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Domestic Violence Poster

May Day Team Work Poster


Child Sex
Abuse Poster

Adopting Grown up

Philip Kotler
Compiled by
S.Rengasamy
S.Rengasamy Social Marketing for Social /Development Workers

Contents
Why Social Marketing ............................................................................................................................................ 3
Diagram - Social Marketing Framework ................................................................................................................. 4
What is Social Marketing ....................................................................................................................................... 5
Box: Social Marketing ............................................................................................................................................ 5
Box: Roots of Social Marketing .............................................................................................................................. 5
Box: 8 Social marketing Criteria ............................................................................................................................. 6
Picture: Breast Feed -Be a Star ............................................................................................................................... 6
Box: Commonality in social marketing definitions ................................................................................................. 7
Posters: Social Marketing Posters .......................................................................................................................... 7
Table: Overview of Social Marketing ..................................................................................................................... 8
Box: Why is social marketing needed? Stages of SM .............................................................................................. 9
Why is social marketing needed? ....................................................................................................... 9
How does social marketing work? ...................................................................................................... 9
Product ....................................................................................................................................................... 9
Price ............................................................................................................................................................ 9
Place............................................................................................................................................................ 9
Promotion .................................................................................................................................................. 9
Social Marketing - Stages of Change .............................................................................................................. 9
Table: Definition of Marketing and Sales ............................................................................................................. 10
Diagram: Key Attributes of Social Marketing ....................................................................................................... 11
Box: Activities related to Marketing Promotion ................................................................................................... 11
Box: Examples of Exchange .................................................................................................................................. 11
Box: Product, Price, Place and Promotion in Social Marketing ............................................................................. 12
Diagram: Behavior Change - Social Marketing Selling Behaviors .......................................................................... 12
Behavior Change - Social Marketing Selling Behaviors................................................................................. 12
Box: A) Benefits people may want B) Social Marketing Logic Model C) Defining the Problem Correctly
Box: Social marketing – Basic Theoretical understanding .................................................................................... 14
Types of social change, by time and level of society ............................................................................................ 14
Social Marketing – Basic Theoretical understanding .................................................................. 14
Table: Services Marketing ........................................................................................................................... 15
Box: A) Marketing Mix Decision C) Framework Segmenting the Audience .................................................. 17
Box: Phases/Steps in Social marketing campaigns ............................................................................................... 18
Box: Example of a social marketing campaign aimed at young people................................................................. 18
Example of a social marketing campaign aimed at young people ........................................... 18
What Social Marketing is and what is not ............................................................................................................ 19
Posters: Social Marketing Posters ........................................................................................................................ 19
Social Marketing and Family Welfare in India ...................................................................................................... 19
Evolution of Social Marketing in India.................................................................................................................. 20
Table: Social Marketing of Contraceptives in India : Milestones ......................................................................... 21
Achievements of the Social Marketing Programme in India ................................................................................. 21
Table: Achievements of the Social Marketing Program in India ........................................................................... 22

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S.Rengasamy Social Marketing for Social /Development Workers

Untouchability is a crime against human &God. Smoking is Injurious to health பபோதையில் பயணம்
போதையில் மரணம் Fasten your seat belt. Eat more fruit. Don‟t litter. Get a mammogram.

Dr. Wiebe (1952) raised the question “Why can’t we sell brotherhood like we sell soap? This
statement implies that sellers of commodities like soap are generally very effective while sellers of
social causes are generally ineffective. Wiebe examined what conditions or characteristics
accounted for the relative success or failure of social campaigns. He found that more the conditions
of the social campaign resembled those of a product campaign, the more successful the social
campaign. Joe McGinnes wrote a bestselling book,”The Selling of the President” and John K.
Galbraith remarked that everything and anything can be sold by Madison Avenue. Social marketing
is increasingly used to sell condoms to yoga.

Why Social Marketing


These are the kinds of actions that can benefit an entire community. If people treat everyone
equal there won’t be any communal tension. If people adopt healthy habits they will be definitely
safer and healthier, put less of a strain on the health care system. If people use mass transit, the
highways will not be clogged and the air will be cleaner. The Situation Couldn't Be Worse...
But, if these things are ever going to happen, society An organization is facing a financial
needs some help. All these actions require an individual, crunch. Membership is down, interest
or a community, to change a behavior in order to in the programs is dwindling,
improve the quality of life for that individual, or for the organization profile in the community
community as a whole. Individuals have to change their has never been lower, and attracting
behavior. And behavior change is what social marketing volunteers couldn't be more difficult.
The board members lie awake at
is all about. night wondering, "what in the world
can we do to turn things around?" If
Social change happens when you change internal you're responsible for marketing the
attitudes, external structures, and/or work to make organization's programs or activities,
behavior unnecessary. Let’s use the example of highway the answer may lie in two simple
traffic safety. You can try to change internal attitudes words: social marketing.
about seat belt use by convincing people through
education and persuasion. You can try to change external structures, those outside the
individual’s control, by using public policy to mandate seat belt use. Or, you can move all the

If you have a message that you want people to receive you can use social marketing techniques to
get your message across

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S.Rengasamy Social Marketing for Social /Development Workers

way upstream and create cars and highways that are so safe you don’t need to convince or
mandate that people use seat belts; thus, making the individual behavior unnecessary.

Social change is a messy process and not the purposeful action of an architect. It is the synergy
of efforts of multiple change agents. Many practitioners believe that permanent, large-scale
behavior change is best achieved through changing community norms — a process that can
require time and patience.

Social marketing is the utilization of marketing theories and techniques to influence behavior in
order to achieve a social goal. In other words, social marketing is similar to commercial
marketing, except that its goal is not to maximize profits or sales; the goal is a change in
behavior that will benefit society – such as persuading more people to use efficient lighting. Of
course, there are thousands of ways to work towards social goals, not all of which involve social
marketing. Attempts to accomplish social goals can be divided into two categories: behavioral
and non behavioral. For example, to prevent highway fatalities, one could install air bags in cars
(non behavioral) or one could persuade more people to wear seat belts (behavioral). Non
behavioral solutions tend to be in the area of technology. Behavioral solutions, on the other hand,
often require social marketing.
Diagram - Social Marketing Framework
So how does social marketing work? Take a look at figure below. Everything above the dotted line is involved in
changing behavior; this is social marketing. The behavior is the goal – the specific action you want a specific audience
to undertake. Whether people engage in a behavior is based on how they view that decision, or their perceptions: What
are the benefits? Does it seem difficult to do? Can someone like us do it? Are other people doing it? Will people laugh
at us if we do it?
People don’t change behaviors easily. In fact, people are more
Social Marketing Framework likely to adopt a new idea quickly if it exhibits these
characteristics:
It has a relative advantage over what exists
It’s compatible with social norms
It’s not too complex
Education Information/ It can be “tried out”
Message

Determinants,
Benefits, Barriers
Behaviour
Services,
Products External Structure
& Policy Social Benefit

Social Marketing

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Regulation Policy Non Behavioral
S.Rengasamy Social Marketing for Social /Development Workers

What is Social Marketing


In basic terms, it's the selling of ideas. In more complicated terms, it's the creation, execution and
control of programs designed to influence social change. It uses many principles of commercial
marketing - from assessing needs to identifying audiences, developing products and measuring
results. But it's also quite different. The
Social Marketing …..
goal of social marketing is not just a The product benefits individuals and society not
onetime business transaction. The goal of shareholders
social marketing is to build a long-term Focuses on developing customer / consumer insight
relationship between your organization and It is one of a number of interventions, not instead of
its different audiences. other interventions
Box: Social Marketing It can be an planned intervention approach but can also
Social marketing is the systematic be used to inform and enhance strategy development
application of marketing, along with other It borrows techniques and tools from commercial
concepts and techniques, to achieve marketing that influence purchasing behaviour to
specific behavioral goals for a social good. influence social behaviour
The aim is to move people to action,
Social marketing can be applied to promote
not just give them information
merit goods, or to make a society avoid
demerit goods and thus to promote society's
well being as a whole. For example, this may include asking people not to smoke in public areas,
asking them to use seat belts, or prompting to make them follow speed limits.

Although 'social marketing' is sometimes seen only as using standard commercial marketing
practices to achieve non-commercial goals, this is an over-simplification.
The primary aim of 'social marketing' is 'social good', while in 'commercial marketing' the aim is
primarily 'financial'. This does not mean that commercial marketers cannot contribute to
achievement of social good.

Increasingly, social marketing is being described as having 'two parents' - a 'social parent' =
social sciences and social policy, and a 'marketing parent' = commercial and public sector
marketing approaches.
Box: Roots of Social Marketing

The Roots of Social Marketing. Both areas contribute valuable expertise, skills, techniques and theory
Two Parents

Social marketing must not be confused with Social media marketing or social advertising .

Social marketing has been defined in many different ways since the original offering by Kotler &
Zaltman in 1971. Central to most of them is that social marketing is the application of the ideas,

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S.Rengasamy Social Marketing for Social /Development Workers

processes and practices of the marketing discipline to improve conditions that determine and
sustain personal, social and environmental health and well-being.

Social marketing is constantly evolving from ―influencing ideas‖ as presented by Kotler &
Zaltman (1971) to 'large scale, broad-based, behavior change focused programs' offered by
Lefebvre & Flora (1988).
Box: 8 Social marketing Criteria

8 point social marketing National Benchmark Criteria


1 : Clear focus on behavior and achieving specific behavioral goals
2: Centered on understanding the customer using a variety of customer and market research
3: Is theory-based and informed
4: Is 'insight' driven
5: Uses 'exchange' concept and analysis
6: Uses 'competition' concept and analysis
7: Has a more developed 'segmentation' approach (going beyond basic targeting)
8: Utilizes an 'intervention mix' or 'marketing mix' (rather than relying on single methods)

Richard Manoff, suggested that… social marketing is more than research, product design and
distribution, diffusion of information, or the formulation and implementation of a
communication strategy. It may include introduction of a new product (e.g., oral rehydration
salts), the modification of existing ones (e.g., iodized salt), restricted consumption of others (e.g.,
cigarettes, infant formula), and promotion of structural change in existing institutions (e.g., food
stamps, hospital practices). Social marketing may be exclusively educational (e.g., restriction of
sodium consumption) yet still be obliged to do missionary
work with food companies for sodium-reduced products
(Manoff, 1985,)
Picture: Breast Feed -Be a Star
In the development community, social marketing has often
been defined as the procurement, distribution and promotion
of health products (condoms, oral contraceptives, malaria
nets for example) for sale at donor subsidized prices. This
'social marketing' approach has been contrasted with efforts
to distribute commodities for free or to offer products at their
full costs (plus margins) in the commercial marketplace.

Andreasen, (1995) defined social marketing as:"the


application of commercial marketing technologies to the
analysis, planning, execution, and evaluation of programs
Breast Feed -Be a Star designed to influence the voluntary behavior of target
audiences in order to improve their personal welfare and that
of their society."

Kotler, Roberto and Lee (2002) defined social marketing as the use of marketing principles and
techniques to influence a target audience to voluntarily accept, reject, modify, or abandon a
behavior for the benefit of individuals, groups or society as a whole.

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S.Rengasamy Social Marketing for Social /Development Workers

Box: Commonality in social marketing definitions

The commonality in social marketing definitions is as follows


1. Social marketing as the primary aim of achieving a particular 'social good' (rather than a specific
commercial benefit), through the use of specific behavioral goals clearly identified and targeted.
2. Social marketing is a systematic process phased to address short, medium and long-term issues.
3. Social marketing utilizes a range of marketing techniques and approaches

Donovan & Henley (2003) define it as the application of the marketing concept, commercial
marketing techniques and other social change techniques to achieving individual behavior
changes and social structural changes that are consistent with the UN Declaration of Human
Rights.

In 2006, the National Social Marketing Centre in the UK produced an updated and more
inclusive definition to recognize the different influences on social marketing:
"Social marketing is the systematic application of marketing, alongside other concepts and
techniques, to achieve specific behavioral goals, for a social good".
They also go on to describe an additional element of 'health related social marketing' as:
"the systematic application of marketing, alongside other concepts and techniques, to achieve
specific behavioral goals, to improve health and reduce inequalities".

Posters: Social Marketing Posters

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S.Rengasamy Social Marketing for Social /Development Workers

Table: Overview of Social Marketing

Social Marketing
The basic goal of marketing is to influence behavior Conditions that favor Social Change Campaigns
Whether it be a  Monopolization - Could you be the only message or
 Using a new “green” product only use that medium exclusively?
 Adopting a new practice  Canalization - Favorable public attitude base helps
 Getting our children/cattle immunized to channel existing attitudes and behavior
Socially desirable behavior can be achieved as the  Supplementation – mass media communication
marketing people convince the people to use supplemented by face-to-face communication
new product. When we achieve desirable behavior So for any Social Change program, the marketing
using marketing methods it is called as Social challenge is to identify
marketing  Cause – social objective to provide a desirable answer
 Since Social Marketing covers a wide range of issues to a social problem
not necessarily connected to commercial considerations  Change agent – whoever attempts to bring about the
it has a wider, if not commercially, desirable social change
perspectives. Understanding, creating, communication  Target adopters – individuals/groups/entire
and delivering customer value and satisfaction are at population
the very heart of modern marketing – (Kotler and  Channels - communication and distribution pathways
Armstrong). For the past two decades, the focus has which help exchange influence and response between
been on ‘marketing’ Social issues – using the concepts change agents and target adopters
of exchanges, transactions, segmentation, target  Change strategy – program adopted to effect change
marketing, consumer research and positioning in target adopters’ attitudes and behaviors
Social Change Campaigns often fail because Any social (marketing) program attempts to market a
 People are uninformed and this makes them harder social product
to reach through conventional media What is a Social Product?
 Response to new information increases with It could be an
audience involvement or interest; if few people are  idea
interested, few will respond  practice
 Response to new information increases with  tangible object
information’s compatibility with audience attitudes. Social marketing requires knowledge of each target –
People tend to avoid disagreeable information adopter group
 People read different things in information,  Socio-demographic characteristics
depending on their beliefs and attitudes  Psychological profile
Why does this happen?  Behavioral characteristics
Researchers have cited several factors that dilute mass These help make accurate predictions
media effect  Predictions are prerequisites to the ability to
 Audience factors - apathy, defensiveness, cognitive influence outcomes
disability Social marketing would have to identify ‘influentials’
 Message factors – attention, comprehension,  The aim is to neutralize, the opposition and gain
perception support of ‘influentials’
 Media factors – appropriateness of media Influential’s could be
 Response- mechanism factors – making it easy for the  Permission granting groups
audience to respond  Support groups
 In order to bring about change in customer/prospect  Opposition groups
behavior, the marketer has to first understand the  Evaluation groups
barriers against change by positioning himself/herself
in the shoes of the prospect/customer

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S.Rengasamy Social Marketing for Social /Development Workers

Box: Why is social marketing needed? Stages of SM

Why is social marketing needed?


Social marketing is important because its aim is to improve people‟s lives by encouraging positive
behaviors and discouraging unhealthy or harmful behaviors. By trying to influence people to adopt
sustainable lifestyles, social marketing programs can take the pressure off from environment and
health system so that limited resources can be used more effectively.
Examples of social marketing campaigns that have targeted health behaviors are:
 Quit campaign
 drink driving
 SunSmart.
How does social marketing work?
Social marketers need to understand their target audience before they can figure out how to influence
them. Just letting people know about an issue is not enough. They have to research the target
audience and find ways to reach them with messages to which they can relate. The issues involved in
social marketing are generally more complex than in other types of marketing, and involve a number
of other disciplines such as psychology, communication, economics and sociology. However, there are
some basic principles of marketing that apply in social marketing; for example the four Ps: product,
price, place and promotion.
Product
In order for people to want a product, they have to feel that they are missing something or have a
problem that needs to be solved. Products that are part of social marketing campaigns can include:
 physical products (sunscreen)
 ideas that have direct or indirect benefits (environment protection, staying out of the sun at certain
times of the day)
 services (health checks) Social Marketing - Stages of Change
 behaviors (eating healthy food) Pre contemplation – Not even thinking
Price about it
The price refers to what a Contemplation – Thinking about it but
person is willing to do to obtain haven’t done anything about it
the product. In a social marketing Preparation – Planning to act
campaign the price may be: Action – Have made a move but not yet
 money a habit
 time Maintenance – Have established a
 effort Stages of Change behavior but aren’t committed to it
 risk of embarrassment.
If the costs outweigh the benefits it is not very likely that the person will try a product or change their
behavior. The perceptions of cost and benefits can be determined through research.
Place
Place refers to the way that a product reaches the target audience. For a physical product this means
where people can get the product. For products like health messages, this refers to decisions about
how the target audience will be reached with information or training (for example, advertising or
conferences). It also means providing a way for people to act when they are motivated to do so.
Promotion
Promotion refers to advertising, public relations and media support. The focus is on creating and
sustaining demand for the product. Social marketing campaigns often use mass media because they
can reach and influence a large group of people. Mass media campaigns involve film, television, radio,
information brochures, billboard advertising and the Internet.

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Table: Definition of Marketing and Sales

Definition of Marketing and Sales


Marketing is creating a demand and sales is fulfilling those demand.
Definition of Marketing? Definition of Sales
It is a process by which It is a process by which
One identifies the needs & wants of the people - One identifies the people, who have a need.
Needs. Prospecting
One determines and creates a product/service to One determines the needs of the people Needs
meet the needs and wants. Product One determines a way of finding a solution to
One determines a way of taking the prospect's problem. Propose
the product/service to the marketplace-Place One determines the way of communicating your
One determines the way of communicating the product as a solution. Recommending
product to the market place. Promotions One determines the value for the product
One determines the value for the product- Price for the prospect. Advocating Your Product.
One determines the people, who have needs/ One determines / sells benefits of the product to
wants- People the prospect. Selling Benefits
and then creating a transaction for exchanging and then creating a transaction for exchanging the
the product for a value .and thus creating a product for a value. Closing the Sale
satisfaction to the buyer's needs/wants. and thus creating a satisfaction to the buyer's
Terms to understand. needs/wants. Creating Customer Satisfaction
1. Product/Service means a product or service or
idea to satisfy the people's needs / wants. How You Will Sell to a Customer?
2. Needs mean when a person feels deprived of Stage 1 --Establishing Yourself
something. How you will introduce yourself to the customer.
3. Wants mean when a person's need is formed / How you will approach the customer
shaped by personality, culture, and knowledge. How you will create interest for the customer
4. Value means the benefits that the customer How you will grab the attention of the customer
gains from owning and using the product and How you will establish rapport with the customers
the cost of the product. Stage 2 --Developing Customer Needs
5.Satisfaction means the extent to which a How you will you profile the customer
product's perceived performance matches a How you will define the needs of the customer
buyer's expectation. How you will probe the customers
6. Exchange means the act of obtaining a How you will determine the customer needs
needed/wanted object by offering something Stage 3 --Proposing Your Product As
in return Solution
7.Transactions mean a tradeoff between a How you will advocate your solution
buyer / a seller that involves an exchange at How you will recommend your products as a
agreed conditions. solution / How you will sell benefits of your
Marketing is based on identifying, anticipating and products /How you will motivate the customer to
satisfying customer needs effectively and make a decision in your favor
profitably. It encompasses market research, Stage 4 --Handling Objections
pricing, promotion, distribution, customer care, How you will manage customer resistance
your brand image and much more. How you will handle the customer objections
Stage 5 - Close The Sales
How you will seek customer commitment
How you will help the customer to close the
sale /How you will take the order.

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Diagram: Key Attributes of Social Marketing

Key Attributes of Social Marketing

Box: Activities related to Marketing Promotion

Marketing promotion includes the following major activities


Advertising: Any paid form of non personal presentation and promotion of products, services, or
ideas by an identified sponsor
Personal selling: Any paid form of personal presentation and promotion of products, service, or
ideas by an identified sponsor
Publicity: Any unpaid form of non personal presentation and promotion of products, services, or
ideas where the sponsor is unidentified.
Sales Promotion: Miscellaneous paid forms (special programs, incentives, materials, and events)
designed to stimulate audience interest and acceptance of a product

Box: Examples of Exchange


Examples of Exchange
You give me You Get
$.1.00  A Pepsi /A thirst quencher /Good taste /Fun /Youthful feeling
Girl /Boyfriend
You give Me You get
Momentary discomfort  A nicer community /Better recreation areas / Better environmental &
Money /Time physical health / The same wild fruits that our grandparents enjoyed

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Box: Product, Price, Place and Promotion in Social Marketing

Product, Price, Place and Promotion in Social Marketing


In business, these terms speak for themselves. The product is what you sell, the price is what the
customer pays, the place is where the product is sold, and the promotion is what you do to attract
the buyer. Social marketers have added another factor - participation - and added a different slant.
The social marketing "Ps" are defined below:
Product:
The idea, belief or habit your target audience must accept, adopt or change to meet its needs.
Example: The idea you want the public to accept is that membership in your organization is
personally rewarding.
Price:
The cost in terms of modified habits, changed beliefs, time or money that your target audience will
have to bear to meet its needs.
Example: You tell the public the cost of joining the group is limited to time only. There is no fee, but
members must attend a weekly meeting.
Place:
The location or medium through which your audience will receive the message. Example: Your group
holds a meeting of potential members at the municipal office so people can judge the organization
for themselves.
Promotion:
The medium or message that attracts attention to your product. Example: The local radio station
advertises the rewarding experiences you'll have if you become a member at the meeting.
Participation:
The input your audience has in planning, developing and implementing a 'product' it needs.
Example: The event planners consulted potential members to see what rewarding experiences they
were seeking.

Diagram: Behavior Change - Social Marketing Selling Behaviors

Behavior Change - Social Marketing Selling Behaviors


 Accept a new behavior (e.g. composting)
 Reject a new potentially undesirable behavior (e.g. starting smoking)
 Modify a current behavior (e.g. increasing physical activity from 3 to 5 times a week)
 Abandon an old undesirable behavior (e.g. talking on mobile whilst driving)

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S.Rengasamy Social Marketing for Social /Development Workers

Box: A) Benefits people may want B) Social Marketing Logic Model C) Defining the Problem Correctly

Social Marketing Logic Model


1. Social Problem

Epidemiological
Behavioral
& Market Research
Benefits people Studies
may want: Define Behaviors & Audiences
Savings
Comfort
Safety/security Analysis of Competing Behaviors
Humor/fun
Efficiency
Health
Beauty/sex appeal Education Regulation Motivation
Happiness
Romance
Excitement
Rest
Productn Price Place Promotion
Admiration/recognition
Popularity
Sympathy
Pleasure/avoidance of pain Prototyping and Pre-testing Research
Entertainment
Dependability
Peace of mind Tactical Selection, Execution & Monitoring
Convenience
Reward

Impact Evaluation

Defining the Problem Correctly


If you define the problem incorrectly, it doesn’t matter how good your marketing program is. Use this checklist as a tool
to carefully think about the behavior you propose to introduce and the behavior you propose to change.
Education Problem Regulation Problem Marketing Problem
 It is a simple behavior.  Education and Motivation  Complicated behavior often require
 Does not require new skills have failed to change lifestyle change or new skills.
to perform. behavior.  Visible benefits are delayed.
 Benefits are immediately  Behavior causes serious  Behavior requires external
visible. damage to individual & resources to perform.
 Behavior requires no society.  There is an effective behavioral
equipment to perform.  Social consensus is that alternative.
 Behavior not associated the behavior should be  Behavior is stigmatized, addictive
with any social stigma. regulated. or already illegal.
 Barriers to change are not  Behavior is observable by  There is a preferred competing
seen as high. others. behavior.
 Behavior is susceptible to  Barriers to behavior are perceived as
effective regulation. high.

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Box: Social marketing – Basic Theoretical understanding

Social Marketing – Basic Theoretical understanding


'Insight'
 Developing a genuine insight into the reality of the everyday
 lives and experiences of the audience is critical
 Understanding the motivations
'Exchange'
 What the person has to give in order to get the proposed benefit (e.g. time, effort, money, social
consequences, loss of pleasure etc)
 Maximize the benefits, while working to minimize barriers
'Competition'
 Whatever is being „offered‟ will always face competition, external and internal competition (e.g. the
power of pleasure, habit, addiction etc).
 Can include direct counter messages and competing offers
 Or simply competition for the time and attention

Focusing on the positive and problematic


Types of social change, by time and level of society

Education and awareness are necessary but not sufficient strategies for changing behavior. Social
marketing uses psychological tools to increase motivation to change.
Types of social change, by time and level of society
Micro level Group level Macro level
(individual consumer) (group or organization) (society)
Short Behavior change Change in norms Policy change
term Attendance at Administrative change Banning of all forms of
change Stop smoking clinic Removal of tobacco advertising Tobacco marketing
from outside a school
Long Lifestyle Organizational 'Socio-cultural evolution'
term change change Eradication of from selling
change Smoking cessation Deter retailers cigarettes to Minors all 14
tobacco related disease
S.Rengasamy Social Marketing for Social /Development Workers

Table: Services Marketing

Services Marketing
Services Marketing Services could meet
The service sector  Personal needs – haircuts, tuition, massage
 The services sector has been growing at a rate of parlors
8% per  Business needs – courier services, office cleaning
annum in recent years services, delivering fresh flowers
 More than half of our GDP is accounted for from Characteristics of services
the services  Intangibility
sector  Inseparability
 This sector dominates with the best jobs, best  Perishability
talent and best  Variability
incomes Determinants of service quality
“There is no such thing as service industries. There are only  Reliability – delivering on promises
industries whose service components are greater or less than  Responsiveness – willing to help
those of other industries. Everybody is in service.” -Theodore  Assurance – inspiring trust and confidence
Levitt-  Empathy – individualizing customers
What is a service?  Tangibles- physical representation
 It is the part of the product or the full product Moments of truth
for which the  It is the customer – service encounter
customer is willing to see value and pay for it.  Every positive or negative experience of the
What is a service? consumer would have fall-out on the overall service
 It is intangible. experience
 It does not result in ownership. In services, the last experience remains uppermost in your
 It may or may not be attached with a physical mind. Therefore, it is not enough to be good, you have to be
product consistently good
Difference between physical goods and services Service quality is directly proportional to employee
Physical goods Services satisfaction
Tangible Intangible When customers visit a service establishment
Homogeneous Heterogeneous Their satisfaction will be influenced by
Production and Production, distribution  Encounters with service personnel
distribution are and consumption are  Appearance and features of service facilities –
separated from simultaneous processes exterior and interior
consumption An activity or process  Interactions with self service equipment
A thing Core value produced in  Characteristics and behavior of other customers
Core value processed in the buyer-seller Customer Service Expectations
factory interaction
 Desired Service – the ‘wished for’ service
Customers do not Customers participate in
 Adequate Service – the service that would be
participate in the production
acceptable
production process Cannot be kept in stock
Zone of Tolerance
Can be kept in stock No transfer of ownership
Difference between the desired service and the adequate
Transfer of ownership
service

Most products have a service component


They could be
 Equipment based
 People based – varying skill levels

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S.Rengasamy Social Marketing for Social /Development Workers

 A satisfied consumer speaks to an average of 3


people on his her experience
Recovery  A dissatisfied consumer gripes to on an average
Don’t Do 11 persons about his/her unpleasant experience
Ignore customer Acknowledge problem Companies that pay importance to resolving customer
Blame customer Explain causes complaints
Leave customer to fend Apologise  Pay attention to quality and training of
for himself /Downgrade Compensate/upgrade manpower recruited
Act as if nothing is Lay out options  Have clear benchmarks on service quality and
wrong /‘pass the buck’ Take responsibility communicate to employees
Adaptability  Take remedial steps to improve customer
Promise and fail to Recognise the seriousness satisfaction and prevent repeats of customer
keep them Acknowledge /Anticipate dissatisfaction
Show unwillingness to Accommodate/Adjust  Have a data base on customer complaints that is
try / Embarrass the Explain rules/policies periodically analyzed and policies adjusted
customer / Laugh at Satisfied employees will produce satisfied customers
the customer  Morale
Avoid responsibility  Motivation
Spontaneity  Mood
Exhibit impatience Take time /Be attentive Managing Service Productivity
Yell/laugh/swear Anticipate needs/Listen  Giving quality service is an expensive business
Steal from customers Provide information  Not every consumer is willing to pay extra for
Discriminate /Ignore Show empathy service quality
Coping  Service providers would have to find their
Take customer’s Listen optimum service quality/cost ratios
dissatisfaction Try to accommodate  Can technology substitute part of the labor
personally Explain content?
Let customer’s Let go of the customer  Can customers substitute part of the labor
dissatisfaction affect content?
others
 Making services obsolete by product innovations
Types of complainers
Passives
Voicers
Irates
Activists
Customer complaints
 It pays to resolve customer complaints
 On an average only 5 % dissatisfied customers
complain. Others simply go over to the competitor

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S.Rengasamy Social Marketing for Social /Development Workers

Box: A) Marketing Mix Decision C) Framework Segmenting the Audience

Marketing Mix Decision Framework


Product Price Place Promotion
Add Benefit Reduce Barriers Increase access Clarify/Persuade
Does it work to make Does it reduce barriers Does it make the product Do consumers:
the behavior more that the audience cares more accessible? Know about the benefits?
rewarding? about? Is it easier to find? Understand the benefits?
Does it provide more Does it make the Is it available at Believe they will benefit
benefits than the barriers competitive convenient times? personally?
competition? against other Are there other reasons Trust the Spokes person?
Is it branded and behavioral choices? for the consumer to want Believe these benefits
recognizable? Does it add value to to go there? beat competing benefits?
Is it related to the the behavior?
behavior emotionally?
Is it fun? Is it easy to use? Is it easy to find? Is it popular?

Segmenting the Audience


Step 1:
First consider who needs to be persuaded to change their
Target General Public behavior. No need to target women to be examined for
Audience prostrate cancer. Also, think about whether certain
segments of the audience engage in the behavior
Who might
differently.
use/buy?
Step 2:
How they engage Consider what your audience “wants” not just what it
in the behavior “needs.”Does one part of the audience want something
different than another part -- a certain benefit, some kind
of approval, a way around a barrier? Maybe that would be
Wants a good way to separate your audience into segments.

Step 3:
To continue segmenting your target audience, look at
Perceptions other ways to group them, such as
shared perceptions, demographics or pyschographics. For
How to Segment: example, white girls often smoke believing it will control
Demographics their weight; this isn‟t true of most boys, as well as many
You can’t speak to everybody.
Different people respond to African American girls. So to get white girls to reject
different messages. To narrow tobacco, you might want to address their concern about
your target audience, consider Psychograph weight gain. The key is to make sure there is a reason for
some of the factors to the right. ics your segmentation strategy -- some reason this group
Slice your audience into needs to be addressed differently than everyone at risk.
“segments.” The idea is to
narrow the audience into a
distinct group, but one still big Step 4:
enough to significantly further
Other Issues Once the audience is narrowed, clearly state the profile.
your ultimate goal (the social
Go back and make sure there are reasons
benefit). Then you can talk right
to that segment of the for breaking the audience down this way for this behavior.
audience. Often marketers will Then, decide which segment or segments to target first
start by working on the easiest
Individual
segment first -- those you think Warning: Don‟t make your audience
you can win over -- then move segment so narrow it won‟t justify
on to those more difficult to your budget. You don‟t need a whole
change. campaign to talk to one person. 17
S.Rengasamy Social Marketing for Social /Development Workers

Box: Phases/Steps in Social marketing campaigns


Phases/Steps in Social marketing campaigns
1. Define the problem (e.g. the behavior you want to change)
2. Identify possible solutions
3. Identify and segment your audience
4. Conduct a SWOT analysis, which looks at a campaign sponsor‟s internal strengths and weaknesses,
as well as external factors that can impact a campaigns outcome. These are labeled as opportunities
and threats,
5. Understand your audience through marketing research (the positioning strategy starts to become
clear)
 Identify the barriers to change
 Identify ways to reduce the barriers to change
 Refine selection of action/behavior to promote
6. Select medium and messages
7. Pretest your campaign ideas and messages
8. Implement
9. Evaluate your results to see if you have created the desired change
10. Make adjustments as needed

Box: Example of a social marketing campaign aimed at young people

Example of a social marketing campaign aimed at young people


Youth Solutions is a non-government, not-for-profit organization that aims to prevent and reduce drug
use and related harm among young people in Macarthur, Winge carribee and the wider community of
New South Wales. In 2003, they held a youth forum for young people living in the Macarthur and
Wingecarribee regions, focusing on issues of concern about young people‟s use of cannabis. This
resulted in a program to provide a locally relevant campaign that involved young people and the
general community.
The campaign called for an understanding about the “real issues” for young people in the region, so
165 young people were asked about their concerns through focus groups and surveys. Issues about
personal safety (including health, violence and sexual assault) were the most common issues raised in
the surveys and focus groups. This made it possible to determine what the important issues were and
how young people wanted health messages delivered to them.
A further 189 young people were then consulted about the types of campaign message that would be
relevant to them. They came up with “Dope EFX u”. Following this, 12 young people participated in an
intensive one-day “creative workshop” to choose the promotional materials for the campaign. The
following resources were chosen by the young people:
 T-shirts
 wristbands
 posters
 three weeks of half-page newspaper advertisements as well as various editorial coverage
 two weeks of radio advertisements on two commercial radio stations
 letterbox drop of postcards promoting the message and the community forum to over 40 000
residents
 web-based fact file.

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S.Rengasamy Social Marketing for Social /Development Workers

What Social Marketing is and what is not

SOCIAL MARKETING IS: SOCIAL MARKETING IS NOT:


A social or behavior change strategy Just advertising
Most effective when it activates people A clever slogan or messaging strategy
Targeted to those who have a reason to Reaching everyone through a media blitz
care and who are ready for change An image campaign
Strategic, and requires efficient use of resources Done in a vacuum
Integrated, and works on the “installment plan” A quick process

Posters: Social Marketing Posters

Social Marketing and Family Welfare in India


Social marketing is globally recognized as a key strategy for improving access to a wide range of
products and services that directly and positively impact the outreach and coverage of health
care. From conceptualizing product development, testing and targeted communication to
consumer research and market segmentation, social marketing looks at the provision of health
care products and services not as a medical problem, but as a sociological issue, and a marketing
challenge. Social marketing in the health sector seeks to bring about changes in health seeking
behavior by creating access to, and improving the demand for products and services, needed for
sustaining the sought after change in behavior.
Generally speaking, many products and services for reproductive and child health (RCH) care
are commercially sold at prices affordable only by the well-off segments of society. The less well
off segments currently rely on public health systems for (typically free of charge) access to RCH
products and services. Increasingly however, people with some ability to pay are seeking better
quality health care facilities, products, and services at affordable prices. However, this segment
of the population, though economically active, usually cannot afford the prices charged by
commercial marketing firms.
Accordingly, social marketing for RCH aims to distribute commonly needed products at
affordable prices to the less well-off (but not necessarily the poorest who may continue to rely
solely on distribution by the public health delivery system), segments of the population, through

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S.Rengasamy Social Marketing for Social /Development Workers

commercial networks, and community / NGO based distribution systems. These channels are
motivated to stock and sell products on the basis of the financial margins received by them. In
this manner, social marketing seeks to provision for health care products through multiple
channels. Ideally, the socially marketed products should be available in all pharmacies and other
retail outlets in cities, small towns, and rural areas, so as to enhance availability and visibility in
every possible manner. Additionally, the product be priced low to enhance affordability and
increase outreach and coverage. As the consumer’s ability to pay increases, he will graduate
from relying upon the public health network to the multiple social marketing outlets for the same
products, and eventually to commercially marketed products for meeting their needs. Facilitation
of this shift is the rationale of the NSSM.
Evolution of Social Marketing in India
India was one of the first countries globally to adopt the social marketing of contraceptives to
extend the coverage and outreach of the then family planning program. By the end of the sixties,
commercial marketing of condoms was two decades old. However, these were stocked in a few
hundred drugstores / retail outlets known for selling high priced speciality goods to the upper
income groups in large cities. Market prices of condoms were very high, and private
manufacturers were unable to generate expansion in consumer sales.
In the early 1960’s, India had introduced a brand of condom, known as "Nirodh" for free supply
through government hospitals and primary health centres. There were at the time, comparatively
few doctors and clinics, mostly concentrated in urban areas. Six to seven years into the program,
it became clear that significantly wider coverage was necessary, if the vast numbers in the rural
areas are to be motivated to use the condom, which must be reached out to them. Exclusive
reliance on government machinery was proving inadequate, and clearly, the family planning
administered through doctors and clinics could not accomplish this task alone.
By 1968, private sector companies with extensive distribution networks for consumer products
were invited to promote 'Nirodh' in the market. Union Carbide, a manufacturer and distributor of
flashlight batteries, Hindustan Lever and Tata Oil Mills, competing manufacturers for cooking
oil and bath soap, India Tobacco Company, the premier distributor of cigarettes, and Brooke
Bond Tea, the major distributor of tea, were given responsibility for operations within assigned
geographic territories. Collectively they covered the entire country. During the eighties,
Government launched an oral contraceptive pill called "Mala-D".
At the same time, Government initiated massive advertising and awareness campaigns. Up to the
late eighties, the campaign spoke of "do ya teen bus", highlighting an average family size of five
members. By the nineties, the message was changed to "hum do hamare do", emphasizing the
two child norm.
Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) also began to participate in the social marketing
program, with funding from Government as also from other organizations. In 1987, Parivar Sewa
Sanstha. was the first NGO to introduce its own branded condoms in the market.
By the early nineties however, most of these private firms had withdrawn from the social
marketing program. They were aggrieved that they had not received adequate media support, for
which reason they perceived sales as not significantly improving. The cost of distribution was
also high. The program was being implemented more and more by social marketing
organizations (SMOs) only. SMOs would rather promote their own products than Government’s
branded products. Moreover, distribution in the urban areas was easier and more cost-effective.

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S.Rengasamy Social Marketing for Social /Development Workers

There was intense competition among the SMOs, who began infiltrating into each others'
marketing territories, possibly leading to some unethical practices.
Table: Social Marketing of Contraceptives in India : Milestones
Social Marketing of Contraceptives in India : Milestones
1968 Social Marketing was launched with 6 leading consumer goods/oil companies with 3 lakh outlets,
with area allotted to each. (These were: Lipton, Brooke Bond, Union Carbide, Hindustan Lever,
Indian Tobacco Company, Tata Oil Mills).
Initially only unlubricated condoms under name „Nirodh‟ was launched.
1977 Introduction of Trade Bonus Scheme for retailers on purchase of condoms to encourage sale.
1983 Introduction of promotional incentive on sale of condoms to SMOs instead of trade bonus on
condoms.
1984 Lubricated Nirodh added on seeing consumer preference and was named „Deluxe Nirodh‟.
1987 A thinner variety, in multiple colours was added in the name „Super Deluxe Nirodh‟.
Oral Pills – the social marketing program was extended to include Oral Contraceptive Pills with
the brand name- Mala-D.
Initially, four leading pharmaceutical companies started marketing in the areas allocated to them.
These were, Parke Davis Ltd., Hoechst India Ltd., Rallis India Ltd. and Day‟s Medical Stores
(Manufacturing) Ltd.
1988 Voluntary Organizations included in SMP: Parivar Sewa Sanstha (Marie Stopes) a voluntary
organization joined the program and introduced their brand named "Sawan" and "Bliss" under
condom and "Ecroz" under Oral Pills. Another Voluntary Organization – Population Services
International also joined the program and introduced another brand of condom "Masti".
1991 Most of the Companies which had active participation and wide outreach withdrew from Social
Marketing program .
Another low priced Govt. brand of condom to meet the need of the poor section of the society,
by the name „New Lubricated Nirodh‟ was added to the program.
1993- Number of organizations, namely, Hindustan Latex Ltd., DKT, Parivar Kalyan Kendra, FPI etc.
1995 joined the program
Since then, following the cafeteria approach social marketing organizations‟ brands were
introduced in the program. The major prevalent brands under condoms are „Zaroor‟, „Mithun‟,
„Sawan‟, „Bliss‟, „Milan‟, „Masti‟, „Pick me‟, Mauj‟, „Sangam‟, „Ustad‟,and „Ahsaas‟. Under oral pills,
the major prevalent brands are Choice, Apsara, Ecroz, Pearl, Suvida, Arpan, and Sugam. Besides,
these brands are allowed to be marketed by the SMOs on all India basis as against the Govt.
brands (Deluxe Nirodh, Super Deluxe Nirodh and New Lubricated Nirodh) which are allowed to
be marketed in the specified territories only.
1994 Revision of sale promotion incentive on condoms; Introduction of sale promotion incentive on
SMOs‟ brands of condoms also.
1995 Introduction of Centchroman, a non steriodal weekly Oral Pill under the brand name „Saheli‟
through HLL under social marketing; Product & Promotional Subsidy on sale of Centchroman also
provided.
1996 Introduction of sale promotion incentive on oral pills.
1999 Working Group with all SMOs constituted for evolving the social marketing program strategy

Achievements of the Social Marketing Programme in India


Achievements of the social marketing programme are to be viewed in the context of a wider
market structure, which also includes the free Government supply of contraceptives, and the
commercial sector. Free distribution, Social Marketing, and Commercial Marketing share the
market. While free supply was intended to address the unmet need of 40% of the Indian
population below poverty line (BPL), social marketing focuses at the lower (20%), lower-middle
(15%), and middle-middle (12%) income brackets, for a 47% share of the Indian population.
Commercial marketing targets an estimated 8% upper middle class and 5% upper class.
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S.Rengasamy Social Marketing for Social /Development Workers

The social marketing organizations currently participating in the program are listed at Annexure
II. SMOs market brands, owned
and promoted by them within
India, without geographic
limitation. However, SMOs also
market public-sector brands in
assigned geographical territories,
subject to terms and conditions
agreed in each case.

The health care products being


socially marketed in India
Family Planning Products Market Structure in India include condoms, oral
contraceptive pills, oral
rehydration salts, iron-folic acid tablets, sanitary towels, and mosquito nets. These products are
either procured at favorable rates in national or international markets, or sometimes, donated by
private foundations or multi - lateral international organizations.

Table: Achievements of the Social Marketing Program in India


Achievements of the Social Marketing Program in India
1. Since the introduction of the social marketing program in 1968, awareness regarding condoms and
oral contraceptive pills has substantially increased. Current awareness among women of reproductive
age is 80% for OCPs and 71% for condoms.
2. Social marketing products have registered large increases in sales since they were launched. Condoms
increased from 16 million pieces sold in 1968-69 to 478 million pieces in 1999-2000, and the sales of
OCPs increased from 7.24 lakh cycles in 1987-88 to 349 lakh cycles in 1999-2000. The share of Social
Marketing now accounts for one third of all condoms and all oral contraceptives distributed annually in
India.
3. This is in part reflected in the quadrupling in the Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) from 10 % of
eligible couples in 1971 to 48% of eligible couples in 1998-1999 (NFHS-2), and in the consequent
decline of the Total Fertility Rate (TFR) from an average of 5 children per woman of reproductive age
in 1971 to 3.3 in 1997. However, condoms and OCPs only account for 10.8% of the current
Contraceptive Prevalence Rate.
4. The SMP has helped provide a wider basket of choices and options within each product (condom and
the OCP) for the consumer.
5. Number of new products, e.g. oral rehydration salts, iron-folic acid tablets, have recently been
introduced, and are further widening the basket of health care products.
6. Several Area Projects in social marketing, commenced as pilot projects in Madhya Pradesh (by a trust
of Hindustan Latex Limited) and in Uttar Pradesh (by the State Innovations in Family Planning Services
Agency) have clearly demonstrated that there is an unmet need for these products in rural areas, that
can be successfully addressed and even gain immense popularity.
7. Over the years, the Government-owned brand name "Nirodh" (GoI-owned brand) also distributed
through Social Marketing, has become a generic name for condoms in India.

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