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SHELLS

2) BASED ON EXTERNAL PRESSURE

1) BASED ON INTERNAL PRESSURE

Cylindrical Shell

a) Cylindrical Shell
=

2+

Circumferential stress, =
Longitudinal stress, =

Where, p internal pressure


D Mean dia. of shell
Under Combined Loadings:
1) Circumferential/tangential stress:
=

+
2

( +)

= 4
=
HEADS
1) INTERNAL PRESSURE:
I) CONICAL HEAD:

Circumferential stress: = 2 cos


=

2 cos

+ .

(Compressive)
d = half apex angle of cone

c) Wind load3 =

(1

{ 0.45 (/ )1/2 }

(Tensile)

b) Due to weight of vessel and


its contents2 =

2 )0.75

(Tensile)

2) Longitudinal stress:
a) Due to the internal pressure1 =

2.5
2.42 ( )

2
=+
/( )

(Tensile/Compressive)
M = bending moment
= 1 + 2 + 3
3) Stress due to offset piping and
wind:
= 2/( ( + ))
T = torque about vessel axis
Resultant stress
= ( 2 + 2 + 3 2 )0.5

II) TORRISPHERICAL HEAD:


=

+ .

Rc = crown radius
W = stress intensity factor =
1

(3 + )
4

Rk = knuckle radius = 0.06 Rc


III) ELLIPTICAL HEAD:

fc (permissible)
=

1
12

3(1 2 )

/2

=
1
= (2 + 2 ),
6
( )
=

E = modulus of elasticity
= Poissons ratio
b) Spherical shell

=
=
4
4 +

IV) HEMISPHERICAL HEAD:


=

=
4
4 +

2) EXTERNAL PRESSURE:

, =

I) DOMED HEADS:
= {3(1 2 )}1/4 /2
+ .
Where, d = 4 to 4.4
Rc = crown radius
E= youngs modulus.

AB = Max. horizontal distance = 2d


AD = Max. vertical distance = 6t or 3.5ts + 2.5tn
H1 = H2 = 2.5ts (by nozzle only)
Else, H1 = 2.5tn (by both ring pad and nozzle)
= ,
= (

= + .

= 1/(0.3 +

1.5
)

=
2
2
=
4
f= permissible stress for flanges

NOZZLES

Tensile stress,

Where,
Wm = total bolt load
B = Bolt circle diameter
G = diameter of gasket load
reaction
= 0.51 2.09
Where,
Y = bolt area
X = nominal diameter

. ) ,

= 21 ( . ),
1 = 22 ( 2. )

= + + 1 =

=
SPHERICAL SHELL
FLANGES
BOLT LOAD
=
Where Ya = gasket seating stress
b = bo if bo < 6.3
2.5 if bo >6.3
bo=(G0-Gi)/4

SHELL WITH EXTERNAL JACKET


m = gasket factor
= ( + )/2
,
,

D = outside diameter
Pallowable = 1/6*Pc

1
= 1
+ .

, = 2 + 4 2

, =

Subjected to external pressure8


2
=
( )
3(1 2 )

2
2

Where,
k1 = 0.167
k2 = 0.12

+ .

SHELL WITH HALF COIL JACKET


=
=

4 +2.5

= + (total
circumferential stress)
=

+ 4

+2.5

Total longitudinal stress:


= + +
=

2 2
+
+
4
2
3 2

P= internal pressure of shell


P=internal pressure of coil
Di= shell internal diameter
d= internal diameter of coil

FLAT PLATE HEAD

f = shear stress