidydharorag
praat pupa-mlbhir
vyagra-hast sursur
sacaranta ivke
prakrair muditoditai

tatra-there; dev-the demigods; grah-the rulers of the planets; ng-the divine serpents; yakavidydharorag-the yaksas, vidyadharas, and uragas; praat-bowing down; pupa-mlbhi-with flower
garlands; vyagra-hast-in their hands; sursur-the demigods and demons; sacaranta-flying;
iva-as if; ke-in the sky; prakrai-in ways;
muditoditai-filled with happiness.
The devas, rulers of the planets, ngas, yakas,
vidydharas, uragas, suras, and asuras should be happily flying
in the sky. They should be offering respectful obeisances and
carrying presents of flower-garlands in their hands.
Text 427
vasudevo 'pi tatraiva
khaga-carma-dhara-sthita
vasudeva-Vasudeva; api-also; tatra-there; eva-indeed; khaga-sword; carma-and shielf; dhara-sthitaholding.
Vasudeva should be holding a sword and shield.
Text 428
kayapo vasudevo 'yam
aditis cpi devak
ea-ngo hal ctra
yasodditir eva ca
kayapa-Kayapa; vasudeva-Vasudeva; ayam-he; aditi-Aditi; ca-and; api-and; devak-Devak; ea-ngaea-nga; hal-Balarma; ca-and; atra-here; yasod-Yaod; aditi-Aditi; eva'indeed; ca-also.
Vasudeva was Kayapa, Devak was Aditi, Balarma was eanga, and Yaoda' was also Aditi. They should all be there.
Text 429
nanda prajpatir dako
garga cpi catur-mukha
eo 'vatro rjendra
kaso vai kalinemi-ja
nanda-Nanda; prajpati-Prajapati; daka-Daka; garga-Garga; ca-and; api-also; catur-mukha-the
demigod Brahm; ea-he; avatra-incarnation; rjendra-O king of kings; kasa-Kasa; vai-indeed;
kalinemi-ja-prteviously bron as Kalanemi.
O king of kings, Nanda was Prajpati Daka, Garga Muni was the demigod Brahm, and Kasa was
Kalanemi. They should all be
there.
Text 430
tatra kasa-niyukt ye
dnav vividhyudh
te ca prahrik sarve

supt nidra-vimohit
ario dhenuka ke
dnav astra-paya
tatra-there; kasa-by Kamsa; niyukt-employed; ye-which; dnav-demons; vividhyudh-with various
weapons; te-they; ca-and; prahrik-guards; sarve-all; supt-asleep; nidra-vimohit-bewildered by sleep;
aria-Arista; dhenuka-Dhenuka; ke-Kesi; dnav-demons; astra-paya-with weapons in their
hands.
There also should be demon-guards sent by Kasa. Holding
various weapons in their hands, they should all be asleep. Their
names are: Aria, Dhenuka, and Ke.
Text 431
ntyanto 'psaraso h
gandharv gta-tatpar
lekhany ca tatraiva
kliyo yamun-jale
nanda-gopa ca gop ca
yaod ca prastik
ntyanta-dancing; apsarasa-apsaras; h-joyful; gandharv-gandharvas; gta-tatpar-singing;
lekhany-to be drawn; ca-and; tatra-there; eva-indeed; kliya-Kaliya; yamun-jale-in the Yamuna's
waters; nanda-gopa-the gopa Nanda; ca-and; gop-the gopas; ca-and; yaod-Yasoda; ca-and; prastikwho has recently given birth.
In this picture should also be drawn or painted happily
dancing apsars, singing gandharvas, Kliya in the Yamun's
waters, Nanda-gopa, many other gopas, and Yaoda' soon after she
gave birth.
Texts 432-434
tata pjopakrama
ramym evam-vidh ktv
devak nava-stikm
t prtha pjayed bhakty
gandha-pupkatai phalai
kumaair nrikelai ca
kharjrair daim-phalai
vja-prai pga-phalair
naragai panasais tath
dea-klodbhavair miai
pupai cpi su-gandhibhi
dhytvvatrn prag-uktn
mantrenena pjayet

tata-then; pj-of worship; upakrama-beginning; ramyam-beautiful; evam-vidham-like this; ktvdoing; devakm-Devak; nava-stikm-recently given birth; tm-her; prtha-O son of Prtha; pjayet-should
worship; bhakty-with devotion; gandha-pupkatai-with fragrances, flowers, and unbroken grains of
rice; phalai-with fruits; kumaai-with kumaas; nrikelai-coconuts; ca-and; kharjrai-kharjras;
daim-phalai-pomegranates; vjaprai-vijapuras; pga-phalai-betelnuts; naragai-oranges; panasaipanasas; tath-so; dea-klodbhavai-born in that place and time; miai-sweet; pupai-with flowers; caand; api-also; su-gandhibhi-very fragrant; dhytv-meditating; avatrn-on the incarnations; prag-uktnpreviously described; mantrea-mantra; anena-with this; pjayet-should worship.
The Worship Begins
Thus one should make a beautiful picture. Then one should devotedly worship Devak, who has recently
given birth to Lord Ka. One should worship her with fragrances, flowers, fruits, unbroken grains,
kumaas, coconuts, kharjras, pomegranates, vjapras, betelnuts, oranges, panasas, with sweet and
delicious fruits in season, and with fragrant flowers. Then one should meditate on the previously described
incarnations. Then one should worship Devak with the following mantra.
rla Santana Gosvm comments
The phrase "previously described incarnations"
refers to Devak's incarnation as Aditi, and the other like
incarnations already described.
Text 435
atha pj-mantra
aditir deva-mat tva
sarva-ppa-prain
atas tv pjayiymi
bhaya-bhto bhavasya ca
atha-now; pj-mantra-the mantra for worship; aditi-Aditi; deva-mat-the mother of the demigods; tvamyou; sarva-ppa-all sins; prain-destroying; ata-therefore; tvm-you; pjayiymi-I will worship; bhayabhta-afraid; bhavasya-of repeated birth and death; ca-and.
The Mantra For Worshiping Devak
You are Aditi, the mother of the demigods. You destroy all sins. Therefore I, who am afraid of this world of
birth and death, will now worship You.
Text 436
pjitsi yad devai
prasann tva varnane
tath me pjit bhakty
prasda kuru su-vrate
pjit-worshiped; asi-you are; yad-when; devai-by the demigods; prasann-pleased; tvam-you; varnanewith the beautiful face; tath-so; me-by me; pjit-worshiped; bhakty-with devotion; prasdam-mercy;
kuru-please do; su-vrate-O saintly one.
O girl with the beautiful face, You were pleased when the
demigods worshiped you. Now I worship you with devotion. O
saintly one, please be merciful to me.

Text 437
yath putra priya labdhv
prapt te nirvti par
tath me nirvti devi
sa-putr tva dadasva me
yath-as; putram-to a son; priyam-dear; labdhv-attaining; prapt-attained; te-of you; nirvti-happiness;
par-great; tath-so; me-of me; nirvtim-happiness; devi-O goddess; sa-putr-with a son; tvam-you; dadasvaplease give; me-to me.
You are very happy to have a dear son. O goddess, please
give a like happiness to me.
Text 438
gyadbhi kinnardyai satata-parivt veu-vdi-ndair
bhgrdara-kumbha-prakara-hta-karai kinnarai sevyamn
paryake tvstte y muditatara-mukh putri samyag aste
s dev deva-mt jayati su-vadan devak knta-rup
gyadbhi-singing; kinnardyai-beginning with the kinnaras; satata-parivt-always surrounded; veuvdi-beginning with flutes and vinas; ndai-with sounds; bhgra-golden pitchers; dara-mirrors;
kumbha-waterpots; prakara-multitudes; hta-held; karai-in their hands; kinnarai-by kinnaras; sevyamnbeings served; paryake-on the bed; tu-indeed; stte-covered; y-who; muditatara-mukh-happy face;
putri-with a son; samyag-properly; aste-stays; s-she; dev-goddess; deva-mt-the mother of the
demigods; jayati-all glories; su-vadan-beautiful face; devak-Devak; knta-beautiful; rup-form.
All glories to beautiful, beautiful-faced Devak, the mother
of the demigods. The happy-faced mother of a newborn son, she
rests on her great bed. She is served by many kinnaras and other
demigods, who sing songs, play mus on flutes, vs, and other
instruments, and carry in their hands gifts of golden vases,
waterpots, and glistening mirrors.
Text 439
pd abhyajayant rr
devaky carantike
niann pakaje pjy
namo devyai riye iti
pdau-feet; abhyajayant-anointing; r-the goddess of fortune; devaky-of Devak; carantike-the feet;
niann-resting; pakaje-on a lotus flower; pjy-to be worshiped; nama-obeisances; devyai-to the
goddess; riye-r; iti-thus.
Goddess Lakm anoints Devak's feet with sweet fragrances.
Reciting the mantra "namo devyai riye" (Obeisances to
Goddess Lakm), one should also worship Goddess Lakm, who sits
on a lotus flower.

Text 440
avatra-sahasra vai
kta te madhusdana
na sakhyam avatar
kaci jnti vai bhuvi
avatra-of incarnations; sahasram-thousands; vai-indeed; ktam-done; te-of You; madhusdana-O Lord
Ka; na-not; sakhyam-counting; avatarm-of incarnations; kacit-someone; jnti-knows; vai-indeed;
bhuvi-in this world.
O Lord Ka, You descend to this world in the forms of many
thousands of incarnations. No one can count all Your incarnations
in this world.
Text 441
brahm ivdayo vpi
svarpa na vidus tava
atas tv pjaymy adya
mtur utsaga-yinam
brahm-Brahm; ivdaya-beginning withiva; v-or; api-also; svarpam-transcendental form; na-not;
vidu-understand; tava-of You; ata-then; tvm-You; pjaymi-I worship; adya-now; mtu-of Your
mother; utsaga-yinam-sittting on the lap.
Brahm, iva, and all the demigods cannot understand the
truth of Your transcendental form. O Lord, I worship You as You
sit on Your mother's lap.
Text 442
sva-nmabhi caturthya tai
praavdi-namo-'ntakai
pjayeyur dvij sarve
str-dr mantra-varjit
sva-nmabhi-with Your names; caturthyam-in the datuve case; tai-by them; praavdi-namo-'ntakaiwith Om- in the beginning and nama at the end; pjayeyu-should worship; dvij-the devas; sarve-all;
str-dr-women and sudras; mantra-varjit-without mantras.
All the brhmaas, and even the women and dras, who are
not eligible to chant Ved mantras, worship You by chanting your
names in the dative case, names preceded by om- and followed by
nama.
r Santana Gosvm comments:
An example of this is the the mantra "om- vsudevya
nama".
Text 443
vidhy-antaram apcchanti

kecid atra dvijottam


candrodaye akya
dadyd arghya hari smaran
vidhi-rule; antaram-another; api-even; icchanti-desire; kecit-some; atra-here; dvijottam-the best fo
brahmanas; candrodaye-at moonrise; akya-to the moon-god; dadyt-should offer; arghyam-arghya;
harim-Lord Hari; smaran-remembering.
If some exalted brhmaas desire to perform more rituals,
they may offer arghya to the moon-god at moonrise. As they thus
offer arghya, they should meditate on Lord Hari, . . .
Text 444
anagha vmana auri
vaikuha puruottamam
aparjita vsudeva
mdhava madhusdanam
anagham-sinless; vmanam-Vmana; aurim-who appeared in the srya-vaa; vaikuham-the master of
Vaikuha; puruottamam'the supreme person;
aparjitam-invincible; vsudevam-Vsudeva; mdhavam-Mdhava;
madhusdanam-the killer of the Madhu demon.
. . . who is sinless, Vmana, the descendant of the sun-god, the
master of Vaikuha, the supreme person, invincible, the son of
Vasudeva, the husband of the goddess of fortune, the killer of
the Madhu demon, . . .
Text 445
varha puarkka
nsiha dhara-dharam
dmodara padmanbha
keava garua-dhvajam
varham-Lord Varha; puarkkam-lotus-eyed; nsiham-Lord Nsiha; dhara-dharam-the
maintainer of the earth; dmodaram-whose waist was tied with a rope; padmanbham-lotus-navel; keavamthe master of Brahma' and iva; garua-dhvajam-who carries the flag of Garua.
. . . Lord Varha, lotus-eyed, Lord Nsiha, the maintainer of the
earth, the Lord whose waist was tied with a rope, the Lord whose
navel is a lotus flower, the master of Brahma' and iva, the Lord
who carries the flag of Garua, . . .
Text 446
govindam acyuta ka
ananta puruottamam
adhokaja jagad-bja

sarga-sthity-anta-kraam
govindam-the pleasure of the cows, land, and senses; acyutam-infallible; kam-all-attractive; anantamlimitless; puruottamam-the supreme person; adhokajam-beyond the perception of material senses; jagadbjam-the seed of the universes; sarga-sthity-anta-kraam-the creator, maintainer, and destroyer.
. . . the pleasure of the cows, land, and senses, infallible,
all-attractive, limitless, the supreme person, beyond the perception
of material senses, the seed of the universes, the creator, maintainer, and
destroyer, . . .
Text 447
andi-nidhana viu
trilokea trivikramam
nryaa caturbhu
akha-cakra-gad-dharam
andi-nidhanam-without beginning or end; vium-all-pervading; trilokeam-the master of the three
worlds; trivikramam-who took three steps; nryaam-the resting place of all living entities; caturbhumfour-armed; akha-cakra-gad-dharam-who holds a conch, disc, and club.
. . . without beginning or end, all-pervading, the master of the
three worlds, the Lord who took three steps, the resting place of
all living entities, four-armed, the Lord who holds a conch,
disc, and club, . . .
Text 448
ptmbara-dhara nitya
vana-ml-vibhitam
rvatska jagat-setu
r-pati r-dhara harim
ptmbara-dharam-who wears yellow garments; nityam-eternal; vana-ml-vibhitam-decorated with a
forest garland; rvatskam-marked with rvatsa; jagat-setum-the ruler of the universes; r-patim-the
husband of the goddess of fortune; r-dharam-the maintainer of the goddess of fortune; harim-the Lord
who removes all that is inauspicious.
. . . the Lord who wears yellow garments, who is eternal,
decorated with a forest garland, marked with rvatsa, the ruler
of the universes, the husband of the goddess of fortune, the
maintainer of the goddess of fortune, the Lord who removes all
that is inauspicious, . . .
Text 449
devak-garbha-sambhta
daitya-sainya-vinanam
ghrghyam ida deva
govindya namo nama

ity arghya-mantra
devak-garbha-sambhtam-born in the wom of Devak; daitya-sainya-vinanam-destroying the armies of
demons; gha-please accept; arghyam-arghya; idam-this; deva-O Lord; govindya-to Lord Govinda;
nama-obeisances; nama-obeisnaces; iti-thus; arghya-the arghya; mantra-mantra.
. . . who was born from Devak's womb, and who destroyed the demon
armies. The arghya mantra is, "ghrghyam idam- deva
govindya namo nama" (O Lord, please accept this arghya.
Obeisances, obeisances to Lord Govinda.).
Text 450
atha snna-mantra
yogevarya yoga-sambhavya yoga-pataye govindya namo nama
atha-now; snna-mantra-the bathing mantra; yogesvarya-to
the master of yoga; yoga-sambhavya-to the father of yoga; yoga-pataye-to the master of yoga; govindya-to
Lord Govinda;
nama-obeisances; nama-obeisances.
The bathing mantra is, "yogevarya yoga-sambhavya
yoga-pataye govindya namo nama" (Obeisances, obeisances to Lord
Govinda, who is the controller of yoga, the father of yoga, and
the master of yoga).
Text 451
atha vastra-dna-mantra
yajesvarya yaja-sambhavya yaja-pataye govindya namo
nama
atha-now; vastra-garments; dna-offering; mantra-mantra; yajesvarya-to the controller of yajnas; yajnasambhavya-to the father of yajnas; yajna-pataye-to the mater of yajnas; govindya-to Lord Govinda;
nama-obeisances; nama-obeisances.
The mantra for offering garments is, "yajesvarya
yaja-sambhavya yaja-pataye govindya namo nama" (Obeisances,
obeisances to Lord Govinda, who is the controller of yaja, the
father of yaja, and the master of yaja).
Text 452
atha dhpa-dna-mantra
vivevarya viva-sambhavya viva-pataye govindya namo nama.
atha-now; dhpa-dna-mantra-the mantra for offering incense; vivevarya-to the controller of the
universe; viva-sambhavya'the father of the universe; viva-pataye-the master of the universe; govindya-to
Lord Govinda; nama-obeisances; nama-obeisances.
The mantra for offering incense is, "vivevarya
viva-sambhavya viva-pataye govindya namo nama"
(Obeisances, obeisances to Lord Govinda, who is the controller of

the universes, the father of the universes, and the master of the
universes.
Text 453
atha naivedyrpaa-mantra
dharmevarya dharma-sambhavya dharma-pataye govindya namo nama
atha-now; naivedyrpaa-mantra-the mantra for offering food; dharmevarya-to the controller of religion;
dharma-sambhavya-the father of religion; dharma-pataye-the master of religion; govindya-to Lord
Govinda; nama-obeisances; nama-obeisances.
The mantra for offering food is, "dharmevarya
dharma-sambhavya dharma-pataye govindya namo nama"
(Obeisances, obeisances to Lord Govinda, who is the controller
of religion, the father of religion, and the master of religion).
Text 454
atha candrrghya-dna-mantra
krodrava-sambhta
atri-netra-samudbhava
ghrghya akema
rohin-sahito mama
atha-now; candra-to the moon-god; arghya-arghya; dna-offering; mantra-mantra; krodrava-sambhtaborn from the milk-ocean; atri-netra-samudbhava-born from Atri Muni's eye; gha-please accept;
arghyam-arghya; aka-O moon-god; imathis; rohin-Rohi; sahita-with; mama-of me.
The mantra for offering arghya to the moon-god:
O moon-god born from the milk-ocean and from Atri Muni's eye, O moon-god now associating with Rohi,
please accept this arghya I offer to you.
Text 455
sthaile sthpayed deva
aka rohi tath
devak vasudeva ca
yaod nanda eva ca
sthaile-on the altar; sthpayet-should place; devam-the Lord; akam-the moon-god; rohim-Rohi;
tath-so; devakm-Devak; vasudevam-Vasudeva; ca-and; yaodm-Yaod; nandam-Nanda; eva-indeed; caand.
Then one should place on the altar Lord Ka, the moon-god,
Rohi, Devak, Vasudeva, Yaod, Nanda, . . .
Text 456
balabhadra tath gopn
gop-gokulam eva ca
eva kte na sandeho
nara ppt pramucyate

balabhadram-Balarma; tath-so; gopn-the gopas; gop-gokulam-the cows and gops; eva-indeed; ca-and;
evam-thus; kte-done; na-no; sandeha-doubt; nara-person; ppt-from sin; pramucyate-is freed.
. . . Balarma, the gopas, the gops, and the cows. One who does
this becomes free from sins. Of this there is no doubt.
Text 457
ardha-rtre vasor dhra
ptayed ga-sarpi
tato vardhpana ah
nmdi-karaa tata
ardha-rtre-in the middle of the night; vaso-of water; dhrm-a stream; ptayet-on eshould cause to fall;
ga-with mollasses; sarpi-and ghee; tata-then; vardhpanam-the ceremony of cutting the umbilical
cord; ah-Goddess ah; nmdi-karaam-the name giving ceremony; tata-then.
In the middle of the night one should bathe Lord Ka with
a stream of water and with molasses and ghee. Then one should
observe the ceremony for cutting the umbilical cord. Then one should
worship Goddess ah. Then one should observe the name-giving
ceremony.
Text 458
kartavya tat-kand rtrau
prabhte navam-dine
yath mama tath kryo
bhagavaty mahotsava
kartavyam-to be done; tat-kant-from that moment; rtrau-in the night; prabhte-at sunrise; navam-dineon the navami; yath-as; mama-of me; tath-so; krya-duty; bhagavaty-of the goddess; mahotsava-a
festival.
Then, at daybreak of the navam, one should celebrate a great
festival honoring Goddess Durg.
Text 459
brhman bhojayed bhakty
tebhyo dadyc ca dakim
hiraya rajata gvo
vssi vividhni ca
brhman-brahmanas; bhojayet-should feed; bhakty-with devotion; tebhya-to them; dadyt-should give;
ca-and; dakim-daksina; hirayam-gold; rajatam-silver; gva-cows; vssi-garmewnts;
vividhni'various; ca-and.
Then one should offer a great feast to the brhmaas and
also offer them dakia' of gold, silver, cows, and many kinds of
exquisite garments.
Text 460

yad yad iatma tena


ko me priyatm iti
yad yat-whatever; iatmam-desired; tena-by that; ka-Lord Ksa; me-with me; priyatm-may be
pleased; iti-thus.
One should give the brhmaas whatever they desire. At this
time one should pray, "May Lord Ka be pleased with
me".
Text 461
ya deva devak dev
vasudevd ajjanat
bhaumasya brahmao guptyai
tasmai brahmtmane nama
yam-which; devam-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; devak-Devak; dev-goddess; vasudevt-from
Vasudeva; ajjanat-gave birth; bhaumasya-of the earth; brahmaa-of Brahma; guptyai-for protection;
tasmai-to Him; brahmtmane-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; nama-obeisances.
I offer my respectful obeisances to the Supreme Personality
of Godhead, who, in order to give protection to Brahma' and all
other living entities in this world, was born as the son of
Vasudeva and Devak.
Text 462
su-janma-vsudevya
go-brhmaa-hitya ca
ntir astu iva cstu
ity uktv ta visarjayet
su-good; janma-birth; vsudevya-to the son of Vasudeva; go-brhmaa-hitya-who protects the welfare of
the cows and brahmanas; ca-and; nti-peace; astu-may be; ivam-auspiciousness; ca-and; astu-may be; itithus;
uktv-speaking; tam-Him; visarjayet-should allow to go.
Obeisances to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the
son of Vasudeva and the auspiciousness of the cows and brhmaas.
May there be peace. May there be auspiciousness.
After speaking these words, one should take one's leave of the Deity.
Text 463
eva ya kurute devy
devaky su-mahotsavam
vare vare tu mad-bhakto
dharmrth dharma-nandana
naro v yadi v nr

yathokta phalam pnuyt


evam-thus; ya-who; kurute-does; devy-goddess; devaky-of Devak; su-mahotsavam-great festival; vareyear; vare-after year; tu-indeed; mad-bhakta-My devotee; dharmrth-desiring piety; dharma-nandana-O
son of Dharma; nara-a man; v-or; yadi-if; v-or; nr-a woman; yath-as; uktam-said; phalam-result;
pnuyt-will obtain.
O son of Dharma, a man or a woman who is devoted to Me,
desires piety, and in this way year after year celebrates a great
festival in honor of Goddess Devak, will attain the pious
results described here.
Text 464
bhaviye
ghyn niyama prva
danta-dhvana-prvakam
niyamt phalam pnoti
na reyo niyama vin
bhaviye-in the Bhaviya Pura; ghyt-may accept; niyamam-the sankalpa mantra; prvam-before;
danta-dhvana-brushing the teeth; prvakam-before; niyamt-from the sankalpa mantra; phalam-the result;
pnoti-attains; na-not; reya-better; niyamam-the sankalpa mantra; vin-without.
In the Bhaviya Pura it is said:
One should brush one's teeth and then recite the sakalpa-mantra. It is the sakalpa-mantra that brings
results. Without first reciting the sakalpa-mantra one does not obtain the most auspicious result.
Text 465
niyama-mantra
adya sthitv nirhra
vo-bhte paramevara
bhokymi devak-putra
asmin janmam-vrate
niyama-mantra-the sakalpa-mantra; adya-now; sthitv-standing; nirhra-without eating; vo-bhtetomorrow; paramevara-O Supreme Personality of Godhead; bhokymi-I will eat; devak-putra-O son of
Devak; asmin-on this; janmam-vrate-the vow of Janmam.
The Sakalpa-mantra
O Supreme Personality of Godhead, O son of Devak, now I stand before You. Today I will not eat. Only
tomorrow will I eat. Today I will observe the vow of Janmam.
Text 466
upoitas tu madhyhne
sntv ka-tilai ubhai
dhtr-phala iro dadyn
mah-puya-vivddhaye

upoita-fasting; tu-indeed; madhyhne-at midday; sntv-bathing; ka-tilai-with Ka oil; ubhaiauspicious; dhtr-phalam-an amalaki fruit; ira-to the head; dadyn-should place; mah-puyavivddhaye-to increase piety.
One should thus fast. At midday one should bathe, using
auspicious ka-oil as soap. Then, to increase one's piety, one
should place a dhtr (malak, fruit to one's head.
rla Santana Gosvm comments
Because the malak fruit is very dear to the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, placing it to one's head brings one the
great piety of devotional service to the Lord.
Text 467
ktv madhyhnika karma
sthpayed avraa ghaam
paca-ratna-samyukta
pavitrodaka-pritam
ktv-doing; madhyhnikam-midday; karma-duty; sthpayet-should place; avraam-unbroken; ghaam-pot;
paca-ratna-samyuktam-with five jewels; pavitrodaka-pritam-filled with pure water.
After performing one's midday duties one should take an
unbroken pot decorated with five jewels and filled with pure
water.
Text 468
tasyopari nyaset patra
karprguru-vsitam
su-dhpa-vsita ubhra
pupa-mlbhiobhitamsauvara vittavn bhakty
tad-abhve 'tha vaiavam
tasya-that; upari-above; nyaset-should place; patram-a leaf; karprguru-vsitam-scented with camphor and
aguru; su-dhpa-with fragrant incense; vsitam-scenbted; ubhram-beautiful; pupa-mlbhiobhitamdecorated with flower garlands; sauvaram-gold; vittavn-wealthy; bhakty-with devotion; tad-abhve-in
the absence of that; atha-then; vaiavam-bamboo leaf.
Above the pot one should devotedly place a beautiful leaf
scented with camphor, aguru, and incense and decorated with a
flower-garland. If one is wealthy one may place there a leaf of
gold. If that is not possible one may place a bamboo-leaf.
Text 469
tasyopari nyased dev
haim lakaa-samyuktm
dadmna# tu putrasya

stana vai vismitnanm


tasya-that; upari-over; nyaset-should place; devm-the goddess; haimm-golden; lakaa-samyuktm-with
the features; dadmnam-offering; tu-indeed; putrasya-of the son; stanam-the breast; vai-indeed; vismitasurprised; nanm-face.
Over that one should place a golden Deity of Goddess Devak.
Her face should have an expression of wonder. She should be
offering her breast to her infant son.
Text 470
pyamna stana so 'tha
kucgre pin span
avalokamna prem vai
mukha mtur muhur muhu
pyamna-drinking; stanam-the breast; sa-He; atha-then; kucgre'the nipple; pin-with a hand; spantouching; avalokamna-looking; prem-with love; vai-indeed; mukham-face; mtu-of mother; muhuagain; muhu -and again.
Touching her nipple with one hand, the infant Ka should
be drinking from her breast. With great love He should again and
again gaze at His mother's face.
Text 471
ktv caiva tu vaikuha
mtr saha jagat-prabhum
krdi-snapana ktv
candanena vilepayet
ktv-doing; ca-and; evam-thus; tu-indeed; vaikuham-the master of the spiritual world; mtr-His mother;
saha-with; jagat-prabhum-the master of the universes; kra-milk; di-beginning with; snapanam-bathing;
ktv-doing; candanena-with sandal paste; vilepayet-should anoint.
Then with milk and other substances one should bathe Lord
Ka and His mother, Lord Ka who is the master of the
spiritual and material worlds. Then one should anoint Them both
with sandal paste.
Text 472
kukumena mah-bhga
karprguru-carcitam
padma-kora-gandhai ca
mganbhi-vimiritam
kukumena-with kunkuma; mah-bhga-O very fortunate one; karprguru-carcitam'anointed with
camphor and aguru; padma-kora-gandhai-with fragrance from the lotus whorl; ca-and; mganbhivimiritam-mixed with musk.
O fortunate one, one should then anoint Them with kukuma,

camphor, aguru, musk and the fragrance of lotus-whorls.


Text 473
veta-vastra-yuga-cchanna
pupa-ml-su-obhitam
mlat-mallik-pupais
campakai ketak-dalai
veta-vastra-yuga-cchannam-with white garments; pupa-ml-su-obhitam'decorated with flower garlands;
mlat-mallik-pupai-with malati and mallika flowers; campakai'with campaka flowers; ketak-dalaiwith ketaki petals.
Then one should dress Them in white garments and decorate them
with flower garlands and with mlat, mallik, and campaka
flowers and with ketak petals.
Text 474
bilva-patrair akhaai ca
tulas-patra-komalai
anyair nn-vidhai pupai
karavrai sitsitai
bilva-with bilva; patrai-leaves; akhaai-unbroken; ca-and; tulas-patra-komalai-with soft tulas leaves;
anyai-other; nn-vidhai-various; pupai-flowers; karavrai-karavira; sitsitai-light and dark colored.
Then one should also decorate Them with unbroken bilva
leaves, soft tulas leaves, karavra flowers, and various kinds
of light-colored and dark-colored flowers.
Text 475
ythik-atapatrai ca
tathnyai kala-sambhavai
pjanyo mah-bhga
mah-bhakty janrdana
ythik-atapatrai-with ythik and atapatra; ca-and; tath-so; anyai-with others; kala-sambhavai-in
season; pjanya-to be worshiped; mah-bhga-O very fortunate one; mah-bhakty'with great devotion;
janrdana-Lord Ka.
Then one should decorate Them with ythika' and atapatra
flowers and with other flowers in season. O fortunate one, in
this way one should worship Lord Ka with great devotion.
Text 476
kumaair nrikelai ca
kharjrair daim-phalai
cta-vrka-samudbhtai
phalai rambha-samudbhavai

kumaai-with kumaa; nrikelai-with coconut; ca-and; kharjrai-with kharjra; daim-phalaiwith pomegranates; cta-vrka-samudbhtai-born from the mango tree; phalai-with fruits; rambhasamudbhavai-with bananas.
Then one should offer Lord Ka kuaas, coconuts,
kharjras, pomegranates, mangoes, and bananas.
Text 477
tat-kla-sambhavair divyai
phalair nn-vidhair mune
naivedyair vividhai ubhrair
ghta-pakvair anekadh
tat-kla-sambhavai-in season; divyai-with splendid; phalai-fruits; nn-vidhai-many kinds; mune-O
sage; naivedyai-with foods; vividhai-various; ubhrai-beautiful; ghta-pakvai-cooked in ghee;
anekadh-many kinds.
O sage, in this way one should offer Lord Ka many
kinds of splendid fruits that are in season. One should also
offer Him many kinds of delicious foods cooked in ghee.
Text 478
dpn vai krayec cgre
tath kusuma-maapam
gta vdya tath ntya
stotra-pha ca krayet
blasya carita vio
phanya puna puna
dpn-lamps; vai-indeed; krayet-should cause to be; ca-and; agre-in His presence; tath-so; kusumamaapam-a flower-pavilion; gtam-songs; vdyam-instrumental music; tath-so; ntyam-dancing; stotrapham-reciting prayers; ca-and; krayet-should cause to be; blasya-of the child; caritam-the pastimes;
vio-of Lord Viu; phanyam-to be recited; puna-again; puna-and again.
One should light many lamps before the Lord, and one should
also offer Him a flower-pavilion, singing, instrumental music,
dancing, and recitation of prayers. Again and again one should
recite Lord Viu's childhood pastimes.
Text 479
sva-guru pjya akty vai
pjanyas tath hari
nii pj vidhtavy
devaky keavasya ca
mantrenena viprendra
pura-vihitena vai

sva-gurum-one's own spiritual master; pjya-worshiping; akty-with ability; vai-indeed; pjanya-to be


worshiped; tath-so; hari-Lord k; nii-at night; pj-worship; vidhtavy-to be offered; devaky-of
Devak; keavasya-of Lord Ka; ca-and; mantrea-mantra; anena-with this; viprendra-O king of
brahmanas; pura-vihitena-given in the Puras; vai-indeed.
Then, as far as one is able, one should worship one's
spiritual master, and then one should worship Lord Ka. O king
of brhmaas, in the middle of the night one should worship Lord
Ka and Devak with the following mantra from the Puras.
Text 480
atha devak-pj-mantra
adite deva-mtas tva
sarva-ppa-prain
atas tv pjayiymi
bhto bhava-bhayasya ca
atha-now; devak-pj-mantra-the mantras for worshiping Decvaki; adite-O Aditi; deva-mta-O mother
of the demigods; tvam-You; sarva-ppa-prain-destroying all sins; ata-therefore; tvm-You; pjayiymiI will worship; bhta-frightened; bhava-bhayasya-of the fear of repeated birth and death; ca-and.
The Mantras For Worshiping Devak
O Aditi, O mother of the demigods, You destroy all sins. That is why I, who am afraid of taking birth again
in this world, will now worship You.
Text 481
pjit tu yath devai
prasann tvam varnane
pjit tu may bhakty
prasda kuru su-vrate
pjit-worshiped; tu-indeed; yath-as; devai-by the devas; prasann-pleased; tvam-You; varnane-O
beautiful-faced one; pjit-worshiped; tu-indeed; may-by me; bhakty-with devotion; prasdam-mercy;
kuru-please do; su-vrate-O saintly one.
O beautiful-faced one, you are pleased when the demigods
worship you. O saintly one, as they worship you with devotion so
will I. Please be merciful to me.
Text 482
yath putra hari labdhv
prpt te nivrti par
nirvti devi tm eva
sa-putr tvam prayaccha me
yath-as; putram-son; harim-Lord Hari; labdhv-attained; prpt-attained; te-of you; nivrti-happiness;
par-transcendental; nirvtim-happiness; devi-O goddess; tm-that; eva-indeed; sa-putr-with your son;
tvam-you; prayaccha-please give; me-to me.
You became very happy to attain Lord Hari as your son. O

goddess, please give that same kind of happiness to me.


Text 483
r-ka-pj-mantra
avatrn sahasri
karoi madhusdana
na te sakhyvatr
kaci jtni vai bhuvi
r-ka-pj-mantra-the mantras for worshiping Lord Ka; avatrn-incarnations; sahasri-thousands;
karoi-You do; madhusdana-O k; na-not; te-of You; sakhy-number; avatrm-of incarnations; kacijsomething; jtni-born; vai-indeed; bhuvi-on the earth.
The Mantras For Worshiping Lord Ka
O Lord Ka, You descend to this world in many thousands of incarnations. No one can count the number
of Your incarnations in this world.
Text 484
dev brahmdayo vpi
svarpa na vidus tava
atas tv pjayiymi
mtur utsaga-sasthitam
dev-the demigods; brahmdaya-headed by Brahma; v-or; api-even; svarpam-the form; na-not; viduknow; tava-of You; ata-then; tvm-You; pjayiymi-I will worship; mtu-of the mother; utsagasasthitam-on the lap.
Brahma' and the demigods do not understand the true nature of
Your transcendental form. Now I will worship You as You sit on
Your mother's lap.
Text 485
vchitam kuru me deva
dukta caiva naya
kuruva me day deva
samsrrti-bhaypaha
vchitam-desire; kuru-do; me-of me; deva-O Lord; duktam-sins; ca-and; eva-indeed; naya-destroy;
kuruva-please do; me-of me; daym-mercy; deva-O Lord; samsrrti-bhaypaha-who removes the fearful
sufferings of repeated birth and death.
O Lord please fulfill my desires and destroy my sins. O Lord
who removes the fears and sufferings of this world of birth and
death, please be merciful to me.
Text 486
eva sampjya govinda
ptre tilamaye sthitam
tata# ca dpayed arghyam

indor udayata uci


evam-thus; sampjya-worshiping; govindam-Lord Ka; ptre-in a bowl; tilamaye-made with sesame seeds;
sthitam-situated; tata-then; ca-and; dpayet-should offer; arghyam-arghya; indo-of the moon; udayatarising; uci-purity.
After worshiping Lord Govinda in this way, one should offer
Him arghya splendid and pure like the rising moon, arghya in a
bowl with sesame seeds.
Text 487
kya prathama dadyd
devak-sahitya vai
arghyam i-vara-reha
sarva-kma-phala-pradam
kya-to Lord Ka; prathamam-first; dadyt-should offer; devak-sahitya-with Devak; vai-indeed;
arghyam-arghya; i-vara-reha-O best of the sages; sarva-kma-phala-pradam-fulfilling all desires.
O best of sages, thus one should begin by offering arghya to
Lord Ka and Devak, arghya that brings the fulfillment of all
desires.
Text 488
atha arghya-dna-mantra
jta kasa-vadhrthya
bh-bhrottraya ca
devatn hitrthya
dharma-sasthpanya ca
kaurav vinya
daitanyn nidhanya ca
atha-now; arghya-dna-mantra-the mantras for offering arghya; jta-born; kasa-vadhrthya-to kill
Kamsa; bh-bhrottraya-to remove the birden opf the earth; ca-and; devatnm-of the demigods;
hitrthya-to bring auspiciousness; dharma-sasthpanya-to establish religion; ca-and; kauravm-of the
Kauravas; vinya-for destruction; daitanynm-of the demons; nidhanya-for destruction; ca-and.
The Mantras For Offering Arghya
O Lord Ka, You took birth in this world to kill Kasa, remove the earth's burden, establish religion, and
kill the demons and the Kauravas.
Text 489
ghrghya may datta
devak-sahito mama
gha-please accept; arghyam-arghya; may-by me; dattam-offered; devak-sahita-with Devak; mama-of
me.
O Lord who stays with Devak, please accept this arghya I
offer to You.

Text 490
r-kya devak-sahitya sa-parivarya lakmsahitya arghya nama
r-kya-to r Ka; devaksahitya-accompanied by DFevaki; sa-parivarya-with Your
associates; lakm-sahitya-with Laki; arghyam-arghyam;
nama-obeisances.
I offer this arghya to Lord Ka, who is accompanied by Devak, by Goddess Lakm, and by His other
associates. I offer my respectful obeisances to Him.
Text 491
atha candrrghya-mantra
dadhi-pupkatair mira
tato 'rghyam aine mud
krodrava-sambhta
atri-netra-samudbhava
arghyam indo gha tva
rohiy sahito mama
atha-now; candrrghya-mantra-the mantras for offering arghya to the moon; dadhi-pupkatai-with
yogurt, flowers, and unbroken grains; miram-mixed; tata-then; arghyam-arghya; aine-to the moon;
mud-happily; krodrava-sambhta-born from the ocean of milk; atri-netra-samudbhava-born from Atri's
eye; arghyam-arghyam; inda-O moon; gha-please accept; tvam-you; rohiy-Rohi; sahita-with;
mama-of me.
Mantras For Offering Arghya to the Moon-god
O Moon-god born from the milk-ocean and from Atri's eye, O
Moon-god now associating with Rohi, please accept this arghya
mixed with yogurt, flowers, and unbroken rice.
Text 492
nrikelena ubhrea
dadyd arghya vicakaa
kya paray bhakty
akhe ktv vidhnata
nrikelena-with a coconut; ubhrea-splendid; dadyt-should give; arghyam-arghya; vicakaa-wise;
kya-to Lord Ka; paray-with great; bhakty-devotion; akhe-in a conchshell; ktv'doing;
vidhnata-properly.
A wise devotee should first offer arghya in a coconut shell.
Then, with great devotion, he should offer arghya in a conchshell
to Lord Ka.
Text 493
dadyd bh-maala ktsna

sa-sgara-nagnvitam
arghya-dnena tat puya
labhate mnavo bhuvi
dadyt-should offer; bh-maalam-the entire earth; ktsnam-entire; sa-sgara-nagnvitam-with oceans and
and mountaiuns; arghya-dnena-by offering arghya; tat-that; puyam-piety; labhate-attains; mnava-a
person; bhuvi-in this world.
By offering arghya in this way a person in this world
attains the same piety he would attain by offering the entire
earth, with all its seas and mountains.
Text 494
gta-stra-kathlpai
kury jgaraa nii
dhpa-dpa ca naivedya
tmbla dpayed dhare
gta-stra-kathlpai-with talk of Bhagavad-gita; kuryt-should do; jgaraam-all night vigil; nii-at night;
dhpa-incense; dpam-lamos; ca-and; naivedyam-food; tmblam-betelnuts; dpayet-should offer; hare-to
Lord Ka.
Spending the time with talks of the scripture Bhagavad-gt,
one should keep an all-night vigil. To Lord Ka one should
offer incense, lamps, food, and betelnuts.
Text 495
eva janmm ktv
kartavya nvaiyate
sarva puya-phala prpya
ante yti pada hare
evam-thus; janmmm-Janmam; ktv-doing; kartavyam-to bedone; na-not; avaiyate-remains;
sarvam-all; puya-phalam-results of piety; prpya-attaining; ante-atthe end; yti'goes; padam-to the abode;
hare-of Lord Ka.
When one observes Janmam in this way, nothing else
remains that he need do. He has already attained all pious
benefits. At the end of this lifetime he will go to the abode of
Lord Ka.
Text 496
brahma-pure ca
atha bhdra-pade msi
kmy kalau yuge
aoviatime jta
ko 'sau devak-suta

brahma-pure-in the Brahma Purana; ca-and; atha-now; bhdra-pade-Bhadra; msi-in the month;
kmym-on Ka-Janmam; kalau-in Kali; yuge-yuga; aoviatime-28th; jta-born; ka-Lord
Ka; asau-He; devak-suta-the son of Devak.
In the Brahma Pura it is said:
In the twenty-eighth Kali-yuga, in the month of Bhdra, on the ka-paka aam, Lord Ka was born as
Devak son.
Text 497
bhrvatrarthya
katriy kayya ca
tasmt sa tatra sampjyo
yaod devak tath
bhra-the burden; avatraa-removing; arthya-for the purpose; katriym-of the ksatriyas; kayya-for
destruction; ca-and; tasmt-therefore; sa-He; tatra-there; sampjya-to be worshiped; yaod-Yasoda;
devak-Devaki; tath-so.
Lord Ka come to this world to remove the earth's burden
and kill a host of demon katriyas. That is why Lord Ka
should be worshiped on this day. Devak and Yaoda' should also be
worshiped on this day.
Text 498
gandha-mlyais tath yvair
yava-godhma-sambhavai
sa-gorasair bhakya-bhojyai
phalais" ca vividhair api
rtrau prajgara kryo
ntya-gta-samkula. iti.
gandha-with scents; mlyai-with garlands; tath-so; yavai-with barley; yava-godhma-sambhavai-made
from wheat; sa-gorasai-with milk; bhakya-bhojyai-with foods; phalai-with fruits; ca-and; vividhaivarious; api-also; rtrau-at night;
prajgara-awake; krya-to be done; ntya-gtasamkula-with singing and dancing; iti-thus.
One should keep an all-night vigil. One should glorify the
Lord with singing and dancing. One should offer Lord Ka
fragrances, flower garlands, various kinds of fruits, and
delicious foods made with wheat, barley, milk, and other
substances.
Text 499
yo bhaviyottardy-ukto
vidhis tad-anusrata
sarva janmm-ktya

eki-ktytra likhyate
ya-who; bhaviyottardy-ukta-said in Bhavisya Purana, Uttara-khanda and other scriptures; vidhi-rule;
tad-anusrata-by following that; sarvam-all; janmm-ktyam-duties of Janmam; eki-ktya-becoming
one; atra-here; likhyate-is written.
In this book are gathered in one place all the Janmam
duties described in the Bhaviya Pura, Uttara-khaa and in
other scriptures also.
Text 500
eka-bhaktnantara tu
danta-dhvana-prvakam
sptamym athavmy
prta sakalpa caret
eka-bhaktnantaram-devotee; tu-indeed; danta-dhvana-prvakam-previously brishing the teeth;
sptamym-on the saptami; athav-or; amym-on the astami; prta-early in the morning; sakalpamsankalpa; caret-should do.
On the saptam, or in the early morning of the aam, a
devotee should brush his teeth and then recite the sakalpamantra.
Text 501
atha tatra mantra
adya sthitv nirhra
sarva-bhoga-vivarjita
bhoke 'ha puarikaka
araa me bhavcyuta
atha-then; tatra-there; mantra-mantra; adya-now; sthitv-standing; nirhra-without eating; sarva-bhogaall eating; vivarjita-without; bhoke-eat; aham-I; puarikaka-O lotus-eyed Lord; araam-shelter; me-of
me; bhava-please be; acyuta-O infallible Lord.
The Sakalpa-mantra
Now I stand before You. Today I will not eat. I will not eat anything. Only tomorrow will I eat. O lotus-eyed
one, O infallible Lord, please become my shelter.
Text 502
kurvta prtar amy
snapandi tilai prabho
arpayec ca nava sarva
icrnusrata
kurvta-should do; prta-in the early morning; amym-on the astami; snapandi-beginning with bathing;
tilai-with oil; prabho-of the Lord; arpayet-should offer; ca-and; navam-new; sarvam-all;
icrnusrata-by following the orders.
Early on the aam morning one should, using oil as

soap, bathe the Deity of the Lord. Then one should obediently
dress the Deity of the Lord in new garments.
Text 503
madhyhne ca ubhe trthe
'nyatra v saj-jale vrat
mrdhni dhtr-phala dattv
snyt ka-tilai ubhai
madhyhne-in midday; ca-and; ubhe-auspicious; trthe-on a day; anyatra-another; v-or; sat-jale-in pure
water; vrat-following the vow; mrdhni-to the head; dhtr-phalam-amalaki fruit; dattv-placing; snytshould bathe; ka-tilai-with Ka-oil; ubhai-auspicious.
A midday the person following this vow should touch an
malak fruit to his head and then, using ka-oil as soap,
bathe in a holy river or in the pure water of an ordinary place.
Text 504
atha madhyhnika nityaktam anyat sampya hi
su-dee racayed divya
devaky stik-gham
atha-then; madhyhnikam-midday; nitya-regular; ktam-duties; anyat-other; sampya-completing; hiindeed; su-dee-in a good place; racayet-should make; divyam-transcendental; devaky-of Devak; stikgham-the delivery-room.
After completing his other midday duties, in an appropriate
place this person should then construct the transcendental
maternity-room of Devak-dev.
Text 505
bhita maibhir vastravitnais toraair api
abaddhai phala-pupai ca
ghta-pakvdibhis tath
bhitam-dedcorated; maibhi-with jewels; vastra-cloth; vitnai-with curtains; toraai-with arches; apialso; baddhai-tied; phala-pupai-with fruits and flowers; ca-and; ghta-pakvdibhi-cooked in ghee;
tath-so.
He should then decorate the room with jewels, curtains,
archways, flowers, and fruits, and he should place in it
different foods cooked in ghee.
Text 506
yava-drdhvmbujdy-hya
vdya-gtdi-sakulam
dvre ca khal-loha-

khaga-cchgdi-samyutam
yava-barley; drdhva-durva grass; ambuja-lotus; di-beginning; dyam-opulent; vdya-gtdi-sakulam-with
singing and music; dvre-at the door; ca-and; khal-shackles; loha-iron; khaga-sword; chga-chaga; disamyutam-beginning with.
In the room should be barley, drva grass, lotus
flowers, and other things. There should be singing and
instrumental music. At the door should be placed shackles, an
iron sword, a chga, and other items.
Text 507
gokula vilikhet tatra
gopa-gopjanvtam
raka-pl ca gehasya
sarvato 'vasthitn likhet
gokulam-gokula; vilikhet-there; tatra-should draw; gopa-gopjanvtam-withgopas and gop; raka-plguards;
ca-and; gehasya-of the house; sarvata-everywhere;
avasthitn-situated; likhet-should draw.
There he should draw a picture of Gokula filled with many
gopas and gops. He should also draw a picture of the prison with
guard's everywhere.
Text 508
tan-madhye sarvatobhadramaale sthpayed ghaam
ptra tad-upari nyased
dhaima vaiavam eva v
tan-madhye-in the middle of that; sarvatobhadra-maale-a sarvatobhadra design; sthpayet-should place;
ghaam-a waterpot; ptram-leaf; tad-upari-above that; nyaset-should place; dhaimam-golden; vaiavambamboo; eva-indeed; v-or.
In the middle of that he should place a sarvatobhadra
design, and there he should place a waterpot. Above the waterpot he
should place a leaf of gold, or if not of gold then a bamboo
leaf.
Text 509
devak sthpayet tatra
svarennyena v ktam
sal-lakaa su-paryake
supt snuta-payodharm

devakm-Devaki; sthpayet-should place; tatra-there; svarena-gold; anyena-with another; v-or; ktammake; sat-lakaam-beautiful; su-paryake-on the beautiful bed; suptm-asleep; snuta-payodharm-milk
flowing from her breasts.
There one should place a beautiful deity of Devak, a deity
made of gold, or of another material. Her breasts filled with
milk, beautiful Devak should be asleep on the beautiful bed.
Text 510
tathaiva bhagavanta ca
tad-utsage stanan-dhayam
nija-lakaa-sampanna
sthpayec chayita sukham
tath-so; eva-indeed; bhagavantam-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ca-also; tad-utsage-on her
embrace; stanan-dhayam-an infant drinking milk; nija-lakaa-sampannam-with His own qualities;
sthpayet-should place; ayitam-sleeping; sukham-happily.
So also one should place a Deity of Lord Ka. Lord Ka
should be an infant happily sleeping in his mother's embrace.
Text 511
tath kvacit pradee ca
r-yaod sa-kanyakm
r-nanda rohi rma
gopn gop ca g api
tath-so; kvacit-somewhere; pradee-in the place; ca-and; r-yaodm-r Yasoda; sa-kanyakm-with her
daughter; r-nandam-r Nanda; rohim-Rohini; rmam-Balarma; gopn-gopas; gop-gops; ca-and; gcows; api-also.
There also one should place r Yaoda, her daughter, r
Nanda, Rohi, Balarma, and the gopas and gops.
Text 512
vasudeva ca devaky
sampe muditnanam
khaga-pi stuvanta ca
vismayotphulla-locanam
vasudevam-vasudeva; ca-and; devaky-Ddvaki; sampe-near; muditnanam-with a happy expression on his
face; khaga-pim-a sword in his hand; stuvantam-offering prayers; ca-and; vismayotphulla-locanam-his
eyes wide-open with wonder.
Near Devak should be Vasudeva, his face filled with
happiness. His eyes should be wide-open with wonder, he should be
holding a sword in his hand, and he should be offering prayers.
Text 513
devn mun ca tatrordhve

praatn pupa-varia
gandharvpsarasd ca
gta-ntydi-tatparn
devn-demigods; mun-sages; ca-and; tatra-there; rdhve-aove; praatn-bowing; pupa-variashowering flowers; gandharvpsarasd-gandharvas, apsaras, and others; ca-and; gta-ntydi-tatparnsinging and dancing.
In the sky should be demigods and sages. They should be
bowing down and showering flowers. There should also be
gandharvas, apsara's and others enthusiastically singing and dancing.
Text 514
ka#sa ca tat-parvrn
ghtstr ca nidray
mohitn sthpayet kvpi
ky kliya likhet
ka#sam-Kamsa; ca-and; tat-parvrt-his associates; ghta-taken; astr-sword; ca-and; nidray-with
sleep; mohitn-bewildered; sthpayet-should place; kvpi-somewhere; kym-in the Yamun; kliyamKliya; likhet-should draw.
One should also draw Kasa and his companions, sound asleep
and their swords in their hands. One should also draw Kliya in
the Yamun.
Text 515
ittha ktv yatha-obha
sva-akty stik-gham
tat-tan-mrt ca vinyasya
prrabhetrcana nii
ittham-thus; ktv-doing; yatha-obham-beautiful; sva-akty-as far as one is able; stik-gham-the
maternity-room; tat-tan-mrt-various deities; ca-and; vinyasya-placing; prrabheta-should begin;
arcanam-the worship; nii-at night.
Thus one should make the deities and the room as beautiful
as one can. One should begin the worship at night.
Text 516
gandha-pupkatdni
vastrlakrani ca
naivedyni vicitri
phalni sthpayet tath
gandha-pupkatdni-beginning with scents, flowers, and unbroken grains; vastrlakrani-graments
and ornaments; ca-and; naivedyni-food; vicitri-variegated; phalni-fruits; sthpayet-should place; tathso.
There one should place fragrances, flowers, unbroken grains,

garments, ornaments, and a great variety of fruits and foods.


Text 517
tata strokta-mantrea
vidhinvhya devakm
pratihpya ca tasyai prk
pupjalim arthrpayet
tata-then; strokta-mantrea-with mantras spoken in the scriptures; vidhin-properly; vhya-invoking
the presence; devakm-Devak; pratihpya-establishing; ca-and; tasyai-top her; prk-before; pupa-of
flowers ajalim-a handful; artha-thne; arpayet-should offer.
Reciting mantras from the scriptures, one should then invite
Devak to appear in her deity-form. When the deity is thus
installed, one should offer her a handful of flowers.
Text 518
atha devak-dhyna
gyadbhi kinnardyai satata-parivt veu-vdi-ndair
bhgrdara-kumbha-prakara-hta-karai kinnarai sevyamn
paryake tvstte y muditatara-mukh putri samyag aste
s dev deva-mt jayati su-vadan devak knta-rp
atha-now; devak-dhynam-meditation on Devak; gyadbhi-sigig; kinnardyai-beginnig wit the
kinnaras; satata-parivt-always surrounded; veu-vdi-beginnig wit flutes and vinas; ndai-wit
sounds; bhgra-golden pitchers; dara-mirrors; kumbha-waterpots; prakara-multitudes; hta-held;
karai-in their hands; kinnarai-by kinnaras; sevyamn-beigs served; paryake-on the bed; tu-indeed;
stte-covered; y-who; muditatara-mukh-happy face; putri-wit a son; samyag-properly; aste-stays; sshe; dev-goddess; deva-mt-the mother of the demigods; jayati-all glories; su-vadan-beautiful face;
devak-Devak; knta-beautiful; rp-form.
Meditation on Devak
All glories to beautiful, beautiful-faced Devak, the mother of the demigods. The happy-faced mother of a
newborn son, she rests on her great bed. She is served by many kinnaras and other demigods, who sing
songs, play mus on flutes, vs, and other instruments, and carry in their hands gifts of golden vases,
waterpots, and glistening mirrors.
Text 519
tath r-kadevasya
prgvad vhana budha
pratih ca vidhysmai
dadyt pupjali tata
tath-so; r-kadevasya-of Lord Ka; prgvat-as before; vhanam-invocation; budha-wise; pratihmestablishment; ca-and; vidhya-doing; asmai-to Him; dadyt-should gove; pupjalim-a handful fo flowers;
tata-then.
As he did before with Devak, the wise devotee should then invite
Lord Ka to appear in His Deity-form. When the Deity is thus

installed, the devotee should offer Him a handful of flowers.


Text 520
candrodaye bahir geht
sammrjybjoparndave
nrikeldika akhe
ktv tenrghyam arpayet
candrodaye-in the moonrise; bahi-outside; geht-the hoouse; sammrjya-cleaning; abja-lotus; upari-above;
indave-to the moon; nrikeldikam-beginning with a coconut; akhe-in a conchshell; ktv'doing; tena-by
that; arghyam-arghya; arpayet-should offer.
When the moon rises, one should go outside the house,
cleanse a place, put there a lotus flower, and there offer to the
moon-god arghya in a conchshell and a coconut-shell.
Text 521
atha tatra mantra
krodrava-sambhta
atri-netra-samudbhava
gharghya akea
rohiy sahito mama
atha-now; tatra-there; mantra-mantra; krodrava-sambhta'born from the milk-ocean; atri-netra-from
Atri's eye; samudbhava-born; ghaa-please accept; arghyam-arghya; akea'O moon-god; rohiyRohii; sahita-with; mama-of me.
The Mantra For That
O moon-god born from the milk-ocean and from Atri Muni's eye, O moon-god now associating with Rohi,
please accept this arghya I offer to you.
Text 522
jyotsn-pate namas tubhya
namas te jyoti pate
namas te rohi-knta
arghya me pratighyatm
jyotsn-pate-O master of moonlight; nama-obeisances; tubhyam-to you; nama-obeisances; te-to you;
jyotim-of moonlight; pate'O master; nama-obeisances; te-to you; rohi-knta-O beloved of Rohini;
arghyam-arghyam; me-from me; pratighyatm-may be accepted.
O master of moonlight, obeisances to You! O master of
moonlight, obeisances to You! O beloved of Rohi, obeisances to
You! Please accept the arghya I offer to you.
Text 523
tato ghntar gatya
ktv jaya-jaya-dhvanim
dhytv r-bhagavaj-janma

kyrghya nivedayet
tata-then; ghnta-within the house; gatya-arriving; ktv-doing; jaya-jaya-dhvanim-sounds of jaya jaya;
dhytv-meditating; r-bhagava-janma-on the birth of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; kya-to
Lord Ka; arghyam-arghya; nivedayet-should offer.
Returning inside the house, one should say "Jaya!
Jaya!", meditate on Lord Ka's birth, and then offer arghya to
Lord Ka.
Text 524
atha tatra mantra
jta kasa-vadhrthya. ity di.
atha-here; tatra-there; mantra-the mantra; jta-born; kasa-vadhrthya'to kill Kasa; iti-thus; dibeginning.
The Mantra For that
The mantra for that is the mantra beginning with the words, "jta kasa-vadhrthya".
Text 525
tata krdin uddhodakena tu yath-vidhi
devak-sahita bhakty
r-ka snpayet kt
tata-then; kra-with milk; din-beginning; uddha-pure; udakena-with water; tu-indeed; yath-vidhi-as
proper; devak-Devak; sahitam-with; bhakty-with devotion; r-kam-Lord Ka; snpayet-should
bathe; kt-devotee.
Then one should devotedly and properly bathe Lord Ka and
Devak with pure water, milk, and other substances.
Text 526
atha tatra mantra
yogevarya yoga-sambhavya yoga-pataye govindya namo nama
atha-now; tatra-there; mantra-the mantra; yogevarya-to the master of yoga; yoga-sambhavya-to the
father of yoga; yoga-pataye-to the master of yoga; govindya-to Lord Govinda; nama-obeisances; namaobeisances.
The mantra is, "yogevarya yoga-sambhavya
yoga-pataye govindya namo nama" (Obeisances, obeisances to Lord
Govinda, who is the controller of yoga, the father of yoga, and
the master of yoga).
Text 527
kvac ca
yogevarya devya
devak-nandanya ca
yogodbhavya nityya

govindya namo nama


kvacit-somewhere; ca-also; yogevarya-to the master of yoga; devya-to the Supreme Personality of
Godhead; devak-nandanya-to the son of Devak; ca-and; yogodbhavya-to the father of yoga; nityyaeternal; govindya-to Lord Ka; nama-obeisnaces; nama-obeisnaces.
The following mantra may also be used:
Obeisances, obeisances to Lord Govinda, the eternal Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master of yoga,
the father of yoga, the son of Devak.
Text 528
adite deva-mtas tva
ity di prrthya devakm
gandhdny arpayet tasyai
namo devyai riye iti
adite deva-mtas tvam ity di prrthya-witrh the prayer beginning with the words "adite deva-mtas tvam;
devakm-to Devaki; gandhdni-beginning with scents; arpayet-shoulkd offer; tasyai-to her; namaobeisances; devyai-to the goddess; riye-to the goddess; iti-thus.
Reciting the mantra beginning with the words "adite
deva-mtas tvam", as well as the mantra "namo devyai
riye", one should offer fragrances and other gifts to
Devak.
Text 529
avatra-sahasrtydinbhyarcya ca prabhum
pdydi vastra-bhdi
dhpa-dpdi crpayet
avatra-sahasrni iti din-with the mantra beginning with the words "avatra-sahasrni; abhyarcyaworshiping; ca-and; prabhum-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; pdydi-beginning with padya; vastrabhdi-beginning with garments and ornaments; dhpa-dpdi-beginning with incense and lamps; ca-and;
arpayet-should offer.
Reciting the mantra beginning with the words .sy
168avatra-sahasri", one should worship Lord Ka. One
should offer Him pdya (water for washing the feet), garments,
ornaments, incense, lamps, and other gifts.
Text 530
atha tatra padydi-dpnta-mantra
om- yajevarya yaja-sambhavya yajapataye govindya namo nama
atha-now; tatra-there; padydi-dpnta-mantra-the mantra for
offering the gifts that begin with padya and conclude with lamps;
om-O; yajesvarya-to the controller of yajnas;

yajna-sambhavya-to the father of yajnas; yajna-pataye-to


the mater of yajnas; govindya-to Lord Govinda;
nama-obeisances; nama-obeisances.
The mantra for offering these gifts, which begin with pdya
and conclude with lamps, is, "om- yajesvarya
yaja-sambhavya yaja-pataye govindya namo
nama" (O. Obeisances, obeisances to Lord Govinda, who is the
controller of yaja, the father of yaja, and the
master of yaja).
Text 531
atha naivedya-mantra
om- vivevarya viva-sambhavya viva-pataye govindya namo
nama
atha-now; naivedya-for offering food; mantra-the mantra; om-O; vivevarya-to the controller of the
universe; viva-sambhavya'the father of the universe; viva-pataye-the master of the universe; govindya-to
Lord Govinda; nama-obeisances; nama-obeisances.
The mantra for offering food is, "om- vivevarya
viva-sambhavya viva-pataye govindya namo nama" (O.
Obeisances, obeisances to Lord Govinda, who is the controller of
the universes, the father of the universes, and the master of the
universes.
Text 532
vasudeva yaod ca
nanda rma ca rohim
any ca pjayet tat-tannma-mantrair yath-vidhi
vasudevam-vasudeva; yaodm-Yasoda; ca-and; nandam-Nanda; rmam-Balarma; ca-and; rohim-Rohini;
any-others; ca-and; pjayet-should worship; tat-tan-various; nma-names; mantrai-with mantra;
yath-vidhi-appropriately.
Then, reciting the proper mantras with the proper names, one
should worship Vasudeva, Yaod, Nanda, Balarma, Rohi, and
others of the Lord's personal associates.
Text 533
pakvnnni vicitri
khdyni vividhni ca
tat-klna-phalny atra
tmbla ca samarpayet
pakva-cooked; annni-food; vicitri-many varieties;

khdyni'foods; vividhni-various; ca-and; tatklna-in season; phalni-fruits; atra-here;


tmblam-betelnuts; ca-and; samarpayet-should offer.
Then one should offer many varieties of cooked grains, many
varieties of other delicious foods, and many varieties of fruits
in season, and one should also offer betelnuts.
Text 534
atha tatra mantra
dharmevarya dharma-sambhavya dharma-pataye govindya namo
nama
atha-now; tatra-there; mantra-the mantra; dharmevarya-to the
controller of religion; dharma-sambhavya-the father of
religion; dharma-pataye-the master of religion;
govindya-to Lord Govinda; nama-obeisances;
nama-obeisances.
The mantra for that offering is, "dharmevarya
dharma-sambhavya dharma-pataye govindya namo nama"
(Obeisances, obeisances to Lord Govinda, who is the controller
of religion, the father of religion, and the master of religion).
Text 535
nithe gua-sarpibhy
vasor dhr ca ptayet
nithe-in the middle of the night; gua-sarpibhym-with molasses and ghee; vaso-of water; dhrm-a
stream; ca-and; ptayet-should cause to fall.
Then, in the middle of the night, one should bathe the Lord
with a stream of water and with molasses and ghee.
Text 536
atha kuryd bhagavato
jta-karma-mahotsavam
r-nla-vardhana kuryt
ah-nisraa tata
atha-then; kuryt-should do; bhagavata-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; jta-karma-mahotsavamthe jata-karma ceremony; r-nla-vardhanam-the ceremony of cutting the umbilical cord; kuryt-should do;
ah-nisraam-the worship of Goddess Sah; tata-then.
Then one should perform the jta-karma ceremony of the Lord,
then the ceremony of cutting the umbilical cord, and then the
worship of Goddess ah.
rla Santana Gosvm comments:

The mantra for worshiping the goddess is, .sy


168ahikyai nama".
Text 537
r-nma-karaa-tat-talllnukaraa tath
athcrya samabhyarcya
kury jgaraa mud
gta-ntydin blya
kr-ravaa-prvakam
r-nma-karaa-the name giving ceremony; tat-tat-various; lla-of pastimes; anukaraam-imitation; tathso; atha-then; cryam-the spiritual master; samabhyarcya-worshiping; kuryt-should do; jgaraam-vigil;
mud-happily; gta-ntydin-beginning weith singing and dancing; blya-childhood; kr-pastimes;
ravaa-hearing; prvakam-first.
Then one should perform the name-giving ceremony, then
perform dramas of various pastimes of the Lord, then worship the
spiritual master, then hear narrations of Lord Ka's childhood
pastimes, and then keep an all-night vigil filled with happy
singing, dancing, and other like activities.
rla Santana Gosvm comments:
The pastimes depicted in dramas should begin with the
pastime of killing Ptana' and end with the pastime of killing
Kasa.
Text 538
sknde brahma-nrada-samvde
janmoparjita ppa
tat-kad eva lyate
rtrau jgarae vipra
de nayati dehinm
sknde-in thre Skanda Purana; brahma-nrada-samvde-in a conversation of Brahma and Narada; janmafrom birth; uparjitam-accumulated; ppam-sins; tat-kat-from that moment; eva-indeed; lyate-are
destroyed; rtrau-at night; jgarae-in a vigil; vipra-O brahmana; de-seen; nayati-perishes; dehinm-of
the conditioned souls.
In the Skanda Pura, Brahma' tells Nrada:
O brhmaa, when one observes such an all-night vigil, all his sins from the time of his birth are at once
destroyed.
Text 539
prabhte sati nirvartya
nitya-karmi vaiava
devam abhyarcya samprrthya

praamya ca visarjayet
prabhte-dawn; sati-being so; nirvartya-performing; nitya-karmi-regular duties; vaiava-a devotee;
devam-the Lord; abhyarcya-worshiping; samprrthya-offering prayers; praamya-bowing down; ca-and;
visarjayet-should perform.
At dawn a Vaiava should then perform his regular duties,
worship the Lord, offer prayers to the Lord, and offer obeisances
to the Lord.
rla Santana Gosvm comments:
The regular duties here are those duties that begin with the
early-morning bath.
Text 540
atha prama-mantra yam- devam. ity-di-srdha-padyam
atha-now; prama-mantra-the mantra for offering
obneisances; yam devam ity-di-srdha-padyam-the one-and-a-half
verses beginning with the words "yam devam"
The mantra for offering obeisances is the one-and-a-halfverses prayer beginning with the words "yam- devam".
Text 541
atha prrthan-mantra ntir astu ity-di.
atha-now; prrthan-mantra-the mantra for offering prayers; ntir astu ity-di-the verse beginning with
the words "ntir astu".
The mantra for offering prayers is the verse beginning with
the words "ntir astu".
Text 542
athcryya tat sarva
r-mrty-di sa-dakim
pradya viprn sambhojya
vidadhyt praotsavam
atha-then; cryya-to the spiritual master; tat-that; sarvam-evereything; r-mrty-di-beginning with the
Deity of the Lord; sa-dakim-with daksina; pradya-offering; viprn-the brahmanas; sambhojya-feeding;
vidadhyt-should do; praotsavam-breaking the fast.
Then one should give the Deities and all the paraphernalia
employed in the festival, along with daki, to the spiritual
master, then one should feed the brhmaas, and then one should break the fast.

Shri Krishna Janma Vidhi


by Shrila Rupa Goswami
On the day before Janmastami (ie the saptami) one should build the snana vedi (altar on which the deity
will be bathed) in the courtyard, to the accompaniment of devotional songs and instrumental
music.
One should then have some holes dug at the four corners of the mandapa area and place in the holes banana
trunks. The area should be surrounded seven times with red string and covered with a newly painted
canopy.
In the four directions one should then plant poles with flags on them and place there all sorts of auspicious
items, such as durba, kusa, lamps, nima fruit, mustard seeds and a svastika (made of raw rice mixed with
kumkum). Over the doors strings of leaves should be hung. (According to Hayasirsa Pancaratra the flags in
the eight directions should be colored as follows:
east:red
south east:fiery
south:black
south west:white
west:yellow
north west:coppery red
north:white
north east:multicolored
In the early morning of the astami, groups of devotees, to the accompaniment of singing, dancing
and instrumental music, should complete the decoration of the vedi with lamps, auspicious pots etc.
One should perform all the purvanga karmas such as suci, nyasa, etc for the purification of the
body, mind, place and materials.
(see puja manual)
Having completed the construction and decoration of the mandapa (pavilion) and the vedi (altar),
and having purified the place according to the rules of puja, one should then bring the Lord onto the
vedi while waving camaras and sheltering him with an umbrella.
Svasti Vacana (Invocation of Auspiciousness):
One should recite:
punantu ma devajanah punantu manasa diyah
punantu visva bhutani jatavedah punihi mam
One brahmana should say:
asya karmana punyaham bhavanto bruvantu
Three (or the rest) brahmanas should throw rice from their right hands saying:
om punyaham om punyaham om punyaham
udgateva sakune sama gayasi
brahma putra iva savanesu samsasi
vrseva vaji sisu matir apitya
sarvato nah sakune bhadrama vada
visvato nah sakune punyama vada
A brahmana should say:
asya karmana svasti bhavanto bruvantu ayusmate svasti
Three (or the rest) brahmanas should throw rice from their right hands saying:
om svasti om svasti om svasti
svasti na indro vrddha sravah
svasti nah pusa visva vedah

svasti nah tarksyo aristanemih


svasti no brhaspatir dadhatu
A brahmana should say:
asya karmano rddhim bhavanto bruvantu
Three (or the rest) brahmanas should throw rice from their right hands saying:
om rdhyatam om rdhyatam om rdhyatam
rdhyama stomam sanuyama vaja
ma no mantra sarathehopa yatan
yaso na pakkam madhu gosvanta
ra bhutamso asvinoh kamam aprah
Dig Bandhana (Binding the Directions):
One should then perform dig bandhana, or protecting oneself in all ten directions by throwing
white mustard seeds in the directions starting from the east, going clockwise, while saying:
(east) pracyai dise svaha
(southeast) arvacyai dise svaha
(south) daksinayai dise svaha
(southwest) arvacyai dise svaha
(west) praticyai dise svaha
(northwest) arvacyai dise svaha
(north) udicyai dise svaha
(northeast) arvacyai dise svaha
(upwards) urdhvayai dise svaha
(downwards) arvacyai dise svaha
disah pradisa adiso vidisa uddiso digbhyah svaha
apasarpantu te bhuta ye bhuta bhuvi samsthitah
ye bhuta vighnakartaras te nasyantu sivajnaya
Ghata Sthapana (Establishing the pot):
One should then perform ghat stapana, establishing the pot beside the central vedi.
Touching the earth one should say:
bhur asi bhmir asy aditir asi
visvadhaya visvasya bhuvanasya dhatri
prthivim yaccha prthivim drmha prthivim ma himsih
Touching rice paddy one should say:
dhanyam asi dhinuhi devan
pranaya tvodanaya tva vyanaya tva
dirghamanu prasitim ayuse dham
devo vah savita hiranyapanih
pratigrbhnatv acchidrena panina
caksuse tva mahinam payo'si
Placing the pot on the rice paddy one should say:
ajighra kalasam mahya tva visantv indavah
punarurja nivartasva sa nah sahasram dhuksvorudhara
payasvati punarmavi satadrayih
Pouring water into the pot one should say:
varunasyottanbhanam asi
varunasya skambhasarjani stho
varunasya rta sadany asi
varunasya rta sadanam asi
varunasya rta sadanam asida
One should place five leaves on the pot saying:

asvathe vo nisadanam parne vo vasatih krta


gobhaja it kilasatha yat sanavatha purusam
One should place a coconut or banana on top saying:
yah phalinir ya aphala apuspa yas ca puspinih
brhaspatiprasutas ta no muncantv amhasah
One should place flowers on the pot saying:
sris ca te laksmis ca patnyavahoratre
parsve naksatrani rupam asvinau vyattam
isnann isanamum ma isana sarvalokam ma isana
One should worship Ganesa in the pot saying:
gananam tva ganapati'gum havamahe
priyanam tva priyapati'gum havamahe
nidhinam tva nidhipati'gum havamahe vaso mama
ahamajani garbhadhama tvam ajasi garbhadham
Sankalpa (Ceremonial Vow):
One should then perform sankalpa:
om visnu
om tat sad
asya bhadre masi
krsne pakse
astamyam tithau
acyuta gotrah
........ dasa (name of person)
sri krsna priti kamah
sri krsnasya janma mahotsave
mahapuja purvaka mahabhisekam aham karisye
One should pray:
avatara sahasrani karosi madhusudana
na te sankyavataranam kascij janati vai bhuvi
deva brahmadayo vapi svarupam na vidus tava
atas tvam pujayisyami matur utsanga samsthitam
vanchitam kuru devesa duskrtam caiva nasaya
kurusva me dayam deva samsararti bhayapaha
Upacara Dana (offering the articles of puja):
One should offer each article saying the appropriate mantras:
Asana (seat):
purusam evedam sarvam yad bhutam yac ca bhavyam
utamrtat vaseysano tad annenatirohati
om yajnesvaraya yajnaya sambhavaya yajnapataye
govindaya namo namah
idam asanam + mula mantra
Svagatam (welcome):
One should welcome the Lord:
tasya te paramesana svagatam svagatam bhavet
krtartho'nugrhito'smi sakalam jivitum tu me
yad agato'si devesa cidananda mayavyaya
svagatam su svagatam sri krsna + mula mantra
Padyam (footwash):
One should offer water mixed with millet, durba, and visnukranta herb.
etavan asya mahima ato jyayams ca purusah

pado'sya visva bhutani tripadasyamrtam divi


om yajnesvaraya yajnaya sambhavaya yajnapataye
govindaya namo namah
etat padyam + mula mantra
Arghyam (offering of auspicious articles):
One should offer water mixed with sesame, mustard seeds, flowers, sandalwood paste, barley and
kusa tips over the Lord's hands, (or head) saying:
tripad urddhva udait purusah pado'syeha bhavat punah
tato visvan vyakramata sasananasane abhi
om yajnesvaraya yajnaya sambhavaya yajnapataye
govindaya namo namah
idam arghyam + mula mantra
Acamaniyam (mouthwash):
One should offer water, with nutmeg, cloves and kakkola to the Lord's mouth, (three times) saying:
tato virad ajayata virajo adhi purusa
sa jato atyaricyata pascad bhumim atho purah
om yajnesvaraya yajnaya sambhavaya yajnapataye
govindaya namo namah
idam punar acamaniyam + mula mantra
Madhuparka (edible offering):
One should offer ghee, yoghurt and honey in proportions of 1:3:1 for the Lord to eat, saying:
om yajnesvaraya yajnaya sambhavaya yajnapataye
govindaya namo namah
esa madhuparka + mula mantra
Punar Acamaniyam (mouthwash):
One should offer acamana again to Lord's mouth, saying:
tato virad ajayata virajo adhi purusa
sa jato atyaricyata pascad bhumim atho purah
om yajnesvaraya yajnaya sambhavaya yajnapataye
govindaya namo namah
idam punar acamaniyam + mula mantra
One should make a stiff dough from flour, sugar and water and fashion into receptacles for holding
wicks and ghee (pista dipa).
One should wave the lamps before the Lord saying:
om hiranya garbhah samvartatagre
bhutasya jatah patir eka asit
sa dadhara prthivim dyam utemam
kasmi devaya havisa vidhema
ya atmad abalada yasa mrtyuh
upkasate prasisam yasya devah
yasya chayamrtam yasya mrtyuh
kasmai devaya havisa vidhema
ya pranito nimisato mahitvai
kaidraja jagato babhuva
ya ise asya dvipada catuspadah
kasmai devaya havisa vidhema]
yasyema himavanto mahitva
yasya samudra rsaya sanahuh
yasyemah pradiso yasya bahu
kasmai devaya havisa vidhema

yena dyaur ugra prithivi ca driha


yena svah stabhitamyena nakah
yo antarikse rajaso vimanah
kasmai devaya havisa vidhema
yam krandasi avasa tastabhane
abhyaiksetam manasa rejamane
yatra dhi sura udito vibhati
kasmai devaya havisa vidhema
apo ha tad brhatir visvamayan
garbham dadhana janayantir agnim
tato devanam samavartatasurekah
kasmai devaya havisa vidhema
yascid apo mahina paryapasyad
daksom dadhana janayanti yajnam
yo devesvadhi deva eka asit
kasmai devaya havisa vidhema
ma no himsij janita ya prthivya
yo va divam satyadharma jajana
yas capas candra brhatir jajana
kasmai devaya havisa vidhema
om yajnesvaraya yajnaya sambhavaya yajnapataye
govindaya namo namah
esa dipah + mula mantra
One should rub sesame powder on the Lord's body saying:
murdhanam divo aratim prthivya
vaisvanaramrta a jatam agnim
kavim samrajam atithim jananam
asanna patra janayanta devah
om yajnesvaraya yajnaya sambhavaya yajnapataye
govindaya namo namah
idam tila udvartanam + mula mantra
Snana (bath):
One should bathe the Lord in water mixed with sesame seed paste, saying:
tilo'si soma devatyo
gosavo eva nirmitah
prayatnam adbhih prktah sudhaya
pustva pitrn lokan prnahi nah svaha
One should change the Lord's cloth and bathe him again in pure water, saying:
varunasyottanbhanam asi
varunasya skambhasarjani stho
varunasya rta sadany asi
varunasya rta sadanam asi
varunasya rta sadanam asida
tat tva yami brahmana vandamanas
tada saste yajamano havirbhih
ahedamano varuneh bodhyu
rusamsa ma na ayuh pra moshih
varunah pravita bhuvan
mitro visvabhir utibhih
karatam nah suradhasah

om yajnesvaraya yajnaya sambhavaya yajnapataye


govindaya namo namah
idam snaniyam + mula mantra
Panca Gavya Snana:
Cow urine:
Om bhur bhuvah svah
tat savitur varenyam
bhargo devasya dhimahi
dhiyo yo nah pracodayat
Cow dung:
gandha dvaram duradharsam nitya pustam karisinim
isvarim sarva bhutanam tvam ihopa hvaye sriyam
Milk:
apyayasva sametu te visvatah soma vrsnyam
bhava vajasya samgathe
Yoghurt:
dadhi kravno akarisam jisnor asvasya varjinah
surabhi no mukha karat pranayu'gum si tarisat
Ghee:
tejo'si sukram asi amrta asi dhamanam asi
priyam devanam anadhrstam deva yajanam asi
Kusa water:
devasya tva savituh prasave
'svino bahubhyam psrno hastabhyam
sarasvatyai vaco yantur yantirye dadhami
brhaspates tva samrajyenabhisincmi
anaye justam grhnami
agni somabyam justam grhnami
Pancamrta Snana:
Milk:
payah prthivyam paya osadisu
payo divy antarikse payo dhah
payasvatih pradisah santu mahyam
Yoghurt:
dadhi kravno akraisam jisnor asvasya vajinah
surabhi no mukha karat pra na ayumsi tarisat
Ghee:
ghrtam ghrtapavanah pibata
vasam vasapavanah pibata
antariksasya havir asi svaha
disah pradisa adiso vidisa uddhiso digbhyah svaha
Honey:
madhu vata rtayate madhu ksaranti sindhavah
madhvir nah santvosadhih
madhu naktam utosaso mahdumat parthivam rajah
madhu dyaur astu nah pita
madhuman no vanaspati madhuma stu suryah
madhvir gavo bhavantu nah
Sugar:
apam rasam udvaya samsurye santam samahitam

apam rasasya yo rasa tam vo grhnamy uttamam


upayama grhito' sindraya tva justam
grhnamy esa te yonir indraya tva justatamam
Usnodaka Snana (warm water bath):
One should bathe the Lord in warm water, saying:
sapta te agne samidhah sapta jihvah sapta rsayah
sapta dhama priyani
sapta hotrah saptadha tva yajanti sapta yonir
aprnasva grtena svaha
Sarvausadhi Snana (herbal bath):
One should bathe the Lord in water with mura, mamsi, vaca, kustham, saila, tumeric, daru haridra,
sati, campaka and musta, saying:
ya osadhih purva jata devbhyas triyugam pura
manainu babhrunam aham satam dhamani sapta ca
Mahausadhi Snana (second herbal bath):
One should bathe the Lord in water mixed with sahadevi, vaca, vyaghri, bala, atibala, akhapuspa,
simhi and suryavarta, saying:
ya osadhi somarajni vahvih sata vicaksanah
ta mahyam asinnasane'cchidrah sarma yachata
Mangala Snana (auspicious bath):
One should bathe the Lord in water mixed with auspicious elements.
sumangalir iyam vadhur imam sameta pasyata
saubhagyam asyai dattvaya'thas tam vi paretana
Bija-astaka Snana (eight-seed bath):
One should bathe the Lord in water mixed with eight seeds, barley, wheat, wild rice, sesame,
millet, rice paddy, panic seed, and rice which grows in sixty days, saying:
Gandhodaka Snana (scented bath water):
One should bathe the Lord in water mixed with scents such as musk and aguru, over which has
been chanted the savitri gayatri.
Gandha (sandalwood):
One should smear the Lord's body with sandalwood pulp, saying:
drupadad iva mumucanah svinnah santomalad iva
putam pavirenavajyam apah suddhantu mainasah
om yajnesvaraya yajnaya sambhavaya yajnapataye
govindaya namo namah
esa gandhah + mula mantra
Candanodaka Snana (Sandalwood water):
One should bathe the Lord in water mixed with sandalwood paste, saying:
samudram gaccha svaha antariksa gaccha svaha
devam savitaram gaccha svaha mitra varunau gaccha svaha
ahoratre gaccha svaha chandamsi gaccha svaha
deva savitaram gaccha svaha yajnam gaccha svaha
somam gaccha svaha divyam nabho gaccha svaha
agnim vaisvanaram gaccha svaha
mano me hardi yaccha divam te dhumo gacchatu
svar jyotih prthivim bhasmanaprna svaha
Sahasra Dhara Snana (shower):
One should bathe the Lord with pure water showered from the sahasra dhara (pot with holes in the
bottom), saying:
tam savitur varenyaysacitram

aham vrne sumatim visvajanyam


yamasya kanvo aduhat prapinam
sahasradharam payasa mahim gam
One should bathe the Lord with maha osadhi from the sahasra dhara, saying:
ya osadhih purva jata devabhyas triyuga pura
manai mu babhrunam aham satam dahmani sapta ca
One should bathe the Lord with gandhah water from the sahasra dhara, saying:
gandhah dvaram duradharsam nityapustam karisinam
isvarim sarva bhutanam tvam ihopa hvaye sriyam
One should bath the Lord with astaka bija water from the sahasra dhara, saying:
a brahman brahmano brahmavarcasi
jayatama rastre rajanyah sura
isvyo'tivyadhi mahratho jayatam
dogdhri dhenur bodhanadvanasuh
saptih purandhir yosa jisnu rathesthah
sabheyoyuvasya yajamansya viro jayatam
nikame nikame nah parjanyo varsatu
phalavatyo na osadhyah pacyantam
yogaksemo nah kalpatam
One should bathe the Lord in water mixed with flowers from the sahasra dhara, saying:
osadhdaya prati grbhnita puspavaith supippalah
ayam vo garbha rtviyah pratnam sadhastham asadat
One should bath the Lord in fruit water from the sahasra dhara, saying the same mantra as for the
flower flower:
osadhdaya prati grbhnita puspavaith supippalah
ayam vo garbha rtviyah pratnam sadhastham asadat
One should bathe the Lord in jewel water from the sahasra dhara, saying:
asuh sisano vrsabho na bhimo
ghanaghanah ksobhanas carsaninam
sankrandano'nimisa ekavirah
satam sena ajayat sakam indrah
Kalasa Snana (Waterpot bath):
One should bathe the Lord in water from eight kalasas. One kalasa should hold approximately
twelve kilograms (liters) of water. The kalasas should be unbroken with rounded bottoms and
graceful neck. One should bathe the Lord with the water, saying:
etonv indram stavama suddham suddhena amna
suddhadair uktair vavrddhamsam sudha asirvan mamattu
indrah suddha na a gahi suddhah suddhabhir utibhih
suddho rayim ni dharaya suddho mamaddhi somyah
indrah suddho hi no rayim suddho ratnani dasuse
suddho vrtani jighnase suddho vajam sisasasi
One should bathe the Lord in sixteen kalasas of tirtha water mixed with tulasi and sandalwood
paste, saying the purusa sukta:
Purusa Suktam (Hymn Describing the Supreme Lord):
Vastram (cloth):
One should wipe the Lord clean and dry Him and change His cloth. One should offer a pleasing
dress to the Lord saying:
abhi vastra suvasananyarsa
bhih denuh sudughah puyamanah

abhi candra bhartave no hiranya


bhiyasvan rathino deva soma
o yaje?varya yaja sambhavya yaja pataye govindya namo nama?
ida vastram + mula mantra
Yajopavita (sacred thread):
One should offer a sacred thread to the Lord saying:
yajopavitam paramam pavitram
prajapater yat sahajam purastat
ayusyam agryam pratimunca subhram
yajopavitam balam astu tejah
o yaje?varya yaja sambhavya yaja pataye govindya namo nama?
idam yajopavitam + mula mantra
Nirmancana (aratrika):
One should wave the herbs sahadeva, sadabhadra, suryavarta and kusa tips in circles before the
Lord, saying:
kandat kandat prarohanti purusah parusas pari
eva no durve pratanu sahasrena satena ca
One should offer sirisa and turmeric in the same way with the same mantra.
Di Uttarana (deliverance from evil glances):
One should wave nima fruits, white and black mustard seeds and salt in front of the Lord to drive
away inauspicious entities.
Matsya Mocana:
One should throw a silver fish into a pot of water.
(This should be shown to the Lord)
Padyam (foot wash):
o yaje?varya yaja sambhavya yaja pataye govindya namo nama?
etat padyam + mula mantra
Acamaniyam (mouthwash):
o yaje?varya yaja sambhavya yaja pataye govindya namo nama?
idam acamaniyam + mula mantra
Kalasa Drsti (viewing an auspicious pot):
One should present a pot filled with water and topped with leaves and coconut to the Lord and place
it before him along with a variety of fruits.
o yaje?varya yaja sambhavya yaja pataye govindya namo nama?
idam mangala kalasam + mula mantra
Netronmilanam (opening the eyes):
One should then bless the Lords eyes by touching them with a golden wand, saying:
tac caksur devahitam purastac chukram uccarat
pasyema saradah satam jivema saradah satam
srnuyama saradah satam prabravama saradah satam
adinah syama saradah satam bhuyas ca saradah satat
Ajana (ointment, kajal):
One should apply collyrium to the Lords eyes saying:
anjate vyanjate samanjate
kratum rihanti madhunabhyanjate
sindhor ucchvase patayantam uksanam
hiranya pavah pasum asu grbhnate
o yaje?varya yaja sambhavya yaja pataye govindya namo nama?
idam anjanam + mula mantra
Tilaka:

One should apply rocana (yellow pigment from the cow) tilaka to the Lords forehead saying:
yunjanti bradhnam arusam carantam apri tasthusah rocante rocana divi
o yaje?varya yaja sambhavya yaja pataye govindya namo nama?
esa tilakah + mula mantra
Ones mother or sister should then touch one hundred and eight blades of durba grass and puffs of
raw cotton to the Lords head.
Homa (fire sacrifice):
On ones birthday one should perform six acts using sesame. Thus one the Lords appearance day
his body is rubbed with sesame, he is bathed in sesame water, and later he will be offered sesame
foods. One should also give gifts of sesame, sow sesame seeds and perform homa with sesame,
using the deity mula mantra.
Puspa, Mala (flowers and garlands):
One should give the Lord flowers and garlands.
o yaje?varya yaja sambhavya yaja pataye govindya namo nama?
etani puspani + mula mantra
o yaje?varya yaja sambhavya yaja pataye govindya namo nama?
idam malyam + mula mantra
Pratisarah (wrist band)
One should bind the right wrist of the Lord with a yellow thread saying:
dirghaytvaya balaya varcase suprajastvaya,
casas atho jiva saradah satam
o yaje?varya yaja sambhavya yaja pataye govindya namo nama?
esa pratisarah + mula mantra
Darpana (mirror):
One should offer a mirror to the Lord and let Him look at His reflection.
pratipad asi pratipade tvanupady asi anupade tva
sampad asi sampade tva tejo si tejase tva
o yaje?varya yaja sambhavya yaja pataye govindya namo nama?
esa darpanah + mula mantra
Ghrta Darsana:
One should show the auspicious element ghee to the Lord, saying:
ghrtavati bhuvananam abhi sriyor
vi prthivi madhu dughe supesasa
dyava prthivi varunasya dharmana
viskabhite ajare bhure retasa
o yaje?varya yaja sambhavya yaja pataye govindya namo nama?
idam ghrtam + mula mantra
Camara:
One should wave the camara over the Lord saying:
vato va mano va gandharvah sapta vimsatih
te agre svam ayunjams te asmin javam adadhuh
o yaje?varya yaja sambhavya yaja pataye govindya namo nama?
esa camara seva + mula mantra
Bhusana (ornaments):
One should decorate the Lord with ornaments saying:
hiranya purah sa hiranya samdrg
apam napat sedu hiranya varnah
hiranyayat pari yoner nisadya
hiranyada dadaty annam asmai
o yaje?varya yaja sambhavya yaja pataye govindya namo nama?

etany abharanani + mula mantra


Godana:
On the occasion of a birthday a cow may be given to a brahmana.
Vandapanam:
On an auspicious day one should worship auspicious items. One should bring forth the following
items and say the appropriate mantra.
earth:
bhur asi bhumirasy aditir asi
visvadhaya visvasya bhuvanasya dhatri
prthivim yaccha prthivim drmha prthivim ma himsih
gandha:
tvam gandharva akhanams tvam intras tvam brhaspatih
tvam osadhe samo raja vidvan yaksmadam ucyata
stone:
pra parvatasya vrsabhasya prsthan
navas caranti svasti ca iyanah
ta ava vrtrannadharag udakta
ahir budhnyam anu riyamanah
visnor vikramanam asi visnor vikrantam asi
visnoh krantam asi
rice paddy:
dhanyam asi dhinuhi devan
pranaya tvodanaya tva vyanaya tva
dirgham anu prasitim ayuse dham
devo vah savita hiranyapanih
pratigrbhnatv acchidrena panina
caksuse tva mahinam payo si
durba grass:
kandat kandat prarohanti purusah parusaspari
eva no durve pratanu sahasrena satena ca
flowers:
om sris ca te laksmis ca patnyav
aho ratre parsve naksatrani rupam asvinau vyattam
isnannisanamum ma isana
sarvalokam ma isana
fruit:
yah phalini ya aphala apuspa yasca puspinih
brhaspatiprasutas ta no muncantv amhasah
yoghurt:
dadhikravno akarisam jisnor asvasya vajinah
subabhi no mukha karat pra na ayumsi tarisat
ghee:
ghrtavati bhuvananam abhisriyor
vi prthvim madhudughe supesasa
dyava prthivi varunasya dharmana
viskabhite ajare bhuri retasa
svastikam:
svasti na indro vrddha sravah svasti nah pusa visvavedah
svasti nas tarksyo aristanemih svasti no brhaspatir dadhatu
sindhur (vermilion):

sindhor iva pradhvane sughanaso


vatapramiyah patayanti yahvah
ghrtasya dhara aruso na vaji
kastha bhindann urmibhih pinvamanah
conch:
agnir rsih pavamanah pancajanyah purohitah
tamimahe mahagayam
kajjala (collyrium):
samiddho anjan krdaram matinam
ghrtam agne madhumat pinvamanah
vaji vahanvajinam jatavedo
devanam vaksi priyama sadhastham
rocana:
yunjanti bradhnam arusam carantam pari tasthusah
rocante rocana divi
boiled rice:
annat parisruto rasam
brahmana vyapivat ksatram
payah somam prajapatih
rtena satyam indrayam
vipanam sukram andhasa
indrasyendriyam idam
payo mrtam madhu
gold:
hiranyarupah sa hiranyasamdrg apam napat sedu hiranyavarnah
hiranyayat pari yoner nisadya hiranya dadaty annam asmai
silver:
rupena vo rupam abhyagam tutho vo visvaveda vibhajatu
rtasyapatha pretacandra daksina visvah pasya
vyantariksam yatasva sadasyaih
copper:
asau yas tamro aruna uta babhruh sumangalah
ye cainam rudra abhito diksu sritah sahasraso'vaisam heda imahe
white mustard seed:
raksohanam balagahanam vaisnavim idam
aham tam balagam utkirami yam me nistyo yam amatyo nicakhanedam
aham tam balagam utkirami
yam me savandhur yam asavandhurnicakhanedam
aham tam balagam utkirami
yam me sajato yam asajato
nicakhanotkrtyam kirami
mirror:
pratipad asi pratipade tvanupadasy anupade tva
sampadasi sampade tva tejo si tejase tva
lamp:
sriye jatah sriyah a niriyaya sriyam vayo jaritrbhyo dadhatu
sriyam vasana amrtatvam ayan bhavantu satya samitha mitadrau
One should the place all the items on a beautiful plate, and holding the plate with ones hands one
should offer it three times to the Lord saying:
svasti na indro vrddha sravah svasti nah pusa visvavedah

svasti nas tarksyo aristanemih svasti no brhaspatir dadhatu


and:
mahi gandhah sila dhanyam durba puspam phala dadhi
ghrtam svastika sinduram sankha kajjala rocanah
siddhannam kanacanam raupyam tamram siddhartha darpanau
dipah prasasta patram ca vandaniyah subhe dine
Samskaras:
The samskaras ending with upanayanam (giving of the sacred thread) may then be performed for
the Lord. The performers of the rites should be worshiped by giving cloth, garlands, etc.
Dhupa (incense):
One should offer incense to the Lord, saying:
dhurasi dhrva dhurvantam
dhruva tam yo sman dhurati
devanam asi vahnitamam sasnitamam
papritamam justatamam devahutamam
o yaje?varya yaja sambhavya yaja pataye govindya namo nama?
esa dhupah + mula mantra
Dipa (lamps):
agnir jyotir jyotir agnih svh
suryo jyotir jyotir suryah svh
agnir varco jyotir varcah svh
suryo varco jyotir varcah svh
jyotir surya suryo jyotih svh
o yaje?varya yaja sambhavya yaja pataye govindya namo nama?
esa dipah + mula mantra
Naivedyam (food):
One should then offer nice food stuffs, such as sesame laddus, popped rice, rice boiled in milk and
sugar, various beverages, four types of rice with various times representing the six tastes. When
offering according to the standard method one may say the mantra:
o yaje?varya yaja sambhavya yaja pataye govindya namo nama?
idam naivedyam + mula mantra
Acamaniyam (mouthwash):
o yaje?varya yaja sambhavya yaja pataye govindya namo nama?
idam acamaniyam + mula mantra
Tambulam:
One should offer betel and spices, saying:
o yaje?varya yaja sambhavya yaja pataye govindya namo nama?
idam tambulam + mula mantra
Nirajana (aratrika):
On a plate made of gold, silver or bell metal one should draw an eight petalled lotus using kumkum
powder. One should make pista dipas (from barley and wheat flour mixed with sugar and milk),
fill them with ghee and place wicks in them. One should be placed in the center of the lotus and
one on each petal. After lighting the wicks one should chant the deity mula mantra over the flames
and offer the plate to the Lord nine times saying:
dyauh santir antariksam santih
prthivi santir apah santir
osadhayah santih vanaspataya santir
visve devah santir brahma santih
sarvam santih santir eva santih
sa ma santir edhi

o yaje?varya yaja sambhavya yaja pataye govindya namo nama?


esa dipah + mula mantra
Abhisincana:
One may then sprinkle the Lord with auspicious items such as durba grass, saying:
samudra jyesthah salilasya madhyat
punana yanty anivisamanah
indro ya vajri vrsabho rarada
ta apo devir iha mam avantu
ya apo divya uta va sravanti
khanitrima uta vayah svayamjah
samudrartha yah sucayah pavakas
ta apo devir iha mam avantu
yasam raja varuno yati madhye
satyanrte avapasyanjananam
madhuscutah sucayo yah pavakas
ta apo devir iha mam avantu
yasu raja varuno yasu somo
visve deva yas urjam madanti
vaisvanaro yasv agnih pravistas
ta apo devir iha mam avantu
Asirvada (blessings):
The brahmanas should give blessings saying:
addhindra prasthitema havimsi
cano dadhisva pacatota somam
prayasvantah prati haryam asi tva
satyah santu yajamanasya kamah
or
tam srvantam na sanasim arusam na divah sisum
marmrjyante dive dive
bodhadyanma haribhyam kumarah sahadevyah
accha na huta udaram
uta tya yajata hari kumarat sahadevyat
prayata sadya a dade
esa vam devav asvina kumarah sahadevyah
dirghayur astu somakah
tam yuvam devav asvina kumaram sahadevayam
dirghayusam krnotana
Stuti (verses of praise):
One should then recite verses of praise of Govinda from the vedas or puranas.
Vrata:
During the daylight hours of the astami one should observe the vow of fasting in the association of
devotees, and staying awake at night, at midnight one should perform abhiseka according to the
vidhi just described, accompanied by joyful singing and dancing. The next day one should
celebrate the Lords appearance with great festivity and respect mahaprasadam with the vaisnavas.
One who performs worship of the Lord on Janmastami day according to the method stated above,
and with the mood of service of the inhabitants of Vraja, will certainly gain the affection of K?a.
Having gained that affection he will be blessed with deep love of K?a (prema) and will directly
serve the Lord in Vrndavana eternally.
Notes:
The ingredients of padyam may be identified as follows:

syamaka: millet, Panicum frumentaceum


visnukranta: butterfly pea, Clitoria ternatea
durva: dub gras, Saccharum cylindricum
The ingredients of sarvaushadhi may be identified as follows:
mamsi: spieknard, Nardostachys jatamamsi
vaca: sweet flag roots, Acorus colamus
kustgyha: kuth (Hindi), saaussurea auriculata
saileyam: dill, Anethum graveolens
sati: ginger, Curcuma zedoaria
musta: nut grass, Cyperus rotrundas
campaak: fruit of a plantain tree
rajani dvaya: turmeric, Curcuma longa and a relative Curcuma aromatica
Mahausadhi:
sahadevi: Echites frutescus
simhi: Solanam melongena
sankhapuspi: dankuni (Bengali), Canscora decussata
vayghri: Solanum jacquini
bala: Sidonia cordifolia
atibala: Sidonia rhombifolia
suryavarta: Polanisia icosandra
vaca: Acorus colamus
Sarvamangala:
padmaka: wood from Cerasus puddum
jati: chameli, jasmin grandflora
kunda: jasmin multiflora
kusa grass
durbha: Saccharum cylindricum
rocana: a yellow pigment made from the bile from the cow
Nirmancana:
sahadeva (bala): Sida cordifolia
sadabhadra: gamari (Bengali), Gmelina arborea
suryavarta: Polanisis icosandra
sirisa: Acacia sirissa
rajani: turmeric, Curcuma longa

Shrimad Bhagavatam
Chapter Five: Meeting of Nanda and Vasudeva
from the book Krsna, The Supreme Personality of Godhead by His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami
Prabhupad
Although Krsna was the real son of Vasudeva and Devaki, because of Kamsa's atrocious activities Vasudeva
could not enjoy the birth ceremony of his son. But Nanda Maharaja, the foster father, celebrated the birth
ceremony of Krsna very joyfully. The next day, it was declared that a male child was born of Yasoda.
According to Vedic custom, Nanda Maharaja called for learned astrologers and brahmanas to perform the birth
ceremony. After the birth of a child, the astrologers calculate the moment of the birth and make a horoscope of
the child's future life. Another ceremony takes place after the birth of the child: the family members take baths,
cleanse themselves and decorate themselves with ornaments and garlands; then they come before the child and
the astrologer to hear of the future life of the child. Nanda Maharaja and other members of the family dressed
and sat down in front of the birthplace. All the brahmanas who were assembled there on this occasion chanted
auspicious mantras, according to the rituals, while the astrologers performed the birth ceremony. All the
demigods are also worshiped on this occasion, as well as the forefathers of the family. Nanda Maharaja
distributed 200,000 well decorated, dressed and ornamented cows to the brahmanas. He not only gave cows in
charity, but hills of grains, decorated with golden-bordered garments and many ornaments.
In the material world we possess riches and wealth in many ways, but sometimes not in very honest and pious
ways, because that is the nature of accumulating wealth. According to Vedic injunction, therefore, such wealth
should be purified by giving cows and gold in charity to the brahmanas. A newborn child is also purified by
giving grains in charity to the brahmanas. In this material world it is to be understood that we are always living
in a contaminated state. We therefore have to purify the duration of our lives, our possession of wealth and
ourselves. The duration of life is purified by taking daily bath and cleansing the body inside and outside and
accepting the ten kinds of purificatory processes. By austerities, by worship of the Lord, and by distribution of
charity, we can purify the possession of wealth. We can purify ourselves by studying the Vedas, by striving for
self-realization and by understanding the Supreme Absolute Truth. It is therefore stated in the Vedic literature
that by birth everyone is born a sudra, and by accepting the purificatory process one becomes twice-born. By
studies of the Vedas one can become vipra, which is the preliminary qualification for becoming a brahmana.
When one understands the Absolute Truth in perfection, he is called a brahmana. And when the brahmana
reaches further perfection, he becomes a Vaisnava or a devotee.
In that ceremony, all the brahmanas assembled began to chant different kinds of Vedic mantras to invoke all
good fortune for the child. There are different kinds of chanting known as suta, magadha, vandi and virudavali.
Along with this chanting of mantras and songs, bugles and kettledrums sounded outside the house. On this
occasion, the joyous vibrations could be heard in all the pasturing grounds and all the houses. Within and
outside of the houses there were varieties of artistic paintings, done with rice pulp, and scented water was
sprinkled everywhere, even on the roads and streets. Ceilings and roofs were decorated with different kinds of
flags, festoons and green leaves. The gates were made of green leaves and flowers. All the cows, bulls and
calves were smeared with a mixture of oil and turmeric and painted with minerals like red oxide, yellow clay
and manganese. They wore garlands of peacock feathers and were covered with nice colored dresses and gold
necklaces.
When all the ecstatic cowherd men heard that Nanda Maharaja, father of Krsna, was celebrating the birth
ceremony of his son, they became spontaneously joyful. They dressed themselves with very costly garments
and ornamented their bodies with different kinds of earrings and necklaces and wore great turbans on their
heads. After dressing themselves in this gorgeous way, they took various kinds of presentations and thus
approached the house of Nanda Maharaja.
As soon as they heard that mother Yasoda had given birth to a child, all the cowherd women became
overwhelmed with joy, and they also dressed themselves with various kinds of costly garments and ornaments
and smeared scented cosmetics on their bodies.

As the dust on the lotus flower exhibits the exquisite beauty of the flower, all the gopis (cowherd girls) applied
the dust of kunkuma on their lotus-like faces. These beautiful gopis took their different presentations and very
soon reached the house of Maharaja Nanda. Overburdened with their heavy hips and swollen breasts, the gopis
could not proceed very quickly towards the house of Nanda Maharaja, but out of ecstatic love for Krsna they
began to proceeded as quickly as possible. Their ears were decorated with pearl rings, their necks were
decorated with jewel padlocks, their lips and eyes were decorated with different kinds of lipstick and ointment,
and their hands were decorated with nice golden bangles. As they were very hastily passing over the stone road,
the flower garlands which were decorating their bodies fell to the ground, and it appeared that a shower of
flowers was falling from the sky. From the movement of the different kinds of ornaments on their bodies, they
were looking still more beautiful. In this way, they all reached the house of Nanda-Yasoda and blessed the
child: "Dear child, You live long just to protect us." While they were blessing child Krsna in this way, they
offered a mixture of turmeric powder with oil, yogurt, milk and water. They not only sprinkled this mixture on
the body of child Krsna but on all other persons who were present there. Also on that auspicious occasion, there
were different bands of expert musicians playing.
When the cowherd men saw the pastimes of the cowherd women, they became very joyful, and in response they
also began to throw yogurt, milk, clarified butter and water upon the bodies of the gopis. Then both parties
began to throw butter on each other's bodies. Nanda Maharaja was also very happy to see the pastimes of the
cowherd men and women, and he became very liberal in giving charity to the different singers who were
assembled there. Some singers were reciting great verses from the Upanisads and Puranas, some were
glorifying the family ancestors, and some were singing very sweet songs. There were also many learned
brahmanas present, and Nanda Maharaja, being very satisfied on this occasion, began to give them different
kinds of garments, ornaments, and cows in charity.
It is very important to note in this connection how wealthy the inhabitants of Vrndavana were simply by raising
cows. All the cowherd men belonged to the vaisya community, and their business was to protect the cows and
cultivate crops. By their dress and ornaments and by their behavior, it appears that although they were in a small
village, they still were rich in material possessions. They possessed such an abundance of various kinds of milk
products that they were throwing butter lavishly on each other's bodies without restriction. Their wealth was in
milk, yogurt, clarified butter and many other milk products, and by trading their agricultural products, they were
rich in various kinds of jewelry, ornaments and costly dresses. Not only did they possess all these things, but
they could give them away in charity, as did Nanda Maharaja.
Thus Nanda Maharaja, the foster father of Lord Krsna, began to satisfy the desires of all the men assembled
there. He respectfully received them and gave them in charity whatever they desired. The learned brahmanas,
who had no other source of income, were completely dependent on the vaisya and ksatriya communities for
their maintenance, and they received gifts on such festive occasions as birthdays, marriages, etc. While Nanda
Maharaja was worshiping Lord Visnu on this occasion and was trying to satisfy all the people there, his only
desire was that the newborn child Krsna would be happy. Nanda Maharaja had no knowledge that this child was
the origin of Visnu, but he was praying to Lord Visnu to protect Him.
Rohinidevi, mother of Balarama, was the most fortunate wife of Vasudeva. She was away from her husband,
yet just to congratulate Maharaja Nanda on the occasion of the birth ceremony of his son, Krsna, she dressed
herself very nicely. Wearing a garland, a necklace and other bodily ornaments, she appeared on the scene and
moved hither and thither. According to the Vedic system, a woman whose husband is not at home does not
dress herself very nicely. But although Rohini's husband was away, she still dressed herself on this occasion.
From the opulence of the birth ceremony of Krsna, it is very clear that at that time Vrndavana was rich in every
respect. Because Lord Krsna took birth in the house of King Nanda and mother Yasoda, the goddess of fortune
was obliged to manifest her opulences in Vrndavana. It appeared that Vrndavana had already become a site for
the pastimes of the goddess of fortune.

Shri Nandotsava
Next Day after Shri Janmashtami Tithi
Chapter Nine: Sri Brahma-vaivarta Purana
Sri Nanda-putrotsava
The Festival of the Appearance of Shri Nanda's divine son
1 Sri Narada said: After Vasudeva placed Lord Krsna in Yasoda's home in Gokula, what did King Nanda do to
celebrate the birth of a son?
2 What did Lord Krsna do there? How many years did the Lord stay there? O master, please describe the Lord's
childhood pastimes there.
3 How in the forest there did Lord Krsna keep the promise He made to Radha in Goloka?
4 What was Vrndavana like? What was the rasa-dance circle like? Please tell. O master, please describe the
Lord's rasa dance and the water pastimes.
5 What austerities did Nanda, Yasoda, and Rohini perform? Before the appearance of Lord Krsna, where did
Lord Balarama rake birth?
6 This recounting of Lord Krsna's pastimes is nectar sweeter than any other. Especially in the mouth of a poet, it
brings new and sweet poetry at every step.
7 Please describe the Lord's pastimes in the rasa-dance circle. A poet's words are more glorious when he himself
has seen the events he describes.
8 You are a direct incarnation of Lord Krsna Himself. Because You are His incarnation, You are full of
transcendental bliss. You are the guru of the guru of the kings of the yogis.
9 You have described how You entered the feet of Lord Krsna, the master of Goloka. Therefore You are a direct
incarnation of Lord Krsna. You are Lord Krsna.
10 Sri Narayana Rsi said: Brahma, Siva, Sesa, Ganesa, Kurma, Yamaraja, Nara, Karttikeya, and I are nine
incarnations of Lord Krsna.
11 Who can describe the glories of Lord Krsna, the master of Goloka? We incarnations of Krsna cannot
understand Him. How can the great philosophers understand Him. How can the great philosophers understand
Him?
12 O sage, Varaha, Vamana, Kalki, Buddha, Kapila, and Matsya are among His primary incarnations. How
many are His secondary incarnations?
13 The primary forms of the Lord are Nrsimha, Rama, and the splendid master of Svetadvipa. The most perfect,
full, most complete, original form of the Supreme Lord is Sri Krsna, who resides in Goloka, the highest realm in
the spiritual sky.
14 In Vaikuntha He appears in many forms as four-armed Lord Narayana, the beloved of Laksmi. In Goloka
and Gokula He appears in His original form as two-armed Lord Krsna, the beloved of Radha.
15 The yogi's meditate on His Brahman light, but the devotees meditate on His lotus feet. How can there be a
light without a source?
16 O brahmana, listen and I will describe the austerities of Nanda, Yasoda and Rohini, austerities that enabled
them to see Lord Krsna face to face.
17 In his previous birth Nanda was the ascetic Drona the best of the Vasus, and saintly Yasoda was his ascetic
wife Dhara.
18 In her previous birth Rohini was Kadru, the first mother of the snakes. Listen and I will describe to you what
they did in their previous birth.
19-20 O sage, in Bharata-varsa, on Mount Gandhamadana, near Gautama Muni's asrama, in a secluded place by
the Suprabha river, Drona and Dhara performed austerities for ten thousand years so they might see Lord Krsna
face to face.
21 When after this time they still could not see Lord Krsna, Drona and Dhara decided to enter a lake of fire.
22-23 Then a disembodied voice, its speaker seeing that they wished to die, said, "O best of the Vasus, in your
next birth, on the earth, you will see Lord Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whom the yogis cannot
see, whom the philosophers cannot attain by their thinking, to whom Brahma and the demigods bow down. He

will become your son.


24 Hearing this, Drona and Dhara happily returned to their home. Taking birth on the earth, they saw Lord
Krsna face to face.
25 Thus I have described the activities of Nanda and Yasoda. Now please hear the activities of Rohini when she
was a demigoddesses.
26 O sage, one time, on the day most suitable to conceive a child, saintly Aditi, the mother of the demigods sent
a message of this to her husband, Kasyapa Muni.
27 The beautiful goddess, carefully bathed and wearing jewel ornaments, decorated and dressed herself very
elaborately. In the mirror she carefully examined her face,...
28 ...which was decorated with dots of musk and sindura, beautiful with patra ornaments and jewel earrings,...
29 ...beautiful as an autumn moon, its autumn lotus eyes splendid with mascara, its beautiful nose decorated
with an elephant pearl, its mouth gracefully curved in a smile,...
30 ...its teeth splendid like ripe pomegranate seeds, its beautiful always smiling lips splendid like ripe bimba
fruits,...
31 ...and its features so beautiful they charmed the hearts of the regal sages.
32 After carefully examining her face in this way, the beautiful goddess, wounded by Kamadeva's arrows,
stayed at home, waiting for her husband to come and looking for him on the path.
33 Then Aditi heard the news that Kasyapa was with Kadru, that he was sweetly playing with her and resting on
her breast.
34 Tortured with amorous desires, and her hopes to satisfy them now destroyed, saintly Aditi became filled with
anger when she heard this news. Out of love for him she would not curse her husband, but she did curse Kadru.
35 She said: That sinful woman has no right to live in the world of the demigods. She should leave Svargaloka
and go far away to the womb of a human being.
36 Hearing of this curse from a messenger, Kadru cursed Aditi. Kadru said: Aditi should go to the womb of a
human being, a womb in the world where there is old age and death.
37 Then Kasyapa said to Kadru: O girl with the beautiful smile, when you go to the human world, I will go with
you.
38 Give up your fears. Be happy. You will see Lord Krsna face to face.
After speaking these words, Kasyapa went to Aditi's home.
39 Powerful Kasyapa fulfilled Aditi's desire, and as a result Indra, the leader of the demigods was born.
40 In this way Aditi became Devaki, Kadru became Rohini, and Kasyapa became Vasudeva, Lord Krsna's noble
father.
41-43 O sage, what I have told you is very confidential. Now please hear the birth story of Lord Balarama, who
is limitless, immeasurable, thousand-headed Lord Sesa. By Vasudeva's order, Rohini fled to Gokula to protect
Balarama from the danger of Kamsa.
44 By Lord Krsna's order goddess Maya (Parvati) took Devaki's eighth pregnancy, placed it in Rohini's womb,
placed the unborn child in Gokula, and then returned to Mount Kailasa.
45-46 After some days in Nanda's house, Rohini gave birth to a gently smiling son splendid as molten silver, a
son who was the Personality of Godhead Himself.
47 When Lord Balarama was born the demigods in Svargaloka sounded conchshells, played dundubhis, anakas,
murajas, and other musical instruments, and called out "Victory!"
48 Jubilant Nanda gave many kinds of charity to the brahmanas. The midwife cut the umbilical cord and bathed
the infant boy.
49 The lavishly decorated gopis called out "All glories!" Then Nanda celebrated a great for the birth of his
foster son.
50 Then Yasoda happily gave charity to the gopis and brahmanis. She gave them oil, sindura, and many other
things.
51 O child, thus I have told the stories of Lord Balarama's birth, Nanda and Yasoda's austerities and Rohini's
activities.
52 Now please hear the beautiful story of the celebration for Nanda's son, a story that brings happiness and
liberation, a story that stops birth, death, and old age.
53 Lord Krsna's auspicious pastimes are the life of the devotees. They destroy all that is inauspicious and they

bring devotional service to the Lord.


54 Vasudeva placed Lord Krsna in Nanda's home, and then happily took Nanda's daughter to his own home.
55 O sage, I have already described her activities. Now please hear of Lord Krsna's blissful and auspicious
pastimes in Gokula.
56 After Vasudeva left for his own home, Nanda and Yasoda woke up in the auspicious and glorious maternity
room.
57 They gazed at their very handsome son glorious like a new monsoon cloud, naked, resting on the ground and
looking up at the ceiling,...
58 ...His face an autumn moon, His eyes dark lotus flowers, crying and laughing, His transcendental form
resting in the dust,...
59 ...and His two hands leaving impressions of a club and lotus in the dust. Nanda and his wife gazed at Krsna,
and Krsna gazed at them.
60 The midwife bathed the infant boy with cool water and cut the umbilical cord. The gopis happily called out,
"All glories!"
61 All the gopis and brahmanis, young and old, with large hips and the breasts that moved as they ran, hurried
to the maternity room.
62 All gave their blessings, happily gazed at the infant boy, placed Him on their laps, and praised Him. Some
stayed there.
63 Nanda bathed, put on clean garments, and with a happy heart performed the rituals learned through the
disciplic succession.
64 He fed the brahmanas, had them give their auspicious blessings, had the musicians play on their instruments,
and gave charity to the poets.
65 Then Nanda happily gave charity to the brahmanas. He respectfully gave them diamonds, coral, and many
precious jewels,...
66 ...seven mountains of grains, much gold and silver, a mountain of wealth, many garments, a thousand
beautiful cows,...
67 ...yoghurt, milk, rock candy, butter, ghee, honey, many candies, a flood of laddus, many delicious
modakas,...
68 ...land rich with many crops, horses fast as the wind, many betel nuts, and much oil. After giving this charity
Nanda became happy in his heart.
69 To protect the maternity room he engaged many gopis peaceful at heart and many brahmanas expert at
chanting Tantric mantras.
70 He had the brahmanas recite the Vedas, chant Lord Krsna's holy names, and worship the demigods.
71 Many beautiful smiling brahmanis, young and old, and bringing their children with them, came to Nanda's
home. Nanda gave them jewels and many other valuable things in charity.
72 Many smiling elderly gopis decorated with jewel ornaments hurried to Nanda's home. He respectfully gave
them fine garments, silver, and thousands of cows.
73 Books in hand, many eloquent astrologers learned in the jyotir Veda came to Nanda's home.
74 Nanda bowed to them and happily honoured them. All gazed at the transcendental infant boy and gave their
blessings.
75 After all was done, Nanda, the king of Vraja, had the astrologers predict what good and evil lay in the future.
76 In Nanda's home the infant boys Krsna and Balarama sucked their mother's breasts and grew as the waxing
moon grows.
77 O sage, pleased at the ceremony for the infant boy, Yasoda and Rohini happily gave in charity oil, sindura,
and betel nuts to the women there.
78 After placing many blessings on the infant boy's head, the women returned to their homes. Yasoda, Rohini,
and Nanda, filled with happiness, stayed in their home.