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REPORT

ON
VOCATIONAL TRAINING.

PREPARED BY
MIHIR G. PURABIARAO
[06BEER045]
B.E. 3RD YEAR ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG.
INDUS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING.
RANCHARDA, AHMEDABAD.

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION.
[I.O.C.]

GUJARAT REFINERY

P.O. JAWAHARNAGAR,BAJUWA
DIST. : VADODARA,GUJARAT-391 320.
WEBSITE : www.iocl.com

TRAINING PERIOD : [05/15/2009 TO 07/16/2009]


TRAINING TIMING : 10:30AM TO 5:30PM

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.

Training at INDIAN OIL CORPORATION [I.O.C.] has very


helpful to increase our skill capability & ability to understand what I
have studied so far in our engineering course. Being here I have gained
knowledge about various electrical equipments used for generation &
distribution of electrical energy to various plants running continuously.
It is pleasure and an opportunity for me to expresss my feelings of
thanks & respect to the people have at INDIAN OIL CORPORATION
LIMITED who have always helped & guided me in understanding
various concepts, which were unknown to me.
I am also thankful to Mr. Ashok Jambur from the training center
who helped in arranging my visits to various departments here. I am also
very thankful to Mr. Om Prakash (MNMEL), Mr. A. S. Patel
(SMNMEL), Mr. P.V. Ramkrishna (PUM), Mr. K S Ramarao
(MNMEL), Mr. S. Saini (MNMEL) and Mr. P.J. Shah (MNMEL), who
also helped me during my training.

- PURABIARAO MIHIR G.

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GUJARAT REFINERY [I.O.C.L]
The Gujarat Refinery at Bajuva in Gujarat in Western India is
Indian Oil’s largest refinery. The refinery was commissioned in 1965.
Its facilities include five atmospheric crude distilition units. The major
units include CRU,FCCU and first Hydrocracking unit of the country.
The products produced by the refinery is serves to the demand for
petroleum products in western and northern India.
When commissioned , the Gujarat refinery had a design capacity of
3.0 MMTPA. It was subsequently incread to 4.3 MMTPA by the
revamping of three distillation units. In 1978, its processing capacity
was further incread to 7.30 MMTPA by the addition of a crude
distillation unit. A fluidized catalyist cracking unit was added to the
refinery in 1981 to increase production of middle distillates,such as
diesel and LPG. In 1990 capacity of the refinery was further increased to
9.5 MMTPA through low cost revamping / de-bottlenecking and
addition of a hydrocracker in 1992 for maximization of middle
distillates. Susequentely the crude capacity was increased to 12.5
MMTPA in 1999 by addition of new Atmospheric Unit of 3 MMTPA
along with revamp of FCC unit. The capacity was increased to its
present capacity of 13.70 MMTPA by low cost de-bottlenecking. The
company has already comissioned the facilities for MTBE and Butene-1
production. The refinery also produce a wide range of specility products
like Benzene, Toluene, MTO, Food Grade Hexane, Solvents, LABFS,
etc. The refinery achived the distinction of becoming first refinery in the
country to have completed the DHDS (Diesel Hydro De-sulphurisation
refinery started production of HSD with low Sulpher content of 0.25%
wt (max.)).

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A project for production of high value LAB (Linear Alkyle
Benzene) which is one of the major raw materials used in manufacturing
of detergents from kerosene streams is under implementation and
scheduled for completion in 2004. In order to meet future fuel quality
requirements, MS Quality improvement facilities are planned to be
installed by 2006.

DIFFERENT PRODUCTS OF GUJARAT


REFINARY :-
At present the refinery produces 15 products which are as
follows :
 LPG
 BENZENE
 TOLUENE
 NAPTHA
 MOTOR SPIRIT (87 OCTANE)
 MOTOR SPIRIT (93 OCTANE)
 AVIATION TURBINE FUEL
 SUPERIOUR KEROSENE
 HIGH SPEED DIESEL
 LIGHT DIESEL OIL

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 LOW SULPHER HEAVY STOCK
 FUEL OIL
 BITUMEN
 N-HEPTENE
 ALUMINIUM ROLLING.

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
ENGINEERING
INTRODUCTION :-
Gujarat refinery is equipped with two power plants – Co-Generation
Power Plant (CGP) and Thermal Power station (TPS). Complexity of
power system is due to different Generation voltage levels, Groinding
and Protection system employed. Even a small lapse while designing
for the expansion / modification of generation / distribution system may
lead to catastrophic consequence in the stability of power system.
Various equipment specification standards for selection of
equipment are available in the refinery. Expertise for engineering and
selection of equipment are also available. Need has been felt to
consolidate all good design practices gained through experience,
equipment selection dpecification etc. to serve as a guideline to the
electrical design engineers of the refinery to achieve consistency in
design on regular basis.

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The role of an Eletrical engineer in Engineering Services
Department includes but not limited to study the Process scheme,
evaluate the scope of electrical jobs involved, design a suitable electrical
scheme to provide stable power supply and procurement of suitable
materials required for the same etc. Accordingly, the chapter on Design
basis is developed to provide an overview of Power Geneation,
Distribution and Maintenance of the Equipment / System is to be
designed.

POWER GENERATION
The total Power Generation of Gujarat Refinery is 126.5 MW.
 TPS (Thermal Power Station) = 12+12+12.5 = 36.5 MW.
 CGP (Co-Generation Plant) = 30+30+30 = 90 MW.
Therefore the total Power Generation is 126.5 MW.

THERMAL POWER STATION (TPS).


In Thermal Power Station there are three Generators. Two
Generators are manufactured by Russia and other is
manufactured by BHEL (Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited).
Generator manufactured by Russia is of 12 MW and 3000
RPM while the one manufactured by the BHEL is of 12.5 MW
and 5000 RPM.

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The Power Generation is done at 11 kV is converted to 6.6
using Transformers (which comes from CGP, in case of
backup). The Generation at TPS is done at 6.9 kV using reactor.
These reactors are used for the protection purpose also. It
reduces the fault current. There are also Reserve Reactor for
stand by purpose. In TPS the Bus couples are also used at 6.6
kV and supply system.
There are also PCC Power Control circuit for small supply.
First the Power goes to PCC then to MCC.
There are 3 Russian Boiler steam capacity of 75 tonnes/hour
and one Indian Boiler (BHEL) having capacity of 130
tonnes/hour.
Stem Pressure in drum = 44kg/cm2 .
Steam Pressure after main Steam gate = 39 kg/cm2 .
Super Stem temp. = 440 0 C .
Safety valve drum pressure = 44 kg/cm2.

SPECIFICATION OF RUSSIAN BOILER


DESIGN DATA :
 Generation Capacity = 75 T/hr.
 Steam pressure in drum = 44 kg/cm2.
 Steam Pressure after main steam gate = 39 kg/cm2.
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 Super Steam temp. = 4400C.
 Safety Valve drum Pressure = 44 kg/cm2.
OPERATING PERAMETERS :
 Steam Drum Pressure = 40 ata ± 1 kg/cm2.
 Superheated Steam Pressure = 36 ata ± 1 kg/cm2.
 Fuel oil line Pressure = 20 ata ± 1 kg/cm2.
 Superheated Steam Temp. = 435 ± 5 0 C.
 Feed Water without h.p heater = 100 ± 50 C.
 Safety Valve Super heater = 39 kg/cm2 .

SPECIFICATION OF BHEL MADE BOILER


Type = Front wall fired pressurized furnace.
Natural circulation.
Radiant closed bottom with oil and gas fire.
 Boiler : F 16/22 vv 60.66/25.36 .
 Location : Outdoor.
 Generation Cap. : 125 T/hr .
 Furnace : Type vv 60.
 Superheater : Stage – spaced 225 m2.

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 Air heater : Regenerative horizontal shaft pressurize
jung storm rotary.
 Drum : Twin Drum.

PROCESS IN TPS :
The TPS consist of four boilers and three turbine generators
sets. The boiler generate superheated stem by burning the fuel
obtained from other plants of the refinery itself. This
superheated steam can be utilize to supply steam yo other plants
and can also be used for generating power using steam turbines.
This steam rotates the blades which in turn produce s the
induced voltage. This voltage is then transferred to reactor.
The Steam produced is through fuel OIL or REFINERY
GASSES (RCO).
The feed water to the boiler comes from a CM plant that the
de-minerilize the feed water to prevent the corrosion of boilers
vessels. All Russian Boilers are water tube boiler while the
Indian boiler operates on forced draft.

CO-GENERATION PLANT (CGP) :

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EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATIONS

Gas Turbine
Frame : 6

Make : BHEL / GE

Type : MS 6000, Single shaft Design.

Base load capacity : 30 MW

Fuel : Dual (Gas & Distillate)

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Compressor type & size : Axial flow type 17 state

Compressor with air handling capacity


400 T/H and Compression ratio 11:1
Rated Speed : 5100 RPM

Generator
Make : BHEL

Type : TARI 800-26P

Rating : 30MW, 37.5 MVA

Stator Current : 1968 A

Voltage : 11KV + 10%

Frequency : 50 Hz

Power Factor : 0.8 Lag

1st Critical Speed : 27.77 Hz

2nd Critical Speed : >83.3 Hz

Moment of Inertia of rotor shaft : 1330 Kgm2

Weight of Stator : 50000 Kg

Weight of Rotor : 14500 Kg

Cooling : Forced Air Cooling

Cooling Air Flow : 18 M3/ Sec.

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Turbine
Number of stages : 3

Type : Impulse

Casing : Horizontal split

Max. Blade tip speed : 450 M/Sec.

Minimum continuous speed : 5089 RPM

Ignition speed : 940 RPM

Self sustaining speed : 2640 RPM

Critical speed (GT only) : 1658 – 1877 RPM

3256 – 3908 RPM

7049 – 7360 RPM

Mechanical trip speed : 5737 + 50 RPM

Rotor construction : Disc & Through Bolts

1st , 2nd & 3rd Stage bucket material : Ni based super Alloy

1st & 2nd Stage nozzle material : Co based super Alloy

Material of Turbine wheel : Cr-MO-V steel forging

Material of Turbine shell : Ductile Iron

No. of Turbine nozzle 1st stage : 2 x 18 = 36

2nd stage : 3 x 16 = 48

3rd stage : 4 x 16 = 64

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No. of Turbine buckets 1st stage : 92

2nd stage : 92 (Tip shrouded)

3rd stage : 92 (Tip shrouded)

Compressor
No. of stages : 17

Type : Axial flow

Direction of rotation : CCW as seen from Inlet end.

Casing : Horizontal split


Compressor ratio : 1 : 11

Rated speed : 5100 RPM

Blade tip speed : 340 M/Sec.

Rotor construction : Discs and through Bolts

Blade attachment : Dove tail

Extraction : From 5th , 11th and 17th Stages

Blade material : 12% Cr Steel, Nickel-Cadmium coated

Inlet, forward & : Grey cast Iron

After casing material

Discharge casing : Ductile Cast Iron

Combustors

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Type : Reverse flow type

No. of combustion : 10

No. of fuel nozzle : 10 (one in each combustor)

No. of Ignition : 2 (Located in 1st & 10th

Cumbustor) Automatic retractable

No. of flame detector : 2 (Located in 3,4,7 & 8 Cumbustor)

Ultra violet type

Firing temperature : 1104 C at trailing edge of

1st stage nozzle

Auxilliary oil pump (AOP)

Type : Centrifugal, vertical mounted.

Driver : 50HP, 2900 RPM IND Motor.

Capacity : 1741 LPM

Discharge pressure : 4.57 kg/cm2

Minimum suction pressure : 0.0278 kg/cm2 .

The CGP has at present 3 nos. BHEL make, Gas turbine


Generators (GTG) withnindividual Heat Recover Stem
Generator (HRSG). The GTGs are rated 30 MW each. The
generation voltage is at 11 kv. For further distributioin voltagr is
stepped down by of 11/0.415kv, 11/6.6kv and 6.6/0.415kv

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distribution Transformers.

Support system of Gas Turbine typically


includes following
1. The lube oil system for furnishing normal lubrication and
absorbing the heat rejection of the gas turbine.
2. The hydraulic supply system which provides the
necessary hydraulic flows and pressures for control devices
on the turbine
3. The trip oil system which operates devices for the control,
hydraulic trip sub-system
4. The cooling water system which cools the lube oil.

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5. The starting system including the starting device and the
required logic sequence for starting the gas turbine and
bringing it up to operating speed.
6. The cooling and sealing air system which provides the
necessary airflow from the turbine compressor to the other
parts of the turbine rotor and stators to prevent excessive
temperature build up and prevent bearing oil leakage.
7. The fuel system which supplies, controls the flow and
directs the fuel to the fuel nozzles in the gas turbine
combustors . The fuel system includes gas , liquid and dual
fuel systems.
8. The atomizing air system provides sufficient pressure in
the air atomizing chamber of the fuel nozzle to break the
fuel jet up to a fine mist permitting ignition and
combustion with increased efficiency.
9. The ventilating and heating system provides the
ventilation of hot air from compartments so that various
devices in these compartments work in the allowable
compartment temperatures.
10. The fire protection system is provided to extinguish fires
in the compartments, in case any fire takes place.
11. The inlet and exhaust system provides atmosphere air to
be brought into the compressors through inlet ducting and let

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exhaust gases to atmosphere or to heat recovery steam
generators.

ELECTRICAL TESTING.

 MEASUREMENT OF EARTH RESISTANCE :


The earthing connection of all the machines are linked to an
underground network called as grid. The value of the earth
resistance should be minimum.
This is done using “THE DIGITAL EARTH TESTER.” Two
metallic rods sction as eltrodes are inserted into ground and are
connected to the tester. A third wire is connected to the body of
the machine and is connected to the tester. The voltage drop is
measured by the electrodes. Hence resistence can be found by
R = V/I.
 GREASING :
Greasing of some machine bearing is done by isolating it
from the supply, wherever online greasing facility is not
available. Greasing is also done during the working
condition also.
 FINDING THE LOCATION OF UNDERGROUND
CABLE FAULT :
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Whenever there is breakdown of insulation of long
underground cable, very high voltage is sent by using “ The
Surge generator ” which will burn the affected point completely
and aso detects the distance.
To measure the distance “ TELEFEX “ is used.Here
distance is measured by sending & receiving the signal and
finally location of the fault is pointed by “ SEISMIC
VIBRATION DETECTOR. “
 MEGGER :
It is an instrument used to measure the insulating
resistance of the “ INDUCTION MOTOR. “ Actually, the
value should be very high above some particular value. If
there is some damage to the insulation, the value decrease and
hence it can be detected.
 TRANSFORMERS RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT
METER :
This is an instrument, used to measure the resistance of
the transformer coils. Here, the current is passed through
the transformer coils by the instrument and then the voltage
across the coil is measured. Consequently the value is
measured R = V/I. Thisis done both input and output of
transformer.
 HRC FUSES :

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In the industries the HRC (HIGH RUPTURING
CAPACITY ) fuses are used. This because they don’t
produce any spark of smoke.
 TYPES OF TRIPPING :
1) Electrical Tripping : In case of circuit breaker. The trip
is energized through the actuation of the trip current
either through the control or protection current.
2) Mechanical Tripping : it occurs due to some
mechanism, generally protection releases which are
mechanical in nature. These releases are actuated by
certain insult coils and mechanism.
 CONTACTOR :
A contactor is an electromagnetic switchwhich can be
operated remotely. Switchgear is used to the standard
requirements of switching various loads under normal
ndabnormal condition with in built features of protection against
various hazards. One such devuce is contactor.
 BREAK DOWN VOLTAGE TEST : (Tranformer Oil)
The BDV test is done to find out the breakdown any
liquid. There is an instrument consist of a box which is
filled with the necessary oil. Two electrodes which is
separated by a small gap of approx. 25mm. voltage is
supplied to both the ends of electrodes. Slowly the voltage
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is incread, the moment the breakdown occur voltage is
noted. This is the breakdown of the liquid.
 RELAYS :
A device that is operated by a variation in the condition
in one electric ckt & serves to make one or more connections in
the same or another electric ckt.
In relay one of the pair of the contacts that are closed or
opened by the movement of the armature relay. Relay ckt is
associated with a selector, consisting of magnetic impulse
counter for registering digits & holding a ckt.

ELECTRICAL WORKSHOP
Electrical workshop is a very important and very essential
unit for the primary maintenance of the electrical equipments.
Here as we reffered most of the load the industry in the form of
the INDUCTION MOTOR. So we reffered in the electrical
workshop that here the most of the jobs are related to the
induction motors. We saw no. of induction motors of different
sizes and of different ratings.
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WHY NEED FOR THE WORKSHOP ? :
In IOCL we know that it’s a Petroleum Industry so that
every plant contain different types of pumps, blowers,
compresser, fans of different ranges. For the operation of all
these equipments the motor is very important. Here if there is
any fault or any other constructional or operational failure arises
with any motor then it will be informed to the workshop.
MAINTENANCE AND TESTING OF MOTORS :
• First of all in the workshop Earthing contacts of the motors
are tested.
• Then other testing like Megger test and other Winding
tested done.
• After opening the motor, it will be cleaned by the
Kerosene. Than it will be put in the Oven for removing the
moisture from the motor.
• The motor needs proper insulation over the conductors
throughout the length. So the body and stator windings are
painted with Red Bectol. It improves the insulation
strength.
• Then the bearing maintenance is another important job in
the workshop, here the bearings are tested and replaced (if
necessary) for all the motors.

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• After that motor is once again fitted and again put into yhe
oven for same reason as we mentioned above.
• Now Balancing Process is also done at Workshop. Here
there are three types of the balancing and vibration in the
motor.
 Vertical Balancing.
 Horizontal Balancing.
 Shaft balancing.
• And finally all after test and maintenance we measure the
ratings of the motor.
• Generally we measure the ratings with no load test but for
the high rating of motor ( e.g. above 55 kw ), we have to
test with the on load condition by using Variac.

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