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Matter Test Study Guide

p 49 in ISN
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1. Are atoms of different elements the


same?
No.
2. For question #1, why or why not?
Atoms of different elements have
different numbers of protons, neutrons,
and electrons.
3. Name two compounds that are pure
substances.
Water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2).
4. Elements are substances that
are made up of only one kind of atom.

5. Describe how you would find the


volume of an irregular shaped object
as a rock.
Put a certain amount of water in a
graduated cylinder. Record that
amount. Submerge the rock in the
water and record the new level of the
water. Subtract the original water
level from the new level. The
difference is the volume in milliliters.
Convert milliliters to cubic centimeters.
It is a one to one conversion, one
milliliter equals one cubic centimeter.

6. What kind of bond holds the atoms in


a molecule together?
Chemical bonds between electrons
hold molecules together.
7. How would define an atom?
Atoms are the building blocks of
matter. An atom is the smallest unit of
matter.
8. When you take the mass of an object
what are you measuring?
Mass is the amount of matter in the

9. What is density?
Density is a property of matter. It is the
relationship between the mass and volume
of an object.
10. What is the formula for density?
Density = mass divided by volume. D = m/v
11. Is density a chemical or physical property?
Density is a physical property.
12. Which piece of lab equipment is used to
measure liquid volume?
A graduated cylinder is used to measure
liquid volume.

13. Which SI unit would you use for the


answer to question 12?
Milliliters (ml) are used when you
measure liquid volume with a graduated
cylinder.
14. What is the SI unit used to measure
the volume of a Kleenex box?
Cubic centimeters (cm3) would be used
to measure the volume a Kleenex box.
15. What formula would you use for #14?
The formula for calculating the volume
of a rectangular object is length x width

16. What are you measuring when you


use a triple beam balance?
A triple beam balance is used to
measure mass.
17. What is the SI unit used for mass?
The SI unit for mass is the gram.
18. How would you define matter?
Matter is anything that has mass and
volume (takes up space).
19. Why is lemonade considered a
mixture?
It is a mixture because it can be

20. Name the four states of matter.


The four states of matter are solid, liquid,
gas, and plasma.
21. How are the atoms behaving in each
state of matter excluding plasma?
In a solid the particles are packed close
together and there is very little
movement.
In a liquid there is a little more space
between atoms so they can move freely
over and around each other.
In a gas the atoms are far apart and move
quickly in all directions.

22. H2O (water) exists in a _____ state of matter


as ice, in a _____ state of matter as water, and
in a _____state of matter as water vapor.
solid, liquid, gas
23. What is viscosity?
Viscosity is the physical property of a fluid
that resists the ability of a fluid to flow. The
higher the viscosity the slower it flows.
24. What is a mixture?
A mixture is substances combined in a
physical way. In a mixture the different
substances retain their individual identity and
properties.

25. The two types of mixtures are


homogeneous mixtures which are
uniform throughout the mixture and
heterogeneous mixtures in which you
can easily identify the individual
components.
26. Describe the plasma state of matter.
Plasmas are gases that become
superheated and, as a result, have so
much energy that the atoms lose their
electrons giving the plasma a positive
charge.

27. Give three examples of an element.


Sodium (Na, metal)
Helium (He, nonmetal)
Silicon (Si, metalloid)
28. Give three examples of a molecule.
Two or more atoms chemically bonded
together.
O2 (oxygen) not a compound!
H2O (water)
NaCl (salt)

29. Give three examples of a compound.


Two or more different atoms chemically
bonded together.
C6H12O6 (sucrose sugar)
CO2 (carbon dioxide soda bubbles)
H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide first aid)
All compounds are molecules!

30. Give three examples of a


heterogeneous mixture.
Pizza, chicken noodle soup, Italian salad
dressing are all heterogeneous mixtures
because you can easily identify the
individual parts.
31. Give three examples of a
homogeneous mixture.
Salt water (not sea water), milk, iced
tea are all homogeneous mixtures
because the composition is uniform
throughout the mixture.

32. Describe why atoms in a solid are still


moving/vibrating?
Atoms in a solid are too close to move
freely, yet there is enough space and
energy allowing the atoms to vibrate.
Atomic motion only stops when a solid
reaches absolute zero (0o Kelvin).
33. What is added or taken away to
change a substances state of matter?
To change a substances state of
matter, heat has to be added or taken
away.

34. Describe sublimation.


Sublimation occurs when the
atoms/molecules of a substance gain
energy and change state from a solid
to a gas, skipping the melting phase.
Dry ice, solid CO2, is an example.
35. Describe condensation.
Condensation occurs when atoms in a
gas lose energy, or cool down, and the
atoms/molecules move closer together
to form a liquid (gas to liquid).

36. Describe evaporation.


Evaporation is a process by which a liquid
becomes a gas. As the atoms/molecules in
a liquid gain energy their speed increases
until they break away from the surface of
the liquid and become gas particles.
37. What is the difference between melting
point and boiling point?
The melting point is the temperature
necessary to turn a solid into a liquid. The
boiling point is the temperature necessary
to turn a liquid into a gas.

38. How would describe a pure


substance?
A substance is considered pure if it is
made of only one type of atom or
molecule. A pure substance can not
be separated by physical means.
39. Name two examples of a pure
substance.
Sodium (Na) an element, 11 protons in
the nucleus.
Chalk (CaCO), a compound, each
molecule contains one atom of calcium,

40. What is the smallest part of an


element?
An atom is the smallest part of an
element. If you change the number of
protons in the nucleus of an atom you
have a different element.
41. Explain how atoms are bonded in a
mixture.
A mixture is a combination of different
substances combined in a physical
way. The atoms do not trade or share
electrons. Substances retain their

42. Are milliliters (ml) and cubic


centimeters (cm3) equal?
Yes they are. 25 ml = 25 cm3
43. Contrast weight and mass.
Mass is the measurement of how much
matter an object contains. Weight is
gravitys affect on mass. When you
step on a scale gravity pulls your mass
towards the center of the Earth and
your weight is a measurement of that
force. You measure mass with a
balance. You measure weight with a

44. Name two places that your weight


would be different.
Your weight would be different on the
moon and any of the other planets in
our solar system. Each planet has a
different mass. The more mass an
object has the more gravity it has.
Also, the distance between objects
affects gravity and, therefore, weight.
As distance increases gravity
decreases. Actually, you would weigh
less at the top of Mount Everest
because it is farther away from the

45. Contrast a mixture and a

compound.
A mixture consists of substances
physically combined. The
substances that make up the
mixture retain their identity and
properties. A compound is two or
more different elements that are
chemically bonded by trading or
sharing electrons. The new
compound looks nothing like the

46. Contrast an atom and a molecule.


Atoms are the building blocks of
matter. An atom is the smallest unit of
matter. When you chemically bond
atoms together they form molecules. A
molecule is any two or more atoms
chemically combined.
47. Describe solids in terms of their
shape, volume, and particle movement.
A solid has a definite shape and
volume. The particles are in a constant
vibrating motion because they are

48. Describe liquids in terms of their


shape, volume, and particle movement.
A liquid has a definite volume, but a
liquid takes the shape of its container.
The particles in a liquid are far enough
apart to move around each other. This
allows liquids to flow.
49. Describe gases in terms of their
shape, volume, and particle movement.
A gas does not have a definite shape
or volume. A gas will expand to fill its
container. The particles are moving

50. What is the Law of Conversation of


Matter?
How is balancing an equation related
to this law?
The law of conservation of matter
(mass) states that in a chemical
reaction atoms are neither created
nor destroyed. It is because of this
law that all chemical equations must
be balanced. You must have the
same number and kinds of atoms on
both sides of the equation. However,
they can be arranged differently. It is

Add to Benchmark 1 study guide (page 49 of ISN):

(51) Identify the solute(s) and solvent in each solution. Underline


the solute and circle the solvents. Remember that a SOLUTE
dissolves in a SOLVENT! (hide the loot in the vent

Ocean water - Salt and water


Kool-Aid - Powder, sugar, and water
Antifreeze - Water and ethylene glycol
Lemonade - Water, lemon juice, and sugar
Soda Pop - Syrup, water, and CO2 gas
Air - Nitrogen, oxygen, and other gases
Gold jewelry - Gold and copper
Sterling Silver - Silver and copper

Add to Benchmark 1 study guide (page 49 of ISN):

(52) What liquid is called the universal


solvent?
Water.
(53) Which would have the most SOLUTE: a glass
of very sweet Kool-Aid or a glass of barely sweet
Kool-Aid? Give a reason for your answer.
Very sweet has more solute (sugar) and is
concentrated. It may or not be at saturation
point.