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Chapter I


Education involves the process of teaching and facilitating learning,

knowledge, skills, values , beliefs and habits of a group of people, usually at
school which the teacher transferred their learning through different strategies like
storytelling, discussion, training or research. Education often takes place under the
guidance of educator or teacher, but students may also educate themselves in a
process of autodidactic. Any experience that the student has a formative effect on
the way he thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational through the
guidance of the teacher.
At present, the Philippines education is precisely separated into stage such
preschool, primary school, secondary, and college, university or apprenticeship.
Formal education takes place in a school environment with multiple students
learning together with certified teacher on every subject. Teaching, in traditional
application in terms of education is by simply giving instructions. Teachers tend to
used long lived teaching procedures, techniques and strategies for the development
of the learners knowledge and skills and equipped with values for the better
quality of life. The ultimate goal of every teacher may be differ from each other

but any sense; the results will be the same, to impart knowledge to students that
serves as a testament of every teachers effective teaching.
Strategy is an organized, orderly, systematic, well planned procedure. It is
consists of steps or procedures which are logically arranged at achieving the
specific goals in instruction, at enhancing greater teacher and develop the students
mind set. It directs and guides the teacher in all class activities and to improve the
students performance and skills in school. It is also the skill of making or
carrying out plans to achieve goals.
Effective Teaching is present when it is well planned such that the activities
and experiences of the learner are related into more meaningful ideas. The teacher
constitutes different activities that bring out relationships of facts learned to give
new view and meaning that may apply in the improvement of students
Nowadays, commonly used strategy to facilitate the learning of the students
is the cooperative learning which focus on the group activities. It enables the
student to process, consolidate, and retain more information. It turn motivate
strengthens the students commitment to the groups education while increasing
self-esteem and self-worth. As student practice different roles, they have the
opportunity to develop a variety of skills. These teaching strategies help the
students take more responsibility for their own learning and enhance the process of
teaching for learning. Base on the observations of the researchers many teachers

are not aware to the new teaching strategies that will improve the students
performance, despite of the strategies that are commonly used in teaching TLE
that is less effective today because of the rise of modern technology.
Those mentioned above give the researchers an idea to conduct with a
research study with response in the topic. The purpose of this research study is to
understand the idea about the strategies being used which is effective in teaching
and will improve the student performance especially in TLE subject and to
conform with the instructional conditions that usually used by the teachers
considered to be successful with the students in learning TLE.
Statement of the Problem
This study aims to determine the New Teaching Strategies to Enhance
Student Performance in TLE in the Selected High School in Rosario District.
Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:
1. What is the profile of the teacher respondents in terms of:
1.1 age;
1.2 sex;
1.3 number of seminars attended related to teaching strategies; and
1.4 number of years in service?

2. What are the new strategies that are being used by the teacher in teaching
3. Which of the methods/strategies often used by the teacher are found to be
the most effective in enhancing the students performance especially in the
TLE subject?
4. Based on findings, what proposed activities can be suggested or
recommended to enhance the teaching of TLE that will improve students
Scope, Delimitation and Limitation of the Study
The main focus of the study is to determine the new teaching strategies to
enhance student performance in TLE in the selected high schools in Rosario
District, Division of Batangas during the assessment year 2015-2016. The study
will cover the teachers handling TLE students in Grade 7 and 8 in the selected
schools in the Rosario District. The descriptive method of research will be utilized
in this study with self made questionnaire as the main tool in gathering the data.
This study will be limited to the other public high schools and the teachers
was selected only from grade 7 and 8 year level and this study will be delimited to
the private high schools in the Rosario District, to the teachers handling Grade 9
and 10 students and to the teachers who do not handle TLE subject.

Significance of the Study

This part of the study discuss about the importance of creating the
system to the following: to the administrators, teachers, parents, students,
researchers and future researchers.
Administrators. They will be aware on how to organize and
supervise the school that will improve the teaching of TLE subject and also
in other subjects.
Teachers. It will provide sample in discussing how to facilitate the
learning of the students using new teaching strategies.
Students. It will enhance their learning and help them to develop
higher order cognitive skills such as critical thinking as well as their
performance in school.
Parents. It will give them idea what they can help to their child to
improve their performance in school in the different subjects especially in
Researchers. It will give ideas in new strategies that can be used in
the future career in teaching and lead to the creation of the strategies that
can be used in teaching TLE.
Future researchers. It will be used as basis to the related study of
the researchers for the future use in teaching TLE subject and also a source
of additional information that they can improve and have deep
understanding with the research study.

This chapter presents the conceptual literature, research literature,
theoretical framework, conceptual framework and definition of terms that
will help to fully understand the research study.
Conceptual Literature
The following related researches which have been taken from different
references are used as the bases of this study:
Technology and Livelihood Education
Technology and Livelihood Education is the subject offered in all
curriculum levels for all students, boys and girls. It covers the basic skills and
concepts of Home Economics, Entrepreneurship, Agricultural Arts and Industrial
Arts to be taken as a unified course. As one fundamental school subject, TLE is
concerned with providing experiences in the various field of work and

expectations that will develop in the individual skill, knowledge, appreciation and
values necessary for effective daily living (Agdan 2013)
Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) equips learners with
knowledge and information, skills, and processes, right work values and life skills
in the field of Home economics, Industrial Arts, Agri-Fishery Arts, Information
Communication Technology and Entrepreneurship (Balhag 2013)
The main goal of T.L.E is the development of work ethics , knowledge,
skills and values essential to economically productive endeavor and to bring about
the students awareness by engaging then income generating activities and other
livelihood projects to improve their lives and lessen dependence on employment
as the only source of income (Cabanig et. al., 2013)
Teaching Strategies
According to Corpuz and Salandanan (2013) teaching strategies is a long
term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal. Strategies apply to many
disparate fields such as military strategy, economic strategy, teaching strategy and
the like.
The following are some of the strategies used to establish an effective
instruction in Technology and Livelihood Education (Ramon C. Cabag, Ed.D).

Brainstorming. A creative technique in which a group is given a problem

and is asked to suggest as many solutions as they can in a given time. This works
best when there is a specific problem that lends itself to many possible answers.
Buzzing or Buzz Session. Involves the group in a interchange of ideas on a
topic or question on which judgment is sought.
Film forum. A discussion before and after the viewing of an educational
film is similar to the lecture forum except that the films takes the place of a
Role Playing. A training technique consists of a dramatization which
shows the emotional reactions of participants who are assuming an identity other
than their own.
Simulation Games. Are scaled-down models of real life situations,
problems or activities. The players assume realistic roles and participate in
discussions according to specific rules.
Springboard. Is a method in which materials are used on a topic intended
to provoke or motivate the learners into conducting an inquiry on the subject.
Lecture. Used extensively by technicians and subject matter specialists to
present technical information, develop background and appreciation and to
integrate ideas.

The strategies used mentioned above are used by the TLE teachers to
enhance the performance and learning of the students in the TLE subject.
It refers to the accomplishment of a given task (Petra, 2000). It is the
ability of how students can perform in a certain task.
A term which refers to the fulfillment of a claim, promise or request.
(Grolier Dictionary, 1981. Vol. 2). It refers to the range where the students can
perform the given task that enhance their performance.

Research Literature
According to the findings of Aguila et. al, 2005 seminars attended, years of
experience and age have significant in the level of the extent of use of methods
and show that there is no significant relationship between the extent use of
methods and gender and civil status of the respondent. While in the terms of
relationship between the extent of use of strategies in teaching and the profile of
the respondents, there were significant relationship between age, years of
experience and seminars attended but no significant relationship to the gender and
civil status.
Calangi, et. al. (2002) stated that the age, sex, course and type of high
school attended may have an effect on students study habits. Along with these,


teachers performance, attitudes and environmental factors really affect the

students. They were able to prove that the learners profile is a big factor that
teachers must consider to have a successful learning outcome.
The studies reviewed by the researchers are range of background in the
study of new teaching strategies to enhance student performance in Technology
and Livelihood Education (TLE).
The study of Aguila is relevant to the present study because he states that
the profile of the respondents greatly affect the use of teaching strategies in the
TLE subject. He also states that the age, years of experience and seminars attended
have a significant relationship to the way the respondents use this methods and
strategies but it has no relation to the age and civil status of the respondents.
The Calangi, et. al. was different to the present study. It is more on the
factor that can affect the student performance. Students profiles have the big
affect the success of learning outcome and the other factor was the teachers
performance, attitudes and environmental factors.
Theoretical Framework
Visual Symbols

Audio Recording and Radio
Still Visuals
Motion Pictures
Exhibits and museums
Demonstrations and Field trips
Dramatic and Contrived Experience
Direct Purposeful Experiences

According to Dales research, the least effective method at the top involves
learning from information presented through verbal symbols. Ex: Listening to
spoken words. The most effective methods at the bottom, involves direct,
purposeful learning experiences, such as hands on or field experience. A direct
purposeful experience represents reality or the closest things to real, everyday life.
The cone charts the average retention rate for various methods of teaching. The
further you progressed down the cone, the greater the learning and the more
information is likely to be retained. It also suggests that when choosing an
instructional method it is important to remember that involving students in the
process strengthens knowledge retention. It reveals that action- learning
techniques result in up to 90% retention. People learn best when they use
perceptual learning styles. Perceptual learning styles are sensory based. According


to Dale, instructors should design instructional activities that build upon more reallife experiences.
Conceptual Framework
Technology and Livelihood Education is more on hands on activities and
application. But like the other subjects, the teacher must use teaching strategies
that will enhance the students performance and at the same time they learned.
TLE must involve learning concepts and ideas about its different areas.
Figure 2.2 presents the research paradigm of the study on New Teaching
Strategies to Enhance Students Performance in TLE. Input variables were the
teaching strategies used by teachers and the profile of the respondents. In the
process, the researchers will use self made questionnaire. The first part will be the
profile of the respondents and the second part is the teaching strategies used by the
respondents, the teachers.
The output of this study was a proposed activities which that will enhance
the students performance of Grade 7 and 8 in the TLE subject. In this conceptual
paradigm, it shows the relationship of the contents in relation with the research
The first one shows the profile and the teaching strategies used by the
respondents which can be determined through the use of self made questionnaire.
This instrument is used to gather the necessary information from the contents of


the input that will be use as a basis for the making of proposed plans or activities
as part of the output.

Profile of the

Number of

Years in Service

Teaching Strategies used

by the respondents.



Self made

Proposed activities
to Enhance the
Performance of
Grade 7 and 8 in
the TLE subject.


Figure 2
Research Paradigm of New Teaching Strategies to Enhance Student
Performance in TLE in the Selected High Schools in Rosario District.
The study will test the null hypothesis. There is no significant relationship
between the profile of the respondents and the strategies often used by the teacher
in enhancing the students performance.
Definition of Terms
The following terms are discussed to fully understand and help to know
how it is used in developing the study.
Strategy. It is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular
goal (Corpuz and Salandanan, 2013). In this study, it refers to the way on how
student will learn.


Teaching. is a multi-faceted human activity. It involves a wide range of

planning, strategies, interactions, organizational arrangement and materials
resources that take place in the teaching learning process (Zulueta, 2006). In this
study, it is the way on how the teacher can impart knowledge to enhance the
student performance.
Performance. The act of performing; carrying into execution or action and
accomplishment represented by action (wiktionary). It refers to the way on how
the students performance and accomplish a task.
Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE). It refers to one the
components of Makabayan offered from first year to fourth year which comprises
Home Economics, Agriculture, Industrial Arts and Entrepreneurship (BEC, 2002).
In this study it is the focus where the teaching strategies must be related.


This chapter presents the research design, subject of the study, data
gathering instrument, data gathering procedure and the statistical treatment of data
that will be used in gathering the necessary information for the study.
Research Design
The descriptive method of research will be utilized to study the new
teaching strategies to enhance student performance in TLE in the selected high
schools in Rosario District. It served as the basis to assess and to describe the
concerns about the teaching strategies stated in this study.


Descriptive method is used to discover facts on which judgment could be

based. It describes records, analyzes and interprets what it is (Rivera, 1999). This
method is applicable to use in the studies concerning with the various problems
present in a research study.
Subject of the Study
The respondents of this study will be 17 high school TLE teachers as
respondents from Grade 7-8 in the selected high schools in Rosario District,
Division of Batangas. The distribution of respondents is shown in Table 1.

Distribution of Respondents

















As shown in the Table 1, 3 of the respondents were TLE teachers from

Alupay, 4 from Rosario, 5 from Baybayin, 2 from Itlugan and 3 from Timbugan.
These only shown that majority of the respondents were from Baybayin National
High School.
Data Gathering Instrument
The main instrument in gathering data was a self made questionnaire made
by the researchers. The needed data will be gathered through the questionnaire
made by the researchers from the different readings from books and other resource
materials and also to the unpublished materials regarding the strategies used by
teachers. The draft of the questionnaire contains the different strategies used by
teachers in teaching TLE subject.
Construction of the Questionnaire. The second draft of the questionnaire
will be prepared, together with the corrections and suggestions made on the first
draft. After the questionnaire is checked and improved, the third draft will be
The questionnaire had two parts. The first part of the questionnaire is the
profile of the respondents. The age, sex, year level handled number of seminars
attended and the number of years in service in teaching Technology and
Livelihood Education. The second part emphasize with the teaching strategies
used by the respondents, the TLE teachers to enhance the performance of the
students in the TLE subject.


Validation of the Questionnaire. To ensure the validity and reliability of

the questionnaire, the researchers will prepare a letter requesting for the validation
from the practitioners. It will be presented to the TLE teachers and to the adviser
of the research study. The draft will be rewritten with the incorporated suggestions
and recommendations and showed it to the adviser for the approval.
Administration of the Questionnaire. After the questionnaire was
approved, the researchers will prepare a letter of request noted by the adviser and
the Dean of College of Teacher Education for the administration of the instrument.
Afterwards the letter will be presented to the principals of the chosen schools for
the utilization of the teachers as the respondents of the study. After the principals
approval, the researchers will distribute the questionnaire to the respondents.
Scoring of Responses. The data that will be gathered from this study will
be interpreted, tallied, and analyzed based on the scale to determine in the
conformity in the items found in the questionnaire. The scoring used was as

Scale Range

Verbal Interpretation


widely used


often used


moderately used


seldom used



never used

Data Gathering Procedures

With the permission that granted by the principal, the questionnaire will be
distributed at the teachers free time. The 17 teachers that respond to the
questionnaire will be given enough time for them to answer. Consciously, the
researcher will guide the teachers so they will not misunderstand the needed
information in the questionnaire.
When the researchers finished the administering and collecting the
questionnaires, they will start the tallying and tabulating the data. After the data
will be tallied and tabulated, they will give it to the statistician for statistical
Statistical Treatment of Data
To be able to analyze the data gathered, statistical tools such as percentage,
frequency, weighted mean, ranking.
Percentage. This will be used to determine percentage for each data.
Frequency. This will be used to refer to the number of respondents who
indicated a specific answer.


Weighted Mean. This will be used to interpret in terms of criteria based on

the scale and their verbal descriptions.
Ranking. This will be used to rank the teachers responses from highest to