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Chapter 12

GROUP TECHNOLOGY
by
Dr. Richard A. Wysk

GROUP TECHNOLOGY
GROUP TECHNOLOGY IS A MANUFACTURING
TECHNIQUE AND PHILOSOPHY TO INCREASE
PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY BY EXPLOITING THE
UNDERLYING SAMENESS OF COMPONENT
SHAPE, DIMENSIONS, PROCESS ROUTE, ETC.

Group Technology is the realization that


many problems are similar, and that by
grouping similar problems, a single
solution can be found to a set of problems
thus saving time and effort. (Solaja 73)
First book formalize the concept:
Mitrofanov,S.P. 1958, "The Scientific Principles
of Group Technology"

WHY GROUP TECHNOLOGY?


AVERAGE LOT SIZE DECREASING
PART VARIETY INCREASING
INCREASED VARIETY OF MATERIALS
WITH DIVERSE PROPERTIES
REQUIREMENTS FOR CLOSER
TOLERANCES

HIGH
PR

VOLUME

TRANSFER
LINE
SPECIAL
SYSTEM

FL
E
OD
UC

TIO

X IB

IL I
TY

NC
AP
AC
I

TY

FLEXIBLE
MANUFACTURING
SYSTEM
MANUFACTURING
Cells
STD. AND GEN.
MACHINERY

LOW

VARIETY

HIGH

EVERYDAY EXAMPLES
1. FAST FOOD CHAINS
2. DOCTORS, DENTISTS
AND ALSO MANUFACTURING

A FAMILY OF PARTS

PRODUCTION
FAMILY

LACK OF COMMON DATABASE FOR


MFG., DESIGN...
DONT REDESIGN THE WHEEL
AUTOMATED PROCESS PLANNING
DATABASE TO DRIVE THE
AUTOMATED FACTORY

BENEFITS OF GROUP TECHNOLOGY


REDUCTIONS IN
THROUGHPUT TIME
SET-UP TIME
OVERDUE ORDERS
PRODUCTION FLOOR SPACE
RAW MATERIAL STOCKS
IN-PROCESS INVENTORY
CAPITAL EXPENDITURES
TOOLING COSTS
ENGINEERING TIME AND COSTS
NEW PARTS DESIGN
NEW SHOP DRAWINGS
TOTAL NUMBER OF DRAWINGS
Contd

OTHER BENEFITS OF GROUP TECHNOLOGY


EASIER TO JUSTIFY AUTOMATION
STANDARDIZATION IN DESIGN
DATA RETRIEVAL
EASIER, MORE STANDARDIZED PROCESS PLANS
INCREASES IN QUALITY

GT AFFECTS MOST EVERY OPERATING AND STAFF FUNCTION.


IT IS MORE THAN MERELY A TECHNIQUE, BUT A TOTAL
MANUFACTURING PHILOSOPHY.
DATA
PROCESSING

DESIGN
ENGINEERING

MAINTENANCE

INVENTORY

TOOL
ENGINEERING

PLANNING

ESTIMATING

PURCHASING

INDUSTRIAL
RELATIONS

ASSEMBLY

QUALITY
CONTROL

MANAGEMENT
MFG.
ENGINEERING

R&D
COST
ACCOUNTING

SALES

GT

SHIPPING &
RECEIVING

THREE TECHNIQUES TO FORM PART FAMILIES


1. TACIT JUDGMENT OR VISUAL
INSPECTION
MAY USE PHOTOS OR PART
PRINTS
UTILIZES SUBJECTIVE
JUDGMENT
2. PRODUCTION FLOW ANALYSIS
USES INFORMATION CONTAINED
ON THE ROUTE SHEET
(THEREFORE ONLY MFG. INFO)
PARTS GROUPED BY REQUIRED
PROCESSING
Contd

3. CLASSIFICATION AND CODING


CODES GEOMETRY/DESIGN AND MFG.
INFO ABOUT A COMPONENT
CODES ARE ALPHANUMERIC STRINGS
EASIER TO USE FOR OTHER ANALYSES

TYPES OF CLASSIFICATION AND CODING SYSTEMS


GT CODING CAN BENEFIT MANY FACETS OF THE
FIRM AND FALL INTO ONE OF 3 CATEGORIES:
1. SYSTEMS BASED ON PART DESIGN
ATTRIBUTES
2. SYSTEMS BASED ON PART MFG.
ATTRIBUTES
3. SYSTEMS BASED ON DESIGN AND MFG.
ATTRIBUTES

EXAMPLES:
PART DESIGN ATTRIBUTES

PART MFG. ATTRIBUTES

BASIC EXTERNAL SHAPE


BASIC INTERNAL SHAPE
MATERIAL

MAJOR PROCESSES
MINOR OPERATIONS
FIXTURES NEEDED

LENGTH/DIAMETER RATIO
SURFACE FINISH
TOLERANCES-----MACHINE TOOL
OPERATION SEQUENCE
MAJOR DIMENSION
TOOLING
BATCH SIZE

GT CODE--A SEQUENCE OF NUMERICAL DIGITS


THREE MAJOR STRUCTURES:
1. MONOCODE (OR HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE)
A CODE IN WHICH EACH DIGIT AMPLIFIES THE
INFORMATION GIVEN IN THE PREVIOUS DIGIT
DIFFICULT TO CONSTRUCT
PROVIDES A DEEP ANALYSIS
USUALLY FOR PERMANENT INFORMATION
contd

2. POLYCODE (OR CHAIN-TYPE STRUCTURE)


EACH DIGIT IS INDEPENDENT OF ALL OTHERS,
PRESENTS INFORMATION NOT DEPENDENT
ON PREVIOUS ONES
EASIER TO ACCOMMODATE
CHANGE
3. MIXED CODE
HAS SOME DIGITS FORMING MONOCODES, BUT
STRINGS THEM TOGETHER IN THE GENERAL
ARRANGEMENT OF A POLYCODE

MAPPING FROM POPULATION


SPACE TO CODE SPACE
POPULATION
SPACE
H

CODE
SPACE

HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE
32XX

Ele

ctr

ica

321X

323X
er
Po
w

UNF thread

hr
ea
d
No
t

ad
re
th

3222

C
UN

3221

3232

3223

g
in

322X

ei v

3231

c
Re

Mechanical

Transmission

Hy

lic
u
a
dr

3233

HYBRID STRUCTURE

Polycode

Monocode

Polycode

REDUCTION OF MFG. COSTS BY VARIOUS


STEPS OF GROUP TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS
(ADAPTED FROM HAM442)

NOT ALL COST SAVINGS ARE IMMEDIATE...


Improvements in Engineering Design
Materials Management & Purchasing Benefits
Production Control Benefits
Manufacturing Engineering Benefits
Tooling & Setup Benefits
Management Benefits
Overall Cost Reduction &
Increased Productivity

12 18 24
Time (months)

36

PROLIFERATION OF PARTS
SELECTION OF OPTICAL INSTRUMENT PARTS IN ONE COMPANY,
ILLUSTRATING THE SIMILARITY BETWEEN CERTAIN COMPONENTS

NOTE: SOME OF THE ABOVE ARE ALMOST THE SAME

GT FOR DESIGN APPLICATION


Conceptual design

Design concept can be coded.


Code is a rough model of the
conceptual design.

Coding (rough model)

Retrieval existing designs

Design
archive

Existing designs

Design modification

New Design

Retrieve designs of similar


shape or function and use
them as the examples.

TECHNIQUE:
1. DETERMINE PART AND MACHINE REQUIREMENTS
2. NUMERICALLY CODE EACH PART
GEOMETRY (& SIZE)
MATERIAL
OTHER SPECIFICATIONS (TOLERANCE,
SURFACE FINISH)
3. FORM A FAMILY OF SIMILAR PARTS WHICH USE
(LARGELY) THE SAME SET OF MACHINE TOOLS
4. LAY OUT OF EACH CELL (A GROUP OF MACHINE
TOOLS) TO MAKE A FAMILY OF PARTS
5. DESIGN GROUP TOOLING

EXAMPLE:

THIRTEEN PARTS WITH SIMILAR MANUFACTURING


PROCESS REQUIREMENTS BUT DIFFERENT
DESIGN ATTRIBUTES

FUNCTIONAL LAYOUTS ARE INEFFICIENT

L
L

Drilling

Milling

Lathe

L
L

M
M

M
M

Grinding

L
L

M
Assembly

Receiving and
Shipping

PROCESS-TYPE LAYOUT

GROUP TECHNOLOGY LAYOUT


L

G
A

Receiving

Shipping

CELLULAR LAYOUT
Department #2
D

Department #1
M

D
I
L

Department #3
L

M
M

2nd Digit
main shape

2
3

Rotational

3rd Digit
rotational
machining

5th Digit
4th Digit
additional
plane surface holes teeth &
matching
forming

External
shape
element

Internal
shape
element

Machining
of plane
surfaces

Other holes
and teeth

Main shape

Rotational
machining

Machining
of plane
surfaces

Other holes
teeth and
forming

Main bore
& rotational
machining

Machining
of plane
surfaces

Other holes
teeth and
forming

4
5
6
7
8
9

Special
Non-rotational

Positions
with a
digit

FORM CODE

Main shape

Main shape

Main shape

Special

Supplimentary
code
Digit

6 7 8 9
Dimensions
Material
Original shape of raw materials
Accuracy

1st Digit
part class

Opitz coding and classification system.


(Reprinted with permission from H. Opitz, A
Classification System to Describe Workpieces, Pergamon Press.)

TYPICAL
PROCESS
PLANNING
SYSTEM

Engineering
drawing
Process
planner
XX
X
Process planning
system

Code or
other form
of input

Process
Industrial engineer
Time standard
Operation
instruction
Layout

Part
programmer
APT Program
APT Processor
& post-processor

Production planner
Scheduling
MPP

PROCESS PLANNING
PROCESS PLANNING IS THAT FUNCTION WITHIN A MANUFACTURING
FACILITY THAT ESTABLISHES WHICH MACHINING PROCESSES AND
PARAMETERS ARE TO BE USED (AS WELL AS THOSE MACHINES CAPABLE
OF PERFORMING THESE PROCESSES) TO CONVERT (MACHINE) A PIECE
PART FROM ITS INITIAL FORM TO A FINAL FORM PREDETERMINED
(USUALLY BY A DESIGN ENGINEER) FROM AN ENGINEERING DRAWING.
(I.E. THE PREPARATION OF THE DETAILED WORK INSTRUCTIONS TO
PRODUCE A PART)

Process planning bridges design and


manufacturing
Bridge

Design

Manufacturing

VARIANT PROCESS PLANNING


USES THE SIMILARITY AMONG COMPONENTS
TO RETRIEVE EXISTING PROCESS PLANS
(WHICH CAN BE MODIFIED)
OVERVIEW:
TWO STAGES FOR VP SYSTEMS
1. PREPARATORY STAGE
EXISTING PARTS CODED &
CLASSIFIED (I.E. GT IS A
PREREQUISITE)
PART FAMILIES ORGANIZED
STANDARD PLANS DEVELOPED
DATABASES CREATED
(NOTE: THIS STAGE IS LABOR INTENSIVE)
Contd

1. PREPARATORY STAGE OF
VARIANT
PROCESS PLANNING
Part Drawing

Coding
Family One

Standard
Plan
File

Family Formation

Process Plan

(Indexed
by Family
Matrix)

2. PRODUCTON STAGE OF VARIANT


PROCESS PLANNING

Coding

Family Search

Process Plan

Editing

Standard Plan
Retrieval

Standard
Plan
File