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Ch.

3 Probability
3.1 BasicConceptsofProbabilityandCounting
1 FindProbabilities
MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
Provideanappropriateresponse.
1) Acoinistossed.Findtheprobabilitythattheresultisheads.
A) 0.5
B) 0.1
C) 0.9

D) 1

2) Asinglesix-sideddieisrolled.Findtheprobabilityofrollinganumberlessthan3.
A) 0.333
B) 0.1
C) 0.5

D) 0.25

3) Asinglesix-sideddieisrolled.Findtheprobabilityofrollingaseven.
A) 0
B) 0.1
C) 0.5

D) 1

4) Astudyof1000randomlyselectedflightsofamajorairlineshowedthat 769 oftheflightsarrivedontime.


Whatistheprobabilityofaflightarrivingontime?
231
1000
1000
769
B)
C)
D)
A)
1000
231
769
1000
5) Ifonecardisdrawnfromastandarddeckof52playingcards,whatistheprobabilityofdrawinganace?
1
1
1
1
A)
B)
C)
D)
13
52
4
2
6) Ifonecardisdrawnfromastandarddeckof52playingcards,whatistheprobabilityofdrawingaredcard?
1
1
1
1
A)
B)
C)
D)
2
52
4
13
7) Ifonecardisdrawnfromastandarddeckof52playingcards,whatistheprobabilityofdrawingaheart?
1
1
3
A)
B)
C)
D) 1
4
2
4
8) Inasurveyofcollegestudents,824saidthattheyhavecheatedonanexamand1727saidthattheyhavenot.If
onecollegestudentisselectedatrandom,findtheprobabilitythatthestudenthascheatedonanexam.
1727
2551
2551
824
B)
C)
D)
A)
2551
824
1727
2551
9) Ifanindividualisselectedatrandom,whatistheprobabilitythatheorshehasabirthdayinJuly?Ignoreleap
years.
1
364
12
31
B)
C)
D)
A)
365
365
365
365

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SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.
10) ThedatainthetablerepresentthenumberofconsumercomplaintsagainstmajorU.S.airlines.Ifonecomplaint
fromthetableisrandomlyselected,findtheprobabilitythatitwasfiledagainstUnitedAirlines.
Airline
NumberofComplaints
United
1172
Northwest
765
Continental
563

11) ThedatainthetablerepresentthenumberofconsumercomplaintsagainstmajorU.S.airlines.Ifonecomplaint
fromthetableisrandomlyselected,findtheprobabilitythatitwasfiledagainstNorthwestAirlines.
Airline
NumberofComplaints
United
1172
Northwest
765
Continental
563

12) ThedatainthetablerepresentthenumberofconsumercomplaintsagainstmajorU.S.airlines.Ifonecomplaint
fromthetableisrandomlyselected,findtheprobabilitythatitwasfiledagainstContinentalAirlines.
Airline
NumberofComplaints
United
1172
Northwest
765
Continental
563

MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
13) Thedistributionofbloodtypesfor100Americansislistedinthetable.Ifonedonorisselectedatrandom,find
theprobabilityofselectingapersonwithbloodtypeA+.
BloodType O+ O- A+ A- B+ B- AB+ ABNumber
37
6
34
6
10
2
4
1
A) 0.34

B) 0.4

C) 0.45

D) 0.68

14) Thedistributionofbloodtypesfor100Americansislistedinthetable.Ifonedonorisselectedatrandom,find
theprobabilityofselectingapersonwithbloodtypeA+orA-.
BloodType O+ O- A+ A- B+ B- AB+ ABNumber
37
6
34
6
10
2
4
1
A) 0.4

B) 0.34

C) 0.02

D) 0.06

15) Thedistributionofbloodtypesfor100Americansislistedinthetable.Ifonedonorisselectedatrandom,find
theprobabilityofnotselectingapersonwithbloodtypeB+.
BloodType O+ O- A+ A- B+ B- AB+ ABNumber
37
6
34
6
10
2
4
1
A) 0.90

B) 0.82

C) 0.12

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D) 0.10

16) Thedistributionofbloodtypesfor100Americansislistedinthetable.Ifonedonorisselectedatrandom,find
theprobabilityofselectingapersonwithbloodtypeAB-.
BloodType O+ O- A+ A- B+ B- AB+ ABNumber
37
6
34
6
10
2
4
1
A) 0.01

B) 0.05

C) 0.99

D) 0.10

17) ThedistributionofMastersdegreesconferredbyauniversityislistedinthetable.
Major
Frequency
Mathematics
216
English
207
Engineering
81
Business
176
Education
222
WhatistheprobabilitythatarandomlyselectedstudentgraduatingwithaMastersdegreehasamajorof
Engineering?Roundyouranswertothreedecimalplaces.
A) 0.090
B) 0.910
C) 0.012
D) 0.988
18) ThedistributionofMastersdegreesconferredbyauniversityislistedinthetable.
Major
Frequency
Mathematics
216
English
207
Engineering
86
Business
176
Education
227
WhatistheprobabilitythatarandomlyselectedstudentgraduatingwithaMastersdegreehasamajorof
Education?Roundyouranswertothreedecimalplaces.
A) 0.249
B) 0.751
C) 0.004
D) 0.331
SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.
19) Usethefollowinggraph,whichshowsthetypesofincidentsencounteredwithdriversusingcellphones,to
findtheprobabilitythatarandomlychosenincidentinvolvescuttingoffacar.Roundyouranswertothree
decimalplaces.

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20) Usethefollowinggraph,whichshowsthetypesofincidentsencounteredwithdriversusingcellphones,to
findtheprobabilitythatarandomlychosenincidentdidnotinvolvecuttingoffacar.Roundyouranswerto
threedecimalplaces.

21) Usethepiechart,whichshowsthenumberofCongressionalMedalofHonorrecipientsintheUnitedStates,to
findtheprobabilitythatarandomlychosenrecipientservedintheNavy.

22) Usethepiechart,whichshowsthenumberofCongressionalMedalofHonorrecipientsintheUnitedStates,to
findtheprobabilitythatarandomlychosenrecipientdidnotserveintheMarines.

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MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
23) Aquestionhasfivemultiple-choiceanswers.Findtheprobabilityofguessinganincorrectanswer.
5
1
3
4
B)
C)
D)
A)
2
5
5
5
24) Aquestionhasfivemultiple-choicequestions.Findtheprobabilityofguessingthecorrectanswer.
5
4
2
1
B)
C)
D)
A)
4
5
5
5
SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.
25) ThedistributionofMastersdegreesconferredbyauniversityislistedinthetable.
Major
Frequency
Mathematics
216
English
207
Engineering
86
Business
176
Education
222
FindtheprobabilityofrandomlychoosingapersongraduatingwithaMastersdegreewhodidnotmajorin
Education.Roundyouranswertothreedecimalplaces.
26) ThedatainthetablerepresentthenumberofconsumercomplaintsagainstmajorU.S.airlines.Ifonecomplaint
fromthetableisrandomlyselected,findtheprobabilitythatitwasnotfiledagainstContinentalAirlines.
(Roundtothreedecimalplaces.)
Airline
NumberofComplaints
United
287
Northwest
256
Continental
202

2 IdentifytheSampleSpace
SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.
Provideanappropriateresponse.
27) Identifythesamplespaceoftheprobabilityexperiment:shootingafreethrowinbasketball.
28) Identifythesamplespaceoftheprobabilityexperiment:answeringatrueorfalsequestion
29) Identifythesamplespaceoftheprobabilityexperiment:recordingthenumberofdaysitsnowedinCleveland
inthemonthofJanuary.
30) Identifythesamplespaceoftheprobabilityexperiment:answeringamultiplechoicequestionwithA,B,C,and
Dasthepossibleanswers
31) Identifythesamplespaceoftheprobabilityexperiment:determiningthechildrensgenderforafamilyofthree
children(UseBforboyandGforgirl.)
32) Identifythesamplespaceoftheprobabilityexperiment:rollingasingle12 -sideddiewithsidesnumbered1-12

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33) Identifythesamplespaceoftheprobabilityexperiment:rollingapairof12 -sideddice(withsidesnumbered


1-12)andobservingthetotalnumberofpointsofeachroll
34) Identifythesamplespaceoftheprobabilityexperiment:Acalculatorhasafunctionbuttontogeneratea
randomintegerfrom-5to5
35) Identifythesamplespaceoftheprobabilityexperiment:recordingaresponsetothesurveyquestionandthe
genderoftherespondent.

36) Identifythesamplespaceoftheprobabilityexperiment:recordingthedayoftheweekandwhetherornotit
rains.
3 IdentifySimpleEvents
MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
Determinethenumberofoutcomesintheevent.Thendecidewhethertheeventisasimpleeventornot.Explainyour
reasoning.
37) Acomputerisusedtorandomlyselectanumberbetween1and1000.EventAisselectinganumbergreater
than600.
A) 400;Notasimpleeventbecauseitisaneventthatconsistsofmorethanasingleoutcome.
B) 1;Simpleeventbecauseitisaneventthatconsistsofasingleoutcome.
C) 600;Notasimpleeventbecauseitisaneventthatconsistsofmorethanasingleoutcome.
D) 400;Simpleeventbecauseonlyonenumberisselected.
38) Yourollasix-sideddie.EventBisrollinganevennumber.
A) 3;Notasimpleeventbecauseitisaneventthatconsistsofmorethanasingleoutcome.
B) 1;Simpleeventbecauseitisaneventthatconsistsofasingleoutcome.
C) 2;Notasimpleeventbecauseitisaneventthatconsistsofmorethanasingleoutcome.
D) 3;Simpleeventbecausethedieisonlyrolledonce.

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39) Yourandomlyselectonecardfromastandarddeck.EventBisselectingtheaceofhearts.
A) 1;Simpleeventbecauseitisaneventthatconsistsofasingleoutcome.
B) 4;Simpleeventbecauseonlyonecardisselected.
C) 4;Notasimpleeventbecauseitisaneventthatconsistsofmorethanasingleoutcome.
D) 13;Notasimpleeventbecauseitisaneventthatconsistsofmorethanasingleoutcome.
40) Yourandomlyselectacomputerfromabatchof50whichcontains3defectivecomputers.EventBisselectinga
defectivecomputer.
A) 3;Notasimpleeventbecauseitisaneventthatconsistsofmorethanasingleoutcome.
B) 3;Simpleeventbecauseitisaneventthatconsistsofonlyonetypeofcomputer.
C) 1;Simpleeventbecauseitisaneventthatconsistsofonlyonetypeofcomputer.
D) 50;Notasimpleeventbecauseitisaneventthatconsistsofmorethanasingleoutcome.
4 UseFundamentalCountingPrinciple
MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
Usethefundamentalcountingprincipletosolvetheproblem.
41) Ashirtcompanyhas4designseachofwhichcanbemadewithshortorlongsleeves.Thereare7 colorpatterns
available.Howmanydifferentshirtsareavailablefromthiscompany?
A) 56
B) 28
C) 11
D) 13
42) If5newbornbabiesarerandomlyselected,howmanydifferentgendersequencesarepossible?
A) 32
B) 10
C) 120
D) 25
43) Asinger-songwriterwishestocomposeamelody.Eachnoteinthemelodymustbeoneofthe 14 notesinher
vocalrange.Howmanydifferentsequencesof3notesarepossible?
A) 2744
B) 4,782,969
C) 42
D) 2184
44) Howmanylicenseplatescanbemadeconsistingof 2 lettersfollowedby3 digits?
A) 676,000
B) 100,000
C) 11,881,376

D) 67,600

45) Howmanydifferentcodesof4digitsarepossibleifthefirstdigitmustbe3,4,or5andifthecodemaynotend
in0?
A) 2700
B) 300
C) 2999
D) 3000
5 ClassifyTypesofProbability
MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
Provideanappropriateresponse.
46) Classifythestatementasanexampleofclassicalprobability,empiricalprobability,orsubjectiveprobability.
Theprobabilitythatatrainwillbeinanaccidentonaspecificrouteis1%.
A) empiricalprobability
B) classicalprobability
C) subjectiveprobability
47) Classifythestatementasanexampleofclassicalprobability,empiricalprobability,orsubjectiveprobability.
Theprobabilitythatinterestrateswillriseduringthesummeris0.05.
A) subjectiveprobability
B) classicalprobability
C) empiricalprobability
48) Classifythestatementasanexampleofclassicalprobability,empiricalprobability,orsubjectiveprobability.
InCaliforniasPickThreelottery,apersonselectsa3-digitnumber.TheprobabilityofwinningCalifornias
1
PickThreelotteryis
.
1000
A) classicalprobability

B) empiricalprobability

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C) subjectiveprobability

49) Classifythestatementasanexampleofclassicalprobability,empiricalprobability,orsubjectiveprobability.
1
Theprobabilitythatanewbornbabyisaboyis .
2
A) classicalprobability

B) empiricalprobability

C) subjectiveprobability

50) Classifythestatementasanexampleofclassicalprobability,empiricalprobability,orsubjectiveprobability.
Theprobabilitythatitwillraintomorrowis21%.
A) subjectiveprobability
B) classicalprobability
C) empiricalprobability
6 DetermineOdds
MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
Provideanappropriateresponse.
3
51) TheP(A)= .FindtheoddsofwinninganA.
5
A) 3:2

B) 2:3

C) 3:5

D) 5:2

52) Acardispickedatrandomfromastandarddeckof52playingcards.Findtheoddsthatitisnotaheart.
A) 3:1
B) 1:3
C) 4:1
D) 1:4
53) Atthelocalracetrack,thefavoriteinaracehasodds3:2ofwinning.Whatistheprobabilitythatthefavorite
winstherace?
A) 0.6
B) 0.4
C) 0.2
D) 1.5
54) Atthelocalracetrack,thefavoriteinaracehasodds3:2oflosing.Whatistheprobabilitythatthefavoritewins
therace?
A) 0.4
B) 0.6
C) 0.2
D) 0.67
7 Concepts
MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
Provideanappropriateresponse.
55) Whichofthefollowingcannotbeaprobability?
A) -68

B) 0

56) Whichofthefollowingcannotbeaprobability?
4
A)
B) 0.0002
3

5
3

C) 0.001

D)

C) 1

D) 85%

1
57) Ranktheprobabilitiesof10%, ,and0.06fromtheleastlikelytooccurtothemostlikelytooccur.
5
A) 0.06,10%,

1
5

B)

1
,10%,0.06
5

1
C) 0.06, ,10%
5

1
D) 10%, ,0.06
5

1
58) Ranktheprobabilitiesof10%, ,and0.06fromthemostlikelytooccurtotheleastlikelytooccur.
5
A)

1
,10%,0.06
5

B) 0.06,10%,

1
5

1
C) 10%, ,0.06
5

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1
D) 0.06, ,10%
5

SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.
59) Explainwhythefollowingstatementisincorrect:
Hegave110%effort.

3.2 ConditionalProbabilityandtheMultiplicationRule
1 DetermineBetweenIndependentandDependentEvents
MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
Provideanappropriateresponse.
1) Classifytheeventsasdependentorindependent.EventsAandBwhere
P(A)=0.7,P(B)=0.7,andP(AandB)=0.49
A) independent
B) dependent
2) Classifytheeventsasdependentorindependent.EventsAandBwhere
P(A)=0.8,P(B)=0.1,andP(AandB)=0.07
A) dependent
B) independent
3) Classifytheeventsasdependentorindependent.
Theeventsofgettingtwoaceswhentwocardsaredrawnfromadeckofplayingcardsandthefirstcardis
replacedbeforethesecondcardisdrawn.
A) independent
B) dependent
4) Classifytheeventsasdependentorindependent.Theeventsofgettingtwoaceswhentwocardsaredrawn
fromadeckofplayingcardsandthefirstcardisnotreplacedbeforethesecondcardisdrawn.
A) dependent
B) independent
5) Classifytheeventsasdependentorindependent.EventA:Aredcandyisselectedfromapackagewith30
coloredcandiesandeaten.EventB:Abluecandyisselectedfromthesamepackageandeaten.
A) dependent
B) independent
2 FindConditionalProbabilities
MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
Provideanappropriateresponse.
6) Agroupofstudentswereaskediftheycarryacreditcard.Theresponsesarelistedinthetable.

Class
Freshman
Sophomore
Total

CreditCard NotaCreditCard
Carrier
Carrier
Total
45
15
60
32
8
40
77
23
100

Ifastudentisselectedatrandom,findtheprobabilitythatheorsheownsacreditcardgiventhatthestudentis
afreshman.Roundyouranswertothreedecimalplaces.
A) 0.750
B) 0.250
C) 0.584
D) 0.450

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7) Agroupofstudentswereaskediftheycarryacreditcard.Theresponsesarelistedinthetable.

Class
Freshman
Sophomore
Total

CreditCard NotaCreditCard
Carrier
Carrier
Total
17
43
60
28
12
40
45
55
100

Ifastudentisselectedatrandom,findtheprobabilitythatheorsheownsacreditcardgiventhatthestudentis
asophomore.Roundyouranswertothreedecimalplaces.
A) 0.700
B) 0.300
C) 0.622
D) 0.280
8) Agroupofstudentswereaskediftheycarryacreditcard.Theresponsesarelistedinthetable.

Class
Freshman
Sophomore
Total

CreditCard NotaCreditCard
Carrier
Carrier
Total
23
37
60
31
9
40
54
46
100

Ifastudentisselectedatrandom,findtheprobabilitythatheorsheisafreshmangiventhatthestudentowns
acreditcard.Roundyouranswerstothreedecimalplaces.
A) 0.426
B) 0.383
C) 0.574
D) 0.230
9) Agroupofstudentswereaskediftheycarryacreditcard.Theresponsesarelistedinthetable.

Class
Freshman
Sophomore
Total

CreditCard NotaCreditCard
Carrier
Carrier
Total
21
39
60
15
25
40
36
64
100

Ifastudentisselectedatrandom,findtheprobabilitythatheorsheisasophomoregiventhatthestudent
ownsacreditcard.Roundyouranswerstothreedecimalplaces.
A) 0.417
B) 0.583
C) 0.900
D) 0.150
10) Agroupofstudentswereaskediftheycarryacreditcard.Theresponsesarelistedinthetable.

Class
Freshman
Sophomore
Total

CreditCard NotaCreditCard
Carrier
Carrier
Total
10
50
60
20
20
40
30
70
100

Ifastudentisselectedatrandom,findtheprobabilitythatheorsheisasophomoreandownsacreditcard.
Roundyouranswerstothreedecimalplaces.
A) 0.200
B) 0.333
C) 0.750
D) 0.667

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3 UsetheMultiplicationRuletoFindProbabilities
MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
Provideanappropriateresponse.
11) Youaredealttwocardssuccessivelywithoutreplacementfromastandarddeckof52playingcards.Findthe
probabilitythatthefirstcardisatwoandthesecondcardisaten.Roundyouranswertothreedecimalplaces.
A) 0.006
B) 0.994
C) 0.250
D) 0.500
12) Findtheprobabilityofansweringtwotrueorfalsequestionscorrectlyifrandomguessesaremade.Onlyoneof
thechoicesiscorrect.
A) 0.25
B) 0.5
C) 0.75
D) 0.1
13) Findtheprobabilityofansweringthetwomultiplechoicequestionscorrectlyifrandomguessesaremade.
Assumethequestionseachhavefivechoicesfortheanswer.Onlyoneofthechoicesiscorrect.
A) 0.04
B) 0.004
C) 0.4
D) 0.02
SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.
14) Findtheprobabilityofgettingfourconsecutiveaceswhenfourcardsaredrawnwithoutreplacementfroma
standarddeckof52playingcards.
15) Findtheprobabilityofselectingtwoconsecutivethreeswhentwocardsaredrawnwithoutreplacementfroma
standarddeckof52playingcards.Roundyouranswertofourdecimalplaces.
MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
16) Amultiple-choicetesthasfivequestions,eachwithfivechoicesfortheanswer.Onlyoneofthechoicesis
correct.Yourandomlyguesstheanswertoeachquestion.Whatistheprobabilitythatyouanswerthefirsttwo
questionscorrectly?
A) 0.04
B) 0.2
C) 0.02
D) 0.4
SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.
17) Amultiple-choicetesthasfivequestions,eachwithfivechoicesfortheanswer.Onlyoneofthechoicesis
correct.Yourandomlyguesstheanswertoeachquestion.Whatistheprobabilitythatyouanswerallfive
questionscorrectly?
18) Amultiple-choicetesthasfivequestions,eachwithfivechoicesfortheanswer.Onlyoneofthechoicesis
correct.Yourandomlyguesstheanswertoeachquestion.Whatistheprobabilitythatyoudonotanswerany
ofthequestionscorrectly?
19) Amultiple-choicetesthasfivequestions,eachwithfivechoicesfortheanswer.Onlyoneofthechoicesis
correct.Yourandomlyguesstheanswertoeachquestion.Whatistheprobabilitythatyouansweratleastone
ofthequestionscorrectly?
20) Theprobabilityitwillrainis40%eachdayoverathree-dayperiod.Whatistheprobabilityitwillrainatleast
oneofthethreedays?
21) Theprobabilityitwillrainis40%eachdayoverathree-dayperiod.Whatistheprobabilityitwillnotrainat
leastoneofthethreedays?

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MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
22) Fourstudentsdrivetoschoolinthesamecar.Thestudentsclaimtheywerelatetoschoolandmissedatest
becauseofaflattire.Onthemakeuptest,theinstructorasksthestudentstoidentifythetirethatwentflat;front
driversside,frontpassengersside,reardriversside,orrearpassengersside.Ifthestudentsdidntreallyhave
aflattireandeachrandomlyselectsatire,whatistheprobabilitythatallfourstudentsselectthesametire?
1
1
1
1
B)
C)
D)
A)
4
256
8
64
23) Findtheprobabilitythatof25randomlyselectedstudents,notwosharethesamebirthday.
A) 0.431
B) 0.995
C) 0.569
D) 0.068
24) Findtheprobabilitythatof25randomlyselectedstudents,atleasttwosharethesamebirthday.
A) 0.569
B) 0.068
C) 0.432
D) 0.995
SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.
25) Whatistheprobabilitythatahusband,wife,anddaughterhavethesamebirthday?
4 UseBayessTheorem
MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
Provideanappropriateresponse.
26) UseBayestheoremtosolvethisproblem.Astoreownerpurchasesstereosfromtwocompanies.From
CompanyA,450stereosarepurchasedand6%arefoundtobedefective.FromCompanyB,550stereosare
purchasedand4%arefoundtobedefective.Giventhatastereoisdefective,findtheprobabilitythatitcame
fromCompanyA.
33
18
22
27
B)
C)
D)
A)
49
49
49
49
27) UseBayesTheoremtosolvethisproblem,Apaperbagcontainstworedballsandoneblueball.Aplasticbag
containsthreeblueballsandoneredball.Acoinistossed.Ifitfallsheadsup,thepaperbagisselectedanda
ballisdrawn.Ifthecoinfallstailsup,theplasticbagisselectedandaballisdrawn.Ifaredballisselected,
whatistheprobabilitythatitcamefromthepaperbag?
1
1
3
8
B)
C)
D)
A)
3
8
8
11

3.3 TheAdditionRule
1 DetermineifEventsAreMutuallyExclusive
MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
Provideanappropriateresponse.
1) DecideiftheeventsAandBaremutuallyexclusiveornotmutuallyexclusive.Adieisrolled.
A:Theresultisanoddnumber.
B:Theresultisanevennumber.
A) mutuallyexclusive
B) notmutuallyexclusive
2) DecideiftheeventsAandBaremutuallyexclusiveornotmutuallyexclusive,Adieisrolled.
A:Theresultisa3.
B:Theresultisanoddnumber.
A) notmutuallyexclusive
B) mutuallyexclusive

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3) DecideiftheeventsAandBaremutuallyexclusiveornotmutuallyexclusive.AdateinPhiladelphiais
selected.
A:Itrainsthatday.
B:Itsnowsthatday.
A) notmutuallyexclusive
B) mutuallyexclusive
4) DecideiftheeventsAandBaremutuallyexclusiveornotmutuallyexclusive.Acardisdrawnfromastandard
deckof52playingcards.
A:Theresultisa7.
B:Theresultisajack.
A) mutuallyexclusive
B) notmutuallyexclusive
5) DecideiftheeventsAandBaremutuallyexclusiveornotmutuallyexclusive.Acardisdrawnfromastandard
deckof52playingcards.
A:Theresultisaclub.
B:Theresultisaking.
A) notmutuallyexclusive
B) mutuallyexclusive
6) DecideiftheeventsAandBaremutuallyexclusiveornotmutuallyexclusive.Apersonisselectedatrandom.
A:Theirbirthdayisinthefall.
B:TheirbirthdayisinOctober.
A) notmutuallyexclusive
B) mutuallyexclusive
7) DecideiftheeventsAandBaremutuallyexclusiveornotmutuallyexclusive.Astudentisselectedatrandom.
A:Thestudentistakingamathcourse.
B:Thestudentisabusinessmajor.
A) notmutuallyexclusive
B) mutuallyexclusive
2 UsetheAdditionRuletoFindProbabilities
MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
Provideanappropriateresponse.
8) Acardisdrawnfromastandarddeckof52playingcards.Findtheprobabilitythatthecardisanaceoraking.
1
4
8
2
B)
C)
D)
A)
13
13
13
13
9) Acardisdrawnfromastandarddeckof52playingcards.Findtheprobabilitythatthecardisanaceoraheart.
4
7
17
3
A)
B)
C)
D)
13
52
52
13
10) Acardisdrawnfromastandarddeckof52playingcards.Findtheprobabilitythatthecardisanaceorablack
card.
15
29
4
7
B)
C)
D)
A)
26
52
13
13
11) TheeventsAandBaremutuallyexclusive.IfP(A)= 0.6 andP(B)= 0.2,whatisP(AorB)?
A) 0.8
B) 0
C) 0.12
D) 0.4
1
1
1
12) GiventhatP(AorB)= ,P(A)= ,andP(AandB)= ,findP(B).
7
9
4
A)

55
252

B)

5
63

C)

127
252

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D)

71
252

SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.
13) Usethefollowinggraph,whichshowsthetypesofincidentsencounteredwithdriversusingcellphones,to
findtheprobabilitythatarandomlychosenincidentinvolveseitherswervingoralmosthittingacar.

MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
14) Thetableliststhesmokinghabitsofagroupofcollegestudents.
Sex
Non-smoker RegularSmoker HeavySmoker Total
Man
135
51
5
191
Woman
187
21
12
220
Total
322
72
17
411

Ifastudentischosenatrandom,findtheprobabilityofgettingsomeonewhoisaregularorheavysmoker.
Roundyouranswertothreedecimalplaces.
A) 0.217
B) 0.708
C) 0.256
D) 0.153
15) Thetableliststhesmokinghabitsofagroupofcollegestudents.
Sex
Non-smoker RegularSmoker HeavySmoker Total
Man
135
70
5
210
Woman
187
21
15
223
Total
322
91
20
433

Ifastudentischosenatrandom,findtheprobabilityofgettingsomeonewhoisamanoranon -smoker.
Roundyouranswertothreedecimalplaces.
A) 0.917
B) 0.950
C) 0.942
D) 0.790
16) Thetableliststhesmokinghabitsofagroupofcollegestudents.
Sex
Non-smoker RegularSmoker HeavySmoker Total
Man
135
52
5
192
Woman
187
21
5
213
Total
322
73
10
405
Ifastudentischosenatrandom,findtheprobabilityofgettingsomeonewhoisamanorawoman.Round
youranswertothreedecimalplaces.
A) 1
B) 0.936
C) 0.795
D) 0.205

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17) ThedistributionofMastersdegreesconferredbyauniversityislistedinthetable.
Assumethatastudentmajorsinonlyonesubject.
Major
Frequency
Mathematics
229
English
203
Engineering
86
Business
176
Education
222

WhatistheprobabilitythatarandomlyselectedstudentwithaMastersdegreemajoredinEnglishor
Mathematics?Roundyouranswertothreedecimalplaces.
A) 0.472
B) 0.528
C) 0.250
D) 0.222
18) Onehundredpeoplewereasked,Doyoufavorthedeathpenalty?Ofthe33thatansweredyestothe
question,14weremale.Ofthe67thatanswerednotothequestion,sixweremale.Ifonepersonisselectedat
random,whatistheprobabilitythatthispersonansweredyesorwasamale?
A) 0.39
B) 0.53
C) 0.67
D) 0.13
3 UsetheAdditionRuleforThreeEvents
SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.
Provideanappropriateresponse.
19) Usethepiechart,whichshowsthenumberofCongressionalMedalofHonorrecipients,tofindtheprobability
thatarandomlychosenrecipientservedintheArmy,Navy,orMarines.

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MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
20) ThedistributionofMastersdegreesconferredbyauniversityislistedinthetable.
Assumethatastudentmajorsinonlyonesubject.
Major
Frequency
Mathematics
216
English
207
Engineering
77
Business
171
Education
220

WhatistheprobabilitythatarandomlyselectedstudentwithaMastersdegreemajoredinBusiness,Education
orEngineering?Roundyouranswertothreedecimalplaces.
A) 0.525
B) 0.475
C) 0.278
D) 0.333
SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.
21) IntheVenndiagrambelow,eventArepresentstheadultswhodrinkcoffee,eventBrepresentstheadultswho
drinktea,andeventCrepresentstheadultswhodrinkcola.Listtheregion(s)whichrepresenttheadultswho
drinkbothcoffeeandtea.

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22) IntheVenndiagrambelow,eventArepresentstheadultswhodrinkcoffee,eventBrepresentstheadultswho
drinktea,andeventCrepresentstheadultswhodrinkcola.Listtheregion(s)whichrepresenttheadultswho
drinkonlycola.

4 Concepts
MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
Provideanappropriateresponse.
23) TheeventsAandBaremutuallyexclusive.IfP(A)= 0.3 andP(B)= 0.4,whatisP(AandB)?
A) 0
B) 0.12
C) 0.5
D) 0.7

3.4 AdditionalTopicsinProbabilityandCounting
1 PerformCalculationswithPermutations/Combinations
MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
Performtheindicatedcalculation.
1) 5 P4
A) 120

B) 5

C) 24

D) 1

2) 8 P4
A) 1680

B) 70

C) 2

D) 4

3) 10P2
A) 90

B) 45

C) 19

D) 8

4) 8 C3
A) 56

B) 112

C) 3

D) 120

B) 0.18

C) 0.00050

D) 0.68

5)

6 P4
9 P3
A) 0.71

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6)

6 C3
9 C4
A) 0.16

B) 0.040

C) 0.0079

D) 8900

2 DistinguishPermutationsfromCombinations
SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.
Decideifthesituationinvolvespermutations,combinations,orneither.Explainyourreasoning.
7) Thenumberofways6friendscanbeseatedinarowatamovietheater
8) Thenumberofwaysajuryof12canbeselectedfromapoolof20
9) Thenumberof5-digitpincodesifnodigitcanberepeated
10) Thenumberofwaysyoucanchoose4booksfromaselectionof8tobringonvacation
11) Thenumberofwaysinwhich5contestantsinasingingcompetitioncanfinish
12) ThenumberofwaysanairlinecanhireaflightattendantforitsEuropeanflights,aflightattendantforits
domesticflights,andaflightattendantforitsAsianflightfromapoolof35applicants
13) Thenumberoffive-letterpasswordsthatcanbecreatedwhenletterscanberepeated
3 UseCountingPrinciples
MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
Provideanappropriateresponse.
14) Theaccesscodetoahousessecuritysystemconsistsofeight digits.Howmanydifferentcodesareavailableif
eachdigitcanberepeated?
A) 100,000,000
B) 16,777,216
C) 256
D) 8
15) Adeliveryroutemustincludestopsatfour cities.Howmanydifferentroutesarepossible?
A) 24
B) 4
C) 16
D) 256
16) AtouristinIrelandwantstovisitsixdifferentcities.Howmanydifferentroutesarepossible?
A) 720
B) 120
C) 36
D) 46,656
17) Sevenguestsareinvitedfordinner.Howmanywayscantheybeseatedatadinnertableifthetableisstraight
withseatsonlyononeside?
A) 5040
B) 40,320
C) 720
D) 1
18) TheEnvironmentalProtectionAgencymustvisitninefactoriesforcomplaintsofairpollution.Inhowmany
differentwayscanarepresentativevisitfiveofthesetoinvestigatethisweek?
A) 15,120
B) 362,880
C) 5
D) 126
SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.
19) Howmanywayscanajuryofeightmenandeight womenbeselectedfromtwelvemenandtenwomen?
20) HowmanywayscantwoRepublicans,oneDemocrat,andoneIndependentbechosenfromnineRepublicans,
fiveDemocrats,andtwoIndependentstofillfourpositionsoncitycouncil?

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21) HowmanydifferentpermutationsofthelettersinthewordPROBABILITYarethere?
22) HowmanydifferentpermutationsofthelettersinthewordSTATISTICSarethere?
MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
23) Ifacoupleplanstohaveninechildren,howmanygendersequencesarepossible?
A) 512
B) 9
C) 387,420,489

D) 81

24) Ifacouplehassixboysandsixgirls,howmanygendersequencesarepossible?
A) 924
B) 12
C) 8

D) 16

SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.
25) Astudentmustanswerfivequestionsonanexamthatcontainsten questions.
a)Howmanywayscanthestudentdothis?
b)Howmanywaysarethereifthestudentmustanswerthefirstandlastquestion?
26) Howmanyversionsofatestarerequiredtocoverallpossiblequestionarrangementsifthereare nine
open-endedquestionsonthetest?
MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
27) Howmanywayscanfivepeople,A,B,C,D,andE,sitinarowatamovietheaterifAandBmustsittogether?
A) 48
B) 120
C) 12
D) 24
28) Howmanywayscanfivepeople,A,B,C,D,andE,sitinarowatamovietheaterifCmustsittotherightof
butnotnecessarilynexttoB?
A) 60
B) 24
C) 20
D) 48
29) Howmanywayscanfivepeople,A,B,C,D,andE,sitinarowatamovietheaterifDandEwillnotsitnextto
eachother?
A) 72

B) 24

C) 48

D) 60

SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.
30) Theaccesscodetoahousessecuritysystemconsistsoffivedigits.Howmanydifferentcodesareavailableif
thefirstdigitcannotbezeroandthearrangementoffivefivesisexcluded?
31) InCalifornia,eachautomobilelicenseplateconsistsofasingledigitfollowedbythreeletters,followedbythree
digits.Howmanydistinctlicenseplatescanbeformediftherearenorestrictionsonthedigitsorletters?
32) InCalifornia,eachautomobilelicenseplateconsistsofasingledigitfollowedbythreeletters,followedbythree
digits.Howmanydistinctlicenseplatescanbeformedifthefirstnumbercannotbezeroandthethreeletters
cannotformGOD?
4 UseCountingPrinciplestoFindProbabilities
SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.
Provideanappropriateresponse.
33) Acertaincodeisasequenceof6digits.Whatistheprobabilityofgenerating6 digitsandgettingthecode
consistingof1,2,3,...,6ifeachdigitcanberepeated?

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MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
34) Adeliveryroutemustincludestopsatfour cities.Iftherouteisrandomlyselected,findtheprobabilitythatthe
citieswillbearrangedinalphabeticalorder.Roundyouranswertothreedecimalplaces.
A) 0.04166667
B) 0.00390625
C) 0.0625
D) 0.25
35) AtouristinIrelandwantstovisitfourdifferentcities.Iftherouteisrandomlyselected,whatistheprobability
thatthetouristwillvisitthecitiesinalphabeticalorder?Roundyouranswertothreedecimalplaces.
A) 0.042
B) 0.167
C) 0.063
D) 0.250
SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion.
36) IntheCaliforniaStatelottery,youmustselectsixnumbersfromfifty -twonumberstowinthebigprize.The
numbersdonothavetobeinaparticularorder.Whatistheprobabilitythatyouwillwinthebigprizeifyou
buyoneticket?

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Ch.3 Probability
AnswerKey
3.1 BasicConceptsofProbabilityandCounting
1 FindProbabilities
1) A
2) A
3) A
4) A
5) A
6) A
7) A
8) A
9) A
1172
10)
2500
11)

765
2500

12)

563
2500

13) A
14) A
15) A
16) A
17) A
18) A
19) 0.163
20) 0.837
21) 0.215
22) 0.914
23) A
24) A
25) LetE=MastersdegreeinEducation.
685
222
.P(E)=1-P(E)=
=0.755
P(E)=
907
907
26) LetE=theeventthecomplaintwasagainstContinental
202
P(E)=
745
P(E)=1-P(E)=1-

202 543
=
=0.729
745 745

2 IdentifytheSampleSpace
27) {(hit,miss)}
28) {(true,false)}
29) {(0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,...,30,31)}
30) {(A,B,C,D)}
31) {(BBB),(BBG),(BGB),(GBB),(BGG),(GBG),(GGB),(GGG)}
32) {(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12)}
33) {(2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24)}
34) {(-5,-4,-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3,4,5)}
35) {(YM,YF,NM,NF,UM,UF)}
36) {(MR,TR,WR,HR,FR,SAR,SUR,MN,TN,WN,HN,FN,SAN,SUN)}
3 IdentifySimpleEvents
37) A
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38) A
39) A
40) A
UseFundamentalCountingPrinciple
41) A
42) A
43) A
44) A
45) A
ClassifyTypesofProbability
46) A
47) A
48) A
49) A
50) A
DetermineOdds
51) A
52) A
53) A
54) A
Concepts
55) A
56) A
57) A
58) A
59) Maximumeffortis100%.

3.2 ConditionalProbabilityandtheMultiplicationRule
1 DetermineBetweenIndependentandDependentEvents
1) A
2) A
3) A
4) A
5) A
2 FindConditionalProbabilities
6) A
7) A
8) A
9) A
10) A
3 UsetheMultiplicationRuletoFindProbabilities
11) A
12) A
13) A
4 3 2 1
=0.00000369
14) P(4-Aces)=
52 51 50 49
15) P(2-threes)=

4 3
=0.0045
52 51

16) A
17) P(allfivequestionsansweredcorrectly)=
18) P(allfivequestionsanswersincorrect)=

1 1 1 1 1
=0.00032
5 5 5 5 5

4 4 4 4 4
=0.32768
5 5 5 5 5

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19) P(atleastonecorrect)

=1-P(allfiveanswersincorrect)
4 4 4 4 4
=1-0.32768=0.67232
=1-
5 5 5 5 5

20) P(rainatleastoneday)=1-P(norainallthreedays)
=1-(0.60)(0.60)(0.60)
=0.784
21) P(notrainatleastoneday)=1-P(rainallthreedays)
=1-(0.40)(0.40)(0.40)
=0.936
22) A
23) A
24) A
1
365 1
=0.00000751
25)
365 365 365
4 UseBayessTheorem
26) A
27) A

3.3 TheAdditionRule
1 DetermineifEventsAreMutuallyExclusive
1) A
2) A
3) A
4) A
5) A
6) A
7) A
2 UsetheAdditionRuletoFindProbabilities
8) A
9) A
10) A
11) A
12) A
13) 0.512
14) A
15) A
16) A
17) A
18) A
3 UsetheAdditionRuleforThreeEvents
19) 0.994
20) A
21) 1and4
22) 6
4 Concepts
23) A

3.4 AdditionalTopicsinProbabilityandCounting
1 PerformCalculationswithPermutations/Combinations
1) A
2) A
3) A
4) A
5) A
6) A
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2 DistinguishPermutationsfromCombinations
7) Permutation.Theorderofthesixfriendsmatters.
8) Combination.Theorderofthejurorsdoesnotmatter.
9) Permutation.Theorderofthedigitsinthepincodematters.
10) Combination.Theorderofthebooksdoesnotmatter.
11) Permutation.Theorderofthecontestantsmatters.
12) Permutation.Theorderoftheflightattendantsmatterssincetheyarebeinghiredfordifferentpositions.
13) Neither.Sinceletterscanberepeated,thissituationinvolvesthefundamentalcountingprinciple,ratherthana
combinationorpermutation.
3 UseCountingPrinciples
14) A
15) A
16) A
17) A
18) A
19) (12C8 )(10C8 )=22,275
20) (9 C2 )(5 C1 )(2 C1 )=360
21) 11!/(2!2!)=9,979,200
22) 10!/(3!3!2!)=50,400
23) A
24) A
25) (a)10C5 =252;(b) 8 C3 =56
26) 9!=362,880
27) A
28) A
29) A
30) 9104 -1=89,999
31) 10(263 )(103 )=175,760,000
32) 9(263 )(103 )-9,000=158,175,000
4 UseCountingPrinciplestoFindProbabilities
1
33)
=0.000001
1,000,000
34) A
35) A
36)

1
52C6

1
=0.0000000491
20,358,520

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