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Tests for anions

Anion
Carbonate (CO32-)

Test
Add dilute acid

Chloride (Cl-)

Acidify with dilute nitric


acid, then add aqueous
silver nitrate
Acidify with dilute nitric
acid, then add aqueous
lead (II) nitrate
Add aqueous sodium
hydroxide, then
aluminum foil; warm
carefully
Acidify then add
aqueous barium nitrate

Iodide (I-)

Nitrate(NO3-)

Sulphate (SO42-)

Test result
Effervescence, carbon
dioxide produces
White ppt.

Yellow ppt.

Ammonia produced
Pungent smelling gas

White ppt.

Tests for aqueous cations


Cations
Aluminum

Ammonium
Calcium
Copper

Iron (II)
Iron (III)
Zinc

Lead
Magnesium

Effect of aqueous
sodium hydroxide
White ppt soluble in
excess giving colourless
solution
Ammonia produced on
warming
White ppt insoluble in
excess
Light blue ppt insoluble
in excess
Green ppt insoluble in
excess
Red-brown ppt insoluble
in excess
White ppt, soluble in
excess, giving a
colourless solution
White ppt soluble in
excess
White ppt insoluble in
excess

Effect of aqueous
ammonia
White ppt insoluble in
excess

No ppt or very slight


white ppt
Light blue ppt soluble in
excess giving a dark
blue solution
Green ppt insoluble in
excess
Red-brown ppt insoluble
in excess
White ppt, soluble in
excess, giving a
colourless solution
White ppt insoluble in
excess
White ppt insoluble in
excess

Tests for gases


Gas
Ammonia
Carbon dioxide
Chlorine
Hydrogen

Test and test result


Turns damp red litmus paper blue
Turns lime water milky
Bleaches damp litmus paper
Pop with a lighted

Oxygen

Relights a glowing splint