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# ]<gj]<]<j<^]<]

W
K

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K?

W
K

EF

K
W

EKKKKKF
K

EKKKKKKKKF

W
K
KW

J
K J

Controlled Rectifiers
K DC Chopper

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WW
K

K

W
W

--

DC Motors WW

K

## Separately Excited DC Motor

--

Ia

Ra

Va

If
Eb
Vf

( )

K ( )

[E bY

:
( )

Vf = Rf If

( )

Va = Eb + Ra Ia
Eb = Kv If
Td = K t I f I a

( )
( )

Td = T L + B

(-)

W
(V)

Va

(V)

Eb

()

Ra

(A)

Ia

(V)

Vf

--

()

Rf

(A)

If

Kv

(N.m/A)

Kt

(N.m)

Td

(N.m)

TL

( )

Speed()

V1
V2
V3
V4
V1>V2>V3>V4
Torque

( )

W( )

{ KV

--

Rf =

Va = V

Vf = V

TL= N.m

Td = TL = N.m
Vf

If =

Rf

Ia =

WZ

= {

Amp.

Td
100
=
={
K v I f (1.15)(1.467)

Amp

Eb = Va IaRa= {
E
431.107
= b =
= {
K v I f (1.15)(1.467)

n=

Volt

60
= {
2

rpm

Td = TL = N.m.
T
120
Ia = d =
={
K v I f (1.15)(1.467)

Amp

Eb = Va IaRa = {
E
429.33
= b =
= {
K v I f (1.15)(1.467)
n=

Ra = {

Volt

60
= {
2

rpm

Series Motor

W( )
( )

Va = Eb + (Ra+Rf) Ia
--

Eb = Kv Ia

( )

Td = Kt Ia

( )

Td = T L + B

( )

Ia

Ra

Va
Eb

( )

Speed

V1>V2>V3

V1
V2
V3
Torque

( )

( )

K
W( )

--

K hp, V, rpm

rpm N.m.

Rf = {

Ra = {

Td = TL = N.m
I f = Ia =

TL= N.m

WZ

Td
= {
Kv

Amp.

2n
= {
60

Eb = KvIf= {

Volt

Va = Eb + (Ra+Rf) Ia={

Volt

n = .rpm
2n
=
= {
60
Eb = KvIf= {

EF
Volt

Va = Eb + (Ra+Rf) Ia={

Volt

AC Motors

--

K
Three Phase Induction Motors

( ) ( )
:K( )

s =

4f
P

( )

ns n

= s= s
ns
s

Pg

n =
s

3I 2'2

R2'
s =

( )

3V12 R2'
2

R'
s s R1 + 2 X 1 + X 2'
s

( )

120 f
P

( )

W
(A)
--

(A)

I '

()

()

R'

()

()

X'

()

Rc

()

Xc

(A)

Io

(A)

Ix

(A)

(rpm)

ns

Io

R1
Ic
V1

X2

I2

R2
Ix

Rc

Xc

( )

--

(rpm)

X1

I1

Ic

R '2
(1 s)
s

( )
K

( )

## Ys=sm Y [s=smY [s=YK

[s=Y

Io
Ic
V1

X2

X1

I1

I2

R1

R 2

Ix
Rc

R '2
(1 s )
s

Xc

( )

- -

Pin =VICos

Pst+Pi =IRHV/RC

Pg=Tds

Pg=IR/s

Pcu = IR
Pm=Tds(-s)

Pm = IR(-s)/s

Pf

Psh = Tsh

( )

600

Torque

Tm
400
200
Sm

Tst

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Slip

( )

- -

W( )
hp, V, Hz
R = {

R = {

X = {

W
X = {

Xc =

watt watt
rpm

Pc= W,

Pf = W,

P=

VL = V

120 f
= rpm
P
2n
=
60

n= rpm,
f = Hz
460
Vph =
={ V
3
2n s
s =
60

ns =

ns n
={
ns
( )
Z + Z = (R +

s=

R2 '
o
) + j(X+X) = { + j{ = { 7
s

I =

v ph
Z1 + Z 2

= 20.88 7 o ={-j{

- -

Io =

v ph
Zo

= 9.836 90 o =-j{

I= { Amp

## Pg= Pin- (Pst + Pc)= {Watt

Pcu = I.R = {

Watt

Td =

Pg

N.m

Psh = Pg -(Pcu+Pf) = {

Watt

Z
Tsh =

Psh

= N.m
Synchronous Motors

K
F

EF
- -

E F

K
Cylindrical Rotor MotorW

( )

( )
W
E f = Vt + I a (Ra + jX s )

Td =

( )

3Vt E f Sin

( )

s X s

( )
(A)
(V)

W
Ia
Ef

(V)

Vt

()

Ra

()

Xs

- -

Xs

Ra

Ia
Ef

Vt

( )

Vt

Ef

IaXs

Ia

( )

## Salient Pole Motor

Td =

3Vt E f Sin

s X d

( )

3Vt 2
2 s

W
()

Xd

()

Xq

W
W

KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK
- -

KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

WC 9

K
W

K
K

W
K
K

W
K

{ KV
K K

K K

- -

W
K hp, V, rpm

rpm N.m.
K

K K

W
hp, V, Hz
R = {

R = {

X = {

Xc =

X = {

watt watt
W {

J
J

- -

]<gj]<]<j<^]<]

--

W
WW
K

K
K
K

K
K

K
K
W
W

- -

Converters K

K
W
Controlled Rectifiers
DC Choppers

AC Voltage Controllers

Inverters

Controlled Rectifiers

??

EF
K

Semi-converter
- -

Dual Converter

## Single Phase Half Wave Converter

K ( )EQF

(D)
Vo =

Vm
(1 + Cos )
2

( )

( )

( )
K

W ( )

W v

- -

o K

A K

Vm = 208 2 = 294.156
V
Vo = m (1 + Cos ) = 46.816(1 + Cos 60) = 70.22
2
V
I o = o = 7.022
R

Volt
Volt

Amp.

E
A

Vo = I o R = 8 10 = 80

Volt

( )

= {o

Vm
(1 + Cos ) = 46.816(1 + Cos0) = 93.63
2
V
= o max = 9.36
R

Vo max =

Volt

I o max

Amp.

Vm( )
(deg)
Vo(volt)

E F
- -

100

Vo
(

50
0
0

45

90
135
Alpha (deg)

180

( )

E F

## Single Phase Semi-converter

(D, D) (Q,Q) ( )
( )D
K

( )

[Vo[
[-Y

Vo =

Vm

(1 + Cos )

( )
- -

( )
K

( )

- -

W( )

W v

Vm = 208 2 = 294.156

Vo =

Vm

Io =

Vo
= 11.787
R

Volt

= {o

Volt
Amp.

V( )WE

Vo max =

Vm

Volt

## Single Phase Full Converter

( ) K (Q,Q,Q,Q) ( )

(Q, Q)
- -

(Q, Q)
o K

K

Vo

to -

Vo =

2Vm

Cos

( )

( )

( )

- -

( )

W( )

W v

o
Ps

- -

Vm = 208 2 = 294.156
2V
Vo = m (Cos ) = 187.266(Cos 45) = 132.417

Volt
Volt

V
I o = o = 13.2417
R

Amp.

E
Ps= PL =VoIo={

Z
watt

E
o
Vo =

2Vm

Ps= VoIo=

( )

Volt

watt

( )

( )

- -

## Three Phase Half Wave Converter

Q,Q,Q

( )

( )

(t>/) Q

Van(t=/ + )
Q(t=/ + )Q

(t=/ + ) Q Vbn
Vcn Q

( )

Vo =

3 3Vm
2

( )

Cos

- -

( )

W ( )

o v

Vm =

208 2
3

= 169.83

Volt

3 3Vm
(Cos ) = 140 449(Cos30) = 121.633
2
V
I o = o = 12.166
R

Vo =

- -

Volt
Amp.

## Three Phase Semi-converter

( )

Vo =

3 3Vm
(1 + Cos )
2

( )

( )

W ( )

K v

Vm =

208 2
3

= 169.83

Volt

3 3Vm
(1 + Cos ) = 140 449(1 + Cos30) = 262.08
2
V
I o = o = 26.208
R

Vo =

- -

Volt
Amp.

( )

Vo =

3 3Vm

( )

Cos

( )

W ( )

K v
o
Ps

- -

E
Vm =

Vo =
Io =

208 2
3

3 3Vm

= 169.83

Volt

Vo
= 19.8625
R

Volt
Amp.

E
o

( )

Vo =

3 3Vm

Ps= VoIo=

Volt

watt

## Three Phase Dual Converter

( )

K

- -

( )

DC Choppers

EF
KKKK

Theory of Operation

( )

TonK()

Toff
( )

W
Vo =

Ton
Vs = kVs
T

( )

- -

Vs

Ton

Toff

Vo

( )
E Hz HzF

IGPT
KKKKKKK GTOMOSFET

Vo

S
Io

Vs
Ton

Vs

Toff

Vo

( )

( )

## (Ton) (T) (FM)

W
- -

(SCR) W

(PT)W

K
(MOSFET) W

(MOSFET)
K

K
Step Down DC Chopper

( )K

( )
K

(On)

(Off)(Q)
(Q)

K( )

- -

( )

- -

( )

Step Up DC Chopper

K
( )
(L)(On)K

- -

(Off)
vo =

I
Vs
1 k

( )

W
Vs

I
k
vo

( )
K
K

( )

- -

AC Voltage Controller W

EF

( )

Q, Q
K
K

W
On-Off Control

Q, Q

( )
K

Phase Control

Q, Q

K( )
( )

K( )

( )

- -

( )

EF

( )

EF

- -

( )

INVERTERS

(PWM)
K

(Filter)

K
- -

(UPS)
K

( )
(D, D) (Q, Q)
Q Q Vs

Q(T/)EVsF
(-Vs) Q

( ) (T/)

D QEF
D Q
KQ

( )

- -

( )

## Single Phase Bridge Inverter

EKKKK F

Q, Q ( )
EJ VsF Q, Q EVsF

Q, Q D, DK( )
- -

D, D
KQ, Q

( )

( )

( )

K( )

- -

( )

W
K

KK
K

W
WKC 9
K

W
- -

K
K

W
K K
K

K K

K K

WK v
Amp K

Ps K

o K

o v

- -

]<gj]<]<j<^]<]

- -

W
WW

K
K

- -

(Power Converters)

Va I a Ra
Kv I f

( )
(V)

W
Va

()

Ra

(A)

Ia

(A)

If

Kv

( )
W

KKKKKKK
- -

Pd, Va
Td
Ia

If

( )

## ?Ia? " Va" " Pd"" Td" ( )

K If

"Va"

- -

K If
Single Phase Drives W

KW
K

" a " Va
( )Kf " If"

K

( )

W
Single Phase Half Converter Drives

## Single Phase Full Converter Drives

Single Phase Dual Converter Drives
- -

K{ KW

( )

W( )

Va =

Vf =

Vm
(1 + Cos a )
2
Vm

(1 + Cos )

( )

W
( )

( )

( )Kf
K
- -

( )

KW

( )
W
Va =

Vf =

Vm

Vm

(1 + Cos a )

( )

(1 + Cos )

( )

K(f) (a)

K ( )
- -

( )

( )

- -

W( )

Hz V
{

## K rpm Nm. { V/A-rad/sec

K

rpm

Rf =

Vs = V

n = rpm

TL= N.m

Ra = {

WZ

Td = TL = N.m
2n
=
60

Vm = 2 ={ V

Vm

Vf =

If =

(1 + Cos ) = { V

Vf
Rf

= { Amp.

Eb = Kv If = { V

Va = Eb + IaRa= { V

a = {

( )

W(a = )E
Va =

Vm

(1 + Cos ) = {V
a

- -

Eb = Va IaRa= { V
E
181.8
= b =
K v I f (1.1)(1.248)
n=

60
= {
2

rpm

rpm E

KEF

2n 2 (1400 )
=
60
60
Eb = Va IaRa= { V
Eb
181.8
=
If =
= { Amp.
K v (1.1)(146.6)
Vf = If.Rf = { V

{={(HCos f)

f = {o

Td = KvIfIa = { N.m

## Single Phase Full ConverterDrives

KK(Q,Q,Q,Q)( )

QQ

Q, Q
t

+ Q, Q

K+ Q Q
K( )
- -

KEoF

( )

Va =

2Vm

Vf =

W
(Cos a )

2Vm

( )

(Cos )

( )

- -

( )

W( )

Hz V

K
W
- -

K
K

??

Vs = V

a=o

Rf =

Ia = Amp

Ra = {

WZ
Vm = 2 ={ V

Td = T L

E
(f=o)

Vf =
If =

2V m

Vf
Rf

(Cos ) = { V

= {

Amp.

Td = Kv If. Ia = { Nm.
Eb = Va IaRa= { V
E
188.7
= b =
={
K v I f (1.35)(1.98)
n=

60
= {
2

rpm

WE

Td ={({) = { Nm.
Ia ={() = Amp

Eb = Va IaRa= { ({) = { V

- -

n=

Eb
190.07
=
K v I f (1.35)(1.98)
60
= rpm
2
KoE

f = o
Eb =

{ V
{H ({)=

Va = Eb + IaRa=

- { = Va =

a = {o

2Vm

{ V

(Cos a ) = 396.14(Cos a )

Ps = Pa = VaIa = Watt

K
( )

F Ia Va

E
KEFo
FIaEVaFVa

EIa
Ko

- -

( )

V a1 =

Va 2 =

Vf =

2V m

2V m

2Vm

(Cos )

( )

a1

(Cos )

( )

a2

(Cos )

( )

:W

W
- -

[ Q,Q,Q[
( )
KW

Va =

3 3Vm
Cos a
2

( )

Vf =

3 3Vm
(1 + Cos f )
2

( )

( )

( )

- -

( )

## Three Phase Semi-converter Drives

( )

Vo =

3 3Vm
(1 + Cos a )
2

( )

Vf =

3 3Vm
(1 + Cos f )
2

( )
- -

( )

( )

Hz V

{ Amp

Ko

Vs = V

a=

If = Amp

Rf =

Ra = {

TL= Nm.

WZ
Td = TL = Nm

Vm =
- -

2
= { V
3

E
(f=o)
V f = I f R f =

= V f =

3 3Vm
(1 + Cos f ) = {(HCos f)
2

f = {o
Vo =

3 3Vm
(1 + Cos a ) ={(HCos a) = { V
2

Ia =

Td
120
=
=
K v I f (1.2)(1.0)

Amp

V
Eb = Va IaRa= {
E
242.08
= b =
= {
K v I f (1.2)(1.0)

n=

60
= {
2

Td ={() =
Ia ={() =

rpm

WE
Nm.
Amp

Eb = Va IaRa= { ({) =
E
238.08
= b =
K v I f (1.2)(1.0)

60
= {
rpm
2
KEbE

n=

Eb = {

{ = Va - IaRa= Va (.)
Va = { =

a = {o

3 3V m
(1 + Cos a ) ={(HCos a)
2

- -

( )

EoF

Vo =

3 3Vm

( )

(Cos a )

Vf =

3 3Vm

( )

(Cos f )

( )

W( )

V
{ Hz

## K rpm Nm. { V/A-rad/sec

- -

rpmf

Rf =

Vs = V

n = rpm

TL= N.m

Td = TL = N.m

f = o

Ra = {

WZ

2n
60

Vm =

2
= { V
3

E
3 3V m
Cos f = { (Cos ) = { V
2
Vf
If =
= { Amp.
Rf
Vf =

Eb = Kv If = {

Va = Eb + IaRa= { V

{ = V a =

a = {o

3 3V m
Cos a ={ (Cos a)
2

W(a = )E
3 3V m
Cos a = { V
2
Eb = Va IaRa= {
V
E
264.55
= b =
={
K v I f (1.2)(1.466)
Va =

- -

60
= { rpm
2
rpm E
n=

KEF

2n 2 (1800 )
=
= {
60
60
Eb = Va IaRa= { V
Eb
264.5
=
If =
= { Amp.
K v (1.2)(188.496)
Vf = If.Rf = {
V

{={(Cos f)

f = {o
Td = KvIfIa = { N.m

## Three Phase Dual Converter Drives

( )

K
K
W

Va1 =

3 3Vm

( )

(Cos a1 )

W
Va 2 =

3 3Vm

( )

(Cos a 2 )

W
Vf =

3 3Vm

( )

(Cos f )

- -

W
K

WKC 9

Hz V
{ V/A- {

K

K K
K K

- -

rpm K

K
W

Hz V

Ko Amp.
W
K

??
W

HzV

{ Amp
o
W

- -

]<gj]<]<j<^]<]

- -

WW

K
K
K
K

- -

DC Chopper Drives

EF
K KKKK
K

( )

( )

Ton
Toff
W( )
Vo =

Ton
Vs = kVs
T

( )

- -

Vs

Ton

Toff

Vo

( )

IGPT, MOSFET, GTO

EF

( )K

( )

( ) K
- -

K
W K( )
( )

I s = k Ia

W(Pa) (Ps)
( )

( )

( )

- -

( )

W( )
V

{ { {
K

- -

rpm.

Rf = {

Vs = V

k= {

TL= N.m

Ra = {

WZ

Td = TL = N.m

( )( )

## Va= kVs = {() = V

Te = KvIa =

If = Ia =

Te
={ Amp
Kv

Eb = Va Ia(Ra+Rf) = {({)= { V
E
Kv I f
n=

60
={ rpm
2

## Ps= kVsIa = {()({) ={ KW

2n
60
Eb = KvIf = V

Va= Eb + IaRa = { V
- -

k=

Va
= {
Vs

Regenerative Braking

( )

" Q"

DEF

KK
K

( )

( )

( )
- -

Va=Vch=(-k)Vs

( )

Is = (- k) Ia

( )

## Ps = Pg = VsIs = VaIa =( - k)VsIa

( )

- -

( )

W
Eb= Eg = Va + IaRa=(-k)Vs+Ia(Ra+Rf)

( )

K
W
- -

0 E g I a ( Ra + R f ) V s
W
(min)
Eg Ia(Ra+Rf)=

## KvIf min - Ia(Ra+Rf)=

min =

I a ( Ra + R f )

( )

Kv I f

W
min =

( Ra + R f )

( )

Kv

(max)
Eg Ia(Ra+Rf)=Vs
KvIf max - Ia(Ra+Rf)= Vs

min =

Vs + I a ( Ra + R f )

( )

Kv I f

(max)(min)

W( )

{ { V

K

- -

Vs = V

Rf = {

k= {

Ia= Amp

Ra = {

E
( )( )

Va=(-k)Vs = {() =

## Ps = Pg = VsIs = VaIa =( - k)VsIa = KW

Eg = Va + Ia(Ra+Rf) = V
Eg
=
Kv I f

n=

60
={ rpm
2

E
min =
nmin =

min =
n max =

( Ra + R f )
Kv

min

60
={ rpm
2
Vs + I a ( Ra + R f )
Kv I f

max

60
={ rpm
2

Dynamic BrakingEF
E F

- -

( ) K

( )

( )

( ) (Ib)

( )

Ib = (- k) Ia

( )

Vb=Vch=RbIa(-k)

( )

Pb = VbIb = ( - k) Ia Rb

( )

- -

( )

W( )

{ { {
K

- -

k= {

Rf = {

Ia= Amp

Ra = {
Rb =

( )( )

## Vb=Vch=RbIa(-k)= ()( {)= V

Pb = VbIb = ( - k) Ia Rb = { KW

Vb)max=Vch)max=RbIa= ()=

Eg = Va + Ia(Ra+Rf) = V
Eg
=
Kv I f
n=

60
={ rpm
2

## Combined Dynamic and Regenerative Braking

Q ( )
- -

Q Rb
KQ

( )

EF
EF

K( )

- -

( )

QQ, DEF
OFF Q ON

QQ, DKD

ON
DOFFQ

EFEF
E F

( )KEF
K

- -

( )

ON Q, Q OFF Q, Q , QQ

OFF Q

KEFDQONQ
W

## D,QON Q OFFQ, Q,Q

OFF Q
K D, D

ONQ, QOFFQ, Q, QQ

D Q ON Q OFF Q
EF

- -

W
D Q ON Q OFF Q, Q, Q

D, OFF Q

KD

- -

W
K
K

K
K
W

V
{ { {

K

W
DC chopper
{ { V
- -

W
Nm

{ { V
K

{ K DC chopper
K
A

- -

]<gj]<]<j<^]<]

- -

WW

K
K

K
K

K K

- -

E F

EF

( )

Td =

Pg

3I 2'2

R2'
s =

3V12 R2'
2

R'
s s R1 + 2 X 1 + X 2'
s

( )

W
(A)
- -

I '

()

()

R'

()

()

X'

( )

## (Stator Voltage Control)

( )
( )
K

(n) (V)(n)

(n) (n)(V)
- -

(V)

K

( )

(Frequency Control)

( )
(f)(V)()

V
f

( )

( )

K )
(n) (f) (n)

## K (f) (n) (n)(f)

EF
- -

F
K E
(Field-weakening mode)

( )

## (Voltage and Frequency Control)

( )

( )

- -

E F

K
K(Constant Flux Operation)

## Control of Induction Motor by AC Voltage Controller

E F

( )

- -

( )
K

(Forward Motoring) ( )

(Reverse Plugging)

( )

(A, B, C) K

(A', B, C')

KEFEF

( )

- -

## (Three-phase Voltage Source Inverter)

( ) (PWM Inverter)

o o

K(PWM Inverter)

( )

( )

- -

W K

( -a)

( -b)
K( -c)
W K

K( )

(a)

(b)

(c)
( )

- -

(a)

(b)
( )

(Slip Power)

- -

(Rex)

( -a)

( -b)K( )

(Rex)

(a)

(b)

( )

(R) (Rex)
(Re) (k) ( )
(R)
Re=R(-k)

K( )
(-)

- -

## (Slip Power Recovery Control)

( )

K( )
(Vd) o

( )

( )

EF
- -

K K

K K

K K

WC 9

- -

]<gj]<]<j<^]<]

- -

WW

- -

(Commutator)

K
E F

E
= s =

( )

4f
P

( )

- -

(constant V/f)

(b) (b)
( )

(b) K
(constant V/f)

( )

- -

EF

(Independent Oscillator)

ss
K

- -

K

K

( ) K

KEF

( )
EF
- -

( )

F (ref)

( )

EF

- -

K
W

K
K

- -

Electric Motor and Drives: Fundamentals, Types and Applications, Austin Hughes,
Heinemann Newnes,

ISBN:---

## Power Electronics and Motor Control, W. Shepherd, L. M. Hulley, and D. T. W.

Liang, Cambridge,

- -

KW

KW

EF
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