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Induction Course for new M&E Engineers

4 6 March 2013

Air Conditioning and


Mechanical Ventilation Systems

Ir. Ng Yong Kong


Managing Director
NYK Engineering & Trading Sdn Bhd

Induction Course for new M & E Engineers


Air-Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation
6th March 2013
Ir. NG YONG KONG, P.Eng., GBIF, MASHRAE
Email: nyk@nyk.com.my
Tel: +6012 201 9319

1.ASHRAE Handbook SI and Imperial Units


a.Fundamentals
2013
b.HVAC Systems and Equipment 2012
c.HVAC Applications
2011
d.Refrigeration
2010
2. Air Conditioning System Design - CARRIER
3. Handbook of A/C Design TRANE
4. CIBSE
5. MS 1525:2007 COP on Energy Efficiency and Use of
Renewable Energy for Non-Residential Buildings ( 1st
Revision)
5. Uniform Building By Laws 1984 (UBBL)
6. Guide to Fire Protection in Malaysia

INDUCTION COURSE IN
AIR-CONDITIONING
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)

INTRODUCTION TO AIR-CONDITIONING
PRINCIPLES OF REFRIGERATION
PSYCHROMETRICS
COOLING LOAD ESTIMATION & SOFTWARE
REFRIGERANT ISSUE
TYPES OF AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS
AHRI 550/590 or MS2449 FOR CHILLERS
MS1525:2007
Green Building Index ( GBI )

1.) Introduction to Air Conditioning


What is Comfort?
Definition:
A State of Ease and Contentment
A satisfying and enjoyable experience
The feeling of comfort is clearly subjective.
Main components that determine comfort :

Climatic conditions
Outdoor environment
Indoor environment
Activities & clothing

Comfort Requirements

Temperature
Humidity
Air movement
Fresh air
Clean air
Noise level
Lighting
Furniture and work surfaces

ASHRAE Comfort Zone

ASHRAE Standard 55-2010


Specifies
conditions likely
to be thermally
acceptable to at
least 80% of the
adult occupants
in a space

Design to ASHRAE 55-2010 : Thermal Environmental


Conditions for Human Occupancy in conjunction relevant
localised parameters as listed in MS 1525:2007
Specifies Conditions likely to be thermally acceptable to at least 80%
of the adult occupants in a space
6 Primary factors that must be addressed when
defining conditions for thermal comfort are:
1.) Metabolic rate
2.) Clothing insulation
3.) Air temperature
4.) Radiant temperature
5.) Air speed
6.) Humidity

2. What is a Refrigerant?
A refrigerant is a fluid that absorbs heat and changes from
vapor to liquid phase at reasonable pressures and temperatures
as encountered in mechanical refrigeration.

Principles of Refrigeration
The science of refrigeration is based upon the fact that a liquid can
be vaporised at any desired temperature by changing the pressure
on it.
Liquids boiling at low temperatures (Refrigerants) are the most
desirable medium for removing heat.
The large quantities of heat is absorbed when liquid is evaporated
(Changed to vapour).

2.What is a Refrigerant
.
PRESSURE psia
F

Water

-40

HCFC-22

HFC-410A

0.00186

15.26

26

0.0185

38.73

40

0.122

100

CO2

Propane

7.43

145.77

16.1

64

21.62

305.80

38.4

82.28

132

49.70

567.50

78.6

0.950

210.70

340

138.80

188.6

130

2.225

311.60

500

213.40

273.3

212

14.696

*CP

*CP

587.20

*Critical Point, pressure psia

HFC-134a

Four Laws of System Operation


1. Heat only moves from a higher temperature
to a lower temperature

2. A large amount of energy is required to


change the state of matter
3. The temperature and energy required to
change state are a function of pressure
4. Fluid flow only occurs if a pressure
difference exists

Three Types of Heat Transfer


Conduction
Conduction Transfer by contact
Convection May be natural or forced
transfer by density currents and fluid motion

Radiation Transfer by electromagnetic waves

Mechanical refrigeration uses the first two.

Sensible Heat
Btu is the heat energy necessary to
change one pound of water by 1 F
Btu British thermal unit

1 ton = 12,000 Btu/Hr.


= 3.517 kWr

1 F
RISE

1 lb
1 Btu

Latent Heat
Total Heat = Sensible Heat + Latent Heat
212 F
212 F
Not measured on
a thermometer

Change of State

Section 2 Basic Principles

Refrigeration Cycle
The refrigeration can be obtained by use of
the refrigerants.
When the liquid refrigerants are allowed to
expose to the atmosphere, it evaporates and
refrigeration can be obtained.
To make use of the vaporised refrigerant
over and over again it is necessary to use
the devices like evaporator, compressor and
condenser.

Four Components Are Required

3. Heat rejecting section


4. Pressure/
flow control
valve

1. Heat absorbing section

2. Vapor
pump

Basic System Components


Condenser

Air out: 115 F db

108 F
274.7 psia

120 F
274.7 psia

SCT

SDT
Air in: 95 F

SST
Air out: 59.7 F db / 57.3 F wb

Evaporator

Evaporator
Compressor

Compressor

45 F
90.8 psia

Every system has four


basic components

55 F
90.8 psia

SET

Air in: 80 F db / 67 F wb

Condenser
Rejects the heat from the load
and system losses
Highly superheated refrigerant
condenses in the tubes as heat load is
rejected and changes back to a
liquid and is subcooled

3. Psychrometrics

Objectives
Understand the properties of air and water
vapor mixtures
Build the psychrometric chart
Use the psychrometric chart to determine
the properties of an air/water vapor mixture
Use the psychrometric chart to understand
the basic air conditioning processes
Understand how the processes can be
combined into a system using a system plot
diagram and psychrometric chart
Section 1 Introduction

Why Study Psychrometrics?


1. Determine the temperature
at which condensation will
occur in walls or on a duct

2. Find all the properties of air


by knowing two conditions
3. Calculate the required airflow to
the space and for the equipment
4. Determine the sensible and total
cooling load the unit should
provide
5. Determine the coil depth and
temperature to meet the design
load conditions
Brooklyn Printing Plant
Section 1 Introduction

Dry-Bulb Thermometer

The temperature of air as measured by a


thermometer with a dry sensing bulb

Wet-Bulb Thermometer

The temp. at which water will evaporate into the air


sample.
Physicallythe temp. of air when measured by a
thermometer with a wetted wick over the sensing bulb.

Sling Psychrometer

Avoid adverse conditions that can affect reading


Moisten wick before procedure
Rotate device at least 2 minutes
Read device immediately after rotation

Section 3 Building the Psychrometric Chart

Water Vapor in Air

Water
Vapor

Dry Air

Air + Vapor

Mechanical Mixture

Relative Humidity ( RH )

50%

100% (saturated)

If RH of the air is 50%, it contains one-half the amount of moisture


possible at the existing dry-bulb temperature.

Relative Humidity

Relative
Humidity =

Amount of moisture that a given


amount of air is holding
Amount of moisture that a given
amount of air can hold

At the same dry-bulb temperature.

The amount of water vapour in the air, compared to its maximum


capacity at that dry bulb temperature.

Dry Bulb Temperature Scale

wb dp
F

db F

Section 3 Building the Psychrometric Chart

Dew Point Example


95 F
db
100 gr

100 gr

wb dp
F

db F

55 67

95

Condensation Occurs at
Dew Point

American Standard Inc. 1999

Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC001-EN

Relative Humidity Lines


Relative
60
45%
Humidity
132
Approx.

132 gr

45%

wb dp
F

db F

75

60 gr

Enthalpy Scale
hs = Enthalpy at saturation
hs = 27.5 Btu/lb

wb dp
F

db F

Psychrometric Chart
Enthalpy

Specific
Volume
Relative
Humidity

Wet Bulb Temperature


Dew Point
Temperature

Specific
Humidity

wb dp
F

db F

Dry Bulb
Temperature

Air Conditioning Processes


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Sensible Heating
Sensible Cooling
Humidification
Dehumidification
Cooling and Humidification
(Evaporative Cooling)
6. Cooling and
Dehumidification
7. Heating and
Humidification
8. Heating and
Dehumidification
wb dp
F

db F

Sensible Heat

qs 1.10 cfm t
db
wb
dp
gr

Changes
Changes
Constant
Constant

68% rh

24% rh

COOLING

52 gr

HEATING
wb dp
F

90 60 = 30
t

db F

60

90

Sensible Heat Change

Latent Heat
q l 0.69 cfm grains
Changes
Changes
Changes
Constant

68% rh
Evaporation

Condensation

wb
dp
gr
db

wb dp
F

db F

75

24% rh

grains
89 30 = 60

89 gr
Latent
Heat
Change

30 gr

Total Heat
qt qs ql

Grains
t

Evaporation

wb dp
F

Condensation

Cooling

Heating

db F

75

95

Sensible Heat Change

89 gr
Latent
Heat
Change

30 gr

Using Enthalpy to Determine Total Heat


Removed

Latent Heat

1.7

Sensible Heat
5.0
wb dp
F

db F

55

75

Total Capacity or Load Formula

GTH = 4.5 cfm h


Where:
GTH =
4.5 =
cfm =
h =

Grand Total Heat


Constant
cubic feet per minute
Difference in enthalpy from
air entering to air leaving
conditions

Cooling Coils
Face Area = Length Height
Length

Height

Velocity
cfm / face area

Rows

Fins
Refrigerant
Temperature

ASHRAE Comfort Zone

4.) Cooling Load Estimation


To design the effective HVAC design, the analysis of heat
load is carried out.
Cooling Load Components:

- Location/altitude/ orientation
Transmission through Building Components walls, glass, ceilings, roofs, doors and floors,
partitions from non conditioned spaces.
Solar Radiations on - glass, wall, roof, etc.

Human Comfort - Design


Ventilation Requirements.
Latent and Sensible heat losses from people.
Lighting and ballasts.
Appliances and equipment in the conditioned space.
Ducts and motor heat gain from cooling system itself.
Infiltration of outdoor air.

Building code requirements


Extract from Third Schedule (By-law 41)

ASHRAE STD 62.1-2010 Ventilation For Acceptable


For Indoor Air Quality
Ventilation is the key to
Sustainable IAQ and
ASHRAE Std 62.1 is the
Leading Standard
adopted by most Local
Authorities and HVAC
Engineers in the world.

Acceptable Indoor Air Quality is defined as air in which there are


no known Contaminants at harmful Concentrations as determined
by Cognizant Authorities and with which a substantial majority
( 80% or more ) of the people exposed do not express
dissatisfaction.
1.) Ventilation Rate Procedure ( VRP )
is a prescriptive procedure with a table of minimum required outdoor airflow
rates per occupant for a variety of non-

residential occupancies.
The airflow rate per square foot of building floor area is basedon the design occupancy density and the required flow rate per person,
adjusted to reflect the air distribution system used.

ASHRAE Std 62.1-2007 Ventilation For Acceptable Indoor Air Quality

1.) Ventilation Rate Procedure ( VRP )


Vbz = Rp.Pz + Ra.Az
Where Vbz = Design outdoor airflow required in the
breathing zone of the occupied space or spaces in a
zone,i.e the breathing zone outdoor air flow
Az = Zone floor area: the net occupiable floor area of the zone
m2 ( ft2)
Pz = zone population: the largest number of people expected
to occupy the zone during typical usage.
Rp = outdoor airflow rate required per person as determined
from Table 6-1
Ra = outdoor airflow rate required per unit area as determined
from Table 6-1

ASHRAE Std 62.1-2010 Ventilation For


Acceptable Indoor Air Quality

1.)

Ventilation Rate Procedure ( VRP )

2.)

Indoor Air Quality Procedure ( IAQ )

- air filtration/purification to remove some or all of the


contaminants of concern can be part of the system.

TABLE 6-1 MINIMUM VENTILATION RATES IN


BREATHING ZONE
People Outdoor Area Outdoor
Occupancy

Air Rate

Air Rate

Default Values
Occupant
Density

Combined
Outdoor

Air Rate
Category

Rp

Ra

cfm/
person

L/s
person

cfm/ft

L/s
m

Office
Space

2.5

0.06

Reception
areas

2.5

0.06

#1000 ft
or #100 m

cfm/
person

L/s
person

0.3

17

8.5

0.3

30

3.5

Office
Buildings

TABLE 6-1 MINIMUM VENTILATION RATES IN BREATHING ZONE

Hotels, Motels, Resort,


Dormitories
Bedroom / living
room

2.5

0.06

0.3

10

11

5.5

Barracks sleeping
areas

2.5

0.06

0.3

20

4.0

Laundry rooms,
central

2.5

0.12

0.6

10

17

8.5

Laundry rooms within

2.5

0.12

0.6

10

17

8.5

7.5

3.8

0.06

0.3

30

10

4.8

2.5

0.06

0.3

120

2.8

dwelling units
Lobbies / pre-function
Multipurpose assembly

MS1525-2007
Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation (ACMV) System

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

a)

Indoor Design Condition


Recommended Design DB Temperature
Minimum DB Temperature
Recommended Design RH
Recommended Air Movement
Maximum Air Movement

23 - 26C (73.4 78.8F )


22C
55% - 70%
0.15 m/s 0.50m/s
0.7 m/s

Outdoor Design Conditions


Recommended Outdoor Design
Conditions DB / WB

33.3C / 27.2C
( 92F/ 81F )

ASHRAE Comfort Zone

Type of Refrigerants
CFC

HCFC

HFC

R-11
R-12
R-13
R-500
R-502
R-503

R-22
R-123
R-401A
R-401B
R-402A
R-402B
R-408A
R-409A

R-134a
R404A
R-407C
R-410A
R-507

HFO
HFO
1234fy

5.) Refrigerant IssueEnvironmental Impact


ODP: Ozone Depletion Potential
GWP: Global Warming Potential
Climate Change

7.) TYPES OF AIR CONDITIONING


SYSTEMS
WRAC
WRACs are factory-made assemblies that normally
include an evaporator or cooling coil and a
compressor-condenser combination
Room Air Conditioners are encased assemblies
designed primarily for mounting in a window or
through a wall and are often called Window Room
Air Conditioners ( WRAC ).

Window Room Air Conditioner

Window room air conditioner

Air Cool Split Units


A Unitary Air Conditioner with more than one
factory-made assembly is commonly called a split
system.
It basically comprises an indoor unit with the
evaporator and blower and an outdoor unit with
the compressor, condenser coil and fan coupled
with refrigeration piping.
The indoor units is often known as Fan Coil Units
( FCUs )and the outdoor units known as
Condensing Units. As a whole, they are known as
the Air Cooled Split Units. (ACSUs)

3. Air Cooled Split Units


Warm air (recirculating)

Fan Coil Unit


Cool air

Outdoor air

Condensing Unit

3.Air Cooled Split Units (ACSUs)


Both indoor and outdoor units are housed in
robust casings. The outdoor unit is basically
the same construction for all the various types
of indoor units. The difference lies in the type
of indoor unit.
Wall Mounted

Floor Standing

Cassette

Ceiling Exposed

3. Air Cooled Split Units


Common Fan Coil Units
Type

Typical Cooling
Capacity (kWr)

Remark

Wall mounted

2.64-7.03

Most common

Ceiling cassette

5.26-14.65

Most aesthetic

Floor Standing

7.03-14.65

Not so Common
here

Under Ceiling
Exposed

5.26-17.60

Can be Floor
mounted

3. Air Cooled Split Units


The installation of an Air Cooled Split Unit is
basically the same with the outdoor and indoor
units connected with refrigerating piping called
Suction and Liquid line.
Manufacturers recommend a Maximum Piping
length of 7 to 15 m and maximum elevation
between indoor and outdoor unit of 5 to 7 m.

4b.) Air Cooled Split Units


Many Business Establishments are housed
in Small Premises using ACSUs.

Office

Restaurant

4b.) ACSUs Application

Shop Office

Advantages

Low first cost


Flexibilities
Easy to maintain
Short lead time
Ex Stock

Other Systems
Low Efficiency
No Fresh Air
Potential IAQ
issues

3. ACSUs : Fresh Air Intake ?


The wall mounted
and under ceiling
split system has no
provision for intake
of outdoor air and/or
exhaust of stale
room air.
Room
air is just
.
filtered and recirculated.

3.) Air Cooled Split Units


The Ceiling Cassette Split
System has a knockout in the
casing that allows outdoor
fresh air to be introduced.

A fan may be
added if the
intake is far
away.

5. Water-cooled Splits/Packaged Units


- WC Splits
- Typ. Capacity range
from 2.0 6 Hp
- Ducted/Under
ceiling

- WC Packaged
- Typ. Capacity range
from 20 100 Hp
- Floor Standing
Typical kw / ton around 1.0- 1.2 kw/ton

6. Variable Refrigerant System

On a single refrigerant pipe, many


indoor units can be connected.

Advantages
Flexibilities
Better RH than
ACSUs
Space Saving
Better EE than
ACSUs

Others Systems
Moderate Energy
Efficiency
Compared to
CHWS
Potential IAQ
Problem

Chilled Water System


control
valve

80F

(26.7C)

54F

(12.2C)

50F 110F

(10C)(43.3C)

97F

(36.1C)

condenser

55F

(12.8C)

44F

(6.7C)

41F 100F

(5.0C)(37.8C)

87F

(30.6C)

cooling
tower

pump
Airside Loop
(AHU & Air Duct)

Chilled Water Loop


(CHWP, Piping &
Cooling Coil)

Refrigeration Loop
(Water-cooled Chiller)

Condenser Water Loop


(CWP, Piping & Cooling Tower)

Packaged Air-Cooled Chiller


compressor

evaporator

Airside Loop
(AHU & Air Duct)

Chilled Water Loop


(CHWP, Piping &
Cooling Coil)

expansion
device
Refrigeration Loop
(Air-cooled Chiller)

air-cooled
condenser

Conventional chilled water system

44F
[6.7C]

54F
[12.2C]

3-way valve

Primary-Secondary Configuration
primary
pumps
Variable
secondary
pump

production
loop
distribution
loop
two-way valve

Variable-Primary-Flow Systems
Variable-flow
pumps

check
valves
control
valve

two-way
valve
optional bypass
with three-way valve

Constant Primary Flow / Variable Secondary


Flow Chilled Water System
Secondary Pumps
(Variable Speed)

Chiller

Chiller

(Constant
Flow)

(Constant
Flow)

Decoupling Bypass

Isolation
Valves

Load

Load

(Variable
Flow)

(Variable
Flow)

Control
Valves

Primary Pumps
(Constant Speed)
80

Type of Chiller Compressors


(Hermetic or Semi-Hermetic)
Scroll
Reciprocating

Helical-Rotary
Screw

Centrifugal
Compressor

Air-cooled Chiller
20 100RT for Scroll
70 500 RT for Screw
Typical Efficiency
range 1.1 1.3 kw/ton

Applications :
Retail, Commercial,
Industrial & Government

Scroll & Screw & some using Reciprocating

Water-cooled Chiller
20 100RT for Scroll
70 400RT for Screw
100 2500 RT
Typical Efficiency
range 0.5 0.7 kw/ton
Applications :
Retail, Commercial,
Industrial & Govt.
Buildings

Scroll & Screw & some using Reciprocating

Avoid VSD Chillers - Centrifugal


Malaysian tropical climate has a near constant wet bulb temp thus VSDs do
not save a huge amount of energy. In temperate climates, the WB drops
significantly, thus the condenser water supply will also drop- at low CWS,
the chiller compressors will overspeed
During low wetbulb temperature the lift changes, thus causing the compressor
to overspeed, which is similar to a car moving downhill. The new lift for the
refrigerant is achieved by reducing the compressor speed- thus, the
refrigerant will work more effectively during those periods of low wet bulb
temperature.
Source: Malaysian Industrial Energy Audit Guidelines MIEEIP, PTM

Variable Speed Chillers Screw or


Centrifugal
Good variable Part Load Value
for 4-season areas.
Low Ambient
Need to carefully Evaluate
Benefits.

DX versus Chilled Water

Major factors Affecting the Decision

Installed Cost
Energy Consumption
Type of Application
Space Requirements
Building Aesthetics
System Capacity
Centralized Maintenance
Stability of Control
Redundancy

Air-Cooled vs Water-Cooled

Air-cooled

Water-cooled

Life Span

15 - 20 years

20 - 30 years

System EE kW/ton

1.0 - 1.3

0.9 - 1.1

Maintenance

Lower

Higher

Noise Containment

Open

Enclosed

Space Requirement

Less

More

Cost

Lower

Higher

Capacity Range

3 - 500RT

50 - 2,500RT+

Typical Energy Usage in a Commercial Building in


Hot/Humid climates

DHW
12%

Lighting
10%

Other
Equipment
15%

Variable Frequency
Drive (VFD)/
Variable Speed Drive
(VSD)/ Speed
Controller
-Improve comfort levels
-Reduce operating costs,

Approx. 60% - Air


Conditioning Plant
AHU/FCU
24%

Central
Plant
39%

Chilled Water System: Direct or Reverse


Return

DBCV - DYNAMIC BALANCING CONTROL


VALVE
PICV PRES. INDEPENDENT CONTROL
VALVE
Design
Pressure Independent
Control
Automatic balancing
Commissioning
Save installation space & time
Save commissioning time &
balancing
Eliminate error

Illuminated enclosure

GREEN: normal
RED: fault

Air Distribution System

Methods of Air Flow Control


Air flow :
Outlet dampers
Inlet guide vanes
Variable pitch fan
Variable Speed Drive(VSD/VFD)

Water Distribution System

Methods of Water Flow Control


Water Flow Centrifugal pumps :
Bypass valve (three way)
Throttling valve (two way)
Trim Impeller (irreversible)
Variable Speed Drive (VSD)

Fans and Centrifugal Pumps Fundamentals


Affinity Laws
Air Flow2
Fan Speed2
=
Air Flow1
Fan Speed1
Air/Water flow is proportional to Fan/Pump Speed

Static Pressure2
Static Pressure1

Air Flow2
Air Flow1

Static Pressure is proportional to (Fan/Pump


Speed)2

Input Power2
Input Power1

Air Flow2
Air Flow1

Input Power is proportional to (Fan/Pump Speed)3


w/o system effect

e.g

80% speed
Input power
= (0.8x0.8x0.8)
= 0.51 or 51%

Air Distribution System Supply Fan Basics


There are two types of air
distribution systems
i.)CAV - Constant Air Volume
ii.)VAV Variable Air Volume

CAV Constant Air Volume


In CAV systems, thermal comfort is
achieved by delivering a constant volume of
supply air.
If location being served requires less
cooling, the supply air temperature remain
the same but the total volume of supply air
remains the same as if full cooling is
required

Air Distribution System


VFD/VSD Application - Supply Fan Basics
There are two types of air
distribution systems
Variable Air Volume
Constant Air Volume
VFDs/VSDs are not only
applied to VAV systems
but can also be incorporated
into CAV systems.

Supply Fan

Air Distribution System


CAV Supply Fan Basics
Conditioned
Space

No method of controlling air flow


is provided
The conditioned space receives
Design air flow at all times

T
Supply
Fan

The chilled water valves are


controlled by space temperature

However, for large single zone CAV


systems, its possible to convert them
to single zone VAV systems

Sensor may be in
return air duct.

VAV Variable Air Volume


To maintain thermally comfortable conditions,
VAV systems utilize a resetable constant
temperature of the delivered air to most
locations, while varying the quantity of air
delivered to the individual zones in the building.
Varying the air flow is controlled by using a
VFD/VSD in the fan motor.

VAV - Variable Air Volume


System
Components:
1. VAV Box
2. Zone Thermostat

3. Air Diffuser
4. Return Grille
5. Duct Static Pressure
Sensor
6. Supply Fan VFD
7. AHU
8. Supply Duct

Section 1 Introduction

Zone 1

Zone 2

Zone 3

Zone 4

Air Distribution System


Why put a VFD/VSD on CAV SYSTEM
Oversized systems

Variable Occupancy Profile


E.g :
Hotel Lobby, Office or Lift
Lobby, Cineplex, Large Single
Zone office, conference hall,
etc..

Eliminate over capacity


=> energy saving,
=> Lower Acoustic Noise
=> easier balancing
Better temperature control maintain minimum airflow
- Vary from 70-100%

Air Distribution System


CAV to Single Zone VAV using VFD/VSD
VFD controls air flow just as
VAV boxes would
Coils control supply air
temperature
Supply
Fan
Works for large, single-zone
systems

Maintain minimum airflow


typically 70% and vary between
70-100% based on temp, Air
quality or CO2 inputs
Input Power2
Air Flow2 3
=
Input Power1
Air Flow1
Input Power is proportional to (Fan Speed)
w/o system effect

Supply Fan
Drive

Conditioned
Space

T
T

Sensor may be in
return air duct.

eg 80% Input Power = (0.8 x 0.8 x 0.8)


= 0.51 or 51%

Chiller Standard Performance Rating


Standard
( Air-Conditioning, Heating
and Refrigeration Institute)

AHRI STD. 551/5912011

MS 1525:2007

Code of Practice on
Energy Efficiency and
Use of Renewable
Energy for NonResidential Buildings
(1st Revision)

Chillers Standard Rating Conditions


1.) MS 1525:2007 Code of Practice on Energy Efficiency and Use of
Renewable Energy for Non-Residential Buildings (1st Revision)

Pg. 36 Section 8.11.1


Kw/Ton at
1.) 100% or Full load

2.) Part Load

Chiller Standard Performance Rating


Standard

Eurovent
JIS
GB
MS2449:2012

MS 2449:2012
Performance
rating of waterchilling packages
using the vapor
compression cycle

Included in AHRI STD Certification Program for 50 Hz


Electrical Power

1.) Centrifugal & Screw Chillers with Continous


Loading
2.) Rated 200 1,000 tons (703 3,517 KW ) at
Standard ARI Rating Conditions.
3.) Hermetic & Open type, electric motor driven.
4.) Voltages up to 5,000 Volts.

Excluded in AHRI STD Certification Program for 50 Hz


Electrical Power
1.) Scroll & Reciprocating compressor chillers with step unloading.
2.) Condenserless Chillers.
3.)Evaporatively Cooled Chillers.
4.) Chillers below 200 tons and above 1000 tons.
5.) Chillers with Voltages above 5000 volts.
6.) Chillers powered by other than electric motor drives.
7.) Chillers with motors not supplied with the unit by the
manufacturer.
8.) Air-Cooled Chillers.

6.1 ) Percent Load Weighting of Part Load Points


1992 Std
1998 Std 2003 Std
100%
17%
1%
1%
75%
39%
42%
42%
50%
33%
45%
45%
25%
11%
12%
12%

6.2) Fouling factors (h.ftF/Btu) or (m.c/w)


1992
1998
Cooler
0.00025
0.0001
Condenser 0.00025
0.00025
A = kw/ton at 100% Load C = kw/ton at 50% Load
B = kw/ton at 75% Load D = kw/ton at 25% Load

WHAT TEMP. TO USE FOR PART LOAD PERFORMANCE FROM 100%


DOWN TO 0%

7.) Entering Condenser Water Temp. commonly


used in Malaysia to evaluate Part Load
Performance:
Percent Load
(1)
(2)
F
F
F
100%
85
87
87
75%
75
87
85.25
50%
65
87
83.5
25%
65
87
81.75
0%
65
87
80

Flow Rates and Temperatures


95F

44F

[35C]

44F

97F

[6.7C

[6.7C] [36.1C]

85F

87F

[29.4C]

[30.6C]

ARI
conditions

Malaysia
Conditions

54F

54F

[12.2C]

[12.2C]

evaporator
flow rate
condenser
flow rate

2.4 gpm/ton
[0.043 L/s/kW]
3.0 gpm/ton
[0.054 L/s/kW]

evaporator
flow rate
condenser
flow rate

2.4 gpm/ton
[0.043 L/s/kW]
3.0 gpm/ton
[0.054 L/s/kW]

Typical Schematic of Chilled Water HVAC System


Condenser water makeup

CHILLED
WATER
F

FCU

COOLING
TOWERS

15C
AHU

MAIN RISER
FEED 6C

15C

AHU

AHU
RETURN
AIR FAN

MAIN RISER
RETURN 9 - 12 C

15C

By Air
T

By Refrigerant

PRIMARY CHILLED
WATER PUMPS

CONDENSER WATER 35C

By Air

CONDENSER

CHILLER 3

SECONDARY
CHILLED
WATER PUMPS

CHILLER 2

15C

CHILLER 1

EVAPORATOR

CONDENSER
WATER PUMPS

RETURN CONDENSER WATER 30C

By Water

The
importance
of
controlling
the flow of
air and water
in HVAC
systems

Chillers Flow Rates and Temperatures


Why use
10 F
12 F
14 F

10F and how much above can we go ?


= 2.4 USgpm/RT
= 2.0 USgpm/RT
= 1.7 USgpm/RT

Btuh = 500 x Q(USgpm) x T (deg F)


kWR = 4.187 x Q(l/s)
x T (deg C)
Saves
Energy
Equipment
Rating Stds shouldnt restrict us from designing more efficient CHW
1-115
system

Chiller Part Load Performance


IPLV / NPLV

=____________1____________
0.01 + 0.42 + 0.45 + 0.12
A

Where : A = KW/Ton at 100% , B = KW/Ton at 75 %


C = KW/Ton at 50 % , D = KW/Ton at 25 %
25% Load 12%

45%

100% Load
1%

50% Load
75% Load

42%

1-116

Full Load Vs Part Load


Both FullPart and Part Load Efficiency can be
important.
Full Load- Design Based On Consultant
Calculation. (With or Without diversity factor)
Part Load- May be running most of the time?
The arts and sciences of HVAC based on experience

MS 1525:2007
Code of Practice on
Energy Efficiency and
Use of Renewable
Energy for NonResidential Buildings
(1st Revision)

8. Air-conditioning and mechanical


ventilation (ACMV) system
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8

Load calculations
System and equipment sizing
Separate air distribution systems
Controls
Piping insulation
Air handling duct system insulation
Duct construction
Balancing

8. Air-conditioning and mechanical


ventilation (ACMV) system
8.9
8.10
8.11
8.12

ACMV systems
ACMV system equipment
ACMV system components
ACMV system equipment/component
heat operated (absorption), cooling mode
8.13 System testing and commissioning
8.14 Operation and maintenance (O&M) manual
and as-built drawings
8.15 Preventive maintenance

8.1 Load calculations


8.1.1 Calculation procedures
Cooling system design loads for the purpose of
sizing systems and equipment should be
determined in accordance with the procedures
described in the latest edition of the ASHRAE
Handbook, or other equivalent publications.

8.1.2 Indoor design conditions


Room comfort condition is dependent on various
factors including air temperature, mean radiant
temperature, humidity, clothing, metabolic rate and
air movement preference of the occupant.
For the purpose of engineering design, room
comfort condition should consider the following
three (3) main factors:
dry bulb temperature;
relative humidity; and
air movement (air velocity)

8.1.4 Ventilation
Outdoor air-ventilation rates should comply with Third
Schedule (By Law 41) Article 12(1) of Uniform
Building By Laws, 1984.
Exception:
Outdoor air quantities may exceed those shown, if
required because of special occupancy or process
requirements or source control of air contamination or
Indoor Air Quality consideration.

8.2 System and equipment sizing


8.2.1 Air conditioning systems and equipment shall be
sized to provide no more than the space and system
loads calculated in accordance with 8.1 above,
consistent with available equipment capacity.
Redundancy in capacity of equipment, if incorporated
into the sizing of the duty equipment, should include
efficiency devices such as variable speed drive, high
efficiency motor, efficient unloading devices, multi
compressors etc so as not to diminish the
equipment/system efficiency when operating at
varying loads.

8.2.2 Where chillers are used and when the design load
is greater than 1,000 kWr, a minimum of either
two chillers or a single multi-compressor chiller
should be provided to meet the required load.
8.2.3 Multiple units of the same equipment type, such as
multiple chillers, with combined capacities
exceeding the design load may be specified to
operate concurrently only if controls are provided
which sequence or otherwise optimally control the
operation of each unit based on the required cooling
load.

8.4 Controls
8.4.1 Temperature control
Each system should be provided with at least
one thermostat for the regulation of temperature.
Each thermostat should be capable of being set by
adjustment or selection of sensors over a
minimum range of between 22 C to 27 C.
Multi-stage thermostat should be provided for
equipment exceeding 35/65 kWr in conjunction
with 8.2.4.

8.4.2 Humidity control


In a system requiring moisture removal to
maintain specific selected relative humidity in
spaces or zones, no new source of energy (such
as electric reheat) should be used to produce a
space relative humidity below 70 % for
comfort cooling purposes.

8.4.3 Energy Recovery


It is recommended that consideration be given to
the use of recovery systems which will conserve
energy (provided the amount expended is less than
the amount recovered) when the energy transfer
potential and the operating hours are considered.
Recovered energy in excess of the new source of
energy expended in the recovery process may be
used for control of temperature and humidity.
Examples include the use of condenser water for
reheat, desuperheater heat reclaim, heat recovery
wheel, heat pipe or any other energy recovery
technology.

8.4.5 Mechanical ventilation control


Each mechanical ventilation system (supply
and/or exhaust) should be equipped with a
readily accessible switch or other means for
shut-off or volume reduction when ventilation is
not required. Examples of such devices would
include timer switch control, thermostat
control, duty cycle programming and
CO/CO2 sensor control.

8.4.6 Fan System Efficiency


For fan system with air flowrate exceeding
17000 m3/h and operating for more than 750
hours a year, the power required by the motor
for the entire fan system at design conditions
should not exceed 0.45 W per m3/h of air
flowrate.

8.7

Duct construction
All ductwork should be constructed and erected in
accordance with HVAC Duct Construction
Standards Metal and Flexible published by
SMACNA or any other equivalent duct construction
standards.

8.7.1 High-pressure and medium-pressure ducts should


be leak tested in accordance with HVAC Air Duct
Leakage Test Manual published by SMACNA or
any other equivalent standards, with the rate of
leakage not to exceed the maximum rate specified.

8.8 Balancing
The system design should provide means for
balancing the air and water system such as but not
limited to dampers, temperature and pressure test
connections and balancing valves.

8.10 ACMV system equipment


ACMV system equipment provides, in one (single
package) or more (split system) factory assembled
packages, means for air-circulation, air-cleaning, aircooling with controlled temperature and
dehumidification. The cooling function may be either
electrically or heat operated, and the refrigerant
condenser may be air, water or evaporativelycooled.
Where the equipment is provided in more than one
package, the separate packages should be designed by
the manufacturer to be used together.

Launched
July 2007

8.13 System testing & commissioning


Air system balancing should be accomplished in a
manner to minimise throttling losses and then fan
speed shall be adjusted to meet design flow conditions.
Hydraulic system balancing should be accomplished in
a manner to minimise throttling losses and then the
pump impeller should be trimmed or pump speed
should be adjusted to meet design flow conditions.
ACMV control systems should be tested to assure that
control elements are calibrated, adjusted and in proper
working condition.

8.15 Preventive Maintenance


The owner should implement preventive maintenance
system and schedule periodic maintenance on all the
critical items of air-conditioning systems such as
compressors, cooling towers, pumps, condensers, air
handlers, controls, filters and piping.

AHU Room with Acoustical Problems

What is Legionnaires Disease?


- Respiratory disease
- Bacteria Legionella pneumophilia
- Found in any aquatic environment
e.g; Cooling towers, evaporative condensers, showers,
whirlpool spas, humidifies, decorative fountains, fire
sprinklers systems.

Sign and Symptoms of Legionnaires Disease


- Usually begins with a headache, pain in the muscles and
a general feeling un-wellness.
- High fever (up to 40-40.5 deg C or about 104-105
deg.F) and shaking chills.
- Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea may occur
- Dry coughing and chest pain might occur
- 5 -15% of known cases have been fatal

Who is more likely to get


Legionnaires disease?
- Middle aged or older people
- Those who smoke tobacco or have chronic lung
disease
- Low resistance to infection / immune system

Workers most at risk


- Those who maintain cooling towers in air
conditioning systems

How to Prevent Legionnaires Disease?


a)

Good engineering practices in the operation and


maintenance of the system.
- Cooling towers should be inspected and thoroughly
cleaned at least once a year.
b) Corroded parts, such as drift eliminators should be
replaced.
c) Algae and accumulated scale should be removed.
d) Cooling towers water should be treated constantly.

Location of Cooling Towers


- Locate away from fresh air intakes.
- Locate away from kitchen exhaust fans,
plants, truck bays, or other sources of
organic matter
- Consider direction of prevailing wings.
- Consider future construction.

Industry Code of Practice on Indoor Air Quality 2010


DOSH Malaysia* Ministry of Human Resources
Table 1: List of Indoor Air Contaminants and the Maximum Limits

Acceptable Range for Specific


Physical Parameters Proposed 2010
Parameter

(a) Air temperature


(b)

Relative humidity

(c)

Air movement

Acceptable range

23.0 26.0 C
40 70%
0.15 0.50

List of Indoor Air Contaminants and acceptable limits

Indoor Air Contaminants

Chemical contaminants
(a) Carbon dioxide
(b) Carbon monoxide
(c) Formaldehyde
(d) Ozone
(e) Respirable particulates
(f) Total volatile organic compounds
(TVOC)
Biological contaminants
(a) Total bacterial counts
(b) Total fungal counts

Eight-hours time-weighted average airborne


concentration
ppm

mg/m

cfu/m

C1000
10
0.1
0.05
3

0.15
-

500
1000

Carbon Dioxide and DCV


CO2-based DCV has the most
energy savings potential in
buildings where occupancy
fluctuates.
Office buildings, government
facilities, retail stores and
shopping malls, airports,
theaters, auditoriums,
conference or lecture halls,
entertainment areas are good
candidates for DCV

Carbon Dioxide and DCV


Benefits
Improved IAQ Increasing ventilation if CO2
levels rise to unacceptable levels.
Improved humidity control In humid
climates, DCV can prevent unnecessary
influxes of humid outdoor air that makes
occupants uncomfortable and encourages
mould & mildew growth

Typical Installation AHU Room


Return Air

AHU Room

CO2 sensor

Supply Air

AHU
Fresh Air
Fresh air damper
Damper Actuator

Energy Monitoring
Energy meter
EFC3500
DA
NF
OS
S

Air Handling Unit


Pt 500
RTD

Flowmeter

Pt 500 RTD

FARADAYS LAW
Ui = When an electrical conductor of length L is
moved at velocity v, perpendicular to the lines of
flux through a magnetic field of strength B, the
voltage Ui is induced at the ends of the
conductor.
Ui = L x B x v

Ui = Induced voltage
L = Conductor length
B = Magnetic field strength
v = Velocity of conductor

The operation principle of inline magnetic flowmeters

Full Bore Flange Type

Type of Flow Meters

Electronic Flow Meters Full Bore Flange Type

Electromagnetic
Qualities

Obstruction free

No moving parts

Wide flow range

Virtually no maintenance

Minimal installation requirements

Typical accuracy at 0.25% and 0.5%

Full BMS Integration

Measures the velocities across the


pipe line cross section

Insensitivity to viscosity, specific


gravity, temperature and pressure

Respond well to fast changing flows

Lower life-cycle costs

When an electrical conductor


moved at velocity, perpendicular
to the lines of flux through a
magnetic field of strength, the
voltage is induced at the ends of
the conductor

Type of Flow Meters


Electronic Flow Meters
Ultrasonic

Measuring Principle
Acoustic flow measuring procedures like
the ultrasonic-flow measurement use
sound waves above the hearing barrier,
i.e.> 20 kHz for speed and flow
measurement. The velocity and direction
of the sound rays change due to the
transport of the sound waves in the fluid.
With the transit time procedure, the time
is measured in which a sound wave takes
to get around path 1. I.e. point A, the
sender

Obstruction free
No moving parts
Wide flow range
Virtually no maintenance
Sensitive to pipe elbows and
control valves
Respond well to fast changing
flows
Full BMS Integration
Low Cost of Ownership on
larger pipe (>DN300)

What is a Green Design or


Sustainable Design?
ASHRAE GreenGuide provides one definition for
sustainable building design:

Sustainability is the providing of the


needs of the present without detracting
from the ability to fulfill the needs of the
future

Whats Green Building?


USEPA- practice of creating structures and
using processes that are environmentally
responsible and resource-efficient throughout a
buildings lifecycle from design ,
construction,operation , maintenance,
renovation and even deconstruction.
- Sustainable or High-Performance building
Source: IEM Jurutera June 2010 Bulletin

Green Building Rating System

Canada
LEED Canada
BREEAM Canada
Green Globe

UK
BREEAM

Italy
Protocollo
ITACA

USA
LEED
Energy Star
Green Globe
Brazil
GBTool

Korea
GBTool

Japan
China

CASBEE
Hong Kong
India
HK-BEAM
LEED-India
Malaysia Taiwan

GBI
Singapore
Green Mark
Australia
Green Star

Australia: Nabers / Green Star


Brazil: AQUA / LEED Brasil
Canada: LEED Canada / Green Globes
China: GBAS
Finland: PromisE
France: HQE
Germany: DGNB / CEPHEUS
Hong Kong: HKBEAM
India: GRIHA
Italy: Protocollo Itaca / Green Building Counsil Italia
Malaysia: GBI Malaysia
Mexico: LEED Mexico
Netherlands: BREEAM Netherlands
New Zealand: Green Star NZ
Philippines: BERDE / Philippine Green Building Council
Portugal: Lider A
Singapore: Green Mark
South Africa: Green Star SA
Spain: VERDE
Switzerland: Minergie
United States: LEED / Living Building Challenge / Green Globes /
Build it Green / NAHB NGBS
United Kingdom: BREEAM
United Arab Emirates: Estidama

GLOBAL GREEN TOOLS


1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

BREEAM, UK Building Research Establishment


Environmental Assessment Method (1990)
LEED, USA Leadership in Energy and Environmental
Design (1996)
BEAM, Hong Kong Building Environment Assessment
Method (2003)
EEWH, Taiwan Green Building Evaluation System (2003)
Green Star, Australia/New Zealand (2003)
CASBEE, Japan Comprehensive Assessment System for
Building Environmental Efficiency (2004)
Green Mark, Singapore (2005)
Green Building Index, Malaysia (2009)
Greenship, Indonesia (2010)

GBI : An Integrated Design Approach

FM Service
Provider

Owner
/User

Architect
Civil
Engineer

Commisiong
Specialist

Energy
Consultant

Working
together
to achieve
Goals

Mechanical
Engineer

Electrical
Engineer

GBIF

Contractor

Vendors
Sub-cons
Quantity
Surveyor

Landscape
Architect

Building Energy Intensity

BEI = (TBEC - CPEC - DCEC)*(52/WOH)


(GFAex.cp - DCA - GLA*FVR)
where: ex.cp denotes excluding car park

BEI =

(TBEC - CPEC - DCEC)*(52/WOH)


(GFAexcl carpark - DCA - GLA*FVR)

Where;
TBEC: Total Building Energy Consumption (kWh/year) for all
landlord and tenancy areas.
CPEC: Carpark Energy Consumption (kWh/year) for carpark
area (which is not air-conditioned) and typically covers
artificial lighting, lifts, mechanical ventilation fans, sump
pumps and plug loads (car washing facilities).
Installations serving the whole building (such as hydraulic
pumps and fire pumps) shall not be included.
DCEC: Data Centre Energy Consumption (kWh/year) for
operation of the Data Centre equipment and for
controlling its indoor environment (air-conditioning,
mechanical ventilation, lighting and plug loads).
GFAexcluding carpark : Gross Floor Area of buildings exclusive
of car park area (m2)

BEI =

(TBEC - CPEC - DCEC)*(52/WOH)


(GFAexcl carpark - DCA - GLA*FVR)

DCA: Gross area of Data Centre (m2)


GLA: Gross Lettable Area (m2) refers to the total functional use
area for commercial purposes such as office, retail,
cafeteria, restaurant, gymnasium and club house inside
the building but excluding all common areas and service
areas. The sum of GLA, common areas and service
areas
should equal the GFA excluding car park.
FVR: Floor Vacancy Rate is the weighted floor vacancy rate of
office, retail and other functional spaces of GLA. The FVR
(%) of GLA is equal to the non-occupied lettable area divided
by the GLA.
52:
Typical weekly operating hours of office buildings in
KL/Malaysia (hrs/wk) = 2,700 hrs/annum
WOH: Weighted Weekly Operating Hours of GLA exclusive of
DCA (hrs/wk)

BEI
EE5 pts Office Retail Hotel
2
150
240
200
3
140
225
190
5
130
210
175
8
120
195
160
10
110
180
150
12
100
160
135
15
90
145
120

Hospital
200
190
175
160
150
135
120

Etc
?
?
?
?
?
?
?

Electrical Sub-Metering
Separate metering provided for the following;
Landlord and/or tenant
Lift and escalator
Major water pumping system
Central air-conditioning system

Car park and common area lighting/power system


External and faade lighting

Separate electricity metering


to be linked to EMS

THANK YOU
Ir. NG YONG KONG, P.Eng., GBIF, MASHRAE
Email: nyk@nyk.com.my
Tel: +6012 201 9319