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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF IDEALISM, REALISM, NATURALISM & PRAGMATISM

Subject Idealism Realism Naturalism Pragmatism

Socrates, Plato, Shankaracharya,


Erasmus, Rebellias, Milton, Lord Aristotle, Comte, Darwin, C.B .Pearce, William James,
Exponents Ravendra Nath Tagore, Mahatma
Montaigne, Bacon, Ratke Bernard Shaw, Herbert Sheiller, John Dewey, Kilpatrick
Gandhi, Swami Vivekananda

1) Pragmatism does not believe


1) Naturalism does not believe
1) Realism believes in in god or spiritual values. It
in God. Nature is everything.
1) Idealism insists on God. To individual and social has full faith in Man.
Nothing is beyond it.
achieve god, spiritual developments 2) It upholds the power of man
2) It believes in matter and
periection is necessary. 2) It believes in the importance as supreme.
Importance of Material
2) Accepts the existence of of material world 3) Spiritual principles are not
World.
Fundamental spiritual world. 3) Cause & Effect relationship universal. They change
3) Physical and Nutura1
3) Spiritual values are supreme scientific principles are according to change in times,
Principles Principles are supreme and
and universal. universal and universally Circumstances and situations.
Universal.
4) Values are pre-determined. accepted. 4) Values are not
4) There is no ideal or Supreme
5) Idealism is a complete 4) Problems of real life become predetermined. They are in
Values.
spiritual view point. ideals and values. the making.
5) Fully materialistic &
6) It is a monistic concept. 5) Fully scientific attitude. 5) Fully Psychological and
Mechanical attitude.
6) It is a pluralistic concept. humanistic view point.
6) It is a Monistic concept.
6) It is a pluralistic concept.

1) Education is based on 1) Education is based on 1) Education is based on


1) Education is based on
spiritualism and ethics. science only. Psychology.
Psychology and science.
2) It emphasizes mental 2) It emphasizes on behaviour 2) It emphasizes basic instincts,
2) It Emphasizes practice.
capabilities. and experiment. interests and tendencies.
3) Child is the focal point of all
Principles of 3) Teacher and Curriculum are 3) Child and his present life is 3) Child is the centre of
educational activities.
the centre of' education. the centre of education. education.
Education 4) It opposes book learning.
4) Emphasizes book learning. 4) It opposes book learning. 4) It opposes book learning.
5) Only sociability is
5) Both individual and society 5) Both the individual and the 5) Only individual is considered
emphasized.
are Valued. society are valued. and valued.
6) It is progressive, dynamic and
6) It is a definite and specific 6) It is liable to change 6) It is a progressive and
changeable ideology.
Ideology according to a change in life. dynamic ideology.
1) Self realization or of
1) Preparing child for a real life.
personality.
2) Developing the physical and 1) To perfect the human
2) Spiritua1 development 1) Aims of education are not
mental powers of child. Machines.
3) Realization of Truth, Beauty pre-determined.
3) Preparing child for a happy 2) Attainment of present and
and Goodness. 2) Educational aims change
life. future happiness.
Aims of 4) Conversion, promotion, and according to times, places
4) Developing and training of 3) Preparation for the struggle
transmission of cultural and circumstances.
Education senses. for existence.
heritage. 3) More education
5) Acquainting the child with 4) Adaptation to Environment.
5) Conversion of inborn nature 4) Creation of new values.
nature and social 5) Improvement of racial gains.
into Spiritual Nature 5) Social adjustment and
environment. 6) Natural development.
6) Preparation for a holy life. harmonious development.
6) Imparting vocational 7) Autonomous development
7) Development of' inte1igence
education
and rationality

1) Realistic Curriculum is 1) Naturalistic Curriculum is


1) Pragmatic Curriculum is
developed according to utility constructed according to
1) Idealistic curriculum is based on subjects of utility,
and needs. basic instincts, aptitudes and
developed according to ideals its main principle being
2) Subjects concerning day to tendencies of children.
and eternal values. utilitarian.
day activities are included in 2) In such Curriculum,
2) Humanistic subjects are 2) Social subjects form the main
curriculum. scientific subjects occupy
emphasized. body and others subsidiary.
3) Main subjects of Realistic main place. Humanities
Curriculum 3) Main subjects of Idealistic 3) Main subjects of a Pragmatic
4) Curriculum are –Natural occupy subsidiary position.
curriculum are – Religious Curriculum are –Health
sciences, Biological sciences, 3) Main subjects of Naturalistic
studies, spiritual studies, hygiene and science, Physical
Physical sciences, Health Curriculum are -games and
Ethics, Language, Sociology, cultural, History, Geography,
culture, Physical exercises, Sports, Physical sciences and
Literature, Geography, Mathematics, Homo-science,
Mathematics, Geography, Physiology, Health culture,
History, Music, Fine arts etc. Science and
History, Astronomy, Sports material sciences and
4) Agriculture etc.
etc. Biological sciences etc.
1) Idealists have not adopted
any specific and definite Pragmatists have emphasized the
method of teaching. . principles of
1) Realists emphasize scientific
2) They advocate many 1. Purposive processes of
& objective methods of
methods. 1) Naturalists emphasizing
teaching. learning,
3) Thus they think themselves Learning by doing, Learning
2) It emphasizes informal 2. Learning by doing and by
as creators of methods and by self-experience and
Methods of methods of teaching. experience and
not the slave of any particular Learning by play, have
3) Realists emphasize the
Teaching method. advocated the following 3. Correlation and integration.
following methods of
4) Idealists prescribe the methods of teaching - On the basis of these principles
teaching - self-experience and
following methods of Observation, Play-way and Kilpatrick has given birth to
research, Experimental
teaching- Question-answer, Kindergarten methods.
method, Heuristic method and project method, a method which
Conversation, Dialogue,
Correlation method. is widely accepted and used in
Discussion, Lecture,
Argumentation, Intersection, the field of education.
Book study etc.

1) Teacher s role is supreme


1) Teacher's role is subsidiary
1) Supreme and important place because he brings the child in
whereas child's position is 1) Teacher's role is that of a
of teacher touch with the external
central. friend, philosopher and guide.
2) The teacher as a gardener realities of life.
Teacher 2) Nature is the supreme 2) Teacher puts the child in such
knows best as to how to care 2) Keeping aside his own views,
teacher. He is to set the stage a position so that he learns to
and develop a child like a the teacher imparts scientific
for child and retire behind the create new values for future.
plant. knowledge to the child in an
curtain.
easy and effective way.

1) The slogan of Naturalism is


1) Idealism advocates discipline
Realism emphasizes a synthetic freedom.
at all costs. Pragmatism emphasizes limited
form of impressionistic and 2) This doctrine, supporting
2) Freedom is to be restricted by emancipatory or social
Discipline emancipatory discipline emancipatory discipline,
ideals.
according to natural and social emphasizes discipline, discipline.
3) Emphasizes impressionistic
procedures. according to natural
discipline.
consequences.
1) According to Idealism,
1) According to Naturalism,
school is the only place for 1) According to Pragmatism,
1) According to Realism, School Nature’s vast campus is the
regular and effective school is a laboratory for
is a socially well planned real school.
School education experiments to be done by
institution. 2) School should be a natural
2) School is an ideal form of children.
2) It is a mirror of society and spontaneous field of free
pleasing and joyful activities 2) It is a society in miniature.
activities.
for children