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(Revised Version)

M.A, (M.Phil)


ENGLISH (Prcis and Composition)
(PART-I MCQs) 30 MINUTES____________ MAX. MARKS:20
Q.2. Make prcis of the following text and suggest a suitable title. (20)
In studding the breakdowns of civilizations, the writer has subscribed to the conclusion no new discovery! that war has
proved to have been the proximate cause of the breakdown of every civilization which is known for certain to have broken
down, in so far as it has been possible to analyze the nature of these breakdowns and to account for their occurrence. Like
other evils war has no insidious way of appearing not intolerable until it has secured such a stranglehold upon the lives of its
addicts that they no longer have the power to escape from its grip when its deadlines has become manifest. In the early
stages of civilizations growth, the cost of wars in suffering and destruction might seem to be exceeded by the benefits
occurring from the wining of wealth and power and the cultivation of the military virtues ; and, in this phase of history,
states have often found themselves able to indulge in war with one another with something like impunity even for the
defeated party. War does not begin to reveal its malignity till the war making society has begun to increase its economic
ability to exploit physical nature and its political ability to organize manpower; but, as soon as this happens, the god of war
to which the growing society has long since been dedicated proves himself a Moloch by devouring an ever larger share of
the increasing fruits of mans industry and intelligence in the process of taking an ever larger toll of life and happiness; and,
when the societys growth in efficiency reaches a point at which it becomes capable of mobilizing a lethal quantum of its
energies and resources for military use then war reveals itself as being a cancer which is bound to prove fatal to its victim
unless he can cut it out and cast it from him, since its malignant tissues have now learnt to grow faster that the healthy
tissues on which they feed.
In the past when this danger-point in the history of the relations between war and civilization has been reached and
recognized, serious efforts have sometimes been made to get rid of war in time to save society, and these endeavours have
been apt to take one or other of two alternative directions. Salvation cannot, of course, be sought anywhere except in the
working of the consciences of individual human beings; but individuals have a choice between trying to achieve their aims
through direct action as private citizens and trying to achieve then through indirect action as citizen of states. Personal
refusal to lend himself in any way to any war waged by his state for any purpose and in any circumstances is a line of attack
against the institution of war that is likely to appeal to an ardent and self-sacrificing nature; by comparison, the alternative
peace strategy of seeking to persuade and accustom governments to combine in jointly resisting aggression when it comes
and in trying to remove its stimuli before hand may seem a circuitous and unheroic line of attack on the problem. Yet
experience up to date indicates unmistakably, in the present writers opinion, that the second of these two hard roads is by
far the more promising.

Q.3. Read the following text carefully and answer the questions below: (20)
Experience has quite definitely shown that some reasons for holding a belief are much more likely to be justified by the
event then others. It might naturally be supposed, for instance, that the best of all reasons for a belief was a strong
conviction of certainty accompanying the belief. Experience, however, shows that this is not so, and that as a matter of fact,
conviction by itself is more likely to mislead than it is to guarantee truth. On the other hand, lack of assurance and
persistent hesitation to come to any belief whatever are an equally poor guarantee that the few beliefs which are arrived at
are sound. Experience also shows that assertion, however long continued, although it is unfortunately with many people an
effective enough means of inducing belief, is not an any way a ground for holding it.
The method which has proved effective, as a matter of actual fact, in providing of firm foundation for belief wherever it has
been capable of application, is what is usually called the scientific method. I firmly believe that the scientific method,
although slow and never claiming to lead to complete truth, is the only method which in the long run will give satisfactory
foundations for beliefs. It consists in demanding facts as the only basis for conclusions, and inconsistently and continuously
testing any conclusions which may have been reached, against the test of new facts and, wherever possible, by the crucial
test of experiment. It consists also in full publication of the evidence on which conclusions are based, so that other workers

may be assisted in new researchers, or enabled to develop their own interpretations and arrive at possibly very different
There are, however, all sorts of occasions on which the scientific method is not applicable. That method involves slow
testing, frequent suspension of judgment, restricted conclusions. The exigencies of everyday life, on the other hand, often
make it necessary to act on a hasty balancing of admittedly incomplete evidence, to take immediate action, and to draw
conclusions in advance of evidence. It is also true that such action will always be necessary, and necessary in respect of
ever larger issues; and this inspite of the fact that one of the most important trends of civilization is to remove sphere after
sphere of life out of the domain of such intuitive judgment into the domain of rigid calculation based on science. It is here
that belief pays its most important role. When we cannot be certain, we must proceed in part by faith-faith not only in the
validity of our own capacity of making judgments, but also in the existence of certain other realities, pre-eminently moral
and spiritual realities. It has been said that faith consists in acting always on the nobler hypothesis; and though this
definition is a trifle rhetorical, it embodies a seed of real truth.
Answer briefly in your own words the following questions:
1. Give the meaning of the underlined phrases as they are used in the passage. (04)
2. What justification does the author claim for his belief in the scientific method? (04)
3. Do you gather from the passage that conclusions reached by the scientific method should we considered final? Give
reasons for your answer. (04)
4. In what circumstances, according to the author, is it necessary to abandon the scientific method? (04)
5. How does the basis of intuitive judgment differ from the scientific decision? (04)

Q.4. Write a comprehensive note (250 300 words) on any ONE of the following topics: (20)
(i) Education should be for life, not for livelihood
(ii) The art of being tactful
(iii) Human nature is seen at its best adversity
(iv) Spare the rod and spoil the child

Q.5. (a) Use only Five of the following in sentences which illustrate their meaning (Extra attempt shall not be
considered). (05)
(i) Itching palm
(ii) The primrose path
(iii) Break ones fall
(iv) Wash ones hands of
(v) To become reconcile to
(vi) To militate against
(vii) To be cognizant of
(viii) Wages of sin
(b) Explain the difference between the following word pairs by defining each word. (Do only five) (05)
(i) Plaintiff, plaintive
(ii) Valet, varlet
(iii) Monitor, mentor
(iv) Complacent, complaisant
(v) Penitence, penance
(vi) Crevice, crevasse
(vii) Beneficent, beneficial

Q.6. (a) Correct only Five of the following sentences: (05)

(i) Have either of you seen my pen?
(ii) On attempting to restore the picture to its original condition, almost irreparable change was discovered.
(iii) The child is the prettiest of the two.
(iv) I was annoyed arriving late, also his rather insolent manner put me out of temper.
(v) He is anxious not only to acquire knowledge, but also eager to display it.
(vi) If he was here now, we should have no difficulty.
(vii) Due to unforeseen environments, we shall have to leave early.
(viii) People have and still do disagree on this matter.

(b) Rewrite One of the following passages, converting what is in direct speech into indirect, and what is in indirect speech
into direct. (05)
(i) Just as we came inside of the valley Jamil met us,--yes, the valley is all very fine, but do you know there is nothing to
Nonsense; we can eat anything here.
Well, the brown breads two months old, and theres nothing else but potatoes.
There must be milk anyhow.
Yes, there was milk, he supposed.
(ii) Miss Andleeb said she thought English food was lovely, and that she was preparing a questionnaire to be circulated to
the students of the university, with the view to finding out their eating preferences.
But the students wont fill a questionnaire, said Miriam.
Wont fill up questionnaire? cried Miss Andleeb, taken aback.
No, said Miriam, they wont. As a nation we are not, questionnaire-conscious.
Well, thats too bad, said Miss Andaleeb.



Q.No. 02:

Title: War-a Menace to Civilization.

For a civilization, no cause is so fatal as war itself. It causes havoc and
destruction all around. Countries go to war simply because they yearn to monopolize physical
nature and strengthen their manpower. However, the hazardous after-effects of war bring no good
for any of the belligerent nations, neither the victor nor the vanquished. For the former, war devours
all resources which otherwise would have to be utilized for the common masses; for the latter, it
brings untold suffering and hardships. Countries in the past would make all the possible efforts to
study the relation of war and civilization. This they did to avert the course of happenings caused by
war. Thus it is highly urgent to seek a viable solution to the scourge of war in the present context.
The author firmly believes that this can be done by raising the conscience of an individual as well as
by bringing the world nations to the single objective of discouraging war and aggression in all its


Q.No.03: (1) Justified by the Event:

Proved by experiment and experience.
An effective enough means of inducing belief: a reason to believe something firmly.
Trends of Civilization: The way people of a society behave.
On the nobler hypothesis:
Based on a sublime assumption.
(2) The authors justification for his claim is mainly based on his assumption that the
scientific method is the only workable method that provides the basis for reaching a conclusion
through experiments and evidences.
(3) I gather from the passage that conclusions reached by scientific methods should not be
considered final, because in some cases the scientific method cannot be applied.
(4) The author believes that the scientific method be abandoned in such cases as require
hasty decision making and drawing conclusions beforehand.
(5) The scientific method no doubt caters for the needs of researches, but it fails to fulfill
broad and diversified needs of men. These needs and issues can better be handled by intuitive
judgment, moral values and the sprit.

QNo.4 (i)
It should be for life, not for livelihood
Among the manifold purposes of education, the building of human intellect,
smothering it in the right footing and spending a life replete with cardinal virtues should
be the central focus of it. The primary purpose of euducation is to prepare an individual for
life. Education stands for developing human mind in a way as to arm an individual with
the reasoning faculty. He must be able to argue things logically .If he is to oppose a thing
he should do it with the force of mind and reason. Education, thus, prepares individuals to
fare life along with its diverse challenges.
Education aims at developing human intellect and refinement of the heart .It enables
an individual to distinguish between right and wrong .If it fails to develop human mind to
encompass different issues ,involving logic and reason ,then it defeats its own purpose
.Education thus should be sought to face life as a whole with the aid of reason and logic
.Education helps iron out emotional behavior of an individual and prepares him to face the
grim realities of life with determination and courage .In other words ,it should help an
individual to adjust himself to the society .It must aid an individual to inculcate in himself
the trout of discipline to contribute something to the society, he belongs to .In short
,education should prepare people to deal with the baffling problems of life ,through
restraint, discipline ,logic and reason
Education is not to be acquired for its own sake .It should assist an individual to
earn his livelihood .People possessing technical qualifications are duly qualified to
command a high value in the open market of competition .Education is regarded as a factor
,helping people to earn money and to increase the G.D.P .Services sector contribute greatly
to the G.D.P in Pakistan .In a country like Pakistan ,where there is wide spread poverty
,education must enable people to earn their livelihood to support themselves and their
families economically .Education cannot be segregated from economic realities .It should
prepare people to earn their livelihood .The economic aspect of education cannot be
ignored .It must be used to create better employment opportunities in the country.
Education thus should be acquired for dealing with life as a whole .At the same time, it
should help people to improve their economic loss by earning money to support their
economic survival Education thus has to play a dual role.
To sum up, education must cater for the needs of human spirit, morality social
values, human welfare, as a top, first and foremost obligation of an individual and
communities .Earning ones livelihood should be an inevitable need not the very objective
of education.


Q.No.5 (a) 1. The itching Palm: (avariciousness, greed).

The authorities concerned must do something concrete to check the itching
palm within the department.
The Primrose Path: (ruin, destruction).
If we followed your advice, we would all be walking down the primrose path
to ruin.

Break ones fall:

(Stop one from falling)
I tried my best to break his fall, but all in vain.


Wash Ones hand of: (refuse to accept the responsibility any longer)
I washed my hands of the whole affair.

To become reconcile to; (to make someone else to accept a difficult or an unpleasant
He tried to reconcile his father to the idea of his brothers wedding.
To militate against: (To prevent something from happening)
Environment factors militate against building the power station in this area.
To be cognizant of (to be aware of something)
Unfortunately, we were not cognizant of the facts.
The wages of sin: (The evil consequences)
The wages of sin is hell.

Pair of Words

Q.No.5 (b)
Plaintiff, plaintive .
Someone who brings a legal action against another person in a court of law.
It is a sound that represents sorrow, agony and deep distress.
Valet, Varlet.
A male servant, who looks after a mans clothes, serves his meals etc.
A rascal or a vulgar.
Monitor, Mentor.
A School boy who has been chosen by the teacher to help him in some way in
the class.
An experienced person who advises and helps a less experienced person.
Complacent, Complaisant.
Pleased with a situation.
Willing to do what pleases other people.

Penitence, Penance.


A feeling of deep sadness because of doing something wrong.

Something (as a hardship or penalty) imposed on someone.

Crevice, Crevasse.
a narrow opening or a crack in a hard surface.
A deep narrow opening in ice.
Beneficent, Beneficial
Kind and helper of people.
Useful, having good effects.

Correction of Sentences
Q.No.6 (a)

Has either of you seen my pen?

On attempting to restore the picture to its original condition, we discovered
almost irreparable change.
The child is the prettier of the two.
I was annoyed at arriving late, and his rather insolent manners also put me
out of temper.
He is not only anxious to acquire knowledge but also eager to display it.
If he were here now, we should have no difficulty.
Owing to unforeseen circumstances, we shall have to leave early.
People have disagreed and still do disagree in this mater.

Q.No.6 (b)

Just as we came in sight Jameel, met us and remarked that the valley was all
very fine but, he asked, if we knew there was nothing to eat.
We rebuked him saying that we could eat anything there. (At this) he replied
that the brown bread was two months old, and there was nothing else but
potatoes. We assured (him) that there would be milk anyhow.
He supposed there had been milk.