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# By: Erlyn M.

Geronimo

WARM UP EXERCISE

## Express the following in symbols:

Y is 2 greater than x
Marias age 3 years ago if she is m years old now
The sum of two consecutive odd numbers if the
smaller number is k
The length L is twice the width W
The value of a two digit number if the tens digit is x
and the units digit is y
The number c is two less than the product of a & b

## USING PICTORIAL MODELS TO SOLVE

WORD PROBLEMS
Translating word problems into algebraic
equations is a skill not easily acquired by students
in the higher elementary and lower secondary
school.
Formulating and manipulating algebraic
expressions require a level of abstraction which is
not easily attained by students.
The use of pictorial representations connects
better with the intuitive perception of students,
helping them understand relationships between
the quantities involved in the problem and leading
them to a strategy in solving it.

## Using Venn Diagrams

One of the pictorial models that are useful
in finding relationships between sets is the
Venn Diagram.
Having a visual model of the sets in
consideration provide an efficient way of
determining cardinalities of said sets.

Example 1
when they studied for her class the previous
weekend. Their responses were as follows:
9 said they studied on Friday
18 said they studied on Saturday
30 said they studied on Sunday
3 said they studied on both Friday and Saturday
10 said they studied on both Saturday and Sunday
6 said they studied on both Friday and Sunday
2 said they studied on Friday, Saturday, and
Sunday

Example 1
Assuming that all 42 students responded and
questions:
How many students studied on Sunday but
not on either Friday or Saturday?
How many students did all their studying on
one day?
How many students did not study at all for
this class last weekend?

Example 1
Friday
Saturday
2

2
4

8
2
16

Sunday

Example 1
Assuming that all 42 students responded and
How many students studied on Sunday but not on
either Friday or Saturday? 16
How many students did all their studying on one day? 25
How many students did not study at all for this class
last weekend? 2

Example 2

## Every GOOP is a GORP.

Half of all GORGS are GORPS.
Half of all GORPS are GOOPS.
There are 40 GORGS and 30 GOOPS.
No GORG is a GOOP.
How many GORPS are neither GOOPS
nor GORGS?

Example 2

## Every GOOP is a GORP.

Half of all GORGS are GORPS.
Half of all GORPS are GOOPS.
There are 40 GORGS and 30 GOOPS.
No GORG is a GOOP.
How many GORPS are neither GOOPS nor GORGS?

GORGS

10

GORPS
20

20
10

GOOPS
30

Example 3

Example 3

Example 4
On a balance scale, two spools and one
thimble balance 8 buttons.
Also, one spool balances one thimble and
one button. How many buttons will
balance one spool?

## On a balance scale, two spools and one thimble balance 8 buttons.

Also, one spool balances one thimble and one button. How many
buttons will balance one spool?

## Singapore Model Method or

Block Model Method

## The Model building approach to solving

word problems was developed locally years
ago by Hector Chee, a very experienced
Mathematics teacher, and has been widely
used in the teaching of math in primary
schools in Singapore.
Kids in Singapore are introduced to the
method from as young as Primary One (the

Part-Whole Model
In this model, a whole is divided into two
or more parts.
When the parts are known, we can find
When the whole and one part are known,
we can find the unknown part by
subtraction.

Example 5
Donna spent PhP240 on a photo album.
When she spent 3/8 of her remaining
money on a novel; after which half of her
money was left.
How much did Donna spend on the novel?
What fraction of her money did Donna
spend on her photo album?

Example 5
Donna spent PhP240 on a photo album. When she
spent 3/8 of her remaining money on a novel; after
which half of her money was left.
240

Photo
Album

Novel

240

Money Left

120

Example 5
How much did Donna spend on the novel?
P360
What fraction of her money did Donna spend on her photo
album?

2/10 or 1/5

240

Photo
Album

Novel

240

Money Left

120

Example 6
There are 240 cows and goats on a farm.
Three-fifths of the goats is equal to 3/7 of the
cows.
Find the difference in the number of cows and
goats in a farm.
GOATS:

240
COWS:

difference

Example 6
Find the difference in the number of cows and
goats in a farm. 40
12

240

20

40

GOATS:

240

COWS:

difference

Comparison Model
In this model, two or more quantities are
compared.
If the two quantities are given, we can find
their difference or ratio.
If one quantity and either the difference or
ratio is given, we can find the other
quantity.

Example 7
JB, James and Joseph collected 242
soda cans for the school recycling
campaign.
James collected twice as many soda
cans as JB.
Joseph collected four times as many
soda cans as James.
How many more cans did Joseph collect
than JB?

Example 7

JB, James and Joseph collected 242 soda cans for the school
recycling campaign.
James collected twice as many soda cans as JB.
Joseph collected four times as many soda cans as James.
How many more cans did Joseph collect than JB?
JB:

James:
Joseph:

242

Example 7

## How many more cans did Joseph collect than JB?

11

242

154
22

JB:
James:

242

Joseph:

154

Example 8
Claire, Pam and Tanya have 500 stickers
among themselves.
Pam has 5 more stickers than Claire.
Tanya has thrice as many stickers as
Pam.
How many stickers has Tanya?

Example 8

## Claire, Pam and Tanya have 500 stickers among themselves.

Pam has 5 more stickers than Claire.
Tanya has thrice as many stickers as Pam.
How many stickers has Tanya?

C:
P:

T:

500
5

Example 8
5

500

20

480

96

C:
P:

T:

500
5

## How many stickers has Tanya? 3

5
+ 15

303

Before-After Model
When a quantity or quantities change, a
comparison is made between the new
value(s) and the original value(s).
This is sometimes combined with the
comparison method in the more
complicated word problems.

Example 9
Mike and Sarah had a total of PhP540.
Mike spent PhP240. He now has three
times as much money as Sarah.
How much more money had Mike than
Sarah at first?

Example 9
Mike and Sarah had a total of PhP540.
Mike spent PhP240. He now has three times as much
money as Sarah.
How much more money had Mike than Sarah at first?
Before

After

Sarah:
Mike:

240

540

300

Example 9
4

300

75
Before

After

Sarah:
Mike:

240

540

300

## How much more money had Mike than Sarah at first?

390

Example 10
The number of pupils who passed a
mathematics test is 108 more than the
number of pupils who failed.
If 36 more pupils pass the test, the
number of passers will be 10 times the
number of failures.
Find the number of pupils who took the
test.

Example 10
The number of pupils who passed a mathematics test is 108
more than the number of pupils who failed.
If 36 more pupils pass the test, the number of passers will
be 10 times the number of failures.
Find the number of pupils who took the test.

Actual
Passed:

Failed:

3
6

3
6

108

If

Example 10
2

+2

3
6

+ 108

180
Actual
Passed:

Failed:

11
2

9
1

+ 9
If

3
6

4 108
6
1

3
566

## Find the number of pupils who took the test.

220

180
20

Example 11
One third of a number is 13 less than one-half of that number. What is the
number?

## Let x be the number

6

+ 13 =
2x + 78 = 3x
x = 78

Example 11
One third of a number is 13 less than one-half of that number. What is the
number?

78

13

78

Acknowledgment
Special thanks to A/P Flordeliza Francisco
of Ateneo de Manila University for most of
the examples used in this presentation.