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Maintaining a Balance

1. Most organisms are active in a limited temperature range

Identify the role of enzymes in metabolism, describe their chemical composition and use a simple model to describe their specificity to substrates


Chemical Composition:

Enzymes are globular proteins made up of long chains of amino acids


Proteins are large, complex macromolecules, built from a linear sequence of amino acids. As enzymes they control the metabolic reactions of cells


Cofactors are a non protein component of an enzyme and may be an inorganic molecule. Often added component of enzyme to complete catalytic properties. Prosthetic groups (permanent) or coenzymes (temporary)


Amylase acts of starch to create glucose


The part of the enzyme surface which the substrate is bound and undergoes the reaction is known as the active site.


Catabolism single substrate molecule to be drawn into active site , breaking chemical bonds, breaking substrate into 2 separate molecules.


Anabolism two substrate molecules are drawn into active site, chemical bonds form single molecule


Increase rate of reaction without a change in temperature Lower the activation energy by bringing substrate specific molecules together rather than random collision Act of specific substrate Chemically unchanged but can be reused Biological catalysts

LOCK AND KEY MODEL or Induced-Fit Model

Identify the pH as a way of describing the acidity of a substance The pH

Identify the pH as a way of describing the acidity of a substance

The pH scale is used to measure the acidity or alkalinity of a substance

Is a logarithmic value of the concentration of [H+] ions in solution


Greater log value the lower the pH

The presence of hydrogen ions in solution makes it more acidic

Explain why the maintenance of a constant internal environment is important for optimal metabolic efficiency

All chemical reactions within cells must occur efficiently and be effectively co ordinate to

bring about optimal metabolic efficiency.

Enzymes are extremely sensitive to changes in their internal environment (intercellular or interstitial fluid and cytoplasm) and any imbalance can adversely affect their function Internal environment of an organism must be maintained within a narrow range of conditions (temp, volume, chemical contents) so that enzymes can function effectively and metabolic efficiency can be maintained.

o Metabolic efficiency relies on temp/pH, concentration of metabolites, water and salt concentration and absence of toxins that may inhibit enzyme to Regulate respiratory gases, Cope with disease and pathogens, Maintain nutrient supply and Repair injury


Experiments which affect activity of enzyme

pH and temp



increased temperature


enzymes only function in a narrow temp and pH range; outside these ranges enzymes decrease in activity or denature rendering non functional reducing metabolic efficiency Metabolites


- Risks: hydrogen peroxide is hazardous if swallowed, irritant to eyes, hot plates are at high temperature so can burn

1. 5 water baths at different temperatures (independent variable) (5,25,39- control,80,100)

2. Add 5 identical pieces of liver (controlled variable) (enzyme) into each test tube

3. Add 5ml of Hydrogen peroxide into separate test tubes

4. Place test tubes into water baths for 2 mins (controlled variable) and pour the two test tubes



Chemicals that



participate in chemical reactions in cells. Some are taken from outside while others are products of metabolic pathways, e.g. ATP. Metabolic reactions rely on energy, thus a lack of metabolites can slow down or stop cellular respiration and affect overall metabolic efficiency. Water and Salt concentration

5. Measure height of the foam in each and repeat / average results

- High temperatures decrease activity as enzyme is denatured, Low temperatures decrease activity as kinetic energy is lower



Change in pH


- Risks: hydrogen peroxide is hazardous if swallowed, irritant to eyes

1. Add 1ml of acid into 4 test tubes using pipette each with different pH level (independent variable), (a- ethanoic acid, b-distilled water, c-tap water, d- sodium carbonate)

2. Add 1ml of potato solution, and mark the height

3. Add 1ml of hydrogen peroxide solution and time for 30 seconds

4. Measure the height of the bubbles and repeat,

Reactants in chemical reactions need water while dissolved salts affect the osmotic balance of fluids and so concentration of salts ect must be maintained in narrow range. Absence of toxins


record results (dependent variable)


- Activity decreased either side of optimum as enzymes were denature



Change in substrate concentrations

- Risk: hydrogen peroxide is hazardous if swallowed, irritant to eyes (substrate)

1. 6 test tubes, with increasing amounts of hydrogen peroxide (independent variable) and increasing amounts of distilled water into each

2. Add 1ml of potato solution to each and record the



A build up of CO2 or other wastes as a product of cellular reactions may be toxic, affecting enzymes directly by blocking active site or indirectly by altering the optimal conditions of enzymes.

top of the mixture


3. Time for 1 min, measure the height of the bubbles (dependent variable) and record/ repeat results

- Height of bubbles increased as substrate concentration increased until saturation point

- Control was test tube a with no hydrogen peroxide

- Controlling variables- amount of enzyme, time, pH, temperature

Describe homeostasis as the process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment

Homeostasis is the process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable constant internal

environment, regardless of the external environmental conditions.

Stimulus receptor brain (CNS) effector response

To maintain homeostasis organisms must detect stimulus from both internal and external environments then counteract the change. It is vital for survival of all cells as all the chemical processes function within a narrow range of conditions. It maintains optimal metabolic efficiency.

Note: Body temperature in mammals is a homeostatic mechanism. To reduce temperature, heat can be expelled by sweating or radiation of heat from the skin. To increase heat, the body can respond by shivering or by contracting the skin. These responses can be activated by heat receptors. If a mechanism is activated, it will operate until receptors indicate that the optimum temperature has been reached.

Explain that homeostasis consists of two stages:


Detecting changes from the stable state


Counteracting changes from the stable state

Homeostasis involves coordination, control and maintenance of stable internal environment. In mammals, nervous and endocrine systems are involved.

Variables within internal environment have a set point. If the fluctuation of these variables is large, the stimuli is detected by receptors and a negative feedback mechanism operates to counteract the change, returning body to homeostasis.

1. Detecting changes

Sensory cells or receptors detect change in temp or chemical composition Called stimuli

2. Counteracting changes

Effector organs (such as muscles or glands) respond to change and counteract it to return to homeostasis.

Model for Negative Feedback Mechanism:

as muscles or glands) respond to change and counteract it to return to homeostasis. Model for

Outline the role of the nervous system in detecting and responding to environmental changes

The nervous system

consists of Central Nervous System (CNS) [brain and spinal cord] and Peripheral

Nervous System (PNS) [sensory nerves and effectors nerves]

- The nervous system detect changes, sending neuron messages to the hypothalamus in the brain to respond to the changes and ensure homeostasis is maintained


Rods and cones in the retina detect light Hair cells in the cochlea of the ear that detect pressure waves in the cochlea fluid Taste buds on the tongue Olfactory receptors in nose Mechanoreceptors, thermo receptors, pain receptors in skin

Endocrine system: consists of endocrine glands which produce hormones into the bloodstream. Chemical message which travel through the blood, so take longer to act than nerves but their effects are longer lasting.

Identify the broad range of temperatures over which life is found compared with the narrow limits for individual species

Broad Range: - 70 degrees to 350 degrees

Narrow Limits: Individual Species

70 degrees to 350 degrees Narrow Limits: Individual Species - Tolerance Range - optimal range of

- Tolerance Range

- optimal range of temperatures

o Degree to which an organism can tolerate and survive in variation in environmental factors

- Chemical reactions that occur in cells take place only within a relatively narrow range of temperatures, due to the temperature sensitivity of enzymes

o If temperature increases- enzymes begin to denature as the weak hydrogen bonds in enzymes break and change the shape of active site

- Examples: Submarine hydrothermal vents, can reach 350 degrees.



the hydrothermophilic microbe, Pyrolobus fumarii.

Pompeii worm

- Extreme cold

microbe, Pyrolobus fumarii. Pompeii worm - Extreme cold o o Microbes such as bacteria, lichen and



Microbes such as bacteria, lichen and fungi- a range of -17 to 20 degrees

arctic fox can withstand temperatures of -70 degrees.

Compare responses of named Australian ectothermic and endothermic organisms to changes in the ambient temperature and explain how these responses assist temperature regulation

The ambient temperature is the temperature of the environment the air, water in the immediate surroundings on an animal.

Ectothermic: Organisms that depend on an external source the environment for heat energy

Endotherm: Remains relatively stable despite the environment, but varies metabolism.


Habitat and


Comparison of







larger surface area enables the kangaroo to maintain and lose body heat during periods of high temperatures. dense network of blood vessels particularly in their forearms. These blood vessels dilate when the ambient temperature is high. This dilation increases blood flow to the forearms and promotes heat loss. To increase cooling kangaroos lick their forearms. Kangaroos cool themselves by sweating. This evaporation of the water cools the organism down. However in times whereby the kangaroo needs to conserve water it will increase its body temperature a couple of degrees in order to maintain water. Kangaroo’s fur has two main processes when the ambient temperature increases/decreases. When the temperature decreases the fur stands on end in order to reduce heat loss and maintain body heat. When the ambient temperature increases the fur insulates the kangaroo from the hot air surrounding it. Kangaroos regulate their metabolic rates in order to regulate their body temperature. This is done by remaining crouched in the shade during times of extreme heat.

Has a steady internal core

Red Kangaroo



and open



temperature, the metabolic rate is maintained at a high level as it gains its source of body heat internally.




- Feathers which trap air to reduce heat loss by acting as an insulator


cold icy

Fairy penguin


- In low temps, the feathers are further away from skin to trap the maximum amount of heat


- In high temps, the feathers are flatter on body to reduce the


insulation, also move to water to cool body down




Hot tropical

Frilled neck lizards will flatten their body to absorb as much sun as possible in order to increase their body temperature. Frilled neck lizards will narrow their body if the ambient temperature is too high or if their own body temperature is too high. This is performed in order to reduce their surface area. Frilled neck lizards move into shades or burrows to cool down from the rising ambient temperature. The temperature in burrows is fairly constant, which enables the lizard to cool down. Burrows in particular also minimise water loss which is beneficial to the lizard. Due to the ambient temperature being too cold frilled neck lizards can go into a state of torpor whereby their body shuts down for the winter and their metabolic rate is slowed.

Dependent on the exterior hot climate in order to


climates- dry

Frilled neck lizard
Frilled neck

forests and


regulate body temperature.


Varies dramatically depending on the ambient temperature



Dry desert

- In hot temperatures, becomes active at night whilst sheltering during the day


areas in

Eastern brown snake
brown snake


- In low temps, the snake basks in sunlight to gain additional heat- becomes less active by slowing down metabolism.


- If long periods of low temperatures, hibernates in a well sheltered spot to retain stored food

Identify some responses of plants to temperature change

Maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment is vital for plant metabolism.

Response to high temperatures

- Temperatures above 40 may cause damage to proteins and those above 75 to chlorophyll pigment within the plant. These responses are mostly structural and physiological

Evaporative cooling (transpiration)

o Causes the stomata in plants to open, leading to the loss of water via transpiration. This in turn decreases the internal temperature

o However this can cause dehydration of the plant, so excessive heat causes the stomata to close to preserve water

Turgor response (wilting)


Reduce the exposure of their surface area to the sun and its associated heat and light.


In extreme heat, the plants transpire and lose turgor in the palisade cells of leaves, resulting in leaves wilting, reducing SA. If water is available, wilting is temporary, however if not then wilting will lead to death. Many introduced plants do not have the adaptations for the dry climate such as hydrangeas and roses.

Leaf orientation

o Some leaves can hang vertically downward in hot temp to reduce surface area

eg. eucalyptshang vertically downward in hot temp to reduce surface area Reseeding and resprouting in response to

Reseeding and resprouting

in response to extreme high temperatures - fire eg. eucalypts

Thermogenic plants

eg. lotus bud

Response to cold temperatures


Organic ‘anti freeze’

- eg. Antarctic hairgrass plant


Substance that reduces the temperature at which the cytoplasm or cell sap in the vacuole freezes



eg. deciduous beech tree


Deciduous trees lose their leaves in winter and undergo a period of dormancy, which allow them to survive, storing water and lower availability of sunlight



eg. tulip buds

o Flower, e.g. tulip bulbs

Gather, process and analyse information from secondary sources and use available evidence to develop a model of a feedback mechanism

and analyse information from secondary sources and use available evidence to develop a model of a
2. Plants and animals transport dissolved nutrients and gases in a fluid medium Identify the

2. Plants and animals transport dissolved nutrients and gases in a fluid medium

Identify the forms in which each of the following is carried in mammalian blood:


Carbon dioxide










Nitrogenous waste


Other products of digestion


Form carried in mammalian blood


Carbon dioxide

70% transported in the form of hydrogen carbonate ions, formed in red blood cells and carried in plasma Some combines with haemoglobin forming carboaminohaemoglobin 7% is dissolved in plasma


Around 1.5% travels dissolved in plasma

Binds to haemoglobin molecule, via diffusion across the biconcave red blood cell surface oxyhaemoglobin


In plasma as the basis of the cytoplasm in all cells and the interstitial fluids surrounding cells and blood and lymph system


Carried in blood as ions dissolved in blood plasma


Are insoluble due to their strong hydrophilic end so many are not able to dissolve in plasma. Although small proportions of fatty acids and glycerol are soluble and enter the blood stream directly, most are packaged into droplets, then through lymph system and into bloodstream. called micelles Micelles are transported in colloidal solution. Which are then absorbed as they pass into lacteals inside the villi of the small intestine. During this process they form into chylomicrons to which they join the blood stream.

Nitrogenous waste

Includes urea, uric acid, creatinine and ammonia and some non used amino acids are carried dissolved in blood plasma Metabolic nitrogenous waste is broken down by liver and removed via kidneys

Explain the adaptive advantage of haemoglobin



Protein made up of 4 polypeptide chains each folded polypeptide chain is called a globin. Towards the centre of each globin is a haem unit (iron containing group). The iron weakly binds with the oxygen to form oxyhaemoglobin Each haem is a red pigment molecule and the iron necessary for haemoglobin formation is obtained from the diet. Iron is necessary in diet to maintain haemoglobin in red blood cells

Adaptive advantage

maintain haemoglobin in red blood cells Adaptive advantage Major role of Hb is to transport oxygen.

Major role of Hb is to transport oxygen. This is insoluble so cannot be dissolve in plasma, this binds to haemoglobin At high altitude, blood cannot absorb amount of oxygen at sea level. Thus body adapts by initially increasing heart rate, breathing rate, then the number of red blood cells --> more haemoglobin Is able to increase the oxygen carrying capacity of blood

o 4 haem units on haemoglobin molecule allow it to bond with 4 oxygen molecules Ability to bind oxygen increases once the first oxygen molecule binds to it

o The bonding on each oxygen molecule to the haemoglobin molecule, changes it shape slightly making the rate and efficiency oxygen uptake increase.

Small increase in oxygen concentration in the lungs can result in a large increase in oxygen saturation in the blood. Capacity to release oxygen increase when carbon dioxide is present.


Important to release oxygen to cells that need it, while uptaking oxygen at respiratory surfaces


Metabolising cells release CO2 which combines with water and forms carbonic acid, lowering the pH. Haemoglobin reduces the affinity for oxygen at lower pH, release it. Bohr effect

Compare the structure of arteries, capillaries and veins in relation to their function

Blood Vessel


How structure is related to function


Artery   Transport oxygenated blood away from heart Thick, elastic and muscular layer- high pressure of

Transport oxygenated blood away from heart Thick, elastic and muscular layer- high pressure of pumped blood Elastic fibres- expand and recoil, controlling blood pressure Smooth muscular fibres- control diameter of artery and rate of flow of blood



Vein   Transport deoxygenated blood towards the heart Thin, elastic and muscular layers, wider diameter- Flows

Transport deoxygenated blood towards the heart Thin, elastic and muscular layers, wider diameter- Flows at a much lower pressure Valves ensure that blood flows in one direction Situated between skeletal muscles to help push blood through veins



Capillaries   1 cell layer thick, small diameter of lumen, narrow- red blood cells must pass

1 cell layer thick, small diameter of lumen, narrow- red blood cells must pass through single file, slows down flow to allow for exchange of materials Surround body tissues, expansive network, large surface area- efficient exchange


Describe the main changes in the chemical composition of the blood as it moves around the body and identify tissues in which these changes occur


Chemical that changes in


Why does the change in concentration occur






Oxygen increases in blood

- Gas exchange occur


- Oxygen diffuse from lungs into blood for


- Carbon dioxide



- Co2 diffuses from blood to be excreted


- Products of digestion increase (glucose, amino acids)

- Diffuse across the villis of small intestine and into blood to be carried to body cells for respiration



- Water, vitamin,

- Diffuses across the large intestine walls and into blood to reach cells







- Unwanted substances decrease (toxin, alcohol)

- Removes and breaks down toxins etc

- Removes excess amino acids and ammonia from blood and converts to urea called

- Urea increases


- Minerals decrease

- Stores some vitamins and minerals

- Glucose may increase or decrease

- Can remove glucose wen sugar levels are high

- When levels are low- release glucose into blood from stores of glycogen


- Urea decreases

- Urea is filtered out of blood and kidneys

- Salt and water decrease

and excreted

- Remove any excess salt and water by osmoregulation

Brain and

- Oxygen decreases

- High rate of respiration occurs which

active muscle

- Co2 decreases

requires glucose and oxygen

- Glucose decreases

- Releasing CO2 in the blood




Form/component carried in blood


Alveoli in lungs from inhaled air

Heart and tissues of body for respiration

Oxyhaemoglobin in red blood cells Dissolved in plasma

Carbon dioxide

Body cells

Alveoli in lungs



Waste product of cellular respiration









Lymph vessels


Nitrogenous waste




Amino acids and glucose

Small intestine



Outline the need for oxygen in living cells and explain why removal of carbon dioxide from cells in essential

Need for Oxygen


This energy is needed for growth, repair of tissues, movement, excretion, reproduction. However this energy must be converted into form for living cells to use in metabolism Oxygen combines with glucose via a series of enzyme controlled steps during cellular respiration to release ATP

Is necessary for cellular respiration, a process where cells obtain energy from glucose

o This is called oxidation of glucose and it occurs in all living cells

C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 + 6H 2 O 6CO 2 + 12H 2 O + ATP

Removal of carbon dioxide

Produced in cells as a waste product of chemical respiration. It must be removed to prevent a change in pH in the cells, bloodstream and body.

o When CO2 reacts with H2O it forms carbonic acid. A build up of carbonic acid is toxic as it lowers the pH of the cells and blood stream, affecting the homeostatic balance within an organism. CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 A lower pH will prevent the enzymes and cell functioning by reducing the metabolic efficiency. Thus it is essential to be removed for optimal functioning of enzymes.

Describe current theories about processes responsible for the movement of materials through plants xylem and phloem tissue

1. CAT Theory (cohesion-adhesion-tension theory) Xylem

What is it:

- Movement of water and mineral ions through xylem

- Root pressure forces the solution which has been absorbed into the roots into the xylem upwards

- Most upward movement is due to Transpiration stream occurs due to physical forces from water being moved by passive transport, evaporative suction pull of water is pulled up through stem



Xylem vessels are hollow very little resistance to the flow of water


Properties of water:



Cohesive forces

(attraction of water molecules to each other) (attraction of water molecules to walls of xylem) lead to capillarity


adhesive forces


(water rises up xylem)



Concentration gradient exists across leaf


Surface of the leaf, the osmotic pressure is high, water concentration is low as it is constantly being evaporated through the stomata


Centre of the lead, the osmotic pressure is low, water concentration is high


The pressure flow theory (source path-sink theory) phloem


What is it?

- Translocation in phloem tissue moves products of photosynthesis

- Mechanism of flow is driven by an osmotic pressure gradient, which is a continuous flow as sucrose is continually being added to one end and removed at the other- due to difference in sugar and water concentration

by active transport

What happens:

- Active loading of sugar, amino acids, sucrose

, other mineral nutrients into phloem (source

eg. leaves)- the pressure attracts water to flow in

1. Symplastic loading- sugars move in the cytoplasm from the mesophyll cells

2. Apoplastic loading- sugars move along a pathway through the cell walls, cross cell

membrane to enter phloem tube, pass through sieve cell by active transport

due to differences in osmotic pressure

- Increases the solute (sugar) concentration

- Active unloading of sugar from phloem into surrounding tissues (sink eg. roots or flowers)- pressure causes water to flow out

Choose equipment or resources to perform a firsthand investigation to gather first hand data to draw transverse and longitudinal sections of phloem and xylem tissue.


Longitudinal section

Transverse Section





Perform a firsthand investigation to demonstrate the effect of dissolved carbon dioxide on the pH of water

See Prac worksheet in folder

Perform a firsthand investigation used the light microscope and prepared slides to gather information to estimate the size of red and white blood cells and draw scaled diagrams of each

See Prac worksheet in folder

Analyse information from secondary sources to identify current technologies that allow measurement of oxygen saturation and carbon dioxide concentration in blood and describe and explain the conditions under which the technologies are used

Arterial blood gas analysis

- Takes blood samples from artery and the sample is tested to determine different substances. The test evaluates respiratory diseases and conditions to show how effective the lungs are at removing carbon dioxide and bringing oxygen to the blood. It is an invasion procedure. A limitation is that a sample left at room temp must be analysed within 10-15 min and a sample on ice within an hour.

Current technologies for measurement of oxygen saturation in blood


Pulse Oximeter

is an

It uses two wavelengths of light: red (660 nm) and infra red (910 nm).

Uses: Monitoring oxygenation and pulse rates during anaesthesia, during recovery phase and in intensive care during mechanical ventilation

instrument that measures the amount of oxygenated haemoglobin in the blood.

photodetector receives the


- The amount of oxygen in the blood determines how much light is absorbed by haemoglobin.

signals and a processor- measure absorbed to calculate oxygen saturation

Oxygenated haemoglobin


Readings may not be accurate - if severe hypotension, cold, cardiac failure. Intravenous dyes can also give false readings and they cannot distinguish between carboxyhaemoglobin and methaemoglobin.

- Non invasion technique, relatively cheap and simple to use, useful screening tool

absorbs more infra red light and allows more red light to pass through.

Current technologies for measurement of carbon dioxide concentration in blood

- Carbon dioxide is produced as a metabolic waste from respiration toxic to cells

- Can travel in the blood via hydrogen carbonate ions, dissolved carbon dioxide or bound to haemoglobin as carbamino compounds


measure the amount of carbon dioxide in expired air.

- It is a safe, non

Use changes in the infra red light transmission properties and consist of an infra red transducer, a pump to draw the gases

through a tube, a water trap and a microprocessor.

Uses: They are used during anaesthesia, in lung studies and in intensive care, monitoring the performance of assisted ventilation.


include the presence of gases in the sample that the device cannot measure, e.g. helium.


High breathing frequency can also affect the response capabilities of the capnometer.

test with




Analyse information from secondary sources to identify the products extracted from donated blood and discuss the uses of each product


Donated Blood







Red Blood cell concentrate

Contain about twice as many red blood cells as normal, is used to boost the oxygen carrying capacity of patients with anaemia or after blood loss Treats the haemoglobin levels of patients while not increasing the blood volume for people suffering anaemia, kidney failure, and traumas.

For: can be used to boost the oxygen carrying capacity of a patient. High level of specificity more efficient when separated into separate components.

Against: is a liable product, a perishable blood component with a short shelf life and must be transported under certain refrigerated conditions


42 day shelf life

Risk of infection, allergic reaction

Platelet concentrate

Is given to patients who need extra blood clotting capability,

For: can be stable and have long shelf life if it is blood clotting component.

such as leukemia sufferers or following severe blood loss

Against: is a liable product, a perishable blood component with a short shelf life and must be transported under certain refrigerated conditions 5 day shelf life

White blood cell concentrate

Given to patients needing a boost to their immune system,

For: can help boost the immune system of patient and prevent infections

perhaps following a severe infection

Against: is a liable product, a perishable blood component with a short shelf life and must be transported under certain refrigerated conditions


Is the liquid part of the blood and is often given in an

For: can be used as a blood volume expander after blood


emergency to boost the volume of blood following severe blood loss

loss, obtain intragram, immunoglobins, anti-D, albumex and prothrombinex


Contains blood clotting factors

- Adjust the osmotic pressure

Against: is a liable product, a perishable blood component

- Treat haemophilia

with a short shelf life and must be transported under certain refrigerated conditions 12 month shelf life


Is a fraction collected from plasma and contains blood

For: can be used to treat severe bleeding and contains blood clotting factors

clotting factors. It is used to treat severe bleeding

Against: is a liable product, a perishable blood component with a short shelf life and must be transported under certain refrigerated conditions

Factor VIII and Monofix

Are extracted from plasma and are used to treat people who have haemophilia (an inherited and incurable disorder in which the blood will not clot properly)

For: is a stable product, thus it has longer shelf life and can be produced fractionally or by recombinant manufacteuring. Used to treat haemophilia and blood clotting

Analyse and present information from secondary sources to report on progress in the production of artificial blood and use available evidence to propose reasons why such research is needed.

Progress in the production of artificial blood








- Are fluid solutions that are inert and used to increase the blood volume.

Non oxygen carrying blood substitutes can be crystalloid solutions which

Emergency situations such as trauma patients



These plasma expanders are effective for blood loss and most have few negatives

- The blood is dilute and has a lower concentration of red blood cells.

contain salts and or sugars, e.g. saline solution.

universal acceptance by all blood groups




- Oxycyte and flurovent, easily dissolve oxygen and carbon dioxide

Carries 50 x more dissolved oxygen than plasma.

Uses include surgery, trauma, and oxygenation of tumours

Dr Leland Clark-

mid 1960’s – high demand in Vietnam War

and can transport these gases to tissues and lungs respectively

stored at room temperature

during radiation and chemotherapy.

- They are combined with other materials, e.g. lipids, to form emulsions which can be injected into the patient.

do not need typing or cross matching

Most are inert and chemically stable and can be fully sterilised.


- Combine with oxygen. Clinical trials are ongoing as HBOCs are not protected by a cell membrane and hence not protected from degradation

Produced in large quantities at a low cost free of infective agents and allergens, making them non toxic and disease


based oxygen


Vasoconstriction and there can be gastrointestinal side effects, e.g. nausea, vomiting.



- They are based on haemoglobin from humans, animals and recombinant technology.



Do not trigger the immune response

Have a long shelf life

Reasons why artificial blood research is needed

Further research needed to enclose the haemoglobin, with the required enzymes, inside an artificial cell membrane a lipid vesicle to increase circulation time. Further research is needed to make perflurocarbon emulsions with lipids for effective with large enough quantities to make a significant result as they currently have short circulating life

1. Cheaper to produce

- Current estimates of the costs of blood substitues range between 300 and 1000 dollars. The current cost of a unit of blood varies by region, but the highest current cost is about $200.

2. Safer to use

- Although transfused blood in the US is very safe, with between 10 and 20 deaths per million units, blood substitutes could eventually improve on this.

3. Developing nations

- 10-15 million units of blood are transfused each year without testing for HIV or hepatitis. Blood transfusion is the second largest source of new HIV infections in Nigeria. In certain regions of South Africa as much as 40% of the population has HIV/AIDS, and thorough testing is not financially feasible. A disease-free source of blood substitutes would be incredibly beneficial in these regions. Hemopure is currently approved for use in South Africa, largely because it is a major improvement over the blood supply in this region.

4. Increase in demand

- About 14 million units of blood were used last year in the United States alone. According to Dr. Bernadine Healy, former president of the American Red Cross, donations are increasing by about 2-3% annually in the United States, but demand is climbing by between 6-8% as an aging population requires more operations that often involve blood transfusion. New York City currently relies on Europe for 25% of its blood supply.

- Supply blood quickly and effectively to soldiers and people in critical trauma situations.

5. Replacement for Donated Blood

- Blood supply is voluntarily donated and therefore the amount varies, can be critically low at times of need

- Donated blood has a relatively short shelf life, e.g. platelets have a shelf life of 5 days

- Donated blood is difficult to transport and needs certain conditions

3. Plants and animals regulate the concentration of gases, water and waste products of metabolism in cells and in interstitial fluid.

Explain why the concentration of water in cells should be maintained within a narrow range for optimal function

is a universal solvent in cellsbe maintained within a narrow range for optimal function - Amount and concentration of water must

- Amount and concentration of water must be kept constant

- Molecules such as salts, ions and respiratory products can be dissolved and transported through the water medium

- Water can change solute concentration and pH

- If too much water the cells can burst or too little the cells can shrink

Maintenance of Osmoregulation - water regulates osmotic pressure

Explain why the removal of wastes is essential for continued metabolic activity

Metabolic wastes

, particularly nitrogenous wastes, are toxic to cells.

- the by-products of the breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids, are toxic to cells and must therefore be removed quickly

- Nitrogenous wastes have the ability to change the pH of cells and interfere with membrane transport functions and may denature enzymes.


Nitrogenous waste such as ammonia can cause an increase in pH of cells, resulting in them becoming more alkaline


Carbon dioxide accumulation which lowers the pH, results from internal environment becoming too acidic.

- Increased solute concentrations interfere with reaction rates and an osmotic imbalance adversely affects membrane functioning

Identify the role of the kidney in the excretory system of fish and mammals

Kidney :

The excretory system is a group of organs that function together to remove metabolic wastes from the tissues of an organism and expel them to the outside.


Filtering the blood and removing nitrogenous wastes from the body in the form of urine

- Plays a central role in homeostasis, forming and excreting urine while regulating water and salt concentrations in the blood. It maintains the precise balance between waste disposal and the animals need for water and salts

Fish :
Fish :

- dependant on the environment of the fish.

and salts Fish : - dependant on the environment of the fish. Produce urine that ensures

Produce urine that ensures homeostasis is maintained in the body by osmoregulation

- In marine (salt water) environments, the kidneys excrete small quantities of isotonic (same concentration as sea water) urine. This helps conserve water and excrete the excess salt they gain from their hyperosmotic environment.

- In freshwater fish, the kidneys work continuously to excrete copious quantities of dilute urine, which also has a very low salt concentration. This helps to remove excess water gained from the hypo-osmotic environment.

Explain why the processes of diffusion and osmosis are inadequate in removing dissolved nitrogenous waste in some organisms

Diffusion and osmosis are both types of passive transport that require no energy input and are relatively slow. They rely on random movements of molecules. Diffusion is too slow for the normal functioning of the body and does not select for useful solutes. Osmosis only deals with the movement of water and thus would only allow water to move out of the body, not the nitrogenous wastes.

Problems with Diffusion


Problems with Osmosis


- The rate of movement is too slow


Too much water may be lost in urine


Nitrogenous waste must be dissolved in

water to be removed. Thus wastes would only be able to move if they were more concentrated inside the cells or the bloodstream rather than the fluid outside.



Urine contains large number of nitrogenous wastes in solution, water must be drawn into the urine by osmosis to dilute the wastes and try to equalise the

- Not all wastes can be removed via diffusion



If concentrations within the blood and urine equalised and no further wastes

were removed, their accumulation would change the pH of cells and become toxic.

- Active transport is therefore essential to remove wastes such as uric acid against the concentration gradient from blood into urine in the kidneys.

concentrations of the fluid inside the urine and in the surrounding kidney.

- Movement of water may make wastes too dilute for excretion by diffusion.

Distinguish between active and passive transport and relate these processes occurring in the mammalian kidney

- Within the kidney, the movement of substances between the bloodstream and excretory fluid in the microscopic tubules (nephrons) involves both active and passive transport



Mammalian Kidney


- Process of diffusion and osmosis

- Passive transport moves water and some nitrogenous wastes such as urea and ammonia in the kidney of mammals

- No energy input

- Filtration

- Along a concentration gradient

- Once filtration has occurred in Bowman's capsule, water returns via the interstitial fluid from the tubule to the capillary in the process of osmosis. This occurs along the length of the tubule.


- Involves a carrier protein

- Reabsorption, Secretion

- Moves mainly sodium ions, glucose, amino

- Energy input

acids and hydrogen ions across the wall of the

- Selective process


- Can move against a concentration gradient

- Depending on their concentration, the ions in the blood (Na + , K + , Cl - , H + and HCO 3 ) can be transported to cells in the nephron tubule and then secreted by the cells into the tubule. Some poisons and certain drugs are eliminated from the body in this manner

- Sodium salts reabsorbed, glucose and amino acids reabsorbed, removal of nitrogenous waste

Explain how the processes of filtration and reabsorption in the mammalian nephron regulate body fluid composition


- occurs in glomerulus filtrate in the Bowman's capsule where high blood pressure in the glomerulus forces all small molecules out of the blood into the capsule

- Water, urea, ions (Na + , K + , Cl - , Ca 2+ , HCO 3 - ), glucose, amino acids and vitamins are all small enough to be moved into the glomerular filtrate. Blood cells and proteins are too large to be removed. This filtering process is non-selective and therefore many valuable components of the blood must be recovered by reabsorption.

- Filtration of blood takes place at the surface between the glomerulus and the inner lining of each Bowmans capsule.

- Substances within the blood that are small enough to go through the capillary wall under pressure pass through the cellular layer lining the bowmans capsule and move into the lumen. Blood cells and proteins are retained n the blood, while large volumes of water pass through, carrying dissolved substances such as amino acids, glucose, salts and nitrogenous wastes glomerular filtrate

- Separates from blood depending on size

- Is the movement of materials across the filtration membrane into the lumen of Bowmans capsule to form filtrate


- Reabsorption takes place selectively at various points along the proximal tubule, loop of Henle and distal tubule. All glucose molecules, amino acids and most vitamins are recovered, although the kidneys do not regulate their concentrations. The reabsorption of the ions Na + , K + , Cl - , Ca 2+ and HCO 3 - occurs at different rates depending on feedback from the body. In some cases, active transport is required. Water is reabsorbed by osmosis in all parts of the tubule except the ascending loop of Henle. The amount of water reabsorbed depends on feedback from the hypothalamus. If no water were reabsorbed human would soon dehydrate, losing water at a rate of around 7.5 L per hour. The chemical composition of the body fluids is precisely regulated by the control of solute reabsorption from the glomerular filtrate.

Secretion (active) collecting duct, PCT, DCT

Outline the role of the hormones aldosterone and ADH in the regulation of water and

Outline the role of the hormones aldosterone and ADH in the regulation of water and salt levels in the body

Hormones are chemical control substances that are secreted by endocrine glands, directly into the bloodstream.

Aldosterone brings about the retention of salts


ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) brings about water


within the body


reabsorption within the body.


- Produced in the

adrenal gland




detects Dehydration -


- A decrease in the concentration of potassium/ sodium ions


leads to blood volume dropping



It stimulates the

posterior pituitary gland

- Aldosterone increases the permeability of the nephron to sodium, particularly in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle

to release the hormone ADH which acts on the nephrons of the kidneys to increase the reabsorption of water


- Reabsorption of sodium ions from the nephron into the surrounding kidney tissue and capillaries occurs, resulting in the retention of salts by the body


The presence of ADH increases the permeability of the membranes of the cells lining the distal tubules and collecting tubules to water thus water is reabsorbed into the kidney tissue and bloodstream

- Increase in chloride ions/ water


- Increase in blood pressure and blood volume



- Fludrocortisone?


Decrease urine volume, increase urine concentration, increase blood volume


ADH and aldosterone play an important role in helping the kidney carry its homeostatic functions of osmoregulation

- Regulation of salt concentrations of the blood

- Regulate blood volume

Define enantiostasis as the maintenance of metabolic and physiological functions in response to variations in the environment and discuss its importance to estuarine organisms in maintaining appropriate salt concentrations

Enantiostasis: is the maintenance of metabolic and physiological function in response to variation in

the environment

- Applicable to any organism (plant or animal) that live an environment that varies

- E.g. estuary in its salt concentration varies to carry out enantiostasis to maintain homeostasis


- Estuarine organisms are eurynaline (tolerant salinities)

- High tide environment brings high salt concentration (high osmotic pressure)

- Low tide, sea water flows out and fresh water flows to estuary

- Periodic tidal fluctuating conditions





Organisms that tolerate the changes in the environment by altering the concentration of their internal solutes to match the external environment

Organisms that avoid changes in their internal environment and have the ability to keep the solutes at an optimal level

Use small organic molecules to vary the solute concentration in their cells to match that of the surroundings

Their body fluids are similar to those in a marine environment, so when exposed to fresh water, the water tends to accumulate by osmosis. To counteract this, the animal produces more dilute urine, to reduce the internal water concentration to a level at which the cells can function

The osmotic pressure inside the body and outside are the same

A higher osmotic pressure is maintained inside the body than in the external environment



- Fiddler crab

- Mussels

- Sharks

- Salmon

- Polychaete worms

Organisms that tolerate changes by altering the concentration of their internal solutes to match external environment Metabolism able to tolerate changes in salinity

Use active transport to maintain a constant osmolarity of blood and intersitiual fluid regardless of changes in surrounding water

Describe adaptations of a range of terrestrial Australian plants that assist in minimising water loss

Minimising Water Loss in Plants:

(note: main form of water loss is transpiration)

Mechanisms that minimise


Water conservation and

water loss



Reducing the internal temperature of plants

- Shiny, reflective waxy leaves


Allows the plants to use less water for evaporative cooling

- Thick, insulating cuticle

Waterproof epidermal cells prevent water loss e.g. waxy leaves on salt bush course/leathery leaves of eucalypts


Reducing the exposure of leaves (stomata) to the sun

- Leaf orientation in eucalypts

- Cladodes are think and have regular intervals to conserve water

- Phyllodes

- Leaves reduced to leaflets

- Leaves reduced to scales


- Rolled leaves

Reducing the difference in water concentration between the plant and the outside air

- Sunken stomata

- Sunken stomata in the hakea and in the cladodes of she oaks

- Hair on leaves

- Rolled leaves

Features related to water storage

- Succulent plant organs

- Calandrinia, fleshy stems or leaves which are able to swell up and retain moisture

- Woody fruits

Analyse information from secondary sources to compare the process of renal dialysis with the function of the kidney

Renal Dialysis

Wastes in the blood are removed by diffusion across a partially permeable membrane. Limitations- time consuming; only lmited amounts of wastes can be removed from the blood, sodium phosphate and potassium ions are not excreted

Types of Renal Dialysis





- A partially permeable membrane filters the blood, allowing wastes to pass through but not blood components

- Blood is passed into a dialysis solution outside the body


- Blood moves through plastic tubing

- Can be used only 3 times a week for 4 hours at a time

- A dialysis solution is used

- Anti-clotting agent, heparin is added

- Diffusion of blood occurs into the dialysis solution

- Requires a constant temperature bath

Peritoneal Dialysis

- Undertaken inside the body in the


Dialysis solution has similar ion components to blood

peritoneal caviety

- A catheter is used

- Can be taken daily, 4 times a day for 4 hours

Kidney function vs Renal Dialysis





- Remove wastes in the form of urea

- Movement across membrane through diffusion


- Removal of wastes (urea) only

- An external body process

- Movement of dissolved substances through semipermeable membrane

- Perfmoed by a dialysis machine attached to a computer

- Periodically- 3x a week

- Concentration is monitored by machines so wastes are removed

- Inconvenient, time consuming, less effective, some side effects


- Both involve passive transport

- Movement across membrane is active transport, osmosis, diffusion

- Filters and reabsorbs substance and secretes


- An internal body process

- Performed by two fist sized organs

- Removes waste constantly

- Varies concentration of ions automatically, depending on the bodies needs

- No side effects

- Wastes may be removed by both active and passive transport

Outline the general use of hormone replacement therapy in people who cannot secrete aldosterone

Aldosterone increases the amount of salt reabsorbed from kidney tubules and as a result it also helps regulate blood pressure, blood volume

Lack of Aldosterone



Hormone Replacement





Addisons Disease


Results in low sodium levels and high

Restoring the imbalance of the hormones at levels that are normal for the body

can increase fluid retention raise blood pressure remove the danger of heat failure

caused by

- Damage to the adrenal gland that produces aldosterone

potassium levels in blood

Severe cases of

- Damage to the pituitary gland that controls the adrenal gland

mineral ion imbalance, blood pressure drops due to the low amounts of sodium and potassium ions an imbalance of hydrogen ions lead to lowering

modern day hormone replacement therapy involves administering a genetically engineered hormone called fludrocortisone.

of blood pH and blood glucose imbalance may arise

of blood pH and blood glucose imbalance may arise

of blood pH and blood glucose imbalance may arise
of blood pH and blood glucose imbalance may arise

Compare and explain the differences in urine concentration of terrestrial mammals, marine fish and freshwater fish

Organism Excretory Product and Concentration Environmental Reason Terrestrial Varied concentration FACE THE
Excretory Product
and Concentration
Environmental Reason
Varied concentration
of urine
(mammals in desert,
highly concentrated)
- body needs to conserve water- (hot days) excrete
concentrated urine so that water is conserved
- (Cool days)- dilute urine is excreted by kidneys
(herbivores, less
- Water content of blood & blood pH is maintained at a
constant level- kidneys able to adjust the concentration
of water and salts in urine
- Varies in terms of concentration of water and dissolved
- Humans: urine is 4.2 more concentrated than blood
- Kangaroo rats:diet contain almost no water, urine is
highly concentrated
Marine Fish
Set High
PROBLEM OF OSMOSMIS- Water moves out
Eg. native bass
Concentration of
- Water surrounded fish has higher concentration of
solutes (more salts)
Urea- to avoid
- Water moves out of fish by osmosis along concentration
- Needs to conserve water, small quantities of
concentrated urine are excreted.
Freshwater Fish
Set Dilute
PROBLEM OF OSMOSIS- Water moves in
Eg. whiting
Concentration of
- Water surrounded fish has low concentration of solutes
- Water moves by osmosis along concentration gradient
(urine has a lot of
water relative to the
- More water moves from environment into body tissues-
balance the amount of water
Large Quantities of Dilute urine are excreted
Ammonia- highly
toxic, remove quickly
Explain the relationship between the conservation of water and the production and excretion of concentrated
Explain the relationship between the conservation of water and the production and
excretion of concentrated nitrogenous wastes in a range of Australian insects and
terrestrial mammals
Type of nitrogenous waste excreted- toxicity,
amount of energy needed
Relationship between
conservation of water and
excretion of nitrogenous
Eg. blow fly
Uric acid
low toxicity
Low energy (<urea)
Very Concentrated Urine
Insects are covered with a
cuticle impervious to water.
They conserve water by
producing a dry paste of
uric acid.
Excreted through
malphighian tubules, which
are deposited in various
parts of body.
Almost no water is lost during
Eg. Aquatic Insect
High toxicity
Mayfly larvae
No energy required
Dilute urine
As there is a high
availability of water, the
insects can excrete their
waste products efficiently
and continuously without
any energy. Thus, there is
no need to conserve water
Terrestrial Mammals
Eg. Spinifex Hopping
The animal lives in a very
Medium Toxicity
arid environment
of Central
Some energy required
Highly Concentrated
Australia. It drinks very
little water, eats dry seeds
and excretes urea in a
concentrated form, so that
water can be conserved.
Terrestrial Mammals
Eg. Euro
Medium Toxicity
Some energy required
Highly concentrated Urine
Euros have a very efficient
excretory system that
recycles nitrogen and urea
to make very concentrated
urine. This allows them to
survive in very arid
Terrestrial Mammals
Eg. Red Kangaroo
Medium Toxicity
Some energy required
Highly concentrated Urine
Desert mammal that has
little water available, so
much conserve water
Discuss processes used by different plants for salt regulation in saline environments Organism Processes for

Discuss processes used by different plants for salt regulation in saline environments


Processes for salt regulation


Grey Mangrove



Special salt gland in its leaves that excrete salt


small leaves hanging vertically to reduce the surface presented to the sun and thus reducing transpiration


far-reaching, exposed roots- pneumatophores that build off from the roots to the surface to get oxygen


restrict opening and closing of stomata


Salt desposits

: deposit salt on older tissue (bark and leaves) which are

then discarded and excreted by shedding


Able to metabolic function, by minimising salt concentration and toxicity and increasing water content in large vacuole

Salt Bush


Salt barriers

- special tissues in the roots and lower stems stop salt from

entering the plant but allow uptake of water

(Salt tolerant)


accumulates salt in the swollen leaf bases which fall off, thus removing excess salt and Sporobolus virginicus has salt glands on its leaves.


Minimal salt content through structural and physiological adaptations

Perform a firsthand investigation to gather information about structures in plants that assist in conservation of water


How it reduces water loss

Plant example

Banksia Serrata

- Reduced surface

Banksia Serrata - Reduced surface

- Thick cuticle on leaves


- Limits water loss via

- Woody fruits


- Serated edge of leaf reduces SA

- Waxy thick leaves, thus no water leaves

- Reduced evaportation

She oak

- Reduced surface

She oak - Reduced surface

- Sunken stomata

area and orientation

- Reduced surface area

- Limit evaporation and direct sun

- Small leaves with crown shape scales


- Drooping orientation


- Waxy cuticle

Eucalypts - Waxy cuticle

- Orientation drooping

prevents loss of

- Stomatas open in cool parts and closed at hot times


- Orientation prevents sun exposure directly

- Waxy thick cuticle

limiting evaporation

Perform a firsthand investigation of the structure of a mammalian kidney by dissection, using a model or visual resource and identify the regions involved in the excretion of waste products

Blueprint of life

1. Evidence of evolution suggests that the mechanisms of inheritance, accompanied by selection, allow change over many generations


: is the development and progression of life forms and organisms overtime

Outline the impact on the evolution of plants and animals of:


Changes in physical condition


Changes in chemical condition


Competition for resources

Changes in:

Impact of Evolution on Plants and Animals




Change in Australian climate from cool and wet hot and dry

Snow gums have developed adaptations to conserve water



- affect vegetation from rainforest to woodland, dry sclerophyll forests


- Drying up of lakes

- Influence of fire

- Dust clouds

- Fire resistant



Changes in pH, salinity, presence of minerals

DDT antibiotic resistant bacteria Peppered Moth



Anoxic to oxic environment has led to


simple to more complex organisms

Mangroves for salt secretion



- biotic (living) and abiotic (non living)

Fly catchers feed on same insects so competition exists within the species- they now have different behavioural traits to catch prey

for Resources

- Factors: food, water, shelter, pred-prey relationships


- resources have become limited (dry climate) and thus competition

Macroevolution takes place over millions of years and a new species arises. There is a correlation between chemical change and the type of organism. E.g. red wolf, jackel, dog

Microevolution is a shorter period and involves changes within a population, e.g. peppered moth

Describe, using examples, how the theory of evolution is supported by the following areas of study







Comparative embryology



Comparative anatomy






Supported Theory of Evolution




The study of fossils- mostly found in sedimentary rock. Provides a timeline of evolution in which they exist due to rock layers, suggest evolutionary pathways


Transitional Fossils Archaeopteryx


- Reveal a gradual change in life forms over millions of years

- Qualities of both reptiles (teeth, tail, reptile-like skeletion)

- And Bird (feathers, wishbone, flight muscles)



Darwin and Wallace studied the distribution of species in different biogeographic regions



Using the theories of Divergent and Convergent Evolution- the evidence suggest species have come from Common Ancestors, but have been separated and new species have evolved in order to survive


in their new environmental pressures

Example: Flightless bird (emus/ kiwis)


Comparison of developmental stages of species in the embryonic life form.



- Obvious similarities between fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals - Gill Slits

- Suggesting a common ancestor


Comparison of anatomical structures on different organisms that have the



same basic plan but perform different functions are called homologous structures


- Pentadactyl Limb- monkey, bird, pig, horse, cat basic plan consists of one bone in the upper limb, two in the lower limb leading to five fingers/ toes

- Suggest a common ancestor existed


Comparison of organisms on a molecular basis- study of macromolecular structure of cells in different organism


- DNA sequencing- ordering bases and reveals how closely related organisms are eg. humans and monkey common ancestor

- Amino acid sequencing- humans share 8 amino acids sequences with monkeys and 125 with lampreys (more closely related than expected)

Explain how Darwin Wallace theory of evolution by natural selection and isolation accounts for divergent and convergent evolution

Darwin Wallace theory of evolution by natural selection assumes that living things arose from a common ancestor and that some populations move into new habitats where they adapt over time to their environments.

1. Variation exists

2. Favourable Characteristic

3. Survive and Reproduce

4. More Common

Divergent Evolution


Convergent Evolution


When species are isolated changing environmental pressures cause different natural selection process to occur. Specification (new) species arise by splitting or budding

If species exist in similar environment, exposed to similar selective pressures but yet distantly related natural selection could account for their structure similarities.



Darwin’s Finches in Galapagos islands Kangaroo in Aus Elephants are large plains-dwelling animals that are closely related to a small guinea pig-like animal called a hyrax

Shark, dolphin, penguin (fish, mammal, bird)- streamlined body shape, fins

Analyse information from secondary sources to prepare a case study to show how an environmental change can lead to changes in species


Peppered Moth

(biston betualaria)

Physical Change

Industrial Revolution- Pollution

Change in environment

woodlands near industrial cities had a blackened soot on tree trunks. The light coloured moths were captured and killed by predators more frequently because they could be easily seen resting on the dark tree trunks

Form of Evolution

Micro evolution as it took place over a short period of tile and resulted in a change within populations of species but it did not produce a new species

Darwin’s Theory of Evolution

In the moth population there would have been variation, some black and some lighter. Due to the selective pressures caused by the industrial revolution, the black moths had the selective advantage to camouflage and the white moths more likely to be killed by predators due to conspicuous colour. The black moths became more abundant having the favourable characteristic they can survive and reproduce. Passing on this characteristic to the offspring, the black have become more common in the population.

Analyse using an example, how advances in technology have changed scientific thinking about evolutionary relationships

Identify technology

Advances in technology




DNA sequencing and hybridisation


Early classification of evolutionary relatedness was based on structural anatomy


1960s and 70s Amino acid sequencing of cytochrome C and haemoglobin revealed identical sequence in chimps and humans and 1 difference with gorilla

Amino Acid sequencing



E.g. 1860 Ernst Haekl reviewed the hind limb walking and enamel on teeth of chimps and gorillas were closer than human and orangotang



DNA compared genes as well as mitochondrial DNA confirming amino acid sequence



African apes were closer to humans as orangotang had earlier divergence


Human and chimp 1.6 - 3/4 % difference


Quantitative results

minimise bias

Direction of change in scientific thinking about evolutionary relationships

Data from advanced molecular technology such as amino acid sequencing and DNA hybridisation and sequencing has established new links and evolutionary relationships in particular with humans and homo sapiens race. They have created a new phytogenic tree Reveal more closely related organisms


Advances in technology have led to a better, more specific scientific understanding of evolutionary relationships and relatedness

Analyse information from secondary sources on the historical development of theories of evolution and use available evidence to assess social and political influences on these developments

Historical Development of theories of evolution



Evidence of


Social and

Acceptance of

and dates


against theory





Inheritance of




Not accepted



e.g. giraffes

cannot be









and species


Animals from simple to complex





Adaptation of


animals to



growth and



Theory of evolution via natural selection and isolation


Challenged by

Science was








e.g. finches


accepted but


not fully






Uproar of



Theory of evolution via natural


Challenged by

Science was

Similar and







- 62

selection and isolation



accepted but



of Indonesian


not fully








Uproar of


Gould and

Theory of













power and

accepted in



showed no

knowledge of


bursts of








e.g. soft

bodied sea


Perform a firsthand investigation to model natural selection

1. Collect 50 green and 50 yellow pick up sticks

2. Scatter randomly over green grass

3. For 2 mins time how many sticks one person (predator) can collect in that time

4. Repeat steps 2-3 again, leaving the unpicked up sticks and not the eaten (prey)

Results: the yellow sticks were found to be ill-suited to the environment and were ‘eaten’ more than the green which were conspicuous

Perform a firsthand investigation to gather information to observe, analyse and compare the structure of a range of vertebrates forelimbs

Observe the pentadactyl limb which is used for varying functions

Cat Human Frog Bird - Long humerus - Long humerus - Long humerus - Short
- Long humerus
- Long humerus
Long humerus
Short humerus
- Long radius
- Long radius
Short radius
Long radius
- Short falangies
- Long fingers
Long carpels
Varying fingers

2. Gregor Mendel’s experiments helped advance out knowledge of inheritance of characteristics

Outline the experiments carried out by Mendel

Gregor Mendel

(1822 84) the father of genetics



peaplants 1860’s

to investigate their breeding patterns to determine the

inheritance of characteristics

Why / Features


- Easy to grow


- Produced new generations quickly

- Easily distinguishable characteristics

- Strictly control the breeding patterns

- Used pure breeding lines

- Self-pollinating the flowers to make sure pollen from the stamens lands on the carpel of the same flower

- Cross-fertilisation was ensured by cutting off stamens from a flower before pollen was produced, then dusting the carpel of the flower with pollen from another plant

- To ensure reliability, Mendel used thousands of plants in each experiment.



seven characteristics found in peas:


Flower colour, purple or white


Flower position, axial or terminal


Seed colour, yellow or green


Seed shape, round or wrinkled


Pod shape, inflated or constricted


Pod colour, green or yellow


Stem height, tall or short



Mendels law of dominance and segregation

Mendels law of independent assortment



Each of the seven traits that Mendel studied had a dominant and a recessive factor. When two true-breeding plants were crossed, only the dominant factor appeared in the first generation. The recessive factor appeared in the second generation in a 3:1 (dominant : recessive) relationship.

Mendel’s Experimental technique

Summary of Mendel’s Work and his results

Significance of Mendel’s results and his explanation


To establish

Pure-breeding line 1 Tall x tall all tall offspring = pure bred tall

Result: the offspring of pure breeding lines all resembled their parents, ensuring that they in turn are pure

pure breeding


What he did: Established

Pure breeding line 2

two pure breeding lines one tall one short

Short x short all short offspring = pure bred short

breeding for a particular trait

How he did it: male and females enclosed within the same flower

Importance: The resulting tall and short offspring that are ‘pure bred lines’ become the P of parent generation in subsequent crosses


To create

Create hybrid offspring:

Results: when parents that are pure breeding for contrasting characteristics are crossed, the offspring all resemble one parent

hybrids by

hybrids by


individuals with

contrasting pure



What he did: cross bred two plants with contrasting pure bred characteristics tall x short

Explanation: these offspring (F1) are termed hybrids, but they resemble only one parent the dominant characteristic and the recessive characteristic.

How he did it: manually transferred pollen between tall and short plants


To carry out a monohybrid cross

Result: when two hybrid plants are crossed, one dominant characteristic appears 3 x as frequently in the offspring as the other recessive. 3: 1 ratio.

What he did:

Crossed two hybrid plants from the first filial generation of the previous experiment, identified the resulting offspring as tall or short and counted offspring


How he did it: some were allowed to undergo self pollination, whereas others were cross pollinated, because all were hybrids; large sample size




Mendel derived principles based on mathematical calculations. He showed that these ratios arise if an individual possesses two factors for any characteristic, where one is dominant over the other and these two factors segregate or separate when they are passed from parent to offspring

Explanation: Mendel proposed that during reproduction, the two factors segregate and each passes into a separate gamete. When two gametes combine during fertilisation, each contributes one factor to the new formed offspring


Mendel used statistics to calculate the probability of different combinations of factors pairing in offspring and he obtained a 3:1 ratio


Assessing the validity of conclusions

Collated data: Mendel made direct counts of the resulting offspring, giving quantitative data which he collated and analysed identifying patterns and trends

Conclusions: Mendel applied logical thinking and mathematical model to the data he had gathered, leading to valid conclusions.

Describe the aspects of the environmental techniques used by Mendel that led to his success

He drew valid conclusions which became known as Mendels laws:

- Studied separate characteristics one at a time- easily observable

- Used pure breeding lines by self-pollination

- Used quantitative results (3:1 ratio)

- Large number of plants to increase accuracy

- Cross-pollinated by hand

- Studied traits that had two easily identified factors

Valid and reliable used large sample size and repeated his experiments for different traits

Accuracy reduced experimental error as all experiments were conducted in a controlled environment and those crosses that relied on self fertilisation were conducted by keeping the plants isolated from any other, ensuring no accidental cross pollination, removing the stigma and anther of others and then manually transferring pollen from the anthers of one plant to the stigma of another, preventing accidental self pollination

Describe the outcome of monohybrid crosses involving simple dominance using mendels explanations

Monohybrid: is an individual that has contrasting factors for one characteristic

- Monohybrid inheritance is therefore the inheritance of a single pair of contrasting characteristics

Mendel’s Law of dominance and segregation

- Only one member of a pair of factors can be represented in any gamete (segregation)

- When two hybrids breed statistically they produce a ratio of three offspring showing the dominant trait to one recessive offspring. He called these traits factors but today they are called genes. Contrasting forms of the same gene are alleles.

Mendel’s Laws

- Each characteristic or trait in an individual is controlled by a pair of inherited factors

- Mendels factors pass as unmodified units to successive generations according to set ratios

- Individuals have two factors for each characteristic and they may have two factors the same (pure breeding) or two factors that differ (hybrid breeding)

- The trait that is expressed in the hybrid individual is dominant (Mendel’s first law of dominance)

- During gamete formation, the pair of factors for a trait segregate (Mendel’s first law of segregations)

- When the inheritance of more than one trait is studied, the pair of factors fro each trait separate independently from the other traits of factors (Mendel’s second law – independent assortment)

A monohybrid cross involving simple dominance

Outcomes of monohybrid crosses using Mendel’s explanation

Outcomes of monohybrid crosses using Mendel’s explanation Monohybrid offspring are created when pure breeding parents

Monohybrid offspring are created when pure breeding parents with contrasting characteristics are crossed

All gametes from pure bred tall will contain the factor T similarly gametes from pure bred short will contain t

Each hybrid F1 individual inherits one factor from each parent (Tt)

The monohybrid plants of the first filial generation all resemble the parent possessing the dominant characteristic. The factor that is expressed is dominant in preference to the other factor (recessive), which is hidden

When the hybrid plants produce gametes, the factors for tallness and shortness segregate or separate, with

the result that one half of the gametes contain the factor for tallness (T) and the other for shortness (t)

During fertilisation the gametes fuse, each contributing one factor to the resulting F2 offspring

In the plants of the 2 nd filial generation, the dominant characteristic appears 3


more frequently than recessive one.

As a result a monohybrid cross there is


3:1 dominant to recessive.

Distinguish between homogenous and heterogeneous genotypes in monohybrid crosses


Individual with the same two factors from individual pure breeding


TT or tt


Individual with different factors and from hybrid parents (dominant factor evident in phenotype) Tt


Distinguish between the terms allele and gene, using examples


Specific segment of DNA which codes for a polypeptide


specifies a particular characteristic, has two alleles in an individual and two or more alternative alleles in a population Eg. height in pea plants



Alternative form of a gene


occur in pairs in a diploid individual, segregate during gamete formation, occur individually in each haploid gamete, pair during fertilisation, when the diploid condition of an organism is restored during zygote formation Eg. tall or short allele


Explain the relationship between dominant and recessive alleles and phenotype using examples


is the outward appearance of an organism. The genotype is the actual alleles that are

present on the chromosomes of the organism.

A homozygous tall plant would have two identical alleles for height (TT) and would appear
A homozygous tall plant would have two
identical alleles for height (TT) and would appear
A homozygous tall plant would have two
identical alleles for height (TT) and would appear
A hybrid species- phenotype is dominant

Relationship: In this case, tall is dominant and short is recessive and is not expressed. The following diagram shows the results of crossing two heterozygous plants.

and short is recessive and is not expressed. The following diagram shows the results of crossing

Outline the reasons why the importance of Mendel’s work was not recognised until sometime after it was published

Mendel began his work in 1858 and published the results of his experiments in 1866, but his work lay undiscovered until 1900 when others performed similar experiments. It was only then that the importance of his work was realized. It is unclear why such original work went unnoticed, perhaps:


Mendel was not a recognized, high profile member of the scientific community


he presented his paper to only a few people at an insignificant, local, scientific journal


accepted theory was that characteristics were blended in offspring- Darwins “origins of species”, not that one factor came from each


Other scientists did not understand the work or its significance.


His work was too progressive, radical and was based on very little background sound knowledge


His work differed radically from previous research and the scientists may not have understood it

perform an investigation to construct pedigrees or family trees, trace the inheritance of a selected characteristic and discuss their current use


are used to show all the individuals within a family and can reveal certain traits genetic

disorders. Show the transmission of a character across several generations where the number of individual organisms in each generation is small.

Use: zoos can prevent diease

The pattern of inheritance of a trait in a pedigree may indicate whether the trait concerned is dominant or recessive.

Pattern of Inheritance

Key features

Autosomal dominant

Gene loci on chromosomes other than sex chromosomes Either sex can be affected

Affected individuals must carry at least one dominant allele Unaffected parents will not produce affected offspring


woolly hair in humans

Autosomal Recessive

Gene loci on chromosomes other than sex chromosomes Either sex can be affected Affected individuals must be homozygous recessive Offspring will be affected

Two Unaffected parents can produce affected offspring


albino pigment in hair, skin and eyes

X linked dominant

Does not skip a generation Affected males transmit the trait to their daughters and non of their sons



rare form of rickets is inherited on X chromosome

X linked recessive

More common in males than females

Affected females pass the trait to all their sons. Affected sons may be produced by normal parents




may be produced by normal parents - haemophilia Solve problems involving monohybrid crosses using punnet squares




crosses using

punnet squares



other techniques


A monohybrid cross involves the inheritance of one characteristic. All problems apply Mendel's basic laws of inheritance. The following is typical of a problem that uses Punnett squares to solve problems involving monohybrid crosses.


Worked example


In peas, the gene for the characteristic tall (T) is dominant over the gene for a short plant (t). If a homozygous tall plant (TT) is crossed with a heterozygous tall plant (Tt), what will be the possible phenotypes of the offspring?


A Punnett square is a diagrammatic method of indicating the possible offspring produced from a particular cross.




In the sample problem, a homozygous tall plant (TT) is crossed with a heterozygous tall plant (Tt), By filling in the squares, it is possible to work out all of the combinations that are likely to occur.




When you analyse the information in this case, you can predict that 100% of the offspring will be tall plants: 50% are homozygous tall (TT); 50% will be heterozygous tall plants (Tt).

Describe an example of hybridisation within a species and explain the purpose of this hybridisation

Hybridisation within a species

- the crossing of different variations of one species to produce new

varieties of offspring with desirable characteristics



“Bob” = indian wheat and Canadian fife



- Indian wheat was drought tolerant and resistant to some diseases


- Canadian fife wheat matured late and had the best milling and baking qualities


William Farrer became aware that wheat growing in Australia was presenting problems as strains being grown were not suited to the harsh, dry environment and were susceptible to diseases such as rust and the grain quality was not of a high enough standard for milling and baking

3.Chromosomal structure provides the key to inheritance

Outline the roles of Sutton and Boveri in identifying the importance of chromosomes

Boveri (1896 1904)

- Worked on sea urchins

1. Nucleus of eff and perm contributed 50% of the chromosomes of zygote

a. Connecting chromosomes to heredity

2. Chromosomes were not all the same and full complement was require for normal development

3. More hereditary “factors” than chromosomes recognising that there was more genes on

one chromosome

4. Complete set of chromosomes was needed for normal development

Sutton (1877 1916)

- Worked independently of Boveri on grasshoppers


During meiosis, chromosomes number is halved as each pair of chromosomes separate (mendels law) and each gamete receives 1 chromosome and fertilisation restores the full number. He stated that chromosomes arrange themselves independently along the middle of the cells before it divides.

3. Connection between behaviours and chromosomes and Mendels work on the inheritance of factors and carriers of hereditary units

4. Chromosomes assort independently during segregation

5. He also believed that several factors were on one chromosome.

Developed the Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance

(genes) and occur in distinct pairs

- chromosomes cary the units of inheritance


Before Sutton- Boveri

After Sutton Boveri

Where in the cell are heredity factors found?

Cytoplasm and nucleus

Nucleus only

What material stores the heredity information?


A full set of paired chromosomes, where many heredity factors are carried on each chromosome

How are inherited factors passed to the next generation?

Gametes transport ‘factors’ but how or what these factors were was unknown

Random assortment during meiosis units of inheritance carried on chromosomes in gametes

Nature of chromosomes

Chromosomes were believed to disappear and reappear and were all veiled to be the same size and shape

Chromosomes occur in set numbers in every cell in pairs and each pair of chromosomes has the same size and shape

Describe the chemical nature of chromosomes and genes

- The chemical nature and chemical structure of chromosomes and genes remained unsolved until the 1940s.

- 1953, discovery that DNA is the molecule that meets all the requirements of the hereditary material


Chemical Nature


- Chromosome is a compact coils of thread like molecule DNA, organised around proteins called histones.


- Made up of DNA, long, thin thread like macro molecule, which is the information carrying part of the chromosome

- Proteins around which the DNA is coiled, to keep it neatly packaged

- Chromosomes consist of 40% DNA and 60% protein (histone). Short lengths of DNA make up genes so genes have the same chemical composition as DNA.



- portions of DNA with a specific sequence of bases that code for a particular trait.


- genes have the same chemical composition as DNA

- A locus is the position of a gene on a chromosome

- The total amount of genetic material that an organism has in each of its cells is called its genome

Identify that DNA is a double stranded molecule twisting into a helix molecule with each strand comprising of a sugar phosphate backbone and attached bases adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine, connected to a complementary strand by paring the bases, A-T and C-G

DNA DNA structure - double helix shape – two strains of nucleotides - Each strand
- double helix shape – two strains of
- Each strand of the helix consists of 4
different nucleotides made up of
deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate molecule
and a nitrogen base.
- sides of the ladder- deoxyribose sugar and
phosphate molecules.
- The complementary bases, A-T,C-G, form
the rungs (Adenine pairs with thymine and
guanine pairs with cytosine)
- Strain is sequence of many nucleotides
held together by weak hydrogen bonds in
the centre. The strands have a antiparallel
- The vertical sides are made up of
alternating sugar and phosphate molecules

Explain the relationship between the structure and behaviour of chromosomes during meiosis and the inheritance of genes

Chromosomes during Meiosis:
Chromosomes during Meiosis:

1. Homologous pairs form

2. Duplicate to form chromatids- each chromosome (genes duplicate) makes a complete copy of itself, attached at the centromere

3. Crossing Over occurs during metaphase variation (increased number of combinations of genes variation)

4. Independent Assortment- the homologous chromosomes randomly line up in matching pairs at the equator

5. Random Segregation of chromosomes, moving into new cells

6. Next the duplicated chromosomes separate to single strands resulting in four sex cells that are haploid, (ie contain half the chromosome number of the original cell).

During Meiosis 2


Two daughter cells that result from meiosis 1 each undergo meiosis 2 and the behaviour of chromosomes does not affect genetic variation.



- One cell undergoes two meiotic divisions to generate 4 haploid cells

- The genes in each haloid cell are a new combo of the paternal genes

The new combo results from crossing over and random segregation, allowing the individual alleles of maternally and paternally derived chromosomes to assort independently

- Chromosomes are made of DNA. Genes are coded within the DNA on the chromosomes.

Explain the role of gametes formation and sexual reproduction in variability of offspring

Discoveries have shown: