You are on page 1of 945

Version 2007

Documentation

September 2007

Table Of Contents
FracproPT 2007 ..................................................................................................................................................................... 1
Getting Started ................................................................................................................................................................... 1
Welcome to FracproPT 2007.......................................................................................................................................... 1
What Is New in FracproPT 2007? .................................................................................................................................. 2
System Requirements .................................................................................................................................................... 4
Software Installation ....................................................................................................................................................... 5
WARNING! Attaching the Security Key .......................................................................................................................... 9
Technical Support........................................................................................................................................................... 9
Email Technical Support............................................................................................................................................... 11
How Do I Submit a Problem Report? ........................................................................................................................... 12
Installation Troubleshooting.......................................................................................................................................... 13
Installation Troubleshooting.......................................................................................................................................... 13
FracproPT Overview ........................................................................................................................................................ 53
System Overview.......................................................................................................................................................... 53
Starting a New Input File .............................................................................................................................................. 54
Retrieving Saved Input Files......................................................................................................................................... 55
Saving Input Files and Model Results .......................................................................................................................... 56
Keyboard Help [Shift+F1] ............................................................................................................................................. 57
File Naming Conventions ............................................................................................................................................. 59
FracproPT Main Screen [F2] ........................................................................................................................................ 60
Navigation Tree ............................................................................................................................................................ 62
Fracture Design Mode...................................................................................................................................................... 64
Overview - Fracture Design Mode ................................................................................................................................ 64
Well & Treatment Information - F3 ............................................................................................................................... 65
Fracture Design Options - F4 ....................................................................................................................................... 66
Wellbore Configuration - F7.......................................................................................................................................... 71
Heat Transfer Parameters - Shift + F9 ......................................................................................................................... 84
Reservoir Parameters - F9 ........................................................................................................................................... 86
Multiple Fractures - Shift + F7 .................................................................................................................................... 113
Fluid & Proppant Selection - F5.................................................................................................................................. 115
Treatment Selection - F8 ............................................................................................................................................ 147
Fracture Design Control - F10 .................................................................................................................................... 155
Quick Fracture Design Mode.......................................................................................................................................... 158
Quick Fracture Design Control ................................................................................................................................... 158
FracproPTXPRESS .................................................................................................................................................... 161
Fracture Analysis Mode.................................................................................................................................................. 161
Overview - Fracture Analysis Mode............................................................................................................................ 161
Well and Treatment Information - F3 .......................................................................................................................... 161
Fracture Analysis Options - F4 ................................................................................................................................... 165
Real-Time Use............................................................................................................................................................ 172
Channel Inputs for Model - Shift + F6......................................................................................................................... 175
Wellbore Configuration - F7........................................................................................................................................ 179
Heat Transfer Parameters - Shift + F9 ....................................................................................................................... 193
Reservoir Parameters - F9 ......................................................................................................................................... 196
Fluid and Proppant Selection - F5 .............................................................................................................................. 227
Treatment Schedule - F6 ............................................................................................................................................ 269

ii

Table Of Contents

Fracture Analysis Control - F10 .................................................................................................................................. 287


Pressure Analysis ....................................................................................................................................................... 290
Multiple Fractures - Shift + F7 .................................................................................................................................... 349
Quick Minifrac Analysis Mode ........................................................................................................................................ 356
Quick Minifrac Control ................................................................................................................................................ 356
FracproPTXPRESS .................................................................................................................................................... 358
Production Analysis Mode.............................................................................................................................................. 359
Overview - Production Analysis Mode ........................................................................................................................ 359
Well & Treatment Information - F3 ............................................................................................................................. 359
Production Analysis Options - F4 ............................................................................................................................... 360
Channel Inputs for Model - Shift + F6......................................................................................................................... 363
Reservoir Parameters - F9 ......................................................................................................................................... 367
Wellbore Configuration - F7........................................................................................................................................ 374
Fracture Parameters and Proppant Selection - F5..................................................................................................... 375
Production Analysis Economic Data - F8 ................................................................................................................... 383
Well Production - F6 ................................................................................................................................................... 385
Production Analysis Control - F10 .............................................................................................................................. 391
Production Matching - Ctrl + F8.................................................................................................................................. 392
Quick Comparison ...................................................................................................................................................... 395
Reservoir Simulator File Generation (F10) ................................................................................................................. 396
Economic Optimization................................................................................................................................................... 418
Overview - Economic Optimization Mode................................................................................................................... 418
Based on Fracture Dimensions .................................................................................................................................. 418
Based on Treatment Schedule ................................................................................................................................... 505
FracproXCHANGE ......................................................................................................................................................... 596
FracproPTXCHANGE ................................................................................................................................................. 596
Viewing Output - Numeric Display, Plots and Pictures .................................................................................................. 597
Screen Templates....................................................................................................................................................... 597
Numeric Output and Display....................................................................................................................................... 599
System Messages - Alt + F1....................................................................................................................................... 608
Report Setup - Shift + F2............................................................................................................................................ 608
FracproPT Data Plots ................................................................................................................................................. 614
FracproPT Data Pictures ............................................................................................................................................ 649
Printing FracproPT Output.......................................................................................................................................... 678
Comparing Output from Different Simulations............................................................................................................ 681
Wellbore Schematics .................................................................................................................................................. 684
3D Wellbore Viewer .................................................................................................................................................... 686
Logs Viewer / Layers Editor........................................................................................................................................ 691
Exporting, Importing, & Editing Data .............................................................................................................................. 735
Data Conversion and Editing - Ctrl + F3..................................................................................................................... 735
ASCII Data Output ...................................................................................................................................................... 736
Importing Treatment Data with DataConvertPT ......................................................................................................... 740
Editing Treatment Data with DataEditPT.................................................................................................................... 741
Model Recording......................................................................................................................................................... 742
Real-Time Data Acquisition (DataAcqPT) ...................................................................................................................... 744
Real-Time Data Acquisition (DataAcqPT) .................................................................................................................. 744
Configuring FracproPT ................................................................................................................................................... 744
Screen Templates....................................................................................................................................................... 744
FracproPT Model Parameters - Shift + F3.................................................................................................................. 747

iii

FracproPT 2007

System Configuration ................................................................................................................................................. 767


Tutorials.......................................................................................................................................................................... 775
Fracture Analysis ........................................................................................................................................................ 775
Fracture Design and Optimization .............................................................................................................................. 795
Production Analysis .................................................................................................................................................... 797
Editing a Database ..................................................................................................................................................... 799
Minifrac Analysis......................................................................................................................................................... 803
Examples........................................................................................................................................................................ 809
Fracture Analysis - Realistic Dimensions Example .................................................................................................... 809
Fracture Analysis - Tortuosity Example ...................................................................................................................... 813
Technical Description ..................................................................................................................................................... 816
Overview..................................................................................................................................................................... 816
Wellbore Model........................................................................................................................................................... 816
Fracture Geometry Model........................................................................................................................................... 818
Leakoff Model ............................................................................................................................................................. 822
Heat Transfer Models ................................................................................................................................................. 824
Proppant Transport Model .......................................................................................................................................... 826
Acid Fracturing Model................................................................................................................................................. 827
Production Analysis .................................................................................................................................................... 827
Real-Data Fracture Pressure Analysis ........................................................................................................................... 852
4 Basic Steps.............................................................................................................................................................. 852
Net Pressure Matching Guidelines ............................................................................................................................. 854
Real-Time Use............................................................................................................................................................ 859
Detailed Guidlines and Procedures ............................................................................................................................ 860
Technical References..................................................................................................................................................... 877
Technical References ................................................................................................................................................. 877
Technical Reference for ResSim Interface ................................................................................................................. 883
What Was New in Prior Versions? ................................................................................................................................. 888
What Was New in FracproPT 10.3? ........................................................................................................................... 888
What Was New in FracproPT 10.2 ............................................................................................................................. 889
What Was New in FracproPT 10.1 ............................................................................................................................. 892
What Was New in FracproPT 10.0 ............................................................................................................................. 895
DataAcqPT - Data Acquisition Server ............................................................................................................................ 900
DataAcqPT - Table of Contents.................................................................................................................................. 900
DataAcqPT - Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 900
DataAcqPT - Main Menu ............................................................................................................................................ 900
DataAcqPT - Display and Control Bar ........................................................................................................................ 902
DataAcqPT - Status Bar ............................................................................................................................................. 904
DataAcqPT - Data Acquisition Setup Wizard ............................................................................................................... 904
DataConvertPT - Convert and Merge ASCII Data ......................................................................................................... 921
DataConvertPT - Table of Contents ........................................................................................................................... 921
DataConvertPT - Overview......................................................................................................................................... 922
DataConvertPT - Functions: Menu Bar ...................................................................................................................... 922
DataConvertPT - Functions: Input File Window ......................................................................................................... 923
DataConvertPT - Handling Time-Based Input Data ................................................................................................... 924
DataConvertPT - Handling Depth-Based Input Data.................................................................................................. 924
DataConvertPT - Build Custom Input Format Screen ................................................................................................ 925
DataConvertPT - ASCII Data Output .......................................................................................................................... 926
DataEditPT - Database Editor ........................................................................................................................................ 926

iv

Table Of Contents

Table of Contents ....................................................................................................................................................... 926


DataEditPT - Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 926
DataEditPT - Database Plot Window.......................................................................................................................... 927
DataEditPT - Cursor Editing Mode ................................................................................................................................. 927
DataEditPT - Editing Functions .................................................................................................................................. 928
DataEditPT - Edit Channel Data Screen .................................................................................................................... 928
DataEditPT - Channel Information Screen ................................................................................................................. 930
DataEditPT - Preferences Screen .............................................................................................................................. 930
Channel Preferences .................................................................................................................................................. 931
Plot Preferences - Channel Info ................................................................................................................................. 933
Frame Preferences - Frame ....................................................................................................................................... 935
DataEditPT - Menu ..................................................................................................................................................... 936
DataEditPT - Toolbar .................................................................................................................................................. 938

FracproPT 2007
Getting Started
Welcome to FracproPT 2007
The FracproPT system is specifically designed to provide engineers with the most comprehensive tools for hydraulic
fracturing design and analysis. More than just another hydraulic fracture model, practical utilization of actual treatment
data is the central theme that separates FracproPT from competing products. The use of real data offers engineers much
better understanding of their well's response, with resulting procedures that reflect the reality of what is occurring in the
reservoir, before, during, and after fracture treatments.
FracproPT was developed for Gas Research Institute's (GRI) Gas Supply Program. It is being used in many commercial
applications on gas, oil, and geothermal reservoirs throughout the world. The lumped-parameter 3D fracture model (which
should not be confused with so-called pseudo-3D models) adequately represents the level of complexity and reality of
hydraulic fracturing.
FracproPT was developed to implement the insight gained from observing actual fracture treatments, as well as results
obtained from properly scaled laboratory models. It uses lumped-parameter functional coefficients determined from these
sources to solve reliably and efficiently for fracture dimensions, proppant placement, and net fracturing pressure. Further
details on the general approach may be found in the FracproPT Technical Description and Reference sections of Help.
What Can You Do with FracproPT?
There are four modes of operation on the
MAIN screen [F2] providing fracture treatment design and analysis
functions coupled with reservoir simulation. These modes are described in detail in their respective sections in Help.

Relationship between FracproPT operation modes.

Fracture Design Mode

FracproPT 2007

This mode generates a design treatment schedule. The user enters desired dimensionless conductivity and can evaluate
economic fracture half-length optimum. FracproPT helps the user in proppant and fluid selection and generates a
suggested treatment schedule for achieving desired length and conductivity.

Fracture Analysis Mode


This mode allows detailed pre-frac design, real-data analysis, and net pressure history matching. The real-data analysis
may be either in real-time, or post-frac with previously acquired real data. This mode allows estimation of the created
fracture geometry, determine fracture closure stress using minifrac analysis, and analysis of near-wellbore tortuosity to
determine premature screen-out potential.

Production Analysis Mode


This mode is used to predict or history match the production behavior of fractured or non-fractured wells. In this mode,
FracproPT passes the proppant-concentration profile determined from its fracture propagation and proppant transport
models to a reservoir simulator where the effect on well productivity is modeled. This is essential for evaluating success of
past treatments and relevant economics of future treatments.

Economic Optimization Mode


This mode connects FracproPT's fracture analysis mode with its production analysis mode in a treatment-size
optimization loop. This mode is used to roughly scope, and then accurately determine, the economically optimal treatment
size.

What Is New in FracproPT 2007?


FracproPT version 2007 is the seventh version of Gas Technology Institutes (GTI) revolutionary fracture-stimulation
engineering software from Pinnacle Technologies.
To learn more about us, visit the World Wide Web page of Pinnacle Technologies.
Pinnacle Technologies was licensed by GRI in late March 1999 to develop, support, and market their FracproPT fracture
analysis system.
We have made significant enhancements, and we have added numerous useful new features in FracproPT version 2007.
Our goals for this release were improving ease-of-use, adding important information in the proppant and fluid libraries,
providing the user with new modes allowing quick designs and diagnostic analysis as well as incorporating many other
user requests.
Some of the major changes and additions to FracproPT version 2007 are:
New FracproPT Modes

FracproXPRESS Design mode: Single screen Fracture Design

FracproXPRESS Minifrac mode: Single screen Minifrac Analysis

FracproXCHANGE: Limited version of FracproPT. Wellbore-only mode, without fracturing simulator


and its associated screens

Log Analysis Wizard for Log-Layer Editor for Layers tab of Reservoir Parameters - F9 screen

Halliburton Material Library:

New Modules

Add / Select Halliburton Fluid screen from Fluid Selection tab of Fluid and Proppant
Selection - F5 screen

Edit Halliburton Fluid screen from Fluid Selection tab of Fluid and Proppant Selection
- F5 screen

Save screen lay-out in templates: in main menu View > Screen Templates > Template Manager
and View > Save Screen Layout

New or Redesigned Screens

Select Proppant screen: from Proppant Selection tab of Fluid and Proppant Selection - F5
screen

Plot Display List - Alt + F8 screen

Numeric Display: display real-time data in separate, configurable screens

New Screen Tabs

Fracture Diagnostic Results tab for Well&Treatment Information - F3 screen

FracproPT 2007

Fracture Extension Pressure tab for Minifrac Analysis - Shift + F8 screen

Excel Report Content tab: for Report Setup - Shift + F2 screen

Proppant Sieve Distribution plot: Sieve Dist. button in Proppant Data screen

New Plots

New Plot Functionality

Step-Down Test Analysis Plot: improved tool automatically locates step-down test, zooms in, and
inserts re-designed step markers

Minimum, Maximum, Average values: for XY plot channels over user-selected time periods (in XY
plot, Cursor Editing Mode, select begin point on curve, select Begin button, select end point on curve,
select End button, from main menu select Plot > Edit > Channel Min/Max)

Improved XY plot begin / end dividers for time axis: for staging, step-down, min/max/average (green
and red vertical lines with white horizontal bar at the top of the plot)

Floatable XY plots: can be placed outside of main FracproPT screen (Floating Plot button in Plot
Display List - Alt + F8 screen)

Display coordinates for points when they are not on a channel curve (but, for example, on a tangent
line)

Color schemes for plots: full color instead of 16 colors

New Functionality

Fully automatic interaction between FracproPT and DataAcpPT

o
o
o

No operator intervention necessary


No need to define maximum acquisition time
Change incoming channel number, order and definition on the fly during real-time data
acquisition

Set Lithology Properties dialog: for General Single Scale Reservoir Data-Entry, in Reservoir
Parameters - F9 screen, in Layers tab, double-clicking on row headers for Stress, Young's
Modulus, Poisson's Ratio, Fracture Toughness, Composite Layering, and Pore Fluid
Permeability

Set Values dialog: in Treatment Schedule - F6 screen, in Design / Actual Treatment Schedule
tab, double-clicking on row headers for Flow Rate, Prop Conc, and Stage Length

Current Flush Volume counter: in 1D / 2D Schematic Wellbore View screen

Resizable screens: Treatment Schedule - F6 screen, Reservoir Parameters - F9 screen, and Plot
Display List - Alt + F8 screen

Compatible with Microsoft Windows Vista operating system

New Input Fields and Controls

Additional Properties tab of Reservoir Parameters - F9 screen

HC Type section with Gas Well or Oil Well radio buttons

Drainage Area section with X-Direction Extent, Y- Direction Extent, and Well Spacing fields

Suggest Viscosity and Compressibility button

Proppant Selection tab of Fluid and Proppant Selection - F5 screen

Source column

Proppant Data screen

Source, Date of Measurements, Independent Lab Verification, and Comments fields

Turbulence Coeff a / b Low / High Stress, and Threshold Stress fields

Stress Cycle Exponent field

Sieve Dist button in Plot Data field

Proppant Perm Damage screen

FracproPT 2007

Suggest value based on fluid type drop-down listbox

Fracture Filter Cake section with Fracture Filtercake Thickness field and Include Filtercake
effects on Fracture Conductivity checkbox

Additional Damage Effects section with Include effect of temperature on proppant


permeability checkbox and Include effect of stress cycles on proppant permeability
checkbox

Permeability Diagram, Conductivity Diagram, and Beta Factor Diagram buttons

Design Treatment Schedule tab of Treatment Schedule - F6 screen

Edit Schedule button in Fracture Analysis mode

Treatment Selection - F8 screen in Fracture Design mode,


Fracture Parameters - F5 screen in Production Anaysis mode, and
Treatment Schedule - F6 screen, Design Settings tab in Economic Optimization mode

Use Effective Propped Length checkbox

New Library Data

Baker Oil Tools fluids in Fluid Library in Select Fluid screen

non-Stim-Lab proppants in Proppant Library in Select Proppant screen

New Channels

Fracture Analysis channel type

Dimension Channels channel group: Etched Propped Length

Other Channels channel group: Avg Bottomhole Slurry Rate, Surf Total Proppant Conc,
Dimls Cond Ratio, Avg Acid Conc in Frac, Surf Acid Conc

Production Analysis channel type: Incremental Cash Flow

Economic Optimization channel type: Final App Prop Len

Friction Channels channel type: Total Friction, Observed Friction

(in Select Channel screen for data plots)


Improved Navigation

ackward

and forward

icons: in main toolbar

New Help Functionality

Microsoft HTML Help with many new features instead of Microsoft WinHelp

Getting Started and Installation Troubleshooting Help with diagnostic / repair applications

Discontinued FracproPT Functionality

3D Layered Analytical Model radio button in Model Options section of Production Analysis
Options - F4 screen

Start Receiving Data from DataAcqPT / Stop Receiving Data from DataAcqPT button in RealTime Control - Ctrl + F1 screen

Min and Max columns in Channel Inputs for Model - Shift + F6 screen: no more clipping of input
data

System Requirements
FracproPT requires the following resources from your computer system:

Operating System: Windows NT, 2000, XP, or Vista (Administrator access may be required for
installation)

CPU: Pentium or better

RAM: 1,024 MB minimum, 2048 MB recommended

Hard Disk: 150 MB, since FracproPT uses 60 MB for the program and associated files.

FracproPT 2007

Video Card: 1280 x 1024 minimum

Com Port: 9 pin serial port, or USB port and USB/serial converter for real-time data acquisition using
DataAcqPT. DataAcqPT can also read real time information from a shared network file.

Software Installation
IMPORTANT!
FracproPT version 10.3 includes a new version of the security-key software from the manufacturer. Therefore, if you
are updating a previously installed network version of FracproPT you must first reinstall the Network License Server
Software on your FracproPT network server computer (that is, as if you were installing for the first time). If you are
updating a previously installed standalone version of FracproPT, there are no additional steps necessary.
Installation Package

If you have previously installed FracproPT on your computer, this package contains only the
installation CD with your upgrade to Version 10.3.

If you are installing FracproPT for the first time, there are various combinations for the contents of
this package, based on the following preferences:

Installation CD and a hardware security key (or "dongle") imprinted with a 5-digit number smaller
than 11000, and a License Activation Disk imprinted with the same 5-digit number. This licensing
option uses Rainbow Technologies SentinelLM system tied to a dongleID.

Installation CD and a hardware security key (or "dongle") imprinted with a 5-digit number between
11000 and 20000. This licensing option uses Rainbow Technologies Superpro system tied to a
dongleID.

Installation CD and a License Activation Disk imprinted with a 5-digit number larger than 20000.
This licensing option uses Rainbow Technologies SentinelLM system tied to a DiskID. In this
case, someone from Pinnacle Technologies has requested you to run an application (wechoid.exe)
that reads this disk ID information from your computer, and has used this information to generate
the file on your License Activation Disk.

Installation Instructions

Attach the Security Key


FracproPT utilizes a hardware based security key connected to the computers parallel or USB port.
WARNING!
Do not attach the security key during computer boot up, as this may destroy the device. You must attach the security
key either before powering up the computer or after waiting until the Windows desktop appears.
WARNING!
Connecting parallel-port devices other than printers (for example, tape drives, external hard disks, other storage
devices, etc.) may result in destruction of the security key.

For standalone installations Attach the security key to the computer on which the software is to be
installed and then proceed with the installation instructions shown below for a single-user or
standalone version of FracproPT.

For network installations Ask your system or network administrator to attach the security key to the
network server, and then proceed with Steps 1 through 6 of the installation instructions shown below
for a network version of FracproPT. Once the licensing software is installed on the server, you will
also need to follow Steps 7 through 12 of the installation instructions shown below for a network
version of FracproPT on each client computer where the software will be running. The client
computers do not require a security key when running the network version.

Note:
Any computer on your network (that is, in network computing terms, any client computer) can function as the socalled network server computer for FracproPT. In fact, many network administrators prefer not to use the true
network server for this function.

Installing FracproPT from the installation CD

The installation will start automatically when you insert the CD.

If the installation does not start automatically, use Explorer or the Run command to execute the
SETUP.EXE file found in the main folder on the installation CD (for example, D:\SETUP.EXE).

FracproPT 2007

Installing FracproPT from the hard disk

If you copy the installation CD contents to your hard disk, or if you download FracproPT from our
web page, run the SETUP.EXE file found in the appropriate folder (depending on where you
downloaded or copied the installation files) using either Explorer or the Run command.

Choosing an installation type (Standalone or Network)

For single-copy licenses, choose Standalone when prompted during the installation and follow the
instructions shown below.

For network installations, FracproPT s network license server software must first be installed on
the network server computer. To do this, select License Server when prompted during the
installation on the network server computer. After restarting the server and ensuring that the network
license server software is running, install FracproPT on any network computer by selecting Network
when prompted during installation and following the instructions shown below.

To install a single-user or standalone version of FracproPT

Shut down the computer and attach the security key to the printer port (LPT port). For USB key, first install
the software and then insert the USB key after re-starting the computer. Re-start the computer, and then
close all applications that are running, including those that may not be readily visible. To accomplish the
latter, press [Ctrl+Alt+Del] simultaneously to open the Close Program window, then highlight and select
End Task for each application shown except for Explorer and Systray.

Insert the FracproPT CD. Setup should start automatically; if it does not, use Explorer or the Run
command to execute the SETUP.EXE file found in the main folder on the installation compact disc (for
example, D:\SETUP.EXE).

Follow the setup instructions on the screen. Click "Next" on the "Welcome", "License Agreement" and
"User Information" screens.

When you see the Select Components screen during setup, choose Standalone and continue to follow the
instructions.

When prompted, enter the five-digit serial number imprinted on your hardware security key and/or License
Activation Diskette.

If your dongle serial number is smaller than 11000, the setup application will look for a previous
installation. If you have installed FracproPT before, the installation will automatically copy the
license file (named LSERVRC, without a file extension) to the appropriate directory (if you have
chosen the default installation path, this is C:\PROGRAM FILES\PINNACLE
TECHNOLOGIES\FRACPROPT\PROGRAM). If you have not installed FracproPT before,
please insert the License Activation Diskette to complete the installation.

If your serial number is between 11000 and 20000, you have completed the installation and may
proceed to step 6. The LSERVRC is not used in this case.

If your License Activation Diskette serial number is larger than 20000, the setup application
will look for a previous installation. If you have installed FracproPT before, the installation will
automatically copy the license file (named LSERVRC, without a file extension) to the appropriate
directory (if you have chosen the default installation path, this is C:\PROGRAM
FILES\PINNACLE TECHNOLOGIES\FRACPROPT\PROGRAM). If you have not installed
FracproPT before, please insert the License Activation Diskette to complete the installation.
You do not need a dongle in this case.

Re-start the computer.

To install a Network version of FracproPT:


Note:
Before installing a network version of FracproPT, you must have installed the Network-License Server software on
some computer in your network; that computer can be, but does not have to be, your actual network server. If the
Network-License Server software has already been installed (or upgraded for FracproPT Version 10) on some
computer in the network, skip to 7.

Close all programs that are running, including those that may not be readily visible. To accomplish the
latter, press [CTRL+ALT+DEL] simultaneously to open the Close Program window, then highlight and
select End Task for each application shown except Explorer and Systray.

FracproPT 2007

Insert the FracproPT CD. Setup should start automatically; if it does not, use Explorer or the Run
command to execute the SETUP.EXE file found in the main folder on the installation compact disc (for
example, D:\SETUP.EXE).

Follow the setup instructions on the screen. Click "Next" on the "Welcome", "License Agreement" and
"User Information" screens.

When you see the Select Components screen during setup, choose License Server and continue to follow
the instructions.

When you get to the "Installing License Code" screen, you are prompted for the current location to the
LSERVRC file. As it is on the floppy, keep the "Path" to a: This should already be selected. Insert the
floppy with the LSERVRC file. This file is now automatically copied to the following directory: C:\Program
Files\Rainbow Technologies\sentLM\Server.

Re-start the computer. The license server software will automatically start. Make sure that the license
server is running before going to the next step.

You can now install FracproPT on any computer in the network, including the computer on which the
Network-License Server software is installed, by doing the following:

Close all programs that are running, including those that may not be readily visible. To accomplish the
latter, press [Ctrl+Alt+Del] simultaneously to open the Close Program window, then highlight and select
End Task for each application shown except Explorer and Systray.

Insert the FracproPT CD. Setup should start automatically; if it does not, use Explorer or the Run
command to execute the SETUP.EXE file found in the main folder on the installation compact disc (for
example, D:\SETUP.EXE).

Follow the setup instructions on the screen. Click "Next" on the "Welcome", "License Agreement" and
"User Information" screens.

When you see the "Select Components" screen during setup, choose "Network" (the second button from
the top) and continue to follow the instructions. Please note that you do NOT need the floppy with the
LSERVRC file for the User computer!

The first time FracproPT is started, it takes a while before it has found the Network License Server
computer. This may take up to 2 minutes. The next time you start FracproPT, it will remember the
location of the Network License Server, and licence authorization will be faster. In case this does not work,
do the following:

Open the file "FracproPT_net.txt" using Notepad. You can find this file on the C:\PROGRAM
FILES\PINNACLE TECHNOLOGIES\FRACPROPT\PROGRAM directory. On the first line, type
the word "Network". Save the file and close it.

Open the file "FracproPT_server.txt" using Notepad. You can find this file on the C:\PROGRAM FILES\PINNACLE
TECHNOLOGIES\FRACPROPT\PROGRAM directory. On the first line, type the IP address (for example:
92.138.138.138) of the Network Server Computer or the path to that computer (for example: \\networkcomputername).
Save the file and close it.

Try running FracproPT again.

Special Instructions for Installing FracproPT Network License Server

Before installing the FracproPT license server on one of your server machines, check to see if there are
any existing SentinelLM license servers on your network. Either check with your IT department, or run the
LSWhere.exe program, which is included on your FracproPT installation CD in the \Sentinel\Admin.net
directory.

If the lswhere program does not show any existing SentinelLM license servers running, then you can
proceed with the standard installation of the license server software on the CD.

If the lswhere program does show another license server running, then you do not need to install the
license server program again, unless the existing license server is an old version, which is not compatible
with the license file used for FracproPT. This is not too likely, so it is best to first try to use this existing
license server.

Go to the server machine where the license server is installed (the lswhere program will give you the IP
address of the server) and locate the installation directory of the license server (if you can't find it easily,
just do a search for the file called lservrc). In order to add your FracproPT licenses to the existing licenses
in the lservrc file, you need to open both files, and append the lines from the lservrc file supplied by
Pinnacle to the existing lservrc file on your license server machine. It is good to make a backup copy of the
existing lservrc file before editing it (i.e. lservrc.bak). Once you have modified and saved the lservrc file,
you need to restart the license server program. To do this, simply run the lsrvdown.exe program, giving as
argument the server name (i.e. lsrvdown server01) or shut the server program down using the control
panel and then restart it. Remember, if the license server program is already installed on the server
computer, you shouldn't need to reboot the server machine. If, however, the other SentinelLM licenses you

FracproPT 2007

are using are not locked to a computer ID (dongle) and the Rainbow SuperPro parallel port driver is not
installed on your server, then you may need to reboot the server computer.

If you have more than one server machine on your network, and you wish to install redundant license
server installations (to ensure availability of licenses, even if one server goes down), you need to also
check to see if the LSHOST environment variable is being used by any applications to force the
applications to look at a particular server. If, for example, you already have ApplicationA, which has a
SentinelLM license server installed on Server01, and you want to install a separate SentinelLM license
server on Server02 for your FracproPT licenses (if there are too many dongles on Server01 already), then
you need to check and make sure that there isn't an LSHOST environment variable set to Server01. If this
is the case, it will force all applications to look for license servers only on Server01, so FracproPT will not
see the new license server installled on Server02. To fix this problem, simply edit your environment
variables, so that LSHOST now equals Server01:Server02. Use a colon to separate different host names.

Once you have installed the license server, or updated the lservrc file on an exisiting license server, you
should make a test by going to one of your client machines, and running the WLMAdmin program from the
installation CD-ROM. This should show you the IP address of the server where you installed the
FracproPT licenses, and the licenses should show up as Feature 0. If the IP address of the server shows
up, but not the Feature, this means there is a problem with the license file or the parallel port driver.
Double check that the SuperPro driver is correctly installed on the license server machine and that the
dongle is correctly inserted. You can double check this by running the SentinelMedic program on the
license server machine, to make sure that the dongle is communicating with the computer. If the dongle is
being seen, but the license still doesn't work, then the problem could be that the already installed license
server is too old to read the new license files. In this case, you need to replace the existing license server
with the newer version supplied on our CD-ROM. In order to do this, you have to first shut-down the
existing license server (using lsrvdown.exe) then run the license server installation on the CD-ROM.
Remember not to overwrite the existing merged lservrc file, so if you have already merged an existing
lservrc file with the new one supplied with FracproPT, when you run the license server installation press
cancel when it asks you to put in the license diskette.

Special note for Windows XP: Under Windows XP, the current version of WLMAdmin will not be able to do
a broadcast to find the license server process. In this case, use the option to define a server list to hard
enter the IP address or name of the server in WLMAdmin. Likewise, you will need to specify the name of
the server machine in the FracproPT_server.txt file, as described in the previous section.

What to do with the License Activation Disk?

If you choose a Standalone installation of FracproPT or you are installing the Network-License
Server software, you will be prompted to insert the License Activation Disk.

You may, if you wish, copy the contents of the diskette (one file named LSERVRC, without a filename
extension) to your hard disk. If you do this, you will need to remember where this file is and enter that
location when prompted to insert the diskette during installation.

Remember that there is a specific diskette for each specific security key with a serial number smaller
than 11000. You must have either the diskette itself or its contents available (for example, copied to
hard disk) during installation or re-installation of FracproPT.

If you are simply installing a new version of FracproPT, you will not need to use the diskette.

Detailed Information about the License Activation Disk


FracproPT uses a security system that may work somewhat differently than what you were used to with other programs
that use hardware security keys.
During the installation process you will be asked to insert the License Activation Disk that comes with your security key.
This diskette contains a file (named LSERVRC) whose contents are an encrypted code that is locked to your security key.
After you insert the diskette, the encrypted code file is copied to the FracproPT program folder (for example,
C:\PROGRAM FILES\PINNACLE TECHNOLOGIES\FRACPROPT\PROGRAM). Whenever you run FracproPT, the
encrypted code is checked against the security key.

Can I use someone elses security key with my FracproPT installation?


Yes, you can, even though your installation will not automatically work with any other security key. There are two ways to
accomplish this if you have a key with a number smaller than 11000:

Rename or copy your own LSERVRC file to a different location and then copy the LSERVRC file that
corresponds to the new security key being used to the FracproPT program folder.

Alternatively, append the encrypted code from one LSERVRC file to another. You can easily do this by
opening LSERVRC with Notepad or some other text editor and copying into it the encryption code that is
associated with new FracproPT security key. You can have as many license codes in one LSERVRC file
as you want.

FracproPT 2007

If you have a dongle with a number between 11000 and 20000, transfer of the dongle to another computer is sufficient to
make FracproPT run.
If you have a DiskID license, you cannot run FracproPT on any other computers.

What happens if I lose or damage my License Activation Disk or LSERVRC file?


If you lose or damage your diskette, or if the encryption code in LSERVRC becomes corrupted, please contact us and we
will provide you with the original encryption code. In most cases, we can simply email this file to you, and you can copy it
to the C:\PROGRAM FILES\PINNACLE TECHNOLOGIES\FRACPROPT\PROGRAM directory, or any other directory
that contains the FracproPT.exe that you want to run.

Note for Windows XP users with a Superpro dongle (dongle number between
11000 and 20000)
On Windows XP - Home Edition as well as Professional Edition - the Sentinel System Driver for the parallel key as well as
the USB key may not recognize the Sentinel SuperPro for a couple of minutes after boot up or until the key is reinserted
into the computer. The service may not load at all if the user is not an administrator and they log on as a non-privileged
user.
According to Rainbow Technologies, this behavior is linked to the Sentinel Service not starting as a system-service,
despite the fact that it is 'automatically' loaded as a user service and should be loaded during start-up of the system. This
is no problem under Windows NT and Windows 2000. However, Windows XP seems to delay the loading of the service
until required to do so. Users will see errors such as 'error -3' 'key not found' which may be interpreted as a key or driver
failure!
Please check with your system administrator to do the following steps. Please go to the "Start" button on the bottom left of
the screen, select "Run" and type "regedit". This will allow you to edit the registry. Changes to the registry can have a
significant effect on the performance of your computer, so please consult your system administrator BEFORE you make
this change. For the parallel port driver go to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\ControlSet001\Services\Sentinel and
double click on Start and set Value Data from 2 to 1 (0x00000001). After that, exit the registry after making this change
and start FracproPT.
This solution has been tested successfully by the key manufacturer, Rainbow Technologies. The SuperPro key was
recognized in all instances whereas before it had failed initially until some time after boot up or after an administrator had
logged on.

WARNING! Attaching the Security Key


WARNING!
Do not attach the security key during computer boot up, as this may destroy the device. You must attach the security
key either before powering up the computer or after waiting until the Windows desktop appears.
WARNING!
Connecting parallel-port devices other than printers (for example, tape drives, external hard disks, other storage
devices, etc.) may result in destruction of the security key.

Technical Support
Whenever you have any questions or problems with the software, or when you have suggestions for improvements, we
urge you to contact someone at Pinnacle Technologies. The following resources are available to you:

Online FracproPT Help system This should be your first choice in trying to find answers to
whatever questions you may have. From any screen within FracproPT, pushing the F1 button will
take you directly to the Help section related to that screen. The Index of Help can be used to search
for Key-Words related to topics.

Hardcopy of Help Documentation If you would like to print any part, or all, of the Help document,
a PDF file (FracproPT 2007 Manual.pdf) is provided on the FracproPT Installation CD. Please note
that this file is copied to your hard disk during FracproPT installation. This file can be found in the
Documentation folder.

Email Send an email to support@pinntech.com by selecting from the main menu Help | Email
Technical Support. The message is actually sent to several people at Pinnacle Technologies who will
work together on your problem or request. All the necessary files will be attached to your email so our
staff can more easily determine the problem you may be having. By using this email method, and by
attaching all necessary file, you are assured to get the fastest response possible. Of course, you may
also send email individually to the primary technical support contacts listed below.

World Wide Web Check our website periodically at http://www.pinntech.com/ (or


http://www.fracpropt.com/ for periodic updates to FracproPT. It contains news on support issues and

FracproPT 2007

our latest Service Patches to the software. You can download these at
http://www.pinntech.com/fracpropt.html.

Telephone or fax You may also telephone or fax us for technical support, suggestions, or general
comments. While there are quite a number of people at each location of Pinnacle Technologies that
can provide you with support for FracproPT, the following table lists the two primary technical support
contacts

Office

Primary

Telephone Fax

Location

Contact

Number

Houston,
Texas

Neill
+ 1 (281) + 1
Northington 876-2323 (281)
8764455

Delft (The Josef


Netherlands) Shaoul

E-mail

Number Address
neill.northington@pinntech.com

+ 31-15- + 31-15- josef.shaoul@pinntech.com


219-0062 2157305

If it is impossible to reach any of the above contacts, please refer to the people below as secondary technical support
contacts:
Office

Additional Telephone Fax

Location

Contact

Houston,
Texas

Xinghui Liu + 1 (281) + 1


876-2323 (281)
8764455

xinghui.liu@pinntech.com

Houston,
Texas

Mike
+ 1 (281) + 1
Mayerhofer 876-2323 (281)
8764455

mike.mayerhofer@pinntech.com

Bakersfield,
California

Bill Minner + 1 (661) + 1


335-7712 (661)
3357717

bill.minner@pinntech.com

Denver,
Colorado

Leen
Weijers

leen.weijers@pinntech.com

Calgary,
Alberta
(Canada)

Ron Gusek + 1 (403) + 1


516-2260 (403)
5162261

ron.gusek@pinntech.com

Boston,
Igor Stelin + 1 (781) + 1
Massachusetts
316-1698 (781)
3161698

igor.stelin@pinntech.com

Number

E-mail

Number Address

+ 1 (720) + 1
344-3464 (303)
7664306

Moscow
(Russia)

Brian
+ 7-495- + 7-495- brian.davidson@pinntech.com
Davidson 781-4820 7812528

Houston,
Texas

Craig
Cipolla

10

+ 1 (281) + 1
876-2323 (281)
876-

craig.cipolla@pinntech.com

FracproPT 2007

4455

For FracproPT support in languages other than English, please contact:


Preferred
Language

Telephone Fax
Contact

Number

E-mail

Number Address

Aggie

Brian
+ 7-495- + 7-495- brian.davidson@pinntech.com
Davidson 781-4820 7812528

Chinese

Xinghui Liu + 1 (281) + 1


876-2323 (281)
8764455

xinghui.liu@pinntech.com

Dutch

Leen
Weijers

leen.weijers@pinntech.com

German

Mike
+ 1 (281) (281)
Mayerhofer 876-2323 8764455

mike.mayerhofer@pinntech.com

Hindi

Tony Singh + 1 (661) + 1


335-7712 (661)
3357717

tony.singh@pinntech.com

Punjabi

Tony Singh + 1 (661) + 1


335-7712 (661)
3357717

tony.singh@pinntech.com

Russian

Igor Stelin + 1 (781) + 1


316-1698 (781)
3161698

igor.stelin@pinntech.com

+ 1 (415) + 1
861-1097 (415)
8611448

Let Us Hear From You


We are excited about this newest version of FracproPT. Our primary goal is to provide our users, which includes us, with
the best tool possible for designing, analyzing, and optimizing fracture stimulations. A major step toward achieving that
goal will come from giving the customer what they want, a point that cannot be overemphasized.
We already have many plans, but we want to know what you would like to see in the software. If you already have
something in mind, please call, fax, or email us.

Email Technical Support


The Send Email screen is accessed by selecting from the main menu Help > Email Technical Support.
You can directly email technical support from within FracproPT. This can be useful because FracproPT will make sure
that all the necessary analysis files are attached, making it easier for engineers from Pinnacle to determine the nature of
your problems.

11

FracproPT 2007

FracproPT Email Technical Support screen

To / E-mail address: By default, the program assumes that you want to send this information to Pinnacles
Technical Support at support@pinntech.com. However, you can also overwrite this and send your email to others.
Multiple addresses should be separated by a semi colon.

Subject: Please state the problem here.

Attach...: Click this button to launch a window to attach other files. Files names will appear in the list to the right of
this button.

Remove: Removes any files that are highlighted in the list to the right of this button

Send: Clicking on this button will open the default e-mail composer with the e-mail message.

How Do I Submit a Problem Report?


The best way to submit a comprehensive problem report to Technical Support is to select from the main menu Help >
Email Technical Support.
The generated e-mail message is actually sent to several people at Pinnacle Technologies who will work together on your
problem or request.
Please enter as much detailed information about your problem as is feasible. The more information you provide, the
easier it will be for Technical Support to diagnose and reproduce your problem.
All the necessary files will automatically be attached to your e-mail message so that our staff can more easily diagnose
and reproduce the problem that you may be experiencing.
By using this e-mail method, and by attaching all necessary file, you are assured to receive the fastest response possible.

12

FracproPT 2007

Send Email screen.

Installation Troubleshooting
Installation Troubleshooting
FracproPT

How Do I Install the Latest Version of FracproPT?


The latest release and service pack for FracproPT can be downloaded from the Pinnacle web site at:
http://www.pinntech.com/fracpropt.html.

Request Password

Request a password for the FracproPT installation ZIP file by contacting Technical Support.
You will receive an e-mail message from Technical Support with the requested password.

Download and Install Latest Release

Log in as a user with Administrator rights.

Select the hyperlink FracproPT.

The latest release for FracproPT can be downloaded from the Pinnacle web site at:
http://www.pinntech.com/fracpropt.html.

Save the file FracproPT 10.3 04-06-05 [web].exe (or similar) to a convenient location on your hard disk.

13

FracproPT 2007

Execute the file FracproPT 10.3 04-06-05 [web].exe (or similar).

Copy the password from the e-mail message that you obtained from Technical Support and paste it into
the password dialog screen when prompted to do so. Refrain from typing the password into the dialog
screen, to avoid typographical errors.

Navigate to the folder where you extracted the files, and execute the file setup.exe.

Select the Browse button to select a convenient location on your hard disk. Press the Unzip button to
extract the files.

The setup program will guide your through the installation process.

Download and Install Latest Service Pack

Log in as a user with Administrator rights.

Select the hyperlink Service Pack v.10.3.38 (or similar).

The latest service pack for FracproPT can be downloaded from the Pinnacle web site at:
http://www.pinntech.com/fracpropt.html.

Save the file FracproPTServicePackv10_3_38.exe (or similar) to a convenient location on your hard disk.
Execute the file FracproPTServicePackv10_3_38.exe (or similar).
The setup program will guide your through the installation process.

How Do I Uninstall FracproPT?


To completely uninstall FracproPT, you need to execute the Windows InstallShield uninstaller application. You cannot
simply delete the files in the FracproPT program folder.

Log in as a user with Administrator rights.

Select the button Change or Remove Programs.

Make sure that FracproPT is not running.


From the Desktop, select Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs,
or
from My Computer, select Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs.

Select the entry FracproPT.


Select the button Remove.
Confirm the removal of FracproPT when prompted to do so.

How Do I Reset FracproPT with CleanUpPT?


If FracproPT appears to be malfunctioning (for example, it crashes during startup, or graphics screens do not appear
properly), a basic repair or uninstallation / reinstallation may not be sufficient. In this case, you can use the CleanUpPT
utility, which will reset FracproPT by removing configuration files registry entries for FracproPT.
Only perform these procedures as a last resort, if everything else fails.

14

Log in as a user with Administrator rights.

Select the button Clean Now.

Make sure that FracproPT is not running.


Execute the program CleanUpPT.exe, which is located in the FracproPT program folder (by default
located at C:\Program Files\Pinnacle Technologies\FracproPT 2007\Program\).

After the application is finished, it will automatically start FracproPT.


FracproPT will automatically regenerate all items that were removed by CleanUpPT.

FracproPT 2007

CleanUpPT screen.

How Do I Start the Installation of FracproPT from a CD-ROM?


Before you start the installation of FracproPT, please uninstall any previous versions of FracproPT first.
To start the installation of FracproPT from the installation CD-ROM:

Log in as a user with Administrator rights.


Insert the CD-ROM into the CD drive.
The installation should start automatically.

Troubleshooting
The Installation Does Not Start Automatically

Use Windows File Explorer to navigate to the CD drive (for example, drive D:)
Execute the file Setup.exe from the main folder on the installation CD.

You Cannot Find the File Setup.exe on the CD-ROM


Windows XP may be hiding common file name extensions. In this case, you would see up to six different files with the
name Setup.
You can locate the file setup.exe by locating the Setup file for which:

the icon looks like a computer.

the Type column displays Application.

Display Known File Name Extensions in Windows XP


You can enable the display of known file name extensions in Windows XP by:

Select in Windows File Explorer from the main menu Tools > Folder Options....
In the section Advanced settings, unselect the checkbox Hide extensions for known file types.
Select the button OK.

15

FracproPT 2007

How Do I Start the Installation of FracproPT from a Hard Disk?


Before you start the installation of FracproPT, please uninstall FracproPT first.
If you copied the contents of the FracproPT installation CD to your hard disk, or if you downloaded FracproPT from
Pinnacle's web site, you can start the installation of FracproPT from the hard disk:

Use Windows File Explorer to locate the folder where you copied or extracted the FracproPT installation
files.

Execute the file setup.exe.

Troubleshooting
You Cannot Find the File Setup.exe in the Folder
Windows XP may be hiding common file name extensions. In this case, you would see up to six different files with the
name setup.
You can locate the file setup.exe by locating the setup file for which:

the icon looks like a computer.

the Type column displays Application.

Display Known File Name Extensions in Windows XP


You can enable the display of known file name extensions in Windows XP by:

Select in Windows File Explorer from the main menu Tools > Folder Options....

In the section Advanced settings, unselect the checkbox Hide extensions for known file types.

Select the button OK.

How Do I Install FracproPT?


Before you install FracproPT, please uninstall any previous versions of FracproPT first.
To install FracproPT:

16

Start the installation from a CD-ROM or from the hard disk.


In the FracproPT Setup - Welcome screen, select the button Next >.

FracproPT 2007

FracproPT Setup - Welcome screen.

In the FracproPT Setup - License Agreement screen, read and print (using the button Print) the license
agreement, select the radio button I accept the terms of the license agreement, and select the button
Next >.

FracproPT Setup - License Agreement screen.

17

FracproPT 2007

In the FracproPT Setup - Customer Information screen:


enter your User Name and your Company Name,
for the field Install this application for, select one of the two radio buttons
Anyone who uses this computer (all users) or
Only for me (), and
select the button Next >.

FracproPT Setup - Customer Information screen.

18

In the FracproPT Setup - Select Features screen, select one of the four buttons
30 Day Demo,
Standalone,
Network / Standalone, or
License Server.

FracproPT 2007

FracproPT Setup - Select Features screen.

How Do I Install a 30 Day Demo Version of FracproPT?


This is a continuation of the topic How Do I Install FracproPT?

In the FracproPT Setup - Select Features screen, select the button 30 Day Demo.

19

FracproPT 2007

FracproPT Setup - Select Features screen.

In the FracproPT Setup - Choose Destination Location screen, select the button Browse... to navigate
to a convenient location on your hard disk (by default C:\Program Files\Pinnacle
Technologies\FracproPT 2007\), and select the button Next >.

FracproPT Setup - Choose Destination Location screen.

20

FracproPT 2007

In the FracproPT Setup - Start Copying Files screen, verify the Current Settings, and select the button
Next >.

FracproPT Setup - Start Copying Files screen

In the FracproPT Setup - Complete screen, select the button Finish.

FracproPT Setup - Complete screen

21

FracproPT 2007

To start FracproPT, from the Desktop select Start > All Programs > Pinnacle Technologies >
FracproPT 2007 > FracproPT.
This this does not work, shut down and restart the computer, and try again.

How Do I Install a Standalone Version of FracproPT?


This is a continuation of the topic How Do I Install FracproPT?

In the FracproPT Setup - Select Features screen, select the button Standalone.

FracproPT Setup - Select Features screen.

22

In the FracproPT Setup - Choose Destination Location screen, select the button Browse... to navigate
to a convenient location on your hard disk (by default C:\Program Files\Pinnacle
Technologies\FracproPT 2007\), and select the button Next >.

FracproPT 2007

FracproPT Setup - Choose Destination Location screen.

In the FracproPT Setup - Start Copying Files screen, verify the Current Settings, and select the button
Next >.

FracproPT Setup - Start Copying Files screen

23

FracproPT 2007

In the FracproPT Setup - Installing License Code screen, enter the five-digit serial number from the
hardware security key or the License Activation Disk, and select the button Next >.
If you will be using an electronic license file, enter the Serial Number of 12000.

FracproPT Setup - Installing License Code screen.

If the serial number is less than 11000 or greater than 20000, the setup application will look for a previous
installation of FracproPT.
a.

If you have installed FracproPT before, the installation will automatically copy the electronic
license file lservrc to the FracproPT program folder (by default located at C:\Program
Files\Pinnacle Technologies\FracproPT 2007\Program\). The installation is complete.

b.

If you have not installed FracproPT before, in the Installation License Code screen, select
the button Browse... to navigate to the location of the electronic license file lservrc (for
example, on the License Activation Disk).
The electronic license file lservrc contains an encrypted code that is associated with the
hardware license key. The tronic license file lservrc is copied to the FracproPT program folder
(by default located at C:\Program Files\Pinnacle Technologies\FracproPT 2007\Program\).

Installing License Code screen.

24

FracproPT 2007

i.

If the serial number is less than 11000, a hardware license key is needed.

ii.

If the serial number is greater than 20000, a hardware license key is not needed.

If the serial number is between 11000 and 20000, the electronic license file lservrc is not used. The
installation is complete.

In the FracproPT Setup - Complete screen, select the button Finish.

FracproPT Setup - Complete screen

Attach the hardware license key to its port (refer to the topic Warning: Attaching the Security Key) or install
the electronic license file.

To start FracproPT, from the Desktop select Start > All Programs > Pinnacle Technologies >
FracproPT 2007 > FracproPT.
This this does not work, shut down and restart the computer, and try again.

How Do I Install a Network / Standalone Version of FracproPT?


This is a continuation of the topic How Do I Install FracproPT?
For network installations,the network license server software for FracproPT must first be installed on the network server
computer. After restarting the server and ensuring that the network license server software is running, FracproPT can be
installed on any network computer.

In the FracproPT Setup - Select Features screen, select the button Network / Standalone.

25

FracproPT 2007

FracproPT Setup - Select Features screen.

In the FracproPT Setup - Choose Destination Location screen, select the button Browse... to navigate
to a convenient location on your hard disk (by default C:\Program Files\Pinnacle
Technologies\FracproPT 2007\), and select the button Next >.

FracproPT Setup - Choose Destination Location screen.

26

FracproPT 2007

In the FracproPT Setup - Start Copying Files screen, verify the Current Settings, and select the button
Next >.

FracproPT Setup - Start Copying Files screen

In the FracproPT Setup - Installing License Code screen, enter the five-digit serial number from the
hardware security key or the License Activation Disk, and select the button Next >.
If you will be using an electronic license file, enter the Serial Number of 12000.

27

FracproPT 2007

FracproPT Setup - Installing License Code screen.

If the serial number is less than 11000 or greater than 20000, the setup application will look for a previous
installation of FracproPT.
a.

If you have installed FracproPT before, the installation will automatically copy the electronic
license file lservrc to the FracproPT program folder (by default located at C:\Program
Files\Pinnacle Technologies\FracproPT 2007\Program\). The installation is complete.

b.

If you have not installed FracproPT before, in the Installation License Code screen, select
the button Browse... to navigate to the location of the electronic license file lservrc (for
example, on the License Activation Disk).
The electronic license file lservrc contains an encrypted code that is associated with the
hardware license key. The tronic license file lservrc is copied to the FracproPT program folder
(by default located at C:\Program Files\Pinnacle Technologies\FracproPT 2007\Program\).

Installing License Code screen.

28

i.

If the serial number is less than 11000, a hardware license key is needed.

ii.

If the serial number is greater than 20000, a hardware license key is not needed.

FracproPT 2007

If the serial number is between 11000 and 20000, the electronic license file lservrc is not used. The
installation is complete.

In the FracproPT Setup - Complete screen, select the button Finish.

FracproPT Setup - Complete screen

Attach the hardware license key to its port (refer to the topic Warning: Attaching the Security Key) or install
the electronic license file.

To start FracproPT, from the Desktop select Start > All Programs > Pinnacle Technologies >
FracproPT 2007 > FracproPT.
This this does not work, shut down and restart the computer, and try again.

After installation, the first time FracproPT is started, it takes some time before it has found the Network License Server
computer. This may take up to 2 minutes. The next time FracproPT is started, it will remember the location of the
Network License Server, and the authorization of the licence will be much faster.

How Do I Install a Network Server for FracproPT?


This is a continuation of the topic How Do I Install FracproPT?
Any computer on the network (that is, in terms of network computing, any client computer) can function as the so-called
network server computer for FracproPT. In fact, many network administrators prefer not to use the true network server for
this function.
Before installing the FracproPT license server on a server computers, verify whether there are any existing SentinelLM
license servers on the network. Either check with your Information Technology (IT) department, or execute the program
LSWhere.exe, which is located on the FracproPT installation CD in the folder \Sentinel\Admin.net\Win32\.
If the program LSWhere program does not report any existing SentinelLM license servers running, then you can proceed
with the standard installation of the license server software.

In the FracproPT Setup - Select Features screen, select the button Network Server.

29

FracproPT 2007

FracproPT Setup - Select Features screen.

In the FracproPT 2007 - InstallShield Wizard screen, confirm that all license servers have been stopped
by selecting the button OK.

FracproPT 2007 - InstallShield Wizard screen.

30

In the FracproPT Setup - Start Copying Files screen, verify the Current Settings, and select the button
Next >.

FracproPT 2007

FracproPT Setup - Start Copying Files screen

In the Installation License Code screen, select the button Browse... to navigate to the location of the
electronic license file lservrc (for example, on the License Activation Disk).
The electronic license file lservrc contains an encrypted code that is associated with the hardware license
key. The tronic license file lservrc is copied to the FracproPT program folder (by default located at
C:\Program Files\Pinnacle Technologies\FracproPT 2007\Program\).

Installing License Code screen.

In the FracproPT Setup - Complete screen, select the button Finish.

31

FracproPT 2007

FracproPT Setup - Complete screen

Attach the hardware license key to its port (refer to the topic Warning: Attaching the Security Key) or install
the 12000electronic license file.

If the network license server does not work, shut down and restart the computer.

How Do I Enable Standalone and Network / Standalone Mode Without Reinstalling


FracproPT?
To switch between Standalone mode and Network/Standalone mode without reinstalling FracproPT:

FracproPT ASCII Text Files


Enable Standalone Mode

Verify using a text editor (for example, Microsoft Windows Notepad) that the file FracproPT_net.txt
contains the text Standalone on the first line, and no other text.
If yes, then FracproPT is in Standalone mode.
If no, then modify the file so that the first line contains the text Standalone (with no other text in the file).

Enable Network/Standalone Mode

Verify using a text editor (for example, Microsoft Windows Notepad) that the file FracproPT_net.txt
contains the text Network on the first line, and no other text.
If yes, then FracproPT is in Network / Standalone mode.
If no, then modify the file so that the first line contains the text Network (with no other text in the file).

30-Day Demo Version

Why Is the 30-Day Demo Version Not Working?


Demo Expired
If your trial license period (by default 30 days) has expired, then the 30-day demo version is disabled.

32

FracproPT 2007

It is not possible to extend the 30-day license period by manipulating the clock of the computer. Tampering with the clock
of the computer will be detected, and this will permanently set a time-tampering flag on the computer. Moreover, any
FracproPT license that checks for time-tampering will be disabled, even if they have not yet expired. Please contact
Technical Support.

Previous Demo Version Installed


The 30 day demo version of FracproPT may not work on a computer, if at any time in the past, another demo version of
FracproPT was installed on that same computer. If your computer has been used by someone else in the past (that is, if
the computer was not completely new when you received it), please consider the (even remote) possibility that perhaps a
previous user may have tried FracproPT in the past on your computer. Please note that even reinstallation of the
operating system may not be sufficient to reset the 30-day demo version of FracproPT. Please contact Technical
Support.

Changed Date
If someone tried to change their date while using an electronic license file for FracproPT (which includes the 30-day
demo), this could set the time-tampering flag on the computer. Any FracproPT license that checks for time-tampering will
be disabled, even if they have not yet expired. Please contact Technical Support.
Electronic License Files

How Do I Obtain My Locking Code?


You can obtaining your computers locking code (from either FracproPT or the SentinelLM Host Information Utility).
This locking code will be used by Technical Support to generate your electronic license file.

Obtain Locking Code from FracproPT

Start FracproPT.
From the Security dialog, make a note of Your Machines Locking Code. The locking code consists of
five characters. In the following example, the locking code is 1E8B9.

Security dialog with Machines Locking Code.

Obtain Locking Code from SentinelLM Host Information Utility


Download

The file Locking_Code_Tool.exe can be downloaded from the web site of Pinnacle Techologies at
http://www.pinntech.com/ under the heading FracproPT and the heading Support.

33

FracproPT 2007

The file Locking_Code_Tool.exe is also located in the FracproPT folder (by default located at
C:\Program Files\Pinnacle Technologies\FracproPT 2007\) under the subfolder License
Troubleshooting\.

The file wechoid.exe is also located on the FracproPT installation CD-ROM under the subfolder
Sentinel\Admin.Sta\Win32\.

Use the SentinelLM Host Information Utility

Execute the file Locking_Code_Tool.exe or wechoid.exe (or similar).

In the section Locking Data, verify that Selector is equal to 0x4 and make a note of the Code. The first
two characters 0x indicate that the code is displayed in hexadecimal notation, and they can be ignored.
The locking code consists of five characters. In the following example, the locking code is 1E8B9.

In the section Locking Criteria, select the checkbox DiskID, and unselect all other checkboxes (unless
instructed otherwise by Technical Support).

SentinelLM Host Information Utility

How Do I Request an Electronic License File?


You can request an electronic license file (provided that you are eligible) by obtaining your computers locking code, and
then requesting the electronic license file from Technical Support.

Obtain Locking Code


Refer to the topic How Do I Obtain My Locking Code?

Request Electronic License File

34

FracproPT 2007

Contact Technical Support and provide them with the locking code, your contact information, and a brief description of
why you need the electronic license file.

How Do I Receive and Install an Electronic License File?


Request Emergency License Code
Refer to the topics:

How Do I Obtain My Locking Code?

How Do I Request an Electronic License File?

Receive Electronic License File

After you request an electronic license file from Technical Support, if you are eligible for an electronic
license file, you will receive an e-mail message from Technical Support.

Install Electronic License File

Save the file lservrc.txt that is attached to the e-mail message to the FracproPT program folder, which is
located by default at C:\Program Files\Pinnacle Technologies\FracproPT 10.3\Program\.

Rename the file lservrc.txt to lservrc (that is, without the file name extension .txt).
You may want to back-up the old lservrc file in that folder first, just in case.
Please be aware of the fact that Windows XP does not always display file name extensions such as .txt.
For this reason, please be certain to rename to attached file from lservrc.txt to lservrc. The license file is
sent with a file name extension to avoid confusion when Windows XP sometimes adds a .dat extension to
files without any extension.

Save a back-up copy of this new lservrc license file to a safe location.
Start FracproPT from the exact same folder that you used to install the lservrc file (by double-clicking the
file FracproPT.exe).
Do not test this installation by using FracproPT icons on the desktop, the taskbar or the Start menu, since
they could potentially be directed at another FracproPT installation folder. After you verified that this
installation was succesful, you can use these FracproPT icons again of course.

Display Known File Name Extensions in Windows XP


You can enable the display of known file name extensions in Windows XP by:

Select in Windows File Explorer from the main menu Tools > Folder Options....
In the section Advanced settings, unselect the checkbox Hide extensions for known file types.
Select the button OK.

How Do I Receive and Install an Emergency License?


An emergency license is an electronic code that can be generated by Technical Support, and entered by the user in
FracproPT. This will allow the user to run FracproPT with limited functionality for a limited time in the event of a license
failure when e-mail access is limited (for example, in the field).

Request Emergency License Code


Refer to the topics:

How Do I Obtain My Locking Code?

How Do I Request an Electronic License File?

Receive Emergency License Code


Send Code by SMS to Mobile Telephone
Technical Support can send the emergency license code to your mobile telephone via short message service (SMS), that
is, text messaging
Send Code by Telephone
Technical Support can send the emergency license code to you via mobile telephone by using a phonetic alphabet
translation.

35

FracproPT 2007

Install Emergency License Code


Enter and Verify Length in Microsoft Word

Start Microsoft Word.

Enter electronic license code.

From main menu, select File > Properties entry.

In Document Properties screen, select Statistics tab.

In Statistics table, in Characters: row, read its Value: should be 27.

Press OK button or Cancel button to close Document Properties screen.

Microsoft Word - Document Properties screen.


Copy from Microsoft Word

From main menu, select Edit > Select All; or press Ctrl + A key combination; or double-click on electronic
license code.

From main menu, select Edit > Copy; or press Ctrl + C key combination; or right-click on electronic license
code and select Copy.

Paste to FracproPT

36

Start FracproPT.

In Security screen, select Enter Emergency License button.

FracproPT 2007

Security screen.

In Enter Emergency License screen, press Ctrl + V key combination; or right-click in text box and select
Paste.

Select OK button to close Enter Emergency License screen.

Enter Emergency License screen.

Select OK button to restart FracproPT.

Ignore but acknowledge (by selecting the OK button) informational messages.

What Happens If I Lose or Damage my License Activation Disk or lservrc File?


If you lose or damage your license activation disk or the electronic license file lservrc, please contact Technical Support
with your contact information. Technical Support will send a copy of the electronic license file lservrc to you by e-mail.
To reinstall the electronic license file lservrc, please refer to the topic How Do I Install an Electronic License File?.
Please save a back-up copy of the lservrc license file to a safe location.

Can I Use Someone Else's Electronic License File?


If you are using an electronic license file, then you cannot use it to run FracproPT on any other computers (more
specifically, any other hard disk) other than the one that it was created for.

Why Is the Electronic License File Not Working?


Please also refer to the topic How Do I Install an Electronic License File?.

Incorrect Electronic License File


The electronic license file lservrc must match your computers locking code.

37

FracproPT 2007

To determine the value of your computers locking code , please refer to the topic How Do I Obtain an
Electronic License File?.

To determine whether the electronic license file lservrc matches your computers locking code, send your
electronic license file lservrc to Technical Support, together with your contact information.

Electronic License File With File Name Extension


The electronic license file needs to have the name lservrc, without any file name extension.
Please be aware of the fact that Windows XP does not always display file name extensions such as .txt. For this reason,
please be certain that the electronic license file has the name lservrc.and not lservrc.txt.
The license file is sent with a file name extension to avoid confusion when Windows XP sometimes adds a .dat extension
to files without any extension.

Electronic License File Not in Same Location As FracproPT Executable File


The license file lservrc must be located in the exact same folder as the FracproPT executable file FracproPT.exe.
Do not test the installation of the license file lservrc by using FracproPT icons on the desktop, the taskbar or the Start
menu, since they could potentially be directed at another FracproPT installation folder. After you verified that the
installation of the license file lservrc was succesful, you can use these FracproPT icons again of course.

Changed Date
If someone tried to change the date on their computer while using an electronic license file for FracproPT (which includes
the 30-day demo), this could set the time-tampering flag on the computer. Any FracproPT license that checks for timetampering will be disabled, even if it has not yet expired.
Hardware License Keys

How Do I Determine That a USB Key Is Powered On?


Verify that the light-emitting diode (LED) on the Universal Serial Bus (USB) key is turned on.
If yes, then the USB key is powered on.
In no, then the USB key is defective.

How Do I Troubleshoot a USB Key with Windows Device Manager?

38

Attach the USB key to its port, and detach all other keys from their ports.

From the desktop, select Start > Control Panel>System>Hardware > Device Manager > Universal
Serial Bus controllers. Verify that the entry Safenet USB SuperPro/UltraPro or Sentinel Hardware
Keys is present.
If yes, then the USB key has been detected.
If no, then check the key on a different USB port on the same computer and / or check the key on another
computer. If this fails, please contact Technical Support..

Verify that the green LED on the USB key is on.


If yes, then proceed to step 2).
If no, then your USB key is probably defective. Please contact Technical Support.

FracproPT 2007

Windows Device Manager screen.

Verify that the icon to the immediate left of the entry Safenet USB SuperPro/UltraPro or Sentinel
Hardware Keys from step 2) is not an exclamation mark (!) or a cross (x).
If yes, then the USB key is working properly.
If no, then the driver for the USB key is not installed properly. Uninstall and then reinstall the driver.

Verify that the driver is communicating properly by executing the Sentinel SuperPro Medic or the Sentinel
Advance Medic.

39

FracproPT 2007

How Do I Troubleshoot a Hardware Key with Sentinel SuperPro Medic?


The Sentinel SuperPro Medic utility is used to detect that a Sentinel hardware key, a Sentinel driver, the Sentinel
servers and all of its components are installed properly and working fine.

Download

The Sentinel SuperPro Medic utility can be downloaded from the Sentinel Support section of the SafeNet
web site:
http://www.safenet-inc.com/support/tech/sentinel.asp

Select the hyperlink Sentinel SuperPro (although other hyperlinks may work too).

Save the file SuperproMedic.exe (or similar) to a convenient location on your hard disk.

From the table with the heading Other Downloads, select the hyperlink Sentinel SuperPro
Medic.

The file Bitlock_Troubleshooter.exe is also located on the web site of Pinnacle Techologies at
http://www.pinntech.com/ under the heading Support.

The file Bitlock_Troubleshooter.exe is also located in the FracproPT folder (by default located at
C:\Program Files\Pinnacle Technologies\FracproPT 2007\) under the subfolder License
Troubleshooting\.

Use the Sentinel SuperPro Medic Utility

40

Attach the hardware key to its port (refer to the topic Warning: Attaching the Security Key).

Select the Mode to be STANDALONE.

Execute the file SuperproMedic.exe or Bitlock_Troubleshooter.exe (or similar). This will extract the
program files to a convenient location on your hard disk, and start the Sentinel SuperPro Medic utility.

Select the button Find SuperPro.


Verify that Status is 0 and Description is Success
If yes, then the Sentinel driver, server, and hardware key are installed and communicating properly.
If no, then select the button Medic Says for additional information. If this is not useful information for you,
then contact Technical Support.

FracproPT 2007

SafeNet Sentinel SuperProp Medic screen.

How Do I Troubleshoot a Hardware Key with Sentinel Advanced Medic?


The Sentinel Advanced Medic (SAM) utility is used to detect that a Sentinel hardware key, a Sentinel driver, the Sentinel
servers and all of its components are installed properly and working fine. Using the Sentinel Advanced Medic, you can
also generate log file for analyzing any issues. The Sentinel Advanced Medic does not need to be installed on your
computer; its multiple program files need to be extracted from the single archive file, however.

Download

The Sentinel Advanced Medic utility can be downloaded from the Sentinel Support section of the
SafeNet web site:
http://www.safenet-inc.com/support/tech/sentinel.asp

Select the hyperlink Sentinel SuperPro (although other hyperlinks may work too).

Save the file sam.1.2.exe (or similar) to a convenient location on your hard disk.

From the table with the heading Other Downloads, select the hyperlink Sentinel Advanced
Medic.

Execute the file sam.1.2.exe (or similar), and extract the program files into a convenient location
on your hard disk. An actual installation of Sentinel Advanced Medic is not required.

The file License_Troubleshooter.exe is also located on the web site of Pinnacle Techologies at
http://www.pinntech.com/ under the heading Support.

41

FracproPT 2007

The file License__Troubleshooter.exe is also located in the FracproPT folder (by default located at
C:\Program Files\Pinnacle Technologies\FracproPT 2007\) under the subfolder License
Troubleshooting\.

Use the Sentinel Advanced Medic Utility

Attach the hardware key to its port (refer to the topic Warning: Attaching the Security Key).
Execute the file skdt_gui.exe or License__Troubleshooter.exe (or similar)
Select the Troubleshoot button.
Verify that the three following entries in the section Basic Checks have a green checkmark to their
immediate left:

Sentinel Driver Installation

Sentinel Driver Communication

Sentinel Key Communication

If yes, then the Sentinel driver and hardware key are installed and communicating properly.
If no, then please contact Technical Support.
The Basic Check for Sentinel Server Communication is optional and can be ignored.

To create a log file (to send to Technical Support), select the Enable Logging check box. This will create
a log file named SentinelLog.txt in the folder with Sentinel Advanced Medic.

SafeNet Sentinel Advanced Medic screen.

How Do I Use Someone Elses Hardware Key?


USB Key
If you are using a USB key, then you can exchange your keys freely without making any modification to FracproPT.

Parallel Port Key with Serial Number Between 11000 and 20000
If you are using a parallel port key, then you can exchange your keys freely without making any modification to
FracproPT.

42

FracproPT 2007

Parallel Port Key with Serial Number Less Than 11000


If you are using a parallel port key with a serial number of less than 11000, then you need to either:

Rename or copy your own lservrc file to a different location, and then copy the lservrc file that
corresponds to the new hardware key being used to the FracproPT program folder. This folder is
located by default at C:\Program Files\Pinnacle Technologies\FracproPT\Program\.

Append the encrypted code from one lserevrc file to another. You can accomplish this by opening
the lservrc file with a text editor such as Notepad and copying and pasting the encryption code that is
associated with new FracproPT hardware key. You can list as many license codes in a single lservrc
file as you want.

or

Why Does Windows XP Not Recognize the Hardware Key?


Superpro Hardware Key With Serial Number Between 11000 and 20000
On Windows XP (Home Edition and Professional Edition), the Sentinel System Driver for the parallel key as well as the
USB key may not recognize the Sentinel SuperPro hardware key for a couple of minutes after boot-up or until the key is
reinserted into the computer. The service may not load at all if you are not a user with Administrator rights.
According to the vendor, this behavior is related to the Sentinel Service not starting as a system-service, despite the fact
that it is automatically loaded as a user service and should be loaded during start-up of the system. This is no problem
under Windows NT and Windows 2000. However, Windows XP seems to delay the loading of the service until required to
do so. You will see error messages such as error -3 or key not found, which may be interpreted as a key or driver
failure.
Please contact your system administrator to perform the following steps as an Administrator:

From the desktop, select Start > Run..., enter regedit and select the button OK.

Select from the main top menu File > Exit.

In the Registry Editor, for the parallel port driver, select from the left panel HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE >
SYSTEM > ControlSet001 > Services > Sentinel, double click on Start, and modify Value Data from 2 to
1 (that is, 0x00000001).

Start FracproPT.

Modifications to the registry can have a significant effect on the performance of your computer. Consequently, please
consult your system administrator before you make this change.
This solution has been tested successfully by the vendor. The SuperPro key was recognized in all instances whereas
before it had failed initially until some time after boot-up or after an administrator had logged on.

How Do I Use a 25-Pin Key If My Computer Does Not Have a Parallel Port?
Laptop
To add a parallel port to a laptop computer, you can use a PC card [that is, a Personal Computer Memory Card
International Association (PCMCIA) card] to parallel port adapter / converter.
Ensure that the PC card [that is, the PCMCIA card] is IEEE 1284 compliant.

Desktop
To add a parallel port to a desktop computer, you can use a Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) card to parallel port
adapter / converter.
Ensure that the PCI card is IEEE 1284 compliant.

Detect Additional Parallel Ports


The latest license driver from SafeNet Sentinel will automatically detect additional parallel ports on PCMCIA and PCI
cards.

USB-To-Parallel Adaptors / Converters


Universal Serial Bus (USB) port to parallel port adaptors / converters are not supported, since they do not provide a
physical address (that is, 378) within Microsoft Windows. Therefore, the SafeNet Sentinel drivers cannot communicate
with the keys.

43

FracproPT 2007

Why Is It Not Possible to Use a Standalone Hardware Key Via a Remote Client?
It is not possible to execute FracproPT which is protected by a hardware key in Standalone mode via a remote client (for
example, Terminal Server, VNC, WinXP remote client).
The SafeNet Sentinel software does not allow this for security reasons.
To be able to execute FracproPT:

Execute FracproPT in Standalone mode while being directly (locally) logged into the computer with a
Standalone hardware key.

Execute FracproPT in Network / Standalone mode while being logged into a computer that is connected to
the same network as a network license server with a Network hardware key.

Client Network Licenses

How Do I Verify That a Client Network License is Installed Properly?


To verify that a client network license is installed properly on a client computer:

WlmAdmin
Download

The file Network_License_Troubleshooter.exe is located on the web site of Pinnacle Techologies at


http://www.pinntech.com/ under the heading Support.

The file Network_License_Troubleshooter.exe is also located in the FracproPT folder (by default
located at C:\Program Files\Pinnacle Technologies\FracproPT 2007\) under the subfolder License
Troubleshooting\.

The file WlmAdmin.exe is also located on the FracproPT installation CD-ROM under the subfolder
Sentinel\Admin.net\Win32\.

Use the WlmAdmin Utility

On the client computer, execute the program WlmAdmin.exe or Network_License_Troubleshooter.exe


(or similar).

Expand the navigation tree for Subnet Servers (by selecting the plus-in-box symbol to the immediate left
of the Subnet Servers entry, or by double-clicking on the Subnet Servers entry).

Alternatively, from the main menu, select Edit > Defined Server List.

44

In the Defined Server List screen, enter the name of the Server: and select the OK button (or
the Add button and then the OK button).

Expand the entry Defined Servers by selecting the plus-in-box symbol.

Verify that WLMAdmin displays:


a.

In the Server information pane the Server name and IP address.

b.

In the Feature Information pane the Feature name, and in the Statistics sub-pane for the
Total users a Total of at least 1.

c.

In the Detailed information pane in the License Info tab relevant information for License
type, Start date and End date.

FracproPT 2007

WlmAdmin screen.

FracproPT ASCII Text Files

Verify using a text editor (for example, Microsoft Windows Notepad) that the file FracproPT_net.txt
contains the text Network on the first line, and no other text.
If yes, then FracproPT is in Network / Standalone mode.
If no, then modify the file so that the first line contains the text Network (with no other text in the file).

Verify using a text editor (for example, Microsoft Windows Notepad) that the file FracproPT_Server.txt
contains the IP address, file path, or network name of the network license server on the first line, and no
other text.
If yes, then FracproPT found the network license server.
If no, then modify the file so that the first line contains the IP address, file path, or network name of the
network license server (with no other text in the file).

Why Does a Client Network License Not Work After Upgrading from FracproPT
10.2 or Earlier?
FracproPT 10.3 includes a new version of the software for the security keys from the vendor. Therefore, if you are
updating a previously installed network version of FracproPT, you must first reinstall the network license server software
on your FracproPT network server computer (that is, as if you were installing this for the first time).
If you are updating a previously installed standalone version of FracproPT, there are no additional steps necessary.
Network License Servers

How Do I Add Additional FracproPT Licenses to an Existing License Server?


To add additional licenses for FracproPT to an existing license server:

45

FracproPT 2007

Execute the program LSWhere.exe, which is located on the FracproPT installation CD in the folder
\Sentinel\Admin.net\Win32\, and make a note of the IP address of the license server.

On the computer that is being used as the license server, navigate to the installation folder of the license
server.
To locate this folder, search for the electronic license file lservrc.

Make a backup copy of the existing electronic license file lservrc.

Saved the modified existing electronic license file lservrc.

Open both the existing and the new electronic license files lservrc.
Append the lines of text (which contain the encoded licenses) from the new to the existing new electronic
license file lservrc.

Shut down the license server program by:


a.

Execute the program lsrvdown.exe with as its argument the server name (for example,
lsrvdown.exe server01), or

b.

shut the server program down using the Control Panel.

Restart the license server program.


If the license server program is already installed on the server computer and you are appending the same
type of licenses and hardware license keys, you should not need to reboot the server machine. Otherwise,
you may need to reboot the server computer.

What Do I Need To Do If A Network License Server Is Already Installed?


If a network license server is already installed:

Execute the program LSWhere.exe, which is located on the FracproPT installation CD in the folder
\Sentinel\Admin.net\Win32\, and note the IP address of the license server.

If the program LSWhere.exe reports the presence an existing license server on the network:
a.

If the existing license server is a recent version, which is not compatible with the license file
used for FracproPT, then you do not need to install the license server program again. The
best way to determine this is to try to use the existing license server with FracproPT.

b.

If the existing license server is an old version, which is not compatible with the license file used
for FracproPT (which is not very likely), a newer version needs to be installed. The best way to
determine this is to try to use the existing license server with FracproPT.

How Do I Determine Whether an Existing Network License Server is Too Old for
FracproPT?
If troubleshooting indicates that the hardware license key is being detected by the license server computer, but the
network license does not work, then the problem could be that the existing network license server is too old for
FracproPT.
In this case, you need to install a newer version of the network license server for FracproPT.

How Do I Install a Newer Version of a Network License Server?


To install a newer version of a network license server for FracproPT:

Shut down the existing network license server by executing the program lsrvdown.exe.

Do not to overwrite the existing electronic license file lservrc by selecting the button Cancel when
prompted to insert the License Activation Disk.

Execute the FracproPT setup program to install a new version of the network license server. Refer to the
topic How Do I Install a Network Server for FracproPT?

How Do I Troubleshoot a Network License Server?


Verify that License Server Service is Running via Windows Task Manager

46

Press the Ctrl + Alt + Del key combination.

In the Windows Security screen, select the Task Manager button.

Select the Processes tab.

FracproPT 2007

In the table, select the Image Name column header to sort the column alphabetically.

Verify that the lservnt.exe service is listed in the table.

Windows Task Manager screen, Processes tab.

Allow License Server Service through Windows Firewall

Select from the desktop Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall.

Select the General tab.

Select the On (recommended) radio button.

Unselect (disable) the Don't allow exceptions checkbox.

47

FracproPT 2007

Windows Firewall screen, General tab.

48

Select the Exceptions tab.

FracproPT 2007

Windows Firewall screen, Exceptions tab.

If the lservnt.exe service is not listed in the Programs and Services listbox, then select the Add Program...
button.

In the Add a Program screen, select the Browse... button.

Navigate to the lservnt.exe file (by default in the folder zzz).

select in the Programs: listbox the entry for the lservnt.exe service.

Press the OK button to close the Add a Program screen.

49

FracproPT 2007

Add a Program screen.

Press the OK button to close the Windows Firewall screen.

Shutdown and Restart Computer


To make sure that the lservnt.exe service is running properly, shutdown and restart the computer.

WlmAdmin
Refer to heading WlmAdmin in the topic How Can I Verify That a Client Network License is Installed Properly? This
heading can also be applied to network license servers.
License Drivers

How Do I Uninstall and Reinstall the Sentinel Drivers for Hardware Keys?
You can uninstall and then reinstall the Sentinel drivers for hardware keys by:

Download

50

The Sentinel Protection Installer can be downloaded from the Sentinel Support section of the SafeNet
web site:
http://www.safenet-inc.com/support/tech/sentinel.asp

Select the hyperlink Sentinel SuperPro (although other hyperlinks may work too).

Save the file Sentinel_Protection_Installer_7.4.0.zip (or similar) to a convenient location on


your hard disk.

From the table with the heading Windows Drivers, select the hyperlink Sentinel Protection
Installer.

The file Latest_License_Driver.exe is also located on the web site of Pinnacle Techologies at
http://www.pinntech.com/ under the heading Support.

FracproPT 2007

The file Latest_License_Driver.exe is also located in the FracproPT folder (by default located at
C:\Program Files\Pinnacle Technologies\FracproPT 2007\) under the subfolder License
Troubleshooting\.

Quick Uninstallation

Log in as a user with Administrator rights.


Detach any hardware keys from their ports (refer to the topic Warning: Attaching the Security Key).
From the desktop, select Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs. Select both Sentinel
Protection Installer > Remove and Sentinel System Driver > Remove.

Quick Installation

Log in as a user with Administrator rights


Detach any hardware keys from their ports (refer to the topic Warning: Attaching the Security Key).
Execute the file Sentinel_Protection_Installer_7.4.0.zip or Latest_License_Driver.exe (or similar).
Select the radiobutton Custom.

Sentinel Protection Installer - Setup Type.

Select to install the Sentinel System Drivers (either Parallel Driver or USB System Driver, or both), and
unselect the Sentinel Protection Server and the Sentinel Keys Server.

51

FracproPT 2007

Sentinel Protection Installer - Custom Setup.

Attach the hardware key to its port (refer to the topic Warning: Attaching the Security Key).
Start FracproPT.
If this does not work, shut down and restart the computer and try again.

If this procedure did not succeed (that is, FracproPT does not start properly), please refer to the topic How Do I
Completely Uninstall All Sentinel Software?

How Do I Completely Uninstall All Rainbox and Sentinel Software?


To remove all installations of Rainbow and Sentinel system driver from the computer, that is, to solve "sticky" installation
problems, the Sentinel System Driver (SSD) Cleanup utility can be used. The "sticky" installation problem relates to that
state of Sentinel driver installation, which leaves the computer in a situation where neither the newer version of the driver
can be installed nor the older version of the driver can be uninstalled. The SSD Cleanup utility will clean up all the
installed Sentinel Drivers and bring the system to a state it was before installing any of the Sentinel Drivers.
Run the SSD Cleanup utility only if there are issues uninstalling the older version of the driver. In normal situations, the
steps given for Quick Uninstallation should be sufficient.
It is recommended to use the normal driver uninstallation for our drivers. The SSD CleanUp utility might remove your
Sentinel protected software application and other Sentinel SDK installation. Therefore, the SSD CleanUp utility should be
used as the last option for driver uninstall.

Download

The SSD Cleanup utility can be downloaded from the Sentinel Support section of the SafeNet web site:
http://www.safenet-inc.com/support/tech/sentinel.asp

52

Select the hyperlink Sentinel SuperPro (although other hyperlinks may work too).
From the table with the heading Other Downloads, select the hyperlink SSD Cleanup.
Save the file SSDCleanup_1.2.0.3.zip (or similar) to a convenient location on your hard disk.
Open the file SSDCleanup_1.2.0.3.zip (or similar) and extract the file SSDCleanup_1.2.0.3.exe
(or similar) to a convenient location on your hard disk.

The file License_Driver_Cleanup.exe is also located on the web site of Pinnacle Techologies at
http://www.pinntech.com/ under the heading Support.

FracproPT 2007

The file License_Driver_Cleanup.exe is also located in the FracproPT folder (by default located at
C:\Program Files\Pinnacle Technologies\FracproPT 2007\) under the subfolder License
Troubleshooting\.

Use the Sentinel System Driver (SSD) Cleanup Utility

Log in as a user with Administrator rights.


Detach any hardware keys from their ports (refer to the topic Warning: Attaching the Security Key).
Execute the file SSDCleanup_1.2.0.3.exe or License_Driver_Cleanup.exe (or similar).
Acknowledge the uninstallation when prompted to do so.

Sentinel System Driver (SSD) Cleanup Utility.

How Do I Upgrade from a Rainbow to a Sentinel License Driver for Hardware


Keys?
To upgrade from a Rainbox license driver to a Sentinel license driver for hardware keys:

Uninstall FracproPT.

Reinstall FracproPT.

To completely uninstall any of the old Rainbow license key drivers, use the Sentinel System Drivers
Cleanup utility.

FracproPT Overview
System Overview
Operating Modes
FracproPT can be used in four different modes to accomplish fracture treatment design and analysis functions coupled
with reservoir simulation:

Quick Fracture Design mode

Fracture Design mode

Fracture Analysis mode

Quick Minifrac Analysis mode

Production Analysis mode

Economic Optimization mode

FracproXCHANGE

53

FracproPT 2007

In each mode, you navigate through screens where you enter data and make other selections necessary to run the
simulator. Various utilities and engineering tools are provided to make your design or analysis job easier.
You may store your work at any time during the process in an input file and in various results files. That work may be
reloaded at any point in the future for continued work on the particular project or for comparison with other projects.
Program Navigation

Using the Navigation Tree


The sequence of doing a FracproPT analysis is most easily conducted using the Navigation Tree. The navigation Tree
helps you to step through all necessary Inputs, Analysis and Results screen to conduct a proper analysis. The Navigation
Tree is modified for each module.

Using the Next button


The most basic means to navigate through any mode in the program is to use the Next function found near the bottom
right corner of most screens or menus. Once you select a mode from the
MAIN Screen [F2], repeatedly selecting Next
will take you through a sequence of screens beginning with the
WELL AND TREATMENT INFORMATION [F3] screen
and ending with the
SIMULATOR CONTROL [F10] screen for that mode. Pressing [Esc] will move you backwards
through the sequence of screens youve just navigated, but only as far as however many screens are actually still open.
Note:
You will always access the necessary screens if you use Next to progress through the sequence, which makes this
the most secure method for complete program navigation.

Using the Hot Keys


You can also use the function keys ([F1] through [F10], including the [Alt] and [Ctrl] combinations) to move about the
program. You should have received a function key template that shows a layout of all hot keys and the screens to which
they are connected. You can also view the function key template on-screen by pressing [Shift+F1] or by looking at the
code behind the screen name on the windows title bar. Additionally, you can also go to any FracproPT screen by double
clicking on any hot key shown on the on-screen function key template.
The most important keys to remember for FracproPT users are:
This hot key Activates this screen
[F2] FracproPT Main Screen (beginning of screen sequence)
[F10] Simulator Control screen (end of screen sequence)
[F1] Context-sensitive Help
[SHIFT+F1] Keyboard Help
[Esc] Close current screen & return to previous screen
[Alt+F1] System Messages screen

Using the Toolbar


Many of FracproPTs screens are accessed from either icons or menu-items on the toolbar. If you hover the cursor over
any toolbar icon for a few seconds, a tool tips" label will pop up on-screen showing its function. Different toolbar icons are
available for different FracproPT modes.

Starting a New Input File

The Start New Input File confirmation dialog.


There are two ways to start a new input file in FracproPT:

54

FracproPT 2007

Open a new or "blank" input file using the FileNew menu command or using the [Ctrl+N] shortcut key.
Load an input file that contains similar data (using the FileOpen menu command, using the [Ctrl+o] shortcut key,

or using the
toolbar button) and simply go through each screen changing or entering whatever selections or data
may be necessary.
Option 1 sets all data inputs and menu selections to their default values. In general, this should be the way in which you
start a new file. When starting with an existing file and adjusting that for a new treatment, note that it may become easy for
non-standard model parameters and options that you may have entered to propagate through later projects. Therefore,
always carefully check all model settings and other screens before using it for a new treatment.

Retrieving Saved Input Files


FracproPT input files that have been saved to disk can be opened using the standard FileOpen menu command, using
the
toolbar button, or using the [Ctrl+O] shortcut key.
FracproPT also includes two features that help you to open the correct input file:

An Input File Preview utility is included in the FileOpen dialog to make the process of open the
correct input file easier. Comments and other descriptive information entered on the WELL AND
TREATMENT INFORMATION SCREEN [F3] are shown in the file preview area.

A Search Function is also included in the FileOpen dialog that allows you to do a simple text
search of the information displayed in the file preview area.

Note:
When you exit and re-enter the program, it is not necessary to retrieve the input file you were last working with since
FracproPT starts with the same settings and parameters that it had when it was last shut down.

55

FracproPT 2007

The standard FileOpen dialog showing the Input File Preview and Search functions.

Saving Input Files and Model Results


FracproPT input files and results files can be saved to disk using the standard FileSave menu command, using the
toolbar button, or using the [Ctrl+S] shortcut key. In case you inadvertently save and overwrite existing files that you
did not intend to, a backup file is created and can be recalled using the FileRecover menu command.
If you wish to save the current inputs and results files with a different file name, you can use either the standard
FileSave As menu command or the

56

toolbar button.

FracproPT 2007

The standard FileSave As dialog.

Keyboard Help [Shift+F1]


The KEYBOARD HELP screen shows all of the function key combinations used as shortcuts (that is, hot keys) to various
FracproPT or ReservoirPT screens. You may also double-click on any key or key combination on the screen to display
the corresponding screen. These hot keys are also listed on the keyboard template that comes with the software.

57

FracproPT 2007

The FracproPT Keyboard Help screen

The KEYBOARD HELP screen also lists of keyboard combinations that function as program shortcuts:
This hot key Performs this function
[Esc] Close the current screen and return to the previous screen.
[PgUp] / [PgDn] Scroll up or down in a table.
[Alt+R] Run simulator. This command starts either the fracture simulator or the reservoir simulator. Using [Alt+R] allows
you to start the simulator from any screen rather than having to go to the SIMULATOR
CONTROL [F10] screen.
[Alt+S] Stop simulator. This command stops either the fracture simulator or the reservoir simulator. Using [Alt+S] you can
stop or pause the simulator from any screen, without first having to go to the SIMULATOR
CONTROL [F10] screen. The simulator may be restarted using [Alt+C] if it is paused before
reaching the end of the input data (as specified on the TREATMENT SCHEDULE [F6] screen)
or the End Time (as specified on the SIMULATOR CONTROL [F10] screen).
[Alt+C] Continue simulation. This command continues the current fracture or reservoir simulation. This command works
only if simulation was paused before reaching the end of input data or End Time (see
explanation above for [Alt+S] command).
[Ctrl+R] Run to End of Data. This command is used when running in Fracture Simulation mode while collecting data in
the field. It causes the model to run using all the real-time data currently collected, then wait and
continue running as new data arrives.

58

FracproPT 2007

[Ctrl+F] Toggle between fractures. This command toggles various displays (for example, fracture pictures and plots)
between multiple perforated intervals are being simulated.
[Ctrl+Z] Undo last action.
[Ctrl+y] Redo last action.
[Ctrl+C] Copy selected value or selected table cells.
[Ctrl+V] Paste selected value or selected table cells.
[Alt+W] Write contents of the current screen to the FracproPT clipboard, which is separate from the Windows clipboard.
Contents of the clipboard can then be retrieved or extracted onto the same screen in a different
input file. This command is useful for copying screen parameters (from one or more screens)
from one input file to another without having to remember and retype the parameters manually.
For example, all entries from the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen can be "transferred"
from one input file to another one by:
Going to the screen with first input file loaded and using [Alt+W] to copy screen parameters into the clipboard;
Loading the second input file; and
Going to the same screen with second input file loaded and extracting clipboard contents for that screen with [Alt+X].
Parameters from multiple screens may be copied to same clipboard and retrieved (in any order) into another input file.
The clipboard contents are lost when you exit FracproPT.
[Alt+X] Extract or retrieve the FracproPT clipboard contents for current screen. If the clipboard does not contain any
entries for current screen, parameters remain unchanged and message is displayed indicating
no entries were changed. Extracting clipboard contents affects only the current screen; in other
words, this function does not automatically dump all information contained in the clipboard into
the input file.
[Alt+p] Copy screen to Windows Clipboard
[CNTR-N] Start a new FracproPT input file
[CNTR-O] Open a FracproPT input file
[CNTR-S] Save a FracproPT input file

File Naming Conventions


Input files, all of which have INP-extensions, contain all of the information necessary to run the fracture and reservoirproduction simulators. That is, they contain all information from all the screens, from all four FracproPT modes.
Therefore, for example, you could use the same input file for designing the frac (Fracture Design mode), for optimizing the
frac design (Economic Optimization mode), for monitoring and modeling the frac job as it is pumped (Fracture Analysis
mode), and for predicting or matching the resulting hydrocarbon production (Production Analysis mode).
When you save model inputs and outputs, the data are actually copied from the default input file that the program
always runs in the FracproPT program folder (this file is called DEFAULT.IN$) to the folder and file name that you
specify. The results from running the simulator(s) with that input file are saved along with it in the same folder. The results
files, of which there are a few different types, are saved along with the inputs in the same folder and with the same
filename, but with different file extensions (see below for a list of file types used in FracproPT).
For example, when in Fracture Analysis mode, all of the channels shown on the numeric Output screen are stored.
Fracture Design mode and Fracture Analysis mode results are saved with a RES-extension, Production Analysis mode
results are saved with an RRS-extension, and Economic Optimization results with a LOP-extension.
The final type of FracproPT file is the database, which is a file containing either time-based data recorded from a fracture
treatment or from a well's production history (including pressure buildups and flow tests), or depth-based data from well
logs or wellbore surveys.
The file extensions and file types used by FracproPT are shown below:
File Extension File Type
BAK Backup of last saved input file
CMS Calibrated Model Settings file
DBS Database of stimulation treatment or production data created by DataConvertPT or DataAcqPT
DBD Database of well log or wellbore survey data (that is, depth based) database created by DataConvertPT
ERR Log file of encountered errors during simulator execution
FLD Fluid Library (ASCII format)

59

FracproPT 2007

FPA Treatment, production, log, or wellbore survey data in a special ASCII format (created by DataConvertPT).
INC ECLIPSE Office project file, which can be generated by FracproPT
INP FracproPT input file
LAS Log ASCII file. The Integrated Fracture Picture and the Log-Layer Editor can directly read this standard industry
format
LOP Economic Optimization results file
PRP Proppant Library (ASCII format)
RCK Rock Library (ASCII format)
RES Fracture Analysis or Fracture Design results file
RFR Fracture geometry file
RTF Rich Text Format. Output of the FracproPT Report, which can be imported directly into word processors such as
Word
RRS Production Analysis results file
RWB Wellbore channel results file
XLS Excel file. This format can be read as input data, for example fracture treatment data or production data, or as a
model output report
UMS User-defined Model Settings file

FracproPT Main Screen [F2]

The FracproPT Main Screen.

60

FracproPT 2007

From the FracproPT MAIN screen screen, you choose the desired operating mode in which you wish to run the
program. You can also choose from various FracproPT utilities for manipulating data, or you can access screens where
you setup how the FracproPT system and model function.
Selecting any of the four modes takes you to the Well And Treatment Information - F3 screen, which is the first in a
sequence of screens in which you must enter data and make selections in order to run the simulator. All screens in the
sequence have a Next field near the lower-right corner that takes you to the next screen in the sequence. By selecting
Next after you have entered all data or made the necessary selections on each screen, you are assured to view all
relevant screens. The final screen in the sequence for each mode is the Simulator Control - F10 screen.
Note:
The current mode is displayed in the status bar at the bottom of the FracproPT window and on the top of the
Navigation Tree.
Operating Modes

Fracture Design Overview


Fracture Design mode is used to automatically generate a propped-fracture treatment schedule. The program helps you
select the proper fluids and proppants, and then the proper pump schedule to achieve the required dimensionless
conductivity (if possible) and fracture half-length.

Fracture Analysis Overview


Fracture Analysis mode provides access to three 2D and various 3D fracture models, including the default FracproPT 3D
Model choice. You can run any of the models from job-design data (that is, a treatment schedule), FracproPT database
data, or real-time data. FracproPT's acid fracturing model is also available for use in this mode. You can conduct minifrac
analysis, rate stepdown test analysis and net pressure history matching in the operating mode.

Production Analysis Overview


Production Analysis mode gives the user the tools to analyze a well's past, present and future production response from
an economics point of view, both with and without a propped-fracture present. This option runs ReservoirPT, which is the
interface module connecting FracproPT with different reservoir simulation models. Currently, two reservoir simulators are
supplied with FracproPT; the 2-D FraPS Model and the 3-D Layered Analytical Model.

Economic Optimization Overview


In Economic Optimization mode, the fracture simulator and the reservoir simulator are alternately run automatically in
order to determine the economically optimal fracture treatment size for the reservoir.
Utilities

Generate Report
Selecting Generate Report takes you to the Report Setup - Shift + F2 screen where you can configure and generate a
report of your work that consists of both input/results tables and graphs. This report can be sent directly to a printer or
saved as a Microsoft Word document.

Export ASCII Data


This option takes you to the ASCII Data Output screen where you can specify up to 16 different channels of data (either
input data or FracproPT output data) to write to a text file or to send directly to a printer.

Import ASCII Data


This option starts DataConvertPT, which is a standalone software program used to merge and convert one or more
ASCII text files into a single FracproPT database (binary format) file. Converting from ASCII to binary format speeds up
data access time within FracproPT significantly (for example, for plotting routines).
Overview: DataEditPT

Edit Database File


This option starts DataEditPT, which is a standalone software program used to edit the current FracproPT database (as
indicated on the Fracture Analysis Options - F4 screen). DataEditPT is included with the FracproPT installations and it is
commonly referred to as the database editor.
You can also edit a real-time data file (which is a database file that is appended over time) with DataEditPT. However,
this is done from within DataAcqPT (the data acquisition program that comes with FracproPT). If you have selected Run
from Real-Time Data on the Fracture Analysis Options - F4 screen, the Data Conversion and Editing screen appears
somewhat differently, as shown below.
Overview: DataEditPT

61

FracproPT 2007

Preferences

Frac Model Parameters


Selecting Frac Model Parameters takes you to the Frac Model Parameters - Shift + F3 screen where you can access
FracproPT's internal physical model parameters

System Configuration
Selecting System Configuration takes you to the System Configuration screen where options regarding channel names,
system messages, backup files, display settings, and units are accessed.

Navigation Tree
FracproPT contains a Navigation Tree that can assist a user to step through a full analysis. It has a different appearance
in every mode, and in Fracture Analysis module it looks as follows:

62

FracproPT 2007

FracproPT Navigation Tree for Fracture Analysis


Upper Pane
The upper pane shows the available FracproPT modules:

Fracture Design

Fracture Analysis

Production Analysis

Economic Optimization

63

FracproPT 2007

Xpress Design: FracproXPRESS Quick Fracture Design

Xpress Minifrac : FracproXPRESS Quick Minifrac Analysis

The active FracproPT module is highlighted. Click on the name of a module to change to that module.
Lower Pane
The lower pane shows links to the different screens associated with each module. The screens for each module are
divided into sections:

INPUT

ANALYSIS

RESULTS

Clicking on the screen name will launch this screen. Use of the Next button on each screen will result in selection of the
next item on the Navigation Tree. Use of the Back button on some of the screens will generally result in jumping back to
the respective Analysis Control screen for that specific module.
Note:
Use of the Navigation Tree restricts the number of open screens (excluding graphics) to a single one. To view more
screens simultaneously, the Navigation Tree should be disabled. The Navigation Tree can be disabled in the menu
under View | Navigation Tree.
Toggle Navigation Tree
To toggle between display and hide the Navigation Tree, select from the main menu View | Navigation Tree.

Fracture Design Mode


Overview - Fracture Design Mode
Fracture Design Mode allows engineers to quickly and efficiently generate a treatment schedule based on what the
reservoir requires. After helping you choose the appropriate fluids and proppants, FracproPT can use two different
methods to generate a pump schedule. You can specify what propped fracture length and in-fracture proppant
concentration you desire, or FracproPT will provide you with various designs that all fulfill a user-defined dimensionless
conductivity criterion. Finally, you can define an ideal proppant concentration profile (versus distance from the well) for the
selected treatment size, and FracproPT will iterate on the best proppant schedule to match this ideal profile.

64

FracproPT 2007

Like all other FracproPT modes, Fracture Design Mode is selected from the
MAIN [F2] screen; a message is
displayed in the status bar at the bottom of the screen indicating that this is the active mode. When you select a mode
from the MAIN screen, you may use the Next field to progress through a sequence of screens, beginning with the
WELL AND TREATMENT INFORMATION [F3] screen and ending with the
FRACTURE DESIGN CONTROL [F10]
screen for that mode. The screens are listed here in the same order that you will see them if you use the Next fields to
progress through the sequence of screens.

Well & Treatment Information - F3


Well and Treatment Information General Information [F3]
The Well and Treatment Information - F3 screen is accessed by:

pressing the function key F3

clicking on Well&Treatment Info in the Navigation Tree

The General Information tab is the first tab on the Well and Treatment Information - F3 screen.
This screen is used to enter various data and information, such as general comments, about the simulation represented
by this input file. Some of the information can be included automatically on plot titles and report page headers.
The information entered here is also displayed in the Input File Preview area of the standard FileOpen dialog. It can
also be used by the Input File Search utility that is also a part of that dialog.
Note:
The path and file name of the current input file are displayed at the top of this screen, which is common to all four
FracproPT modes.

65

FracproPT 2007

General Information tab of the Well and Treatment Information screen

Fracture Design Options - F4


Fracture Design Options Main Options [F4]
This screen is where you choose from among the options available when running in Fracture Design Mode.

Main Options tab of the Fracture Design Options screen

Fracture Model to Use


It should first be noted that there is really only one model in the FracproPT System, which is commonly referred to as a
lumped-parameter model. However, by choosing the correct values for certain parameters that control function of the
lumped model, it can be made to behave (in terms of pressures, dimensions, etc.) like any other model. In the FracproPT
System, six sets of parameters have been defined and hardwired into six of the model options available on this screen:

3D Shear-Decoupled (Default)

3D Tip-Dominated

3D Conventional (Linear Elastic)

2D PKN

2D KGD

2D Radial

3D Shear-Decoupled (Default)
This is the new default model for FracproPT version 10.3. In hundreds of fracture treatments where Pinnacle has utilized
direct fracture diagnostics (microseismic fracture mapping and tiltmeter fracture mapping), we have seen that fracture
growth is in general more confined than we would initially think based on "classical" assumptions, for example the
presence of closure stress barriers or permeability barriers. In several cases, we have seen confined fracture growth
(length-height aspect ratios of 2 and larger) in areas with a single thick pay zone and no nearby barriers (see SPE paper
56724). It has long been postulated that this is due to a "composite layering effect". This composite layering effect causes
partial decoupling of the fracture width profile along layer interfaces, and results in slower fracture growth trough layer
interfaces (in fracture height).
The 3D Shear-Decoupled model predicts longer, more confined fractures caused by the introduction of an average
Composite Layering Effect (CLE) for the layers outside the Pay Zone. This average value is based on hundreds of
fracture treatment that were monitored using direct fracture diagnostics. As a result of greater confinement, net pressures
are typically also slightly higher for the 3D Shear-Decoupled model than for the 3D Tip-Dominated model. Note however,
that the Composite Layering Effect that is needed to match actual geometries can sometimes vary widely in different
regions and formations, and the default Composite Layering Effect of 25 (resulting in an estimated incremental
height/length growth of about 0.25 outside the pay) used in the 3D Shear-Decoupled model is only an average. All other
parameters for this model are the same as for the 3D Tip-Dominated model described below.

66

FracproPT 2007

3D Tip-Dominated
This is the lumped 3D model developed for GRI, which is not a so-called pseudo 3D model. In general, the model predicts
shorter, wider fractures due to higher predicted net pressures that, in general, have been found to match very closely with
observed field data. In the 3D Tip-Dominated model, the most important parameter that is hardwired is the Tip Effect
Coefficient (see FRACPROPT MODEL PARAMETERS [Shift+F3] screen, FracproPT 3D Parameters tab), to a value of
0.0001.

3D Conventional (Linear Elastic)


This mode should give results very similar to those from the few other 3D models available. Note that this also is not a
pseudo 3D model, although it may predict similar results and it has many of the same problems (for example, low net
pressures and great sensitivity to fluid rheology). In the 3D Conventional model, the most important parameter that is
hardwired is the Tip Effect Coefficient (see FRACPROPT MODEL PARAMETERS [SHIFT+F3] screen, FracproPT 3D
Parameters tab), to a value of 0.4.

3D Calibrated
To load a calibrated settings file, select this 3D Calibrated radio button and then select the appropriate file in the
associated combo box on the left. Only engineers from Pinnacle can save and generate these calibrated settings files,
which are located in the FracproPT program folder (for example, for a default installation: c:\Program Files\Pinnacle
Technologies\FracproPT\Program) as CMS-files (Calibrated Model Settings).
Pinnacle has learned from direct fracture diagnostic data, such as tiltmeter fracture mapping and micro-seismic fracture
mapping, that fractures can grow very differently in different environments. In some areas, the default settings in fracture
models accurately predict directly observed fracture growth, but in other areas these default settings do not accurately
reflect actual fracture growth. In these areas, the default model settings do not provide an accurate description of fracture
growth, and other physical mechanisms such composite layering effects should be introduced by changing the default
fracture model parameters to provide a calibrated 3D model.
Pinnacle has provided some model settings that have been released for publication in this category, and the number of
released model settings keeps on growing as we learn more about fracture growth behavior in more regions and
formations. Note that Pinnacle also distributes confidential calibrated model settings to clients that have utilized our
fracture mapping services.
If a 3D Calibrated model is selected, the FracproPT logo on the Navigation Bar and in hardcopies of plots changes to the
FracproXACT logo, indicating that model settings were used that tie back to direct measurements of fracture growth in
that environment. This should provide a better estimate of fracture growth behavior for that specific region of formation
that one of the "hardwired" model settings.

3D User-Defined
If you routinely change the default model parameters for your work in one or more areas, you can save those model
parameters and easily recall them at any time.

Saving a User-Defined Model You first select this 3D User-Defined option and then go to the
FracproPT 3D Parameters tab of the FRACproPT MODEL PARAMETERS [Shift-F3] screen and
change any of the model parameters. While still on this screen and after making your changes, press
the Save These Settings As A User-Defined Parameter File, which will create and save a UMS-file
(User-defined Model Settings) in the FracproPT program folder (for example, c:\Program
Files\Pinnacle Technologies\FracproPT\Program).

Using a User-Defined Model Press the Load These Settings As A User-Defined Parameter File
and then select the desired UMS-file. Of course you must have first created or copied a UMS-file
before you can select one.

2D
You can choose from among the three common 2D models using this drop-down list.

PKN 2D Model This is one of the classical 2D models with constant (specified) height and width
proportional to height. It is still often used (with high gel viscosity) to force a pressure "match" in the
later treatment stages, almost always ignoring early pressure data that results from water injection.

KGD 2D Model This is one of the classical 2D models with constant (specified) height and with
width proportional to length. It can rarely be used to match measured pressures (except perhaps with
forced use of backstress).

Radial Model This is one of the classical 2D models. The model assumes axisymmetry in radial
growth.

67

FracproPT 2007

The 2D PKN and 2D KGD models do not, in general, give reasonable answers, even in reservoirs where there is almost
perfect containment, due to their unrealistically low net fracturing pressure predictions. The same is true of the 2D radial
model, even in homogeneous reservoirs where radial fractures may indeed be created. The 2D radial model generally
predicts dramatically lower net fracturing pressures than are observed in the field and, thus, predicts fractures with much
larger radii and much smaller widths than are actually created.
The 2D models are available in FracproPT for a number of reasons. Results (especially dimensions) from the 2D models
can be compared to 3D results. As well, the 2D models can be used in an attempt to match observed net pressures, a
process that should readily demonstrate their inadequacy. Also, the 2D models can be used as a starting point for
understanding typical fracture treatment designs provided to you on the basis of other 2D models.

Other Options
FracproPT Model Parameters
Select this button as a shortcut to get to the FracproPT Model Parameters [Shift+F3] screen.
Fracture Design Additional Options [F4]
This screen is where you choose from among the numerous, but less often used, options available for fracture design.

Additional Options tab of the Fracture Design Options screen

Fracture Model Options


Leakoff Model
FracproPT has three leakoff models, which are described below. Due to recent leakoff model changes and additions, you
may see certain messages when loading input files from previous FracproPT versions or when you switch between the
three leakoff model options. Select the button below to read about these messages.
Additional Information: Leakoff Model Options

Lumped-Parameter (Default)
This is the original leakoff model used in the FracproPT system. It can best be described as a classical leakoff model in
terms of the physics that are modeled, however it has been formulated such that it executes extremely fast (that is, for
real-time analysis). The model formulation gives rise to the model characterization as "lumped."
This model generally works quite well in most situations, however it may lose accuracy in higher permeability situations
and in reservoirs with complex permeability profiles (that is, when permeability varies significantly with depth).
Additional details regarding the Lumped-Parameter Model can be found in the FracproPT Technical Description section of
Help.

Grid-Based Classical
This is a classical leakoff model in terms of the physics that are modeled. However, this model overlays a grid on the
fracture face and tracks the leakoff history of each individual grid block in time. In general, this model should be more

68

FracproPT 2007

accurate than the Lumped-Parameter Model, but it is also noticeably slower and the difference between it and the
Lumped-Parameter Model will most often be very small. Use this model if you have permeability contrast of at least 2
orders of magnitude.
Additional details regarding the Grid-Based Classical Model can be found in the FracproPT Technical Description section
of Help.

Grid-Based FLIC
This model is similar to the Grid-Based Classical model, however two additional physical processes are accounted for:
Dynamic filter cake buildup and non-Newtonian gel invasion into the reservoir. Use this model if you have a pay zone
permeability of at least 100 mD.
Additional details regarding the Grid-Based FLIC Model can be found in the FracproPT Technical Description section of
Help.

Heat Transfer Effects


Ignore
If you choose this option, the fluid is assumed to be at reservoir temperature as soon as it enters the fracture.

Model
Choosing this option activates FracproPT's wellbore temperature model. The calculated bottomhole temperature of the
pumped fluids is then passed to the fracture model where any additional heat transfer between the reservoir rock and the
pumped fluids is calculated. Various parameters for the model are entered on the WELLBORE HEAT TRANSFER
screen, which is accessed by selecting Wellbore Heat Transfer from the WELLBORE CONFIGURATION [F7] screen.

Proppant Transport Model


Settling
Selecting Proppant Settling allows settling of proppant in the fracture based primarily on fluid viscosity and particle
diameter (that is, Stokes Law). Use this option for slickwater treatments, where proppant settling is the main downward
proppant transport mechanism.

Convection
Proppant Convection may be a dominant mechanism for proppant transport and placement in hydraulic-fracture
stimulation treatments. However, the convective process will be slowed impeded by fracture offsets (for example, at
bedding planes), narrow fractures (for example, when multiple fractures are created), and highly viscous fluids in the
fracture.
Proppant Convection is a process whereby heavier treatment stages (for example, proppant stages) displace rapidly
downward from the perforations to the bottom of the fracture. Those stages nearest the perforations may then be replaced
by the pad or by low-concentration proppant stages.
Use this option for linear or crosslink gel treatments, where proppant convection is generally more important than
proppant settling.

No Convection or Settling
No Convection or Settling should be selected only when modeling a horizontal fracture where those effects can be
ignored.

Fracture Orientation
Vertical
Vertical Fracture is generally selected. The FRACTURE PICTURE [Alt+F5] screen, the STAGE PROFILE PICTURE
[Ctrl+F5] screen, and the WIDTH PROFILE PICTURE [Alt+F7] screen all show a vertical fracture with a depth scale and
a vertical profile of the minimum horizontal stress.

Horizontal
If you select Horizontal Fracture, FracproPT grows a horizontal fracture at the Initial Frac Depth shown on the
RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen. You must first select Lithology Based Reservoir (in another section of this

69

FracproPT 2007

FRACTURE ANALYSIS OPTIONS [F4] screen) before selecting Horizontal Fracture. The FRACTURE PICTURE
[Alt+F5] screen, the STAGE PROFILE PICTURE [Ctrl+F5] screen, and the WIDTH PROFILE PICTURE [Alt+F7] screen
display the horizontal fracture, but with a vertical screen orientation.

Wellbore and Perf Options


Run Fracture and Wellbore Models
This is the default and most often used of these options. As the name implies, both the fracture and the wellbore models
are run.

Run Wellbore Model Only


You may choose Run Wellbore Model Only while going through the process of removing all friction from measured
pressure data. Doing so causes FracproPT to run much faster. This option is very useful for large treatments where the
user is trying to determine and subtract friction from the measured pressure data near the end of pumping. This option
temporarily disables the fracture model. Once all of the friction is accounted for, the fracture model may be reactivated.

Run Fracture Model Only


If Run From Job-Design Data is selected and only net fracturing pressures and fracture growth are of interest to you, it is
possible to the wellbore and perforations in terms of predicting fracture growth. However, the wellbore and perforations
must be modeled to predict surface pressure.

Reservoir Data-Entry Options


Lithology Based
If you select Lithology Based Reservoir, all mechanical properties (for opening, etc.), all chemical properties (for
acidizing), and all thermal properties (for injection-fluid heating and reservoir cooling) will be input to the simulator based
on rock type and a single set of depths.
In general, this is the most convenient way to specify model inputs. Once you have constructed your Lithology Based
Reservoir, FracproPT can automatically convert it to a General Reservoir if necessary. Unfortunately, there is no way to
convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir without loosing some of this data. However, you should
rarely, if ever, want or need to convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir.
Use this type of data entry if you do not know many properties about the reservoir, and if you want to set up a layered
profile quickly. Once you assigned the main properties of the lithologies that you are using and defining the depth of
individual layers, you are ready to start modeling.

General Multi-Scale
If you select General Multi-Scale Reservoir, you will enter each of the mechanical properties (for example, stress,
modulus, etc.) with its own independent set of layer depths. Chemical properties (for acidizing) and thermal properties (for
injection-fluid heating and reservoir cooling) are input to the simulator based on rock type and a single set of depths.
FracproPT can automatically convert a Lithology Based Reservoir to a General Reservoir, if necessary. Unfortunately,
there is no way to convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir without loosing some of this data.
However, you should rarely, if ever, want or need to convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir.
Use this type of data entry if you can assign reservoir properties using various different log files and if you have no log
information on other parameters. Once you have assigned specific properties using the Log-Layer Editor, you need to
provide only a few entries for estimates of properties on which you do not have more specific data.

General Single Scale


If you select General Reservoir, you will enter each of the mechanical properties (for example, stress, modulus, etc.) with
its own independent set of layer depths. Chemical properties (for acidizing) and thermal properties (for injection-fluid
heating and reservoir cooling) are input to the simulator based on rock type and a single set of depths.
FracproPT can automatically convert a Lithology Based Reservoir to a General Reservoir, if necessary. Unfortunately,
there is no way to convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir without loosing some of this data.
However, you should rarely, if ever, want or need to convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir.
Use this type of data entry if you can assign all reservoir properties different log files. Once you have assigned specific
properties using the Log-Layer Editor, you are ready to use the model.

70

FracproPT 2007

Fracture Design Goals


Automated Treatment Selection
Using this option, fluids and proppants can be picked manually or automatically based on local circumstances (for
example, temperature, permeability, and effective fracture closure stress). The program then provides numerous pump
schedules that all fulfill a user-defined dimensionless conductivity criterion, which allows a determination of how a given
Productivity Index (PI), which the ratio of stimulated well production response to the non-stimulated response, can be
achieved as a function of fracture treatment size. Finally, an ideal proppant concentration profile (versus distance from the
well) is defined for the selected treatment size, and FracproPT iterates to find the best pump schedule to match this ideal
profile.

Manual Entry
Choose this option to use the design methodology that has always been included with FracproPT. After fluids and
proppants are picked manually or with the assistance of FracproPT, the user must determine and then enter a desired
propped fracture length and a desired average proppant concentration. The program will then iterate to design a suitable
pump schedule.

Proprietary Treatment Selection


This option works very similar to the Automated Treatment Selection option, but provides various proprietary pre-set
numbers that can be used.

Wellbore Configuration - F7
Wellbore Configuration Drilled Hole [F7]
This screen allows you to specify how the wellbore is configured. FracproPT builds the wellbore from a number (up to 20)
of discrete wellbore segments.
The well configuration, including perforations, is typically input in five discrete sections, each with a representative tab on
this screen:

Drilled Hole Tab


Casing Tab
Surface Line/Tubing Tab
Perforated Intervals Tab
Directional Survey Tab

Note that the information on this tab is NOT used for any of the calculations in FracproPT. The only time this information is
used is for the SCHEMATIC VIEW, the 2D SCHEMATIC VIEW and WELLBORE VIEWER, all of which can be selected
from the icon bar or the FracproPT Menu > View.

71

FracproPT 2007

The Drilled Hole tab of the Wellbore Configuration screen.

Drilled Hole Tab


This table is used to enter the geometry of the hole as drilled.
Note:
Drilled Hole information is not required. However, if you want the wellbore Schematic Viewers to be accurately
depicted you should enter the Drilled Hole information.

Segment #
The first column shows the Segment #. Up to 20 different segments can be specified. Whole segments (that is, rows in
the table) may be added or deleted: A blank line is inserted at the current cursor position by highlighting a Segment # and
pressing [Ins], while a line is deleted by highlighting a Segment # and pressing [Del].

Length
Length refers to the measured length, not the true vertical length, of the segment. The sum of all Length entries is the
measured depth (MD) of the wellbore. Depending on the choice made in the Compute selection box (described below),
Length may either be entered or it may be calculated based on entries for Top MD (measured depth at the beginning of
the segment) and Bottom MD (measured depth at the end of the segment). If Length is calculated, it will show up in blue.

Top MD
Top MD is the measured depth at the beginning of the segment. Depending on the choice made in the Compute selection
box (described below), Top MD may either be entered or it may be calculated based on entries for Length (the measured
length of the segment) and Bottom MD (measured depth at the end of the segment). If Top MD is calculated, it will show
up in blue.

Bottom MD
Bottom MD is the measured depth at the end of the segment. Depending on the choice made in the Compute selection
box (described below), Bottom MD may either be entered or it may be calculated based on entries for Length (the

72

FracproPT 2007

measured length of the segment) and Top MD (measured depth at the beginning of the segment). If Bottom MD is
calculated, it will show up in blue.

Open Hole
This column contains a selection box that allows you to choose whether this segment is open hole (Open Hole) or
cemented open hole (Cemented OH). This choice affects only the wellbore schematic views, not the model results.

Bit Diameter
You enter the Bit Diameter in this column. This entry affects only the wellbore schematic views, not the model results.

Effective Diameter
You enter the Effective Diameter of the drilled hole in this column. This choice affects only the wellbore schematic views,
not the model results.

Other Options
Injection is Down
Select Tubing, Annulus, or Casing to specify the path in the wellbore through which treatment fluids flow to the
perforations.

If you select Tubing, fluid will flow through the tubing in any wellbore segments where tubing is
present and through the casing in any wellbore segments where tubing is not present.

If you select Annulus, fluid will flow through the casing/tubing annulus in any wellbore segments
where tubing is present and through the casing in any wellbore segments where tubing is not present.

Frac String Partially Full / Frac String Full

Select Frac String Full if the wellbore is completely full of fluid at the start of pumping. In this case,
Frac String Volume and zotal Frac String Volume are non-editable fields and will display the same
values.

Select Frac String Partially Full if the wellbore is not completely full of fluid at the start of pumping,
and then enter the volume of fluid in the frac string in the Frac String Volume field. In this case Total
Frac String Volume is a non-editable field and shows the total volume of the frac string.

Compute
Using the Compute selection box to select one of three options for entering the depth/length data for each wellbore
segment:

Length Length for each segment is calculated from entries for Top MD and Bottom MD for each
segment.

Top MD Top MD for each segment is calculated from entries for Length and Bottom MD for each
segment.

Bottom MD Bottom MD for each segment is calculated from entries for Length and Top MD for each
segment.

The Compute option can be changed at any time, and it is not necessary to use the same option for whole sections of
Drilled Hole, Casing, or Surface Line/Tubing.
Wellbore Configuration Casing [F7]
This screen allows you to specify how the wellbore is configured. FracproPT builds the wellbore from a number (up to 20)
of discrete wellbore segments.
The well configuration, including perforations, is typically input in five discrete sections, each with a representative tab on
this screen:

Drilled Hole Tab


Casing Tab
Surface Line/Tubing Tab
Perforated Intervals Tab

73

FracproPT 2007

Directional Survey Tab

The Casing tab of the Wellbore Configuration screen.

Casing
This table is used to describe the casing, whether or not any or the entire casing is actually the pipe string used to carry
the treatment fluids. The Top MD entry for segment number one defaults to zero. For each segment, the user must enter
the OD and ID, while Weight and Grade are optional.

Segment #
The first column shows the Segment #. Up to 20 different segments can be specified. Whole segments (that is, rows in
the table) may be added or deleted: A blank line is inserted at the current cursor position by highlighting a Segment # and
pressing [Ins], while a line is deleted by highlighting a Segment # and pressing [Del].

Length
Length refers to the measured length, not the true vertical length, of the segment. The sum of all Length entries is the
measured depth (MD) of the wellbore. Depending on the choice made in the Compute selection box (described below),
Length may either be entered or it may be calculated based on entries for Top MD (measured depth at the beginning of
the segment) and Bottom MD (measured depth at the end of the segment). If Length is calculated, it will show up in blue.

Top MD
Top MD is the measured depth at the beginning of the segment. Depending on the choice made in the Compute selection
box (described below), Top MD may either be entered or it may be calculated based on entries for Length (the measured
length of the segment) and Bottom MD (measured depth at the end of the segment). If Top MD is calculated, it will show
up in blue.

Bottom MD
Bottom MD is the measured depth at the end of the segment. Depending on the choice made in the Compute selection
box (described below), Bottom MD may either be entered or it may be calculated based on entries for Length (the

74

FracproPT 2007

measured length of the segment) and Top MD (measured depth at the beginning of the segment). If Bottom MD is
calculated, it will show up in blue.

Casing
This column contains a selection box that allows you to choose whether this segment is Cemented Casing or Free
Casing that is not cemented. This choice affects only the wellbore schematic views, not the model results.

OD
Select a casing outer diameter (OD) for this segment from the Casing Library that contains all standard API casing
diameters or enter the OD directly if the casing is not of a standard API diameter.

Weight
Select a casing Weight for this segment from the Casing Library or enter the Weight directly.

ID
If you selected a casing OD and Weight for this segment from the Casing Library, the corresponding casing inner
diameter (ID) will already be entered. Alternatively, you may enter the ID directly.

Grade
Select a casing grade for this segment from the selection box. This information is not currently used for anything other
than display and record-keeping purposes.

Other Options
Injection is Down
Select Tubing, Annulus, or Casing to specify the path in the wellbore through which treatment fluids flow to the
perforations.

If you select Tubing, fluid will flow through the tubing in any wellbore segments where tubing is
present and through the casing in any wellbore segments where tubing is not present.

If you select Annulus, fluid will flow through the casing/tubing annulus in any wellbore segments
where tubing is present and through the casing in any wellbore segments where tubing is not present.

Frac String Partially Full / Frac String Full

Select Frac String Full if the wellbore is completely full of fluid at the start of pumping. In this case,
Frac String Volume and Total Frac String Volume are non-editable fields and will display the same
values.

Select Frac String Partially Full if the wellbore is not completely full of fluid at the start of pumping,
and then enter the volume of fluid in the frac string in the Frac String Volume field. In this case Total
Frac String Volume is a non-editable field and shows the total volume of the frac string.

Compute
Using the Compute selection box to select one of three options for entering the depth/length data for each wellbore
segment:

Length Length for each segment is calculated from entries for Top MD and Bottom MD for each
segment.

Top MD Top MD for each segment is calculated from entries for Length and Bottom MD for each
segment.

Bottom MD Bottom MD for each segment is calculated from entries for Length and Top MD for each
segment.

The Compute option can be changed at any time, and it is not necessary to use the same option for whole sections of
Drilled Hole, Casing, or Surface Line/Tubing.
Wellbore Configuration Surface Line/Tubing [F7]
This screen allows you to specify how the wellbore is configured. FracproPT builds the wellbore from a number (up to 20)
of discrete wellbore segments.

75

FracproPT 2007

The well configuration, including perforations, is typically input in five discrete sections, each with a representative tab on
this screen:

Drilled Hole Tab


Casing Tab
Surface Line/Tubing Tab
Perforated Intervals Tab

Directional Survey Tab


Tip for Entering a Frac Pack Configuration

The Surface Line/Tubing tab of the Wellbore Configuration screen.

Surface Line/Tubing
Segment #
The first column shows the Segment #. Up to 20 different segments can be specified. Whole segments (that is, rows in
the table) may be added or deleted: A blank line is inserted at the current cursor position by highlighting a Segment # and
pressing [Ins], while a line is deleted by highlighting a Segment # and pressing [Del].

Length
Length refers to the measured length, not the true vertical length, of the segment. The sum of all Length entries is the
measured depth (MD) of the wellbore. Depending on the choice made in the Compute selection box (described below),
Length may either be entered or it may be calculated based on entries for Top MD (measured depth at the beginning of
the segment) and Bottom MD (measured depth at the end of the segment). If Length is calculated, it will show up in blue.
Note:
If you are entering a segment to represent the surface line, which can be important in terms of performing a proper
flush at the end of the treatment, there is an easy method to get the correct surface-line volume; simply set the ID of
the segment to 32" and then enter the number of barrels in the surface line in the Length field.

76

FracproPT 2007

Top MD
Top MD is the measured depth at the beginning of the segment. Depending on the choice made in the Compute selection
box (described below), Top MD may either be entered or it may be calculated based on entries for Length (the measured
length of the segment) and Bottom MD (measured depth at the end of the segment). If Top MD is calculated, it will show
up in blue.

Bottom MD
Bottom MD is the measured depth at the end of the segment. Depending on the choice made in the Compute selection
box (described below), Bottom MD may either be entered or it may be calculated based on entries for Length (the
measured length of the segment) and Top MD (measured depth at the beginning of the segment). If Bottom MD is
calculated, it will show up in blue.

Surface Line/Tubing
This column contains a selection box that allows you to choose whether this segment is comprised of Tubing, Drill Pipe,
or a Packer. In addition, you have the additional choices of Surface Line or Surface CTU for the first segment.
Note:
If you are entering a segment to represent the surface line, which can be important in terms of performing a proper
flush at the end of the treatment, there is an easy method to get the correct surface-line volume; simply set the ID of
the segment to 32" and then enter the number of barrels in the surface line in the Length field.

OD
Select an outer diameter (OD) for this segment from the Tubing Library that contains all standard API tubing diameters or
enter the OD directly if the tubing is not of a standard API diameter.

Weight
Select a Weight for this segment from the Tubing Library or enter the Weight directly.

ID
If you selected an OD and a Weight for this segment from the Tubing Library, the corresponding segment inner diameter
(ID) will already be entered. Alternatively, you may enter the ID directly.
Note:
If you are entering a segment to represent the surface line, which can be important in terms of performing a proper
flush at the end of the treatment, there is an easy method to get the correct surface-line volume; simply set the ID of
the segment to 32" and then enter the number of barrels in the surface line in the Length field.

Grade
Select a grade for this segment from the selection box. This information is not currently used for anything other than
display and record-keeping purposes.

Other Options
Injection is Down
Select Tubing, Annulus, or Casing to specify the path in the wellbore through which treatment fluids flow to the
perforations.

If you select Tubing, fluid will flow through the tubing in any wellbore segments where tubing is
present and through the casing in any wellbore segments where tubing is not present.

If you select Annulus, fluid will flow through the casing/tubing annulus in any wellbore segments
where tubing is present and through the casing in any wellbore segments where tubing is not present.

Frac String Partially Full / Frac String Full

Select Frac String Full if the wellbore is completely full of fluid at the start of pumping. In this case,
Frac String Volume and Total Frac String Volume are non-editable fields and will display the same
values.

77

FracproPT 2007

Select Frac String Partially Full if the wellbore is not completely full of fluid at the start of pumping,
and then enter the volume of fluid in the frac string in the Frac String Volume field. In this case Total
Frac String Volume is a non-editable field and shows the total volume of the frac string.

Compute
Using the Compute selection box to select one of three options for entering the depth/length data for each wellbore
segment:

Length Length for each segment is calculated from entries for Top MD and Bottom MD for each
segment.

Top MD Top MD for each segment is calculated from entries for Length and Bottom MD for each
segment.

Bottom MD Bottom MD for each segment is calculated from entries for Length and Top MD for each
segment.

The Compute option can be changed at any time, and it is not necessary to use the same option for whole sections of
Drilled Hole, Casing, or Surface Line/Tubing.
Wellbore Configuration Perforated Intervals [F7]
This screen allows you to specify how the wellbore is configured. FracproPT builds the wellbore from a number (up to 20)
of discrete wellbore segments.
The well configuration, including perforations, is typically input in five discrete sections, each with a representative tab on
this screen:

Drilled Hole Tab


Casing Tab
Surface Line/Tubing Tab
Perforated Intervals Tab
Directional Survey Tab

The Perforated Intervals tab of the Wellbore Configuration screen.

78

FracproPT 2007

Perforated Intervals
FracproPT can model up to 20 separate perforated intervals. See Application Notes below for information on how to set
up and model some common well scenarios in terms of Perforated Intervals.

Use
Selecting, or checking, this box in the Use column specifies whether or not the perforations defined by this line are
actually used in the simulation. Therefore, if you do not want to use one or more sets of perforations that are entered, you
can simply unselect the Use box to ignore them.
Note:
While selecting and unselecting sets of perforations, you may notice that the display order in the table may change.
However, among the perforation sets that are actually used (that is, checked), their display order should be from
shallowest to deepest.

Top MD
Top MD is the measured depth at the top of the perforation interval.

Bottom MD
Bottom MD is the measured depth at the bottom of the perforation interval.

Top TVD
Using data from other tabs on this WELLBORE CONFIGURATION [F7] screen, the true vertical depth (TVD) to the top of
the perforated interval is calculated and displayed in this field.

Bottom TVD
Using data from other tabs on this WELLBORE CONFIGURATION [F7] screen, the true vertical depth (TVD) to the
bottom of the perforated interval is calculated and displayed in this field.

Diameter
Diameter is the average perforation diameter for the interval.

Number of Perfs
Number of Perfs is the total number of perforations for the interval.

Application Notes
Modeling as Multiple Perfed Intervals versus a Single Perfed Interval
There are three ways to model multiple perforated intervals in FracproPT. Below are some rules of thumb of when to use
each of these three different strategies:

For zones that are separate but still relatively close to one another in comparison to the total fracture
height that you are expecting (you are expecting substantial overlap between multiple fractures), it is
generally better to model them with a single perforated interval. You can account for the flow split and
additional leakoff between multiple fractures by selecting a Volume Factor and a Leakoff Factor in
the MULTIPLE FRACTURES [SHIFT+F7] screen that are equal to the number of perforated intervals.
You can also account for the interference between these multiple fractures by changing the Opening
Factor. Please refer to the MULTIPLE FRACTURES [SHIFT+F7} screen for more information.
People most often choose this option if they do not accurately know the rock properties, closure and
permeability profile with depth that drive fracture growth, and if they only want a very approximate
answer as to what they are achieving. The choice here is to keep it simple, as we dont have the
detailed information to justify a very detailed analysis.

When simulating limited-entry perforating where the number of perforations per interval is the main
driver for flow split between zones, define multiple perforated intervals on the WELLBORE
CONFIGURATION [F7] screen AND use Simplified Iteration on the Additional Options tab of the
FRACTURE ANALYSIS OPTIONS [F4] screen. In this case, you are assuming that closure stress
changes and net pressure changes per interval are small in comparison to the limited-entry
perforation friction pressure drop.

79

FracproPT 2007

When simulating limited-entry perforating of multiple zones AND when you know that properties such
as fracture closure stress and permeability vary significantly between the perforated intervals, you
may wish to model each zone as an independent fracture by specifying multiple perforated intervals
on the WELLBORE CONFIGURATION [F7] screen AND use General Iteration on the Additional
Options tab of the FRACTURE ANALYSIS OPTIONS [F4] screen. In this case, the fracture model will
run much more slowly, because you are actually simulating several fractures growing at once. The
model may also slow considerably due to the complex nature of calculating the flow split and frictional
pressure losses between perforated intervals. When you do model more than one set of perforations,
simulator output (such as net pressure, fracture dimensions, or fracture/proppant pictures) is
displayed in terms of one fracture (that is, one perforated interval) at a time. You can toggle between
the different fractures (that is, the different perforated intervals) by pressing [CNTR+F] or by selecting
the Next Interval icon on the toolbar. Note that conducting net pressure history matching for multiple
intervals requires one match for each interval, and can therefore become quite a laborious task.

How FracproPT Picks the Depth for Fracture Initiation

For each perforated interval, FracproPT automatically searches the interval for the lowest stress zone
and sets the center of that zone to be the Initial Frac Depth (as displayed on the RESERVOIR
PARAMETERS [F9] screen). Total perforated height for each interval, whether entered by you here,
or on the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen in the case where you are ignoring the wellbore,
has no effect on the perforation friction predicted by FracproPT. Perforation friction is calculated
based solely on the flow rate, the number and diameter of the perfs you enter here, and on the data
entered on the PERF AND NEAR-WELLBORE FRICTION [F8] screen.

Therefore, you do not have to, nor do you necessarily always want to, enter the true total perforated
height. Rather, you may want to enter the perforation information such that fracture initiation in the
simulator is guaranteed at the location you desire.

Special cases are very large perforated heights and small-volume treatments. In those situations, you
may want to enter the actual perforated height and turn the Set Minimum Fracture Height option on.
Doing so causes the fracture to initiate from the entire perforated height (that is, as a line source
rather than a point source). The Set Minimum Fracture Height option is accessed from the MODEL
PARAMETERS screen.

Other Options
Injection is Down
Select Tubing, Annulus, or Casing to specify the path in the wellbore through which treatment fluids flow to the
perforations.

If you select Tubing, fluid will flow through the tubing in any wellbore segments where tubing is
present and through the casing in any wellbore segments where tubing is not present.

If you select Annulus, fluid will flow through the casing/tubing annulus in any wellbore segments
where tubing is present and through the casing in any wellbore segments where tubing is not present.

Frac String Partially Full / Frac String Full

Select Frac String Full if the wellbore is completely full of fluid at the start of pumping. In this case,
Frac String Volume and Total Frac String Volume are non-editable fields and will display the same
values.

Select Frac String Partially Full if the wellbore is not completely full of fluid at the start of pumping,
and then enter the volume of fluid in the frac string in the Frac String Volume field. In this case Total
Frac String Volume is a non-editable field and shows the total volume of the frac string.

Compute
Using the Compute selection box to select one of three options for entering the depth/length data for each wellbore
segment:

80

Length Length for each segment is calculated from entries for Top MD and Bottom MD for each
segment.

Top MD Top MD for each segment is calculated from entries for Length and Bottom MD for each
segment.

Bottom MD Bottom MD for each segment is calculated from entries for Length and Top MD for each
segment.

FracproPT 2007

The Compute option can be changed at any time, and it is not necessary to use the same option for whole sections of
Drilled Hole, Casing, or Surface Line/Tubing.
Wellbore Configuration Path Summary [F7]
This screen displays a summary of the path that treatment fluids take to go from the surface to the perforations. No input
of data is possible on this screen: The tubing, casing, and hole configuration as entered on various other tabs of the
WELLBORE CONFIGURATION screen are used to construct this summary. Hole deviation data is also shown.

The Path Summary tab of the Wellbore Configuration screen.

Other Options
Injection is Down
Select Tubing, Annulus, or Casing to specify the path in the wellbore through which treatment fluids flow to the
perforations.

If you select Tubing, fluid will flow through the tubing in any wellbore segments where tubing is
present and through the casing in any wellbore segments where tubing is not present.

If you select Annulus, fluid will flow through the casing/tubing annulus in any wellbore segments
where tubing is present and through the casing in any wellbore segments where tubing is not present.

Frac String Partially Full / Frac String Full

Select Frac String Full if the wellbore is completely full of fluid at the start of pumping. In this case,
Frac String Volume and Total Frac String Volume are non-editable fields and will display the same
values.

Select Frac String Partially Full if the wellbore is not completely full of fluid at the start of pumping,
and then enter the volume of fluid in the frac string in the Frac String Volume field. In this case Total
Frac String Volume is a non-editable field and shows the total volume of the frac string.

Compute

81

FracproPT 2007

Using the Compute selection box to select one of three options for entering the depth/length data for each wellbore
segment:

Length Length for each segment is calculated from entries for Top MD and Bottom MD for each
segment.

Top MD Top MD for each segment is calculated from entries for Length and Bottom MD for each
segment.

Bottom MD Bottom MD for each segment is calculated from entries for Length and Top MD for each
segment.

The Compute option can be changed at any time, and it is not necessary to use the same option for whole sections of
Drilled Hole, Casing, or Surface Line/Tubing.
Wellbore Configuration Directional Survey [F7]
On this screen, you can manually enter a wellbore trajectory using up to 100 wellbore segments, or you can import a
FracproPT depth-based database file containing wellbore trajectory data (up to 1000 points). Input of wellbore trajectory
data may be accomplished in one of four different formats.
The well configuration, including perforations, is typically input in five discrete sections, each with a representative tab on
this screen:

Drilled Hole Tab


Casing Tab
Surface Line/Tubing Tab
Perforated Intervals Tab
Directional Survey Tab

The Directional Survey tab of the Wellbore Configuration screen.

Specify
Build, Turn, MD

82

FracproPT 2007

For this selection, enter the build rate, the turn rate, and the measured depth for the beginning of each segment in the
appropriate columns. The remaining data in the table is calculated and filled in automatically. If you have this data in an
Excel, you can also simple Copy and Paste columns to populate this screen.

MD, Inclination, Azimuth


For this selection, enter the measured depth, the inclination, and the azimuth for the beginning of each segment in the
appropriate columns. The remaining data in the table is calculated and filled in automatically. If you have this data in an
Excel, you can also simple Copy and Paste columns to populate this screen.

N-S, E-W, TVD


For this selection, enter the north-south distance, the east-west distance, and the true vertical depth for the beginning of
each segment in the appropriate columns. The remaining data in the table is calculated and filled in automatically. If you
have this data in an Excel, you can also simple Copy and Paste columns to populate this screen.

MD, TVD, Azimuth


For this selection, enter the measured depth, the true vertical depth, and the azimuth for the beginning of each segment in
the appropriate columns. The remaining data in the table is calculated and filled in automatically. If you have this data in
an Excel, you can also simple Copy and Paste columns to populate this screen.

Importing a Wellbore Survey


Load Survey
Load Survey opens the standard file open dialog from which you load a FracproPT depth-based database file
(file_name.DBD) containing wellbore survey data. Select Clear Survey to delete all data from the Directional Survey data
table.

Azimuth Format
Selecting the Azimuth Format checkbox toggles the Azimuth column between a simple degrees format and a compass
point display. In the latter format, you still enter simple degrees (that is, 0 to 359 degrees), but the entry is converted to the
compass point format.

Other Options
Injection is Down
Select Tubing, Annulus, or Casing to specify the path in the wellbore through which treatment fluids flow to the
perforations.

If you select Tubing, fluid will flow through the tubing in any wellbore segments where tubing is
present and through the casing in any wellbore segments where tubing is not present.

If you select Annulus, fluid will flow through the casing/tubing annulus in any wellbore segments
where tubing is present and through the casing in any wellbore segments where tubing is not present.

Frac String Partially Full / Frac String Full

Select Frac String Full if the wellbore is completely full of fluid at the start of pumping. In this case,
Frac String Volume and Total Frac String Volume are non-editable fields and will display the same
values.

Select Frac String Partially Full if the wellbore is not completely full of fluid at the start of pumping,
and then enter the volume of fluid in the frac string in the Frac String Volume field. In this case Total
Frac String Volume is a non-editable field and shows the total volume of the frac string.

Compute
Using the Compute selection box to select one of three options for entering the depth/length data for each wellbore
segment:

Length Length for each segment is calculated from entries for Top MD and Bottom MD for each
segment.

Top MD Top MD for each segment is calculated from entries for Length and Bottom MD for each
segment.

83

FracproPT 2007

Bottom MD Bottom MD for each segment is calculated from entries for Length and Top MD for each
segment.

The Compute option can be changed at any time, and it is not necessary to use the same option for whole sections of
Drilled Hole, Casing, or Surface Line/Tubing.

Heat Transfer Parameters - Shift + F9


Heat Transfer Parameters [Shift+F9]
This screen is where you enter the parameters necessary to model the time-temperature history of the wellbore fluids.
The calculated fluid temperature at the perforations is then passed to the fracture heat transfer model so that the
temperature of fluids in the fracture can be tracked. If you choose not to model heat transfer effects, all fluids are assumed
to be at reservoir temperature (which is entered on the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen) as soon as they enter
the fracture. The temperature distribution in the wellbore can be viewed on the WELLBORE PROFILE PICTURE [Alt+F9]
screen. The in-fracture temperature of any stage can be tracked in time on a FracproPT data plot.
The wellbore heat transfer model is a rigorous, numerical model that has been verified against analytical solutions,
measured temperature data, and other commercially available wellbore heat transfer models.
Additional Information: Heat Transfer Models

The Heat Transfer Parameters screen.

Parameters for Heat Transfer Model


Surface Fluid Temperature
This is the temperature of the fluid entering the wellbore at the surface (that is, tank temperature). If you are simulating a
foam treatment, this is the fluid temperature before the addition of carbon dioxide or nitrogen.

Surface Proppant Temperature


This is the temperature of the proppant before it is pumped into the wellbore.

Surface N2 Temperature

84

FracproPT 2007

This is the temperature of the nitrogen before it is added to the main fluid-proppant stream.

Surface CO2 Temperature


This is the temperature of the carbon dioxide before it is added to the main fluid-proppant stream.

Surface Rock Temperature


This is the temperature of the earth at, or near, the surface. Although this number is not widely known with great accuracy,
relatively large variations in it make only minor differences in predictions of wellbore heat transfer.

Reservoir Temperature at Frac Center Depth


This is the reservoir temperature at the mid-perf depth. In addition to heat transfer calculations, this number is used to
select the correct rheology data from the Fluid Library.
Note:
Unless you use the Enter Temperature vs. Depth table, FracproPT assumes a linear temperature gradient between
Surface Rock Temperature and Reservoir Temperature at Frac Center Depth.

Display Temperature at
Although fluid temperature is modeled throughout the wellbore (which can be viewed on the WELLBORE PROFILE
PICTURE [Alt+F9] screen), only one channel is available for plotting it in a standard time-varying plot. This output channel
is called Bottomhole Temperature but, by entering a depth in this field, the temperature at any point (depth) in the
wellbore can be plotted versus time. Check the Use Fracture Center Depth box to display Bottomhole Temperature at
the point (depth) of fracture initiation.

Wellbore Heat Transfer Coefficient Multiplier


The properties and configuration of the various tubulars, cements, and earth materials are used in calculating the heat
flow between the earth and the wellbore fluids. This Wellbore Heat Transfer Coefficient Multiplier simply multiplies the
overall effects. Under most circumstances, increasing this multiplier speeds up the wellbore fluid heat-up process.

Fracture Heat Transfer Coefficient Multiplier


The various fluid properties, rock properties, and fracture properties (for example, length, width, and height) are used to
calculate the heat flow between the fluids in the fracture and the rock surrounding the fracture. This Fracture Heat
Transfer Coefficient Multiplier simply multiplies the overall effects. Unfortunately, due to complicating factors such as the
limited heat capacity of near-fracture rock and fluid leak off into the reservoir, it is difficult to generalize the effects of
raising or lowering the Fracture Heat Transfer Coefficient Multiplier.

Offshore Wells
Select the Offshore Well check box if you are fracture treating an offshore well.
Note:
When you check this option, you will notice that the Surface Rock Temperature field becomes unavailable since you
now must enter Surface Water Temperature instead.

Water Depth
This is the depth of the water in which the well sits.

Surface Water Temperature


This is the temperature at or near the water surface.

Seabed Temperature
This is the temperature at the bottom of the body of water.
Note:
Unless you use the Enter Temperature vs. Depth table (which applies to both the water depth and the depth from the
sea bed to the center of the frac depth), FracproPT assumes two linear temperature gradients: one between Surface
Water Temperature and Seabed Temperature and another between Seabed Temperature and Reservoir
Temperature at Frac Center Depth.

85

FracproPT 2007

Sea Current
This is the average sea current in knots. The current is assumed to be constant from the surface to bottom of the body of
water.
Note:
Risers typically limit the effects of currents.

Ocean-Wellbore Heat Transfer Coefficient Multiplier


The properties and configuration of the various tubulars, treatment fluids, and the surrounding water are used in
calculating the heat flow between the sea and the wellbore fluids. This Ocean-Wellbore Heat Transfer Coefficient
Multiplier simply multiplies the overall effects. Under most circumstances, increasing this multiplier speeds up the cooling
of fluid as it flows through the sea-surrounded wellbore.

Enter Temperature vs. Depth


For onshore wells, FracproPT normally assumes a linear temperature gradient between Surface Rock Temperature and
Reservoir Temperature at Frac Center Depth. For offshore wells, FracproPT assumes two linear temperature gradients:
one between Surface Water Temperature and Seabed Temperature and another between Seabed Temperature and
Reservoir Temperature at Frac Center Depth.
However, if you have other temperature versus depth information, either in the earth or the sea or both, you can enter that
data here to more accurately model wellbore heat transfer. FracproPT assumes a linear temperature profile between the
depths entered in the table. For example, you may opt to use this to incorporate how fluid will heat up in the wellbore the
presence of a shallow high-temperature steam flood zone.

Depth TVD
This is the true vertical depth to the point where you wish to specify a temperature.

Temperature
This is the temperature at the corresponding true vertical depth.

Other Options
Thermal Fluid Properties
Selecting this field takes you to the Fluid Loss and Thermal Properties tab of the Edit/View Interpolated Fluid Data
[SHIFT+F5] screen where those properties can be modified.

Thermal Rock Properties


Selecting this field takes you to the Thermal Rock Properties screen where those properties can be modified.

Reservoir Parameters - F9
Using Lithology-Based Reservoir Model

Multi-Layer Reservoir Leakoff Parameters


This screen is accessed only if you choose Multi-Layer as the Reservoir Type on the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9]
screen. In this case, the parameters on this screen are entered and displayed on a layer-by-layer basis. If you want these
parameters to be the same for all layers, you should choose Gas, Oil, or User Specified as the Reservoir Type.

86

FracproPT 2007

The Multi-Layer Reservoir Leakoff Parameters screen.


Depth
These entries correspond to the layer depths shown for the Pore Fluid Permeability and Leakoff Coefficient columns in the
Reservoir Layer Table on the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen. The numbers cannot be changed on this screen.
The layer where the fracture initiates (depending on the position of the perforated interval defined on the WELLBORE
CONFIGURATION [F7] screen) is highlighted in the table. If you have more than one perforated interval defined, you can
toggle between them by pressing [Ctrl+F] or by using the Next Interval toolbar button.
Kp/Kl
This is the ratio of formation pore-fluid permeability to formation leakoff-fluid permeability (usually water). Typical values
for this ratio are from 1.0 to 50. For oil reservoirs, values close to 1.0 are common. For gas reservoirs, values of order 10
or higher are common.
Pore Pressure
This parameter is commonly measured for other reasons (for example, reserve calculations) and is usually a well-known
parameter. A typical pore pressure gradient is about 0.43 psi/foot.
Average Frac Pressure
This parameter indicates the pressure inside the fracture soon after fracture initiation. A good estimate for this number is
typically about 500 psi higher than pay zone closure stress. This parameter has two functions:

To convert Permeability to Leak-Off Coefficient and vice versa as displayed on the Reservoir Parameters
[F9] screen.

As the initial fluid-loss driving pressure for the first simulator time step.

Note:
Once the fracture has initiated (for example, after the first time step), the actual pressure in the fracture is used to
drive fluid leakoff.
Compressibility
This is the compressibility (that is, the inverse of modulus) of the fluid in the pores. For oil reservoirs, compressibility can
be as low as 3e-6 1/psi. In gas reservoirs, the compressibility is the reciprocal of the pore pressure (for example, if the
pore pressure equals about 5000 psi, the compressibility would be about 0.0002 1/psi).
Pore Fluid Viscosity
This input refers to the mobile reservoir fluid. Typical values for a gas reservoir would be low, of order 0.01 to 0.1 cp, with
very little change with temperature. For an oil reservoir, typical values could be much higher, of order one to several
hundred cp, and significant changes with temperature would be expected.
Porosity

87

FracproPT 2007

This is the volume fraction of formation rock that is occupied by pores where oil or gas is stored. Typical values are
around 10% (entered as 0.10), but porosity may be as high as 60% (0.60) or as low as only a few percent.
Gas In Foam Leakoff Percentage
This parameter relates the quality of the leakoff fluid to the quality of the fluid in the fracture. For example, a Gas In Foam
Leakoff Percentage of 25 with 80-quality foam in the fracture means that the leakoff fluid is 20-quality (that is, 20 percent
gas, 80 percent liquid). This field is accessible only if you have foam inputs on the Treatment SCHEDULE [F6] screen.

Other Functions
Reservoir Depletion
Select this function to view the DEPLETION MENU screen where you can model the effects (on pore pressure, pore fluid
compressibility, and closure stress) of production from the reservoir. A message field adjacent to the Reservoir Depletion
selection indicates whether or not the depletion model is currently In Use or Not Used.
Set To Gas Defaults
Select this function to set the parameters on this screen to values that are estimated for a typical gas reservoir. You may
change individual numbers afterwards.
Set To Oil Defaults
Select this function to set the parameters on this screen to values that are estimated for a typical oil reservoir. You may
change individual numbers afterwards.
Set To User Defined
Select this function to set the parameters on this screen to the values entered on the Reservoir Leakoff Parameters
screen that was used when you last choose User Specified as the Reservoir Type. You may change individual numbers
afterwards.

Reservoir Depletion
This screen is where you can model the change in closure stress, pore pressure, and pore-fluid compressibility that has
resulted from production in a finite region around a wellbore. For example, in an oil reservoir produced from an acid
fracture such that the region around the fracture has a pore pressure below the bubble point (that is, resulting in a higher
pore-fluid compressibility) and a lower closure stress due to the lower pore pressure.
Note:
When modeling depletion effects, you should enter the current (that is, depleted) values for closure stress on the
RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen.

The Reservoir Depletion screen.


This is the distance out from the wellbore that you believe has been depleted (produced).
Original Pore Pressure

88

FracproPT 2007

This is the virgin pore pressure. The depleted, or current, pore pressure is entered on either the Reservoir Leakoff
Parameters screen and it is displayed below for reference.
Note:
FracproPT multiplies the change in pore pressure by 0.5 (which is a mid-range value for the so-called poro-elastic
coefficient) to determine the change in closure stress due to depletion. At a distance from the wellbore equal to the
Radius of Depletion, the closure stress entered on the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen (that is, the current
or depleted closure stress) is increased by the change in closure stress due to depletion and the pore pressure is
increased to this Original Pore Pressure.
Depleted Pore Pressure
This is the current (that is, depleted) pore pressure that is entered on the Reservoir Leakoff Parameters screen. This
number is displayed here for reference only.
Original Pore Fluid Compressibility
This is the virgin pore fluid compressibility. At a distance out from the wellbore equal to the Radius of Depletion, pore fluid
compressibility decreases to this Original Pore Fluid Compressibility.

Layer Display
This screen displays the lithology (that is, Rock Type) of the reservoir and a log-style view of the following properties:
stress, permeability, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and fracture toughness.

The Layer Display screen.

Reservoir Parameters - F9
Lithology-Based Reservoir Parameters Layers [F9]
This screen is accessible only if you select Lithology Based Reservoir and either 3D Tip-Dominated Model or 3D
Conventional Model on the FRACTURE SIMULATION OPTIONS [F4] screen. Here you specify all rock properties
according to lithology as defined by a single set of layer depths and the Rock Type in each layer.
Use this type of data entry if you do not know many properties about the reservoir, and if you want to set up a layered
profile quickly. Once you assigned the main properties of the lithologies that you are using and defining the depth of
individual layers, you are ready to start modeling.

89

FracproPT 2007

The Lithology-Based Reservoir Parameters screen.


Reservoir Data-Entry Options
Lithology Based
If you select Lithology Based Reservoir, all mechanical properties (for opening, etc.), all chemical properties (for
acidizing), and all thermal properties (for injection-fluid heating and reservoir cooling) will be input to the simulator based
on rock type and a single set of depths.
In general, this is the most convenient way to specify model inputs. Once you have constructed your Lithology Based
Reservoir, FracproPT can automatically convert it to a General Reservoir if necessary. Unfortunately, there is no way to
convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir without loosing some of this data. However, you should
rarely, if ever, want or need to convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir.
Use this type of data entry if you do not know many properties about the reservoir, and if you want to set up a layered
profile quickly. Once you assigned the main properties of the lithologies that you are using and defining the depth of
individual layers, you are ready to start modeling.
General Multi-Scale
If you select General Multi-Scale Reservoir, you will enter each of the mechanical properties (for example, stress,
modulus, etc.) with its own independent set of layer depths. Chemical properties (for acidizing) and thermal properties (for
injection-fluid heating and reservoir cooling) are input to the simulator based on rock type and a single set of depths.
FracproPT can automatically convert a Lithology Based Reservoir to a General Reservoir, if necessary. Unfortunately,
there is no way to convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir without loosing some of this data.
However, you should rarely, if ever, want or need to convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir.
Use this type of data entry if you can assign reservoir properties using various different log files and if you have no log
information on other parameters. Once you have assigned specific properties using the Log-Layer Editor, you need to
provide only a few entries for estimates of properties on which you do not have more specific data.
General Single Scale
If you select General Reservoir, you will enter each of the mechanical properties (for example, stress, modulus, etc.) with
its own independent set of layer depths. Chemical properties (for acidizing) and thermal properties (for injection-fluid
heating and reservoir cooling) are input to the simulator based on rock type and a single set of depths.
FracproPT can automatically convert a Lithology Based Reservoir to a General Reservoir, if necessary. Unfortunately,
there is no way to convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir without loosing some of this data.
However, you should rarely, if ever, want or need to convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir.
Use this type of data entry if you can assign all reservoir properties different log files. Once you have assigned specific
properties using the Log-Layer Editor, you are ready to use the model.
Reservoir Layer Table

90

FracproPT 2007

This is where you define the layers comprising the reservoir and surrounding strata by entering the depth to the top of
each layer. Up to 100 layers may be entered, but only 8 are shown at any time. Blank rows in the table may be added by
selecting a whole row and pressing [Ins], and lines may be deleted by selecting the whole row and pressing [Del].
You must define at least three layers and the fractures must initiate in the middle layers. If you do not, FracproPT will
display an error message and the simulator will not run. The layers where the fractures initiate (depending on the position
of the perforated interval defined on the WELLBORE CONFIGURATION [F7] screen) are highlighted yellow in the table.
If you have more than one perforated interval defined, you can cycle through them by pressing [CNTR+F] or selecting the
Next Interval toolbar button.
Depth TVD
If you select Enter TVD, enter the true vertical depth to the top of each layer in this column. If you select Enter MD, the
true vertical depth will be calculated and displayed in this column.
Depth MD
If you select Enter MD, enter the measured depth to the top of each layer in this column. If you select Enter TVD, the
measured depth will be calculated and displayed in this column.
Layer Thickness
This value represents the layer thickness in TVD. This value is not editable and calculated from the top of each layer in
the Depth TVD column.
Rock Type
Select a Rock Type from the drop-down list for each layer in this column.
Pore Fluid Permeability
If you select Enter Permeability, enter the Pore Fluid Permeability for each layer in this column. If you select Enter
Leakoff Coefficient, the permeability will be calculated and displayed in this column.
Leakoff Coefficient
If you select Enter Leakoff Coefficient, enter the (total) Leakoff Coefficient for each layer in this column. If you select
Enter Permeability, the leakoff coefficient will be calculated and displayed in this column.
Stress
Fracture closure in the middle of the layer that is calculated using the specified gradient under the Rock Properties tab.
Youngs Modulus
Youngs Modulus for the layer based on the assigned modulus for that lithology in the Rock Properties tab.
Poissons Ratio
Poissons Ratio for the layer based on the assigned Poissons ratio for that lithology in the Rock Properties tab.
Fracture Toughness
Fracture Toughness for the layer based on the assigned toughness for that lithology in the Rock Properties tab.
Composite Layering Effect
Composite layering effect for the layer based on the assigned composite layering effect for that lithology in the Rock
Properties tab.
Pay Zone
Use this check box to mark all zones that you consider pay zones. This is information is used by Fracture Design Mode
and also in the calculation of the Payzone Height Coverage Ratio and Payzone Fracture Area Ratio model channels.
In Production Analysis Mode, if you use the Import Frac Interval Properties function, Permeability on the
PRODUCTION ANALYSIS Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen is the average of all the permeabilities of all zones
marked as pay zones, not just the permeability of the zone containing the perforated interval. The average permeability is
calculated as sum of kh for all zones divided by the total height of all zones:
Average Permeability=kh/Total Height
Depth Entry Mode
Enter TVD
Select this option to enter the layer depths in the Reservoir Layer Table in terms of the true vertical depth (TVD). The
corresponding measured depth (MD) will be calculated and displayed in the adjacent column in the table.
Enter MD
Select this option to enter the layer depths in the Reservoir Layer Table in terms of the measured depth (MD). The
corresponding true vertical depth (TVD) will be calculated and displayed in the adjacent column in the table.
Fluid Loss Entry Mode

91

FracproPT 2007

You have the choice of entering either Permeability or (total) Leakoff Coefficient. Whichever one you choose to enter,
FracproPT uses a permeability-to-leakoff-coefficient relationship to calculate the other.
Enter Permeability
Select this option to enter the Pore-Fluid Permeability in the Set Lithology Permeability dialog for each Rock Type in the
Reservoir Layer Table. The corresponding (total) Leakoff Coefficient will be calculated and displayed in the adjacent
column in the table.
Enter Leakoff Coefficient
Select this option to enter the (total) Leakoff Coefficient in the Set Lithology Leakoff Coefficient dialog for each Rock Type
in the Reservoir Layer Table. The corresponding Pore-Fluid Permeability will be calculated and displayed in the adjacent
column in the table.
Set Lithology Permeability / Set Lithology Leakoff Coefficient
This option allows you to set the values for either Pore-Fluid Permeability or Leakoff Coefficient (depending on whether
you have chosen Enter Permeability or Enter Leakoff Coefficient above) for all the current reservoir layers specified with a
particular Rock Type. Selecting this function causes a dialog to appear where you select a Rock Type from a drop-down
list and then enter either the Pore-Fluid Permeability or Leakoff Coefficient for that Rock Type.
Otherwise, you may enter Pore-Fluid Permeability or Leakoff Coefficient on a layer-by-layer basis, regardless of Rock
Type.
Other Reservoir Properties
Reservoir Temperature
This is the reservoir temperature at the mid-perf depth. In addition to heat transfer calculations, this number is used to
select the correct rheology data from the Fluid Library.
Perforations
Total perforated height, whether entered by you here, or on the WELLBORE CONFIGURATION [F7] screen in the case
where you are not modeling the wellbore, has no effect on the perforation friction predicted by FracproPT. Perforation
friction is calculated based solely on the flow rate and the data entered on the PERF AND NEAR-WELLBORE FRICTION
[F8] screen.
Note:
The perforation and initial frac depths are always entered and/or display here in terms of true vertical depth (TVD).
Note:
If you have more than one perforated interval defined on the WELLBORE CONFIGURATION [F7] screen, you can
toggle through a display of each interval by pressing [Ctrl+F] or selecting the Next Interval toolbar button.
Note:
For large perforated intervals, you may elect to have the fracture initiate from a line source (details of which can be
found on the Growth Parameters tab of the FracproPT MODEL PARAMETERS screen).
Depth to Top of Perfs
If you choose Ignore Wellbore and Perforations on the FRACTURE SIMULATION OPTIONS [F4] screen, you must
enter a value for Depth to Top of Perfs here. If you choose Model Wellbore and Perforations on the FRACTURE
SIMULATION OPTIONS [F4] screen, Depth to Top of Perfs is taken from data entered on the WELLBORE
CONFIGURATION [F7] screen and displayed (uneditable) on this screen.
Depth to Bottom of Perfs
If you choose Ignore Wellbore and Perforations on the FRACTURE SIMULATION OPTIONS [F4] screen, you must
enter a value for Depth to Bottom of Perfs here. If you choose Model Wellbore and Perforations on the FRACTURE
SIMULATION OPTIONS [F4] screen, Depth to Bottom of Perfs is taken from data entered on the WELLBORE
CONFIGURATION [F7] screen and displayed (uneditable) on this screen.
Initial Frac Depth
FracproPT always calculates this value; it is approximately the center of the zone with lowest stress found within the
perforated interval. If you want to guarantee fracture initiation from a particular zone (regardless of the stress profile and
the true perforated interval), you can make the perforated interval small enough such that you control where the simulator
initiates the fracture.
Initial Frac Depth must fall within one of the inner Rock Type layers (that is, it cannot fall within either the top layer or the
bottom layer).
Other Functions
Layer Display
Select this function to view the INTEGRATED FRACTURE PICTURE with the Layer Properties Template.

92

FracproPT 2007

Logs/Layers Editor
If a standard Log ASCII (LAS) file is available, layers can be built automatically and properties can be assigned
automatically using the Logs/Layers Editor.

Reservoir Parameters Rock Properties [F9]


This screen is where you view and/or enter the mechanical properties for the various Rock Types.

The Rock Properties screen.


Rock Type
The mechanical properties are listed as a function of Rock Type. There are seven Rock Types defined in the System
Library of rocks whose names cannot be changed, but whose properties can be changed. You also have the capability to
add (many) new Rock Types to the User Library of rocks. However, a total of only 15 different Rock Types can be
displayed here and used in any particular fracture simulation.
Closure Stress Gradient
If you select Calculate Stress from Stress Gradient, enter a Closure Stress Gradient for each Rock Type in this column.
If you select Calculate Stress from A,B,C Model, you will be denied access to this column.
Stress Coefficient A
If you select Calculate Stress from A,B,C Model, enter the multiplier of overburden stress (gradient) as Stress
Coefficient A in this column. If you select Calculate Stress from Stress Gradient, you will be denied access to this
column.
Stress Coefficient B
If you select Calculate Stress from A,B,C Model, enter the multiplier of pore pressure (gradient) as Stress Coefficient B
in this column. If you select Calculate Stress from Stress Gradient, you will be denied access to this column.
Stress Coefficient C
If you select Calculate Stress from A,B,C Model, enter the tectonic stress (or correction) term as Stress Coefficient C in
this column. If you select Calculate Stress from Stress Gradient, you will be denied access to this field.
Young's Modulus
This is the Young's Modulus for each Rock Type. Be aware the Youngs Modulus from logs (that is, dynamically
measured) is typically 100% higher than Youngs Modulus measured from static stress-strain tests.
Poisson's Ratio
This is the Poisson's Ratio for each Rock Type. Any reasonable value of Poissons Ratio (for example, 0.25) is adequate.
Most methods of estimation are questionable.
Fracture Toughness

93

FracproPT 2007

This is the Fracture Toughness for each Rock Type. Reasonable values for Fracture Toughness will have a minimal effect
on all but relatively small fractures (for example, as in so-called micro-fracture stress tests).
Composite Layering Effect
On a per-layer basis, this number is multiplied by the default Tip Effects Coefficient, which is entered on the FracproPT
3D tab of the FracproPT MODEL Parameters [SHIFT+F3] screen. Generally, this number should be left at 1. However,
in order to specify the relative tip effects for any particular layers, thereby specifying the relative degree of fracture growth
into said layers, you may enter some number other than 1. For example, if you wanted a particular Rock Type to exhibit
higher composite layering effects characteristics, you would enter a number greater than 1.
Est Ht/Len Growth
This parameter provides an estimate for the ratio of fracture height growth versus fracture length growth if the composite
layering effect would be the main driving force for fracture growth. For example, if the Composite Layering effect is set to
10, the Est Ht/Len Growth shows that for every foot the fracture grows in length, it grows about 0.32 foot in height.

Set Composite Layering Effect from


These options will only be available if 3D User-Defined is selected as the Fracture Model to Use option on the Fracture
Analysis Options [F4] screen.
Lithology Type
Select this option to set the Composite Layering Effect as a function of Rock Type in the Mechanical Rock Properties
Table.
Payzone Flag
Select this option to set the Composite Layering Effect for all zones (no matter what the Rock Type) that are not
selected as Pay Zones on the Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen. The Composite Layering Effect for the Pay Zones
will automatically be set to 1.0, while the value for all non-Pay Zones is set below by the entry for Composite Layering
Effect Outside Payzone.
Composite Layering Effect Outside Payzone
If Payzone Flag is selected as the Set Composite Layering Effect from option (see description above), the value for
that effect is entered here. This value will overwrite all values entered in the Mechanical Rock Properties Table.

Calculate Stress from


A,B,C
Select this option to calculate closure stress gradient using FracproPTs ABC Stress Model.
Closure Stress Gradient
Select this option to calculate closure stress using the Closure Stress Gradient entered in the table.
Vertical Stress Gradient
This number is used by the ABC Stress Model to calculate stress, as well by the fracture model when simulating
horizontal fractures.
The following equation is used to model the acid-rock reaction rate, Qr, as a function of acid concentration, c:
Qr=krcm
where
kr=k0exp[-Ea/(RT)]

94

FracproPT 2007

The Chemical Rock Properties screen.


Calcite Fraction (% mass)
This is the mass percentage of calcite comprising the Rock Type.
Dolomite Fraction (% mass)
This is the mass percentage of dolomite comprising the Rock Type.
Reference Temperature
This is the reference temperature of the reaction rate parameters entered for the Rock Type).
Reaction Rate Constant
This is the reaction rate constant for the Rock Type (kr in the equation above).
Reaction Order
This is the reaction rate order for the Rock Type (m in the equation above).
Activation Energy
This is the activation energy for the Rock Type (Ea in the equation above).
Rock Embedment Strength
This Rock Type property is used in the calculation of fracture conductivity after acidizing. The default values are based on
the work of Nierode and Kruk.
Other Functions
Reset Rock Chemical Properties
Select this function to overwrite any changes that you may have made in the chemical properties of the System Library
of Rock Types. Properties for any User Library Rock Types are not modified.

95

FracproPT 2007

The Thermal Rock Properties screen.


Specific Gravity
This is the specific gravity for the Rock Type.
Specific Heat
This is the specific heat for the Rock Type.
Thermal Conductivity
This is the thermal conductivity for the Rock Type.

Reservoir Parameters Additional Properties [F9]

96

FracproPT 2007

The Reservoir Leakoff Parameters screen.


Reservoir Type
Select the Reservoir Type from one of the radio buttons. The choices are Single Layer or Multi Layer.
Single Layer
For Single Layer, the parameters entered and displayed on this screen apply to all the layers defined on the
RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen.
If you want to enter different parameters for each layer, for example if you have significant differences in reservoir
pressure, porosity or compressibility in various payzones, you should choose Multi-Layer as the Reservoir Type.
Note:
In most situations, choosing either Gas or Oil (depending on your reservoir) yields acceptable results.
Multi Layer
Choosing Multi-Layer allows you to set those same Reservoir Leakoff Parameters to whatever values you choose, but
now they can be set differently to each layer in the Reservoir Layer Table. As you might expect, the Reservoir LEAKOFF
PARAMETERS screen will appear somewhat different in this case.
HC Type
The type of hydrocarbons is specified here.
Gas Well
The well is used primarily to produce gas.
Oil Well
The well is used primarily to produce oil.
Leakoff Fluid Permeability Ratio, Kp/Kl
This is the ratio of formation pore-fluid permeability to formation leakoff-fluid permeability (usually water). Typical values
for this ratio are from 1.0 to 50. For oil reservoirs, values close to 1.0 are common. For gas reservoirs, values of order 10
or higher are common.
Reservoir Pore Pressure
This parameter is commonly measured for other reasons (for example, reserve calculations) and is usually a well-known
parameter. A typical pore pressure gradient is about 0.43 psi/foot.
Average Pressure In Fracture
This parameter indicates the pressure inside the fracture soon after fracture initiation. A good estimate for this number is
typically about 500 psi higher than pay zone closure stress. This parameter has two functions:

To convert Permeability to Leak-Off Coefficient and vice versa as displayed on the RESERVOIR
PARAMETERS [F9] screen, Layers tab.

As the initial fluid-loss driving pressure for the first simulator time step.

Note:
Once the fracture has initiated (for example, after the first time step), the actual pressure in the fracture is used to
drive fluid leakoff and calculate the actual leakoff coefficient.
Pore Fluid Compressibility
This is the compressibility (that is, the inverse of modulus) of the fluid in the pores. For oil reservoirs, compressibility can
be as low as 3e-6 1/psi. In gas reservoirs, the compressibility is the generally the reciprocal of the pore pressure (for
example, if the pore pressure is about 5000 psi, the compressibility would be about 0.0002 1/psi).
Pore Fluid Viscosity
This input refers to the mobile reservoir fluid. Typical values for a gas reservoir would be low, of order 0.01 to 0.1 cp, with
very little change with temperature. For an oil reservoir, typical values could be much higher, of order one to several
hundred cp, and significant changes with temperature would be expected.
Porosity
This is the volume fraction of formation rock that is occupied by pores where oil or gas is stored. Typical values are
around 10% (entered as 0.10), but porosity may be as high as 60% (0.60) or as low as only a few percent.
Gas In Foam Leakoff Percentage

97

FracproPT 2007

This parameter relates the quality of the leakoff fluid to the quality of the fluid in the fracture. For example, a Gas In Foam
Leakoff Percentage of 25 with 80-quality foam in the fracture means that the leakoff fluid is 20-quality (that is, 20 percent
gas, 80 percent liquid). This field is accessible only if you have foam inputs on the Treatment SCHEDULE [F6] screen.
Set to Gas Defaults and Set to Oil Defaults
If you choose the buttons to Set to Gas Defaults or Set to Oil Defaults, the parameters on this screen are overwritten by
FracproPT. However, you can always set these parameters yourself after that by editing them individually.
Choosing Set to Gas Defaults or Set to Oil Defaults automatically sets a number of Reservoir Leakoff Parameters to
default values for "typical" reservoirs (that is, normally pressured, etc.). These parameters apply to all layers in the
Reservoir Layer Table.
Reservoir Depletion
Select this function to view the DEPLETION MENU screen where you can model the effects (on pore pressure, pore fluid
compressibility, and closure stress) of production from the reservoir. A message field adjacent to the Reservoir Depletion
selection indicates whether or not the depletion model is currently In Use or Not Used.
Drainage Area
The drainage area in terms of its extent and the well spacing is specified here.
X-Direction Extent
This parameter is the extent of the drainage area along the length of the fracture (that is, the x direction).
Y-Direction Extent
This parameter is the extent of the drainage area along the width of the fracture (that is, the y direction).
Well Spacing
This parameter is used to calculate a pseudo-steady state PI ratio in the Fracture Design module and is linked to the
Reservoir Extent in the Production Analysis module.
Fracture Azimuth
This parameter describes the fracture orientation with respect to north, with the positive direction defined to be clockwise
(for example, 45 degrees corresponds to the NE-to-SW direction). This parameter is used only for display purposes by the
Wellbore Viewer and does not affect model results.
Suggest Viscosity and Compressibility
Pressing this button will set Pore Fluid Viscosity and Pore Fluid Compressibility (described above) to suggested values.

Reservoir Parameters - Rock Library [F9]


This screen is used to maintain a database (library) of Rock Types with particular mechanical, chemical, and thermal
properties. There are several pre-defined rock-types included with FracproPT in the System Library, but these can be
edited, deleted, or renamed, as the user requires.

98

FracproPT 2007

The Rock Library screen.


Add New Rock Type to List
This function opens the Select Rock Type dialog that allows you to select Rock Types from either the System Library or
User Library. This function will only be allowed if there is room in the list for a new Rock Type (a maximum of 15 are
available at any time).
Remove Rock Type from List
You can select a Rock Type from the list and then select this function to remove it from the list permanently. You will not
be able to use this function if the Rock Type you are attempting to delete is currently in use by FracproPT (you must
remove the rock type from all modes in order to be able to delete it).
Create User Defined Rock Type
This function takes you to the Mechanical ROCK PROPERTIES screen where you can enter a new Rock Type and its
properties. After entering data there, you should also go to the CHEMICAL ROCK PROPERTIES screen and the
THERMAL ROCK PROPERTIES screen to enter those properties if they are needed.
Save Rock Type to User Library
Once you have entered all the mechanical, chemical, and thermal properties of the new Rock Type, you can save it to the
User Library by selecting this function.
Delete Rock Type from User Library
Select a Rock Type from the list and use this function to delete it from the User Library.
Using General Reservoir Model

Multi-Layer Reservoir Leakoff Parameters


This screen is accessed only if you choose Multi-Layer as the Reservoir Type on the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9]
screen. In this case, the parameters on this screen are entered and displayed on a layer-by-layer basis. If you want these
parameters to be the same for all layers, you should choose Gas, Oil, or User Specified as the Reservoir Type.

99

FracproPT 2007

The Multi-Layer Reservoir Leakoff Parameters screen.


Depth
These entries correspond to the layer depths shown for the Pore Fluid Permeability and Leakoff Coefficient columns in the
Reservoir Layer Table on the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen. The numbers cannot be changed on this screen.
The layer where the fracture initiates (depending on the position of the perforated interval defined on the WELLBORE
CONFIGURATION [F7] screen) is highlighted in the table. If you have more than one perforated interval defined, you can
toggle between them by pressing [Ctrl+F] or by using the Next Interval toolbar button.
Kp/Kl
This is the ratio of formation pore-fluid permeability to formation leakoff-fluid permeability (usually water). Typical values
for this ratio are from 1.0 to 50. For oil reservoirs, values close to 1.0 are common. For gas reservoirs, values of order 10
or higher are common.
Pore Pressure
This parameter is commonly measured for other reasons (for example, reserve calculations) and is usually a well-known
parameter. A typical pore pressure gradient is about 0.43 psi/foot.
Average Frac Pressure
This parameter indicates the pressure inside the fracture soon after fracture initiation. A good estimate for this number is
typically about 500 psi higher than pay zone closure stress. This parameter has two functions:

To convert Permeability to Leak-Off Coefficient and vice versa as displayed on the Reservoir Parameters
[F9] screen.

As the initial fluid-loss driving pressure for the first simulator time step.

Note:
Once the fracture has initiated (for example, after the first time step), the actual pressure in the fracture is used to
drive fluid leakoff.
Compressibility
This is the compressibility (that is, the inverse of modulus) of the fluid in the pores. For oil reservoirs, compressibility can
be as low as 3e-6 1/psi. In gas reservoirs, the compressibility is the reciprocal of the pore pressure (for example, if the
pore pressure equals about 5000 psi, the compressibility would be about 0.0002 1/psi).
Pore Fluid Viscosity
This input refers to the mobile reservoir fluid. Typical values for a gas reservoir would be low, of order 0.01 to 0.1 cp, with
very little change with temperature. For an oil reservoir, typical values could be much higher, of order one to several
hundred cp, and significant changes with temperature would be expected.
Porosity

100

FracproPT 2007

This is the volume fraction of formation rock that is occupied by pores where oil or gas is stored. Typical values are
around 10% (entered as 0.10), but porosity may be as high as 60% (0.60) or as low as only a few percent.
Gas In Foam Leakoff Percentage
This parameter relates the quality of the leakoff fluid to the quality of the fluid in the fracture. For example, a Gas In Foam
Leakoff Percentage of 25 with 80-quality foam in the fracture means that the leakoff fluid is 20-quality (that is, 20 percent
gas, 80 percent liquid). This field is accessible only if you have foam inputs on the Treatment SCHEDULE [F6] screen.

Other Functions
Reservoir Depletion
Select this function to view the DEPLETION MENU screen where you can model the effects (on pore pressure, pore fluid
compressibility, and closure stress) of production from the reservoir. A message field adjacent to the Reservoir Depletion
selection indicates whether or not the depletion model is currently In Use or Not Used.
Set To Gas Defaults
Select this function to set the parameters on this screen to values that are estimated for a typical gas reservoir. You may
change individual numbers afterwards.
Set To Oil Defaults
Select this function to set the parameters on this screen to values that are estimated for a typical oil reservoir. You may
change individual numbers afterwards.
Set To User Defined
Select this function to set the parameters on this screen to the values entered on the Reservoir Leakoff Parameters
screen that was used when you last choose User Specified as the Reservoir Type. You may change individual numbers
afterwards.

Reservoir Depletion
This screen is where you can model the change in closure stress, pore pressure, and pore-fluid compressibility that has
resulted from production in a finite region around a wellbore. For example, in an oil reservoir produced from an acid
fracture such that the region around the fracture has a pore pressure below the bubble point (that is, resulting in a higher
pore-fluid compressibility) and a lower closure stress due to the lower pore pressure.
Note:
When modeling depletion effects, you should enter the current (that is, depleted) values for closure stress on the
RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen.

The Reservoir Depletion screen.


This is the distance out from the wellbore that you believe has been depleted (produced).
Original Pore Pressure

101

FracproPT 2007

This is the virgin pore pressure. The depleted, or current, pore pressure is entered on either the Reservoir Leakoff
Parameters screen and it is displayed below for reference.
Note:
FracproPT multiplies the change in pore pressure by 0.5 (which is a mid-range value for the so-called poro-elastic
coefficient) to determine the change in closure stress due to depletion. At a distance from the wellbore equal to the
Radius of Depletion, the closure stress entered on the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen (that is, the current
or depleted closure stress) is increased by the change in closure stress due to depletion and the pore pressure is
increased to this Original Pore Pressure.
Depleted Pore Pressure
This is the current (that is, depleted) pore pressure that is entered on the Reservoir Leakoff Parameters screen. This
number is displayed here for reference only.
Original Pore Fluid Compressibility
This is the virgin pore fluid compressibility. At a distance out from the wellbore equal to the Radius of Depletion, pore fluid
compressibility decreases to this Original Pore Fluid Compressibility.

Layer Display
This screen displays the lithology (that is, Rock Type) of the reservoir and a log-style view of the following properties:
stress, permeability, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and fracture toughness.

The Layer Display screen.

Reservoir Parameters - F9
General Reservoir Parameters - Layers [F9]
This screen is accessible only if you select General Multi-Scale Reservoir or General Single Scale Reservoir and
when selecting one of the 3D Models on the FRACTURE SIMULATION OPTIONS [F4] screen.
Use General Multi-Scale Reservoir from the FRACTURE SIMULATION OPTIONS [F4] screen if you can assign
reservoir properties using various different log files and if you have no log information on other parameters. Once you
have assigned specific properties using the Logs/Layers Editor, you need to provide only a few entries for estimates of
properties on which you do not have more specific data.
Use General Single Scale Reservoir from the FRACTURE SIMULATION OPTIONS [F4] screen if you can assign all
reservoir properties different log files. Once you have assigned specific properties using the Logs/Layers Editor, you are
ready to use the model.
This is where you define the layers and their various properties that comprise the reservoir and surrounding strata by
entering the depth to the top of each layer. Up to 100 layers may be entered, but only 14 are shown at any time. Blank
rows in the table may be added by right-clicking and selecting Insert Row, and rows may be deleted by right-clicking and
selecting Delete Row or by pressing [Del].

102

FracproPT 2007

You must define at least three layers in each of the data tables described below and the fracture must initiate in a middle
layer. The layers where the fractures initiate (depending on the position of the perforated interval defined on the
WELLBORE CONFIGURATION [F7] screen) are highlighted yellow in the table. If you have more than one perforated
interval defined, you can cycle through them by pressing [CNTR+F] or selecting the Next Interval toolbar button.
Note:
The actual depths you enter and the numbers of layers you define do not have to be identical in each of the data
tables.

The General Multi-Scale Reservoir Parameters screen.

The General Single Scale Reservoir Parameters screen.


Reservoir Data-Entry Options
Lithology Based

103

FracproPT 2007

If you select Lithology Based Reservoir, all mechanical properties (for opening, etc.), all chemical properties (for
acidizing), and all thermal properties (for injection-fluid heating and reservoir cooling) will be input to the simulator based
on rock type and a single set of depths.
In general, this is the most convenient way to specify model inputs. Once you have constructed your Lithology Based
Reservoir, FracproPT can automatically convert it to a General Reservoir if necessary. Unfortunately, there is no way to
convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir without loosing some of this data. However, you should
rarely, if ever, want or need to convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir.
Use this type of data entry if you do not know many properties about the reservoir, and if you want to set up a layered
profile quickly. Once you assigned the main properties of the lithologies that you are using and defining the depth of
individual layers, you are ready to start modeling.
General Multi-Scale
If you select General Multi-Scale Reservoir, you will enter each of the mechanical properties (for example, stress,
modulus, etc.) with its own independent set of layer depths. Chemical properties (for acidizing) and thermal properties (for
injection-fluid heating and reservoir cooling) are input to the simulator based on rock type and a single set of depths.
FracproPT can automatically convert a Lithology Based Reservoir to a General Reservoir, if necessary. Unfortunately,
there is no way to convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir without loosing some of this data.
However, you should rarely, if ever, want or need to convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir.
Use this type of data entry if you can assign reservoir properties using various different log files and if you have no log
information on other parameters. Once you have assigned specific properties using the Log-Layer Editor, you need to
provide only a few entries for estimates of properties on which you do not have more specific data.
General Single Scale
If you select General Reservoir, you will enter each of the mechanical properties (for example, stress, modulus, etc.) with
its own independent set of layer depths. Chemical properties (for acidizing) and thermal properties (for injection-fluid
heating and reservoir cooling) are input to the simulator based on rock type and a single set of depths.
FracproPT can automatically convert a Lithology Based Reservoir to a General Reservoir, if necessary. Unfortunately,
there is no way to convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir without loosing some of this data.
However, you should rarely, if ever, want or need to convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir.
Use this type of data entry if you can assign all reservoir properties different log files. Once you have assigned specific
properties using the Log-Layer Editor, you are ready to use the model.
Reservoir Rock Type Table
Depth TVD / Depth MD
Depending on your selection in the Depth Entry Mode options, you enter either Depth TVD (true vertical depth) or Depth
MD (measured depth) to the top of each layer in this column.
Layer Thickness
This value represents the layer thickness in TVD. This value is not editable and calculated from the top of each layer in
the Depth TVD column.
Rock Type
Enter the rock type or lithology name in each layer in this column.
Reservoir Stress Table
Depth TVD / Depth MD
Depending on your selection in the Depth Entry Mode options, you enter either Depth TVD (true vertical depth) or Depth
MD (measured depth) to the top of each layer in this column.
Stress
Enter the closure stress in each layer in this column.
Reservoir Elastic Properties Table
Depth TVD / Depth MD
Depending on your selection in the Depth Entry Mode options, you enter either Depth TVD (true vertical depth) or Depth
MD (measured depth) to the top of each layer in this column.
Youngs Modulus
Enter the Young's Modulus in each layer in this column.
Poissons Ratio
Enter the Poisson's Ratio in each layer in this column.
Fracture Toughness

104

FracproPT 2007

Fracture toughness for the layer based on the assigned toughness for that lithology in the Rock Properties tab.
Composite Layering Effect
Composite layering effect for the layer based on the assigned composite layering effect for that lithology in the Rock
Properties tab.
On a per-layer basis, this number is multiplied by the default Tip Effects Coefficient, which is entered on the FracproPT
3D tab of the FracproPT MODEL Parameters [SHIFT+F3] screen. Generally, this number should be left at 1. However,
in order to specify the relative tip effects for any particular layers, thereby specifying the relative degree of fracture growth
into said layers, you may enter some number other than 1. For example, if you wanted a particular Rock Type to exhibit
higher composite layering effects characteristics, you would enter a number greater than 1.
Additional Information: Composite Layering Effects
Est Ht/Len Growth
This parameter provides an estimate for the ratio of fracture height growth versus fracture length growth if the composite
layering effect would be the main driving force for fracture growth. For example, if the Composite Layering effect is set to
10, the Est Ht/Len Growth shows that for every foot the fracture grows in length, it grows about 0.32 foot in height.
Reservoir Fluid Loss Table
Depth TVD / Depth MD
Depending on your selection in the Depth Entry Mode options, you enter either Depth TVD (true vertical depth) or Depth
MD (measured depth) to the top of each layer in this column.
Pore Fluid Permeability
If you select Enter Permeability in the Fluid Loss Entry Mode options, enter the Pore Fluid Permeability for each layer
in this column. If you select Enter Leakoff Coefficient, the permeability will be calculated and displayed in this column.
Leakoff Coefficient
If you select Enter Leakoff Coefficient in the Fluid Loss Entry Mode options, enter the (total) Leakoff Coefficient for
each layer in this column. If you select Enter Permeability, the leakoff coefficient will be calculated and displayed in this
column.
Pay Zone
Use this check box to mark all zones that you consider pay zones. This is information is used by Fracture Design Mode
and also in the calculation of the Payzone Height Coverage Ratio and Payzone Fracture Area Ratio model channels.
In Production Analysis Mode, if you use the Import Frac Interval Properties function, Permeability on the
PRODUCTION ANALYSIS Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen is the average of all the permeabilities of all zones
marked as pay zones, not just the permeability of the zone containing the perforated interval. The average permeability is
calculated as sum of kh for all zones divided by the total height of all zones:
Average Permeability=kh/Total Height
Depth Entry Mode
Enter TVD
Select this option to enter the layer depths in the Reservoir Tables in terms of the true vertical depth (TVD).
Enter MD
Select this option to enter the layer depths in the Reservoir Tables in terms of the measured depth (MD).
Fluid Loss Entry Mode
You have the choice of entering either Pore Fluid Permeability or (total) Leakoff Coefficient. Whichever one you choose to
enter, FracproPT uses a permeability-to-leakoff-coefficient relationship to calculate the other.
Enter Permeability
Select this option to enter the Pore-Fluid Permeability for each Rock Type in the Reservoir Layer Table. The
corresponding (total) Leakoff Coefficient will be calculated and displayed in the adjacent column in the table.
Enter Leakoff Coefficient
Select this option to enter the (total) Leakoff Coefficient for each Rock Type in the Reservoir Layer Table. The
corresponding Pore-Fluid Permeability will be calculated and displayed in the adjacent column in the table.
Perforations
Total perforated height, whether entered by you here, or on the WELLBORE CONFIGURATION [F7] screen in the case
where you are not modeling the wellbore, has no effect on the perforation friction predicted by FracproPT. Perforation
friction is calculated based solely on the flow rate and the data entered on the PERF AND NEAR-WELLBORE FRICTION
[F8] screen.
Note:

105

FracproPT 2007

The perforation and initial frac depths are always entered and/or display here in terms of true vertical depth (TVD).
Note:
If you have more than one perforated interval defined on the WELLBORE CONFIGURATION [F7] screen, you can
toggle through a display of each interval by pressing [Ctrl+F] or selecting the Next Interval toolbar button.
Note:
For large perforated intervals, you may elect to have the fracture initiate from a line source (details of which can be
found on the Growth Parameters tab of the FracproPT MODEL PARAMETERS screen).
Depth to Top of Perfs
If you choose Ignore Wellbore and Perforations on the FRACTURE SIMULATION OPTIONS [F4] screen, you must
enter a value for Depth to Top of Perfs here. If you choose Model Wellbore and Perforations on the FRACTURE
SIMULATION OPTIONS [F4] screen, Depth to Top of Perfs is taken from data entered on the WELLBORE
CONFIGURATION [F7] screen and displayed (uneditable) on this screen.
Depth to Bottom of Perfs
If you choose Ignore Wellbore and Perforations on the FRACTURE SIMULATION OPTIONS [F4] screen, you must
enter a value for Depth to Bottom of Perfs here. If you choose Model Wellbore and Perforations on the FRACTURE
SIMULATION OPTIONS [F4] screen, Depth to Bottom of Perfs is taken from data entered on the WELLBORE
CONFIGURATION [F7] screen and displayed (uneditable) on this screen.
Initial Frac Depth
FracproPT always calculates this value; it is approximately the center of the zone with lowest stress found within the
perforated interval. If you want to guarantee fracture initiation from a particular zone (regardless of the stress profile and
the true perforated interval), you can make the perforated interval small enough such that you control where the simulator
initiates the fracture.
Initial Frac Depth must fall within one of the inner Rock Type layers (that is, it cannot fall within either the top layer or the
bottom layer).
This screen is where you modify the composite layering effects on various layers of rock. This screen is available only if
you choose General Reservoir in the Reservoir Options on the FRACTURE Analysis OPTIONS [F4] screen.
Define the layers and their various properties that comprise the reservoir and surrounding strata by entering the depth to
the top of each layer. Up to 100 layers may be entered, but only 14 are shown at any time. Blank rows in the table may be
added by selecting a whole row and pressing [Ins], and rows may be deleted by selecting the whole row and pressing
[Del].
The layer where the fracture initiates (depending on the position of the perforated interval defined on the WELLBORE
CONFIGURATION [F7] screen) is highlighted yellow in the table. If you have more than one perforated interval defined,
you can cycle through them by pressing [Ctrl+F] or selecting the Next Interval toolbar button.
Note:
The actual depths you enter and the numbers of layers you define here do not have to coincide with the depths and
layers you enter in any other Reservoir Property Table.
Set Composite Layering Effect from
These options will only be available if 3D User-Defined is selected as the Fracture Model to Use option on the Fracture
Analysis Options [F4] screen.
Table Entry
Select this option to set the Composite Layering Effect in the Mechanical Rock Properties Table.
Payzone Flag
Select this option to set the Composite Layering Effect for all zones (no matter what the Rock Type) that are not
selected as Pay Zones on the Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen. The Composite Layering Effect for the Pay Zones
will automatically be set to 1.0, while the value for all non-Pay Zones is set below by the entry for Composite Layering
Effect Outside Payzone.
Composite Layering Effect Outside Payzone
If Payzone Flag is selected as the Set Composite Layering Effect from option (see description above), the value for
that effect is entered here. This value will overwrite all values entered in the Mechanical Rock Properties Table.
Additional Information: Composite Layering Effects
Other Functions
Layer Display
Select this function to view the INTEGRATED FRACTURE PICTURE with the Layer Properties Template.
Logs/Layers Editor

106

FracproPT 2007

If a standard Log ASCII (LAS) file is available, layers can be built automatically and properties can be assigned
automatically using the Logs/Layers Editor.

Reservoir Parameters - Rock Library [F9]


This screen is used to maintain a database (library) of Rock Types with particular mechanical, chemical, and thermal
properties. There are several pre-defined rock-types included with FracproPT in the System Library, but these can be
edited, deleted, or renamed, as the user requires.

The Rock Library screen.


Add New Rock Type to List
This function opens the Select Rock Type dialog that allows you to select Rock Types from either the System Library or
User Library. This function will only be allowed if there is room in the list for a new Rock Type (a maximum of 15 are
available at any time).
Remove Rock Type from List
You can select a Rock Type from the list and then select this function to remove it from the list permanently. You will not
be able to use this function if the Rock Type you are attempting to delete is currently in use by FracproPT (you must
remove the rock type from all modes in order to be able to delete it).
Create User Defined Rock Type
This function takes you to the Mechanical ROCK PROPERTIES screen where you can enter a new Rock Type and its
properties. After entering data there, you should also go to the CHEMICAL ROCK PROPERTIES screen and the
THERMAL ROCK PROPERTIES screen to enter those properties if they are needed.
Save Rock Type to User Library
Once you have entered all the mechanical, chemical, and thermal properties of the new Rock Type, you can save it to the
User Library by selecting this function.
Delete Rock Type from User Library
Select a Rock Type from the list and use this function to delete it from the User Library.

Reservoir Parameters Additional Properties [F9]

107

FracproPT 2007

The Reservoir Leakoff Parameters screen.


Reservoir Type
Select the Reservoir Type from one of the radio buttons. The choices are Single Layer or Multi Layer.
Single Layer
For Single Layer, the parameters entered and displayed on this screen apply to all the layers defined on the
RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen.
If you want to enter different parameters for each layer, for example if you have significant differences in reservoir
pressure, porosity or compressibility in various payzones, you should choose Multi-Layer as the Reservoir Type.
Note:
In most situations, choosing either Gas or Oil (depending on your reservoir) yields acceptable results.
Multi Layer
Choosing Multi-Layer allows you to set those same Reservoir Leakoff Parameters to whatever values you choose, but
now they can be set differently to each layer in the Reservoir Layer Table. As you might expect, the Reservoir LEAKOFF
PARAMETERS screen will appear somewhat different in this case.
HC Type
The type of hydrocarbons is specified here.
Gas Well
The well is used primarily to produce gas.
Oil Well
The well is used primarily to produce oil.
Leakoff Fluid Permeability Ratio, Kp/Kl
This is the ratio of formation pore-fluid permeability to formation leakoff-fluid permeability (usually water). Typical values
for this ratio are from 1.0 to 50. For oil reservoirs, values close to 1.0 are common. For gas reservoirs, values of order 10
or higher are common.
Reservoir Pore Pressure
This parameter is commonly measured for other reasons (for example, reserve calculations) and is usually a well-known
parameter. A typical pore pressure gradient is about 0.43 psi/foot.
Average Pressure In Fracture

108

FracproPT 2007

This parameter indicates the pressure inside the fracture soon after fracture initiation. A good estimate for this number is
typically about 500 psi higher than pay zone closure stress. This parameter has two functions:

To convert Permeability to Leak-Off Coefficient and vice versa as displayed on the RESERVOIR
PARAMETERS [F9] screen, Layers tab.

As the initial fluid-loss driving pressure for the first simulator time step.

Note:
Once the fracture has initiated (for example, after the first time step), the actual pressure in the fracture is used to
drive fluid leakoff and calculate the actual leakoff coefficient.
Pore Fluid Compressibility
This is the compressibility (that is, the inverse of modulus) of the fluid in the pores. For oil reservoirs, compressibility can
be as low as 3e-6 1/psi. In gas reservoirs, the compressibility is the generally the reciprocal of the pore pressure (for
example, if the pore pressure is about 5000 psi, the compressibility would be about 0.0002 1/psi).
Pore Fluid Viscosity
This input refers to the mobile reservoir fluid. Typical values for a gas reservoir would be low, of order 0.01 to 0.1 cp, with
very little change with temperature. For an oil reservoir, typical values could be much higher, of order one to several
hundred cp, and significant changes with temperature would be expected.
Porosity
This is the volume fraction of formation rock that is occupied by pores where oil or gas is stored. Typical values are
around 10% (entered as 0.10), but porosity may be as high as 60% (0.60) or as low as only a few percent.
Gas In Foam Leakoff Percentage
This parameter relates the quality of the leakoff fluid to the quality of the fluid in the fracture. For example, a Gas In Foam
Leakoff Percentage of 25 with 80-quality foam in the fracture means that the leakoff fluid is 20-quality (that is, 20 percent
gas, 80 percent liquid). This field is accessible only if you have foam inputs on the Treatment SCHEDULE [F6] screen.
Set to Gas Defaults and Set to Oil Defaults
If you choose the buttons to Set to Gas Defaults or Set to Oil Defaults, the parameters on this screen are overwritten by
FracproPT. However, you can always set these parameters yourself after that by editing them individually.
Choosing Set to Gas Defaults or Set to Oil Defaults automatically sets a number of Reservoir Leakoff Parameters to
default values for "typical" reservoirs (that is, normally pressured, etc.). These parameters apply to all layers in the
Reservoir Layer Table.
Reservoir Depletion
Select this function to view the DEPLETION MENU screen where you can model the effects (on pore pressure, pore fluid
compressibility, and closure stress) of production from the reservoir. A message field adjacent to the Reservoir Depletion
selection indicates whether or not the depletion model is currently In Use or Not Used.
Drainage Area
The drainage area in terms of its extent and the well spacing is specified here.
X-Direction Extent
This parameter is the extent of the drainage area along the length of the fracture (that is, the x direction).
Y-Direction Extent
This parameter is the extent of the drainage area along the width of the fracture (that is, the y direction).
Well Spacing
This parameter is used to calculate a pseudo-steady state PI ratio in the Fracture Design module and is linked to the
Reservoir Extent in the Production Analysis module.
Fracture Azimuth
This parameter describes the fracture orientation with respect to north, with the positive direction defined to be clockwise
(for example, 45 degrees corresponds to the NE-to-SW direction). This parameter is used only for display purposes by the
Wellbore Viewer and does not affect model results.
Suggest Viscosity and Compressibility
Pressing this button will set Pore Fluid Viscosity and Pore Fluid Compressibility (described above) to suggested values.

109

FracproPT 2007

Stress Perturbation
This screen is for proprietary use only. The purpose of this screen is to calculate the increase in closure stress in each
FracproPT Layer as caused by the presence of previously created fractures that have closed on proppant.

The Stress Perturbation screen.


Fracturing pressures have been observed to increase with subsequent fracture stages in horizontal wells, because
previous propped fractures that are closed on proppant change the state of stress in the reservoir. This change has an
impact on the fracture design for subsequent fracture treatments. For example, the stress increase in a pay zone due to
the presence of a propped fracture created in a previous stage could cause the new fracture to grow preferentially outside
the pay zone if the new fracture is placed close to the previous one. This can have a huge impact on the wells production
performance.
Pinnacle Technologies has implemented existing algorithms and equations to calculate the change in closure stress
profile along a well due to the presence of nearby hydraulic fractures that have been pumped in previous fracture
treatments. The existing algorithms and equations are explained in detail by Sneddon [1946a], Sneddon [1946b], Uhri
[1987] and Warpinski et al. [1988].
STRESS PERTURBATION TABLE
This lists all layer depths and rocktypes as defined in the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] Layers tab.

Stress
The minimum principle stress (or fracture closure stress) for each layer.

Perturbation
The Stress Perturbation column displays the increase or decrease in fracture closure stress at the location of the current
fracture due to the presence of fractures defined in the Import Fractures box.

Stress + Perturbation
Sum of the two values above.

IMPORT FRACTURES
Identifier

110

FracproPT 2007

Represents the name of the RFR file that contains the fracture geometry information. An RFR file is automatically created
for every FracproPT INP file once you Run the Fracture Analysis model. The RFR file contains the fracture dimensions,
the center depth of the fracture, and the net fracturing pressure as the fracture closes on proppant.

Fracture Center
X represents the coordinate along an East-West axis (with East being positive) of the center of the previously created
fracture. Y represents the coordinate along an North-South axis (with North being positive) of the center of the previously
created fracture. Both coordinates have to be entered in this screen. The Z coordinate represents the center depth (TVD)
of the fracture and originates from the RFR file.

Fracture Geometry
Lf represents the fracture half-length, and Hf represents the total fracture height. Pnet represents the net pressure in the
fracture at the time when the fracture closes on proppant. All these parameters originate from the RFR file.

STRESS IN PAY
Minimum Stress
The Minimum Stress equals the closure stress in the fracture initiation layer, which is represented in bright yellow in the
Stress Perturbation Table.

Intermediate Stress
The Intermediate Stress equals the intermediate (horizontal stress). Right now, this is not used for any calculation, but is
only displayed for comparison with the Stress+Perturbation in the Stress Perturbation Table.

Vertical Stress
Right now, this is not used for any calculation, but is only displayed for comparison with the Stress+Perturbation in the
Stress Perturbation Table.

Fracture Azimuth
We assume that all fractures (current and previously created and loaded in the Import Fractures table) have the same
Fracture Azimuth. Azimuth is defined from the North, with azimuths East of North as positive and West of North
negative.

STRESS ON LAYERS TAB


Stress
Displays Stress column in the Stress Perturbation Table as the Stress column in the Layers tab of the RESERVOIR
PROPERTIES [F9] screen.

Stress + Perturbation
Displays Stress + Perturbation column in the Stress Perturbation Table as the Stress column in the Layers tab of the
RESERVOIR PROPERTIES [F9] screen. To account for the influence of previous fractures, the fracture model needs to
be run using this selection.

Browse
Locate and add RFR files using this button.

Remove
Highlight the identifier of the fracture you would like to remove and select the Remove button.
References

111

FracproPT 2007

Sneddon, I.N. and H.A. Elliot: "The opening of a Griffith crack under internal pressure," The Quarterly of
Applied Mathematics, Vol IV, No. 3, pp. 262-267, 1946.

Sneddon, I.N. :"The distribution of Stress in the neighborhood of a crack in an elastic solid", Proceedings,
Royal Society, Series A, Vol 1987, 1946, pp. 229-260.

Uhri, D.C.:"Stimulation of earth formations surrounding a deviated wellbore by sequential hydraulic


fracturing," United States Patent 4,687,061, August 18, 1987.

Warpinski, N.R. and Branagan, P.T.:"Altered-Stress Fracturing," SPE paper 17533 presented at the Rocky
Mounbtain Regional Meeting, Casper, WY, May 11-13, 1988.

Reservoir Data for the 2D Fracture Models

2D Reservoir and Fracture Parameters [F9]


This screen, which is accessible only if you selected either PKN 2D Model, KGD 2D Model, or Radial Model on the
FRACTURE SIMULATION OPTIONS [F4] screen, is where you specify the parameters needed to characterize the
reservoir for the 2D fracture models.

The 2D Reservoir and Fracture Parameters screen.


Fracture Height (Gross Pay)
This is the total fixed fracture height that you must enter for the PKN 2D Model and the KGD 2D Model. For the Radial
Model, fracture "height" is always equal to total fracture length and, therefore, requires no entry in this field.
Payzone Height (Net Pay)
This is the height used for leakoff (or permeable height) in the 2D models. This height is typically less than or equal to
Fracture Height (Gross Pay).
Depth to Center of Pay
This is the depth to the center of the pay (and the center of the fracture).
Closure Stress In Payzone
An entry in this field is important only if you are running the simulator from actual treatment data and comparing the
Observed Net Pressure to the Net Pressure. Closure stress gradient is typically between 0.5 psi/ft and 0.8 psi/ft in
sandstones.
Formation Modulus
This is the Young's modulus for the zone you are fracturing. Young's modulus ranges from 100,000 psi for very soft,
unconsolidated sandstones or coals to 10,000,000 psi for extremely hard granites. Sandstones typically have Young's
modulus values in the range of 3,000,000 to 6,000,000 psi.

112

FracproPT 2007

Formation Poisson's Ratio


This is the Poisson's ratio for the zone you are fracturing. Typical values range from 0.1 to 0.4. Any reasonable value of
Poissons Ration (for example, 0.25) is adequate.
Leakoff Coefficient
This is the total leakoff coefficient, which determines the rate per unit area of fluid leakoff into the formation. Values
typically range from 0.04 to 0.0001 feet/square-root-minute. Values of leakoff coefficient can be reliably found only by
matching the pressure decline during a shut-in or at the end of a treatment. Furthermore, leakoff coefficient is specific to
the fracture model used, so you must determine leakoff coefficient and predict future fracture behavior with the same
fracture model to be consistent.
Pore Fluid Permeability
Based on the Leakoff Coefficient you enter, and the Reservoir Type you select, an estimated value of reservoir
permeability is displayed in this field.
Reservoir Temperature
This is the actual reservoir temperature. It is used to select the correct rheology data from the fluid library.
Fracture Toughness
Enter the fracture toughness for the layer of rock you are fracturing.
Reservoir Type
Define the reservoir type by selecting either Oil or Gas from the drop-down list.
Reservoir Lithology
Make a selection from the available Rock Types from the drop-down list. The rock type is important (in this simulation)
only for chemical properties (for example, for acid reaction) and for thermal properties (for example, fluid heating).

Multiple Fractures - Shift + F7


Multiple Fractures [SHIFT+F7]
This screen allows you to model the effects of multiple fractures in a table where you specify, at each point in time, how
many fractures are taking fluid (that is, propagating), how many fractures are losing fluid, and how many fractures are
propagating in parallel.
Modeling the simultaneous growth of multiple hydraulic fractures is somewhat tricky and should only be used with solid
engineering judgment and assumptions. As such, you should only use this screen if you have a good understanding of the
implications of such an assumption and an understanding of exactly how the MULTIPLE FRACTURES screen works.

What are multiple fractures?

When do multiple fractures occur?

What are the implications of multiple fractures?

113

FracproPT 2007

The Multiple Fractures screen.

Multiple Fracture Table


Time
Enter the Time at which one or more of the multiple fracture factors takes effect. You can configure multiple fractures so
that they vary with time or so that they are constant in time.

Volume Factor
This parameter determines how many fractures are propagating (that is, taking fluid), with the volume split evenly between
the fractures. For example, a value of 2 means that two identical fractures are being propagated.

Leakoff Factor
This parameter determines how many fractures are leaking off fluid. For example, a value of 2 means that there are two
fractures are leaking off equal amounts of fluid, which is twice the amount that would occur if the value were 1.
Note:
This parameter can be used to simulated phenomena like pressure dependent leakoff.

Opening Factor

114

FracproPT 2007

This parameter determines how many (parallel) fractures are propagating and competing for the same opening space,
hence driving up net pressure.
Note:
The process of determining what values to enter for the three multiple fracture factors and for the time at which the
various factors should become active can sometimes be confusing. Therefore, it is highly recommended that you
verify what you are attempting to model by constructing a time-based plot of one or more of the factors for visual
reference.

Rules for Multiple Fractures


FracproPT has multiple-fracture "rules" set up for two common perforation strategies to make simulating them with
multiple fractures easier.

No rules
This is the default option. Select it to allow entry of the multiple fracture parameters in whatever manner you see fit.

Distributed limited-entry perforations


This option is for limited-entry perforations that are distributed over a relatively large interval with homogeneous
properties. View an additional explanation of this option.
Note:
This option can be a good alternative for the sometimes-cumbersome option of defining multiple perforated intervals
on the Wellbore Configuration [F7] screen and choosing the Limited Entry Iteration option on the Fracture
Analysis Options [F4] screen.

Point source perforations


This option is for short perforated intervals (for example, wells that are "cluster perforated" or horizontal/deviated wells
that are treated in multiple stages. View an additional explanation of this option.

Other Functions
Reset to Defaults
Select this option to reset all entries in the Multiple Fracture Table to default values, which assumes growth of a single
fracture.

Fluid & Proppant Selection - F5


Fluid Selection - F5

Fluid and Proppant Selection - Fluid Selection [F5]


Pinnacle has introduced a new methodology to determine a hydraulic fracture design that is based on what treatment is
required to optimally stimulate the reservoir. This Fluid Selection tab provides functionality to help the user select the
proper fluid for the fracture treatment.

115

FracproPT 2007

Fluid Selection tab of the Fluid and Proppant Selection screen

Brief Instructions
Pinnacles Fracture Design Mode has been completely redesigned to introduce a new methodology for determining an
optimal pump schedule for a given reservoir. The Fluid Selection screen provides a way to automatically select a fracture
treatment fluid. FracproPT has internal fluid libraries containing numerous fluid systems from the 3 major service
companies, as well as other "general" fluids and any fluids that users may input themselves.

116

First, the user inputs a Minimum Apparent Viscosity (including the shear rate and time-of-interest) as
the primary Fluid Selection Criteria, which reflects the minimum viscosity that the user requires to keep
proppant in suspension within the fracture. Reservoir Temperature can be entered or edited on this
screen, but it is also editable on other screens as well. Average Permeability is calculated automatically
as the weighted-by-height permeability of all Pay Zones (as selected in the Reservoir Layer Table on the
Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen). Reservoir Pressure is input on another screen, but it is shown here
for reference. Additional proprietary fluid-selection criteria are available for some companies.

The next step is to make a Library Selection and a Vendor Selection such that only those fluids in which
you are interested are available. Note that you can select All for both of these criteria such that all fluids
are available.

Every time you make a change to any of the parameters above, the Qualifying Fluids table shows and
updates the fluid Vendor and System information, as well as Minimum Gel Loading, Apparent
Viscosity, and Fluid Cost information, for the minimum gel loading of all of the fluids systems that meet
the Fluid Selection Criteria. Fluids are sorted by cost in $/gal, but this information is not available for all
fluids. To sort on other parameters in the table, just click on the column header, and the arrow in the
header will indicate sorting in ascending or descending order.

Once the Qualifying Fluids table is filled with different fluids, the user can browse through the list and put
the cursor on the desired fluid, and then finally select that fluid using the Add button to move the fluid to
the Selected Fluids table.

Fluid properties can be edited using the Edit Design Fluid function, which activates the Edit/View
Interpolated Fluid Data [Shift-F5] screen. Frictional and rheological fluid properties of the selected fluid
can be viewed graphically using the App. Visc vs Time and Friction Pressure vs Rate functions.

FracproPT 2007

After selecting a fluid for the pump schedule, go to the Proppant Selection tab to select an appropriate
proppant. If no fluid was selected, FracproPT will not allow you to move to any other screen or tab.

Fluid Selection Criteria


Reservoir Temperature
This parameter is the same as the one entered for Reservoir Temperature at Frac Center Depth on the Heat Transfer
Parameters [Shift+F9] screen; if you change the value here, it will be changed in both screens.
Minimum Apparent Viscosity
This is the primary fluid-selection criteria; this number reflects the minimum viscosity that the user requires to keep
proppant in fluid suspension within the fracture. The default value for this parameter is 200 centipoise, at 40 reciprocalseconds, after 1 hour, however you may changes these parameters as desired to meet your own criteria.
Average Permeability
The parameter is read only. It is calculated using information on the Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen. Namely, for all
the zones where the Pay Zone checkbox is selected, the product of permeability and height is summed, and then divided
by the sum of all heights. In other words, permeability is weighted by zone thickness.
Average Permeability=kh/Total Height
Reservoir Pressure
The parameter is read only. It is calculated using information on the Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen. Namely, for all
the zones where the Pay Zone checkbox is selected, the product of reservoir pressure and height is summed, and then
divided by the sum of all heights. In other words, reservoir pressure is weighted by zone thickness.
(Average) Reservoir Pressure=Ph/Total Height

Library and Vendor Selection


Fluid Library
This field contains a drop-down list of the fluid libraries available for use: The choices available are All, System, User, and
Proprietary.
Vendor
This field contains a drop-down list of the fluid vendors available for use: The choices available are BJ Services, Dowell
Schlumberger, Halliburton, and Miscellaneous.

Control Functions
Manual Fluid Selection
This function allows you manually select fluids from among all of FracproPTs fluid libraries.
Edit Design Fluid
Fluid properties of the selected design fluid can be edited using this function, which activates the
Interpolated Fluid Data [Shift+F5] screen.

Edit/View

Select Fluid for Design


Once the Fluid Selection Results table is filled with different fluids, you can browse through the list and put the cursor on
the fluid that you want to select. The selection can be executed using the Select Fluid for Design function, which causes
that fluid to be highlighted in yellow. This fluid will be used throughout the remainder of the fracture design process.
Select Backup Fluid for Design
You can also select a backup fluid, which can be used for comparison purposes later in the design process.

QUALIFYING FLUIDS
Fluid System
This column of the Qualifying Fluids table shows the fluid "system" of all the fluids found to meet the criteria specified for
the fracture design.
Vendor
This column of the Qualifying Fluids table shows the vendor of all the fluids found to meet the criteria specified for the
fracture design.
Minimum Gel Loading
This column of the Qualifying Fluids table shows the minimum gel loading of all the fluids found to meet the criteria
specified for the fracture design.

117

FracproPT 2007

Apparent Viscosity
This column of the Qualifying Fluids table shows the apparent viscosity of all the fluids found to meet the criteria
specified for the fracture design.
Fluid Cost
This column of the Qualifying Fluids table shows the cost of all the fluids found to meet the criteria specified for the
fracture design.
Note:
Please note that this information is not available for most fluids at this point. In order to make this available, you can
either edit the FracproPT.fld file in the FracproPT "system" folder with a text editor and enter a price for the different
fluid systems if your local service company has made these prices available to you. Also, you can enter the price of a
fluid in the EDIT/VIEW INTERPOLATED FLUID DATA [SGIFT+F5] screen, Other Properties tab.
Move Up
Moves highlighted fluid upward in Selected Fluids table.
Move Down
Moves highlighted fluid downward in Selected Fluids table.
Add
Add highlighted fluid in Qualifying Fluids table to the Selected Fluids table.
Remove
Removes highlighted fluid from Selected Fluids table.
Add Fluid from Library
Opens library screen to add a fluid to the Selected Fluids table.

SELECTED FLUIDS
Fluid System
This column of the Selected Fluids table shows the fluid "system" of all the fluids found to meet the criteria specified for
the fracture design.
Note:
The first fluid in the table is highlighted in yellow, indicating that this is the main fluid for further design calculations.
Other fluids in this table can be used for quick comparison (although this feature is not yet functional for fluids in
FracproPT version 10.3).
If a fluid property is highlighted in red, this indicates that this property does not properly qualify, despite the fact that it
was selected by the user.
Vendor
This column of the Selected Fluids table shows the vendor of all the fluids found to meet the criteria specified for the
fracture design.
Minimum Gel Loading
This column of the Selected Fluids table shows the minimum gel loading of all the fluids found to meet the criteria
specified for the fracture design.
Apparent Viscosity
This column of the Selected Fluids table shows the apparent viscosity of all the fluids found to meet the criteria specified
for the fracture design.
Fluid Cost
This column of the Selected Fluids table shows the cost of all the fluids found to meet the criteria specified for the
fracture design.
Note:
Please note that this information is not available for most fluids at this point. In order to make this available, you can
either edit the FracproPT.fld file in the FracproPT "system" folder with a text editor and enter a price for the different
fluid systems if your local service company has made these prices available to you. Also, you can enter the price of a
fluid in the EDIT/VIEW INTERPOLATED FLUID DATA [SGIFT+F5] screen, Other Properties tab.

RESULTS PLOTS

118

FracproPT 2007

Apparent Viscosity versus Time


This function displays a plot of Apparent Viscosity versus Time for the fluid to be used in the design process.
Friction Pressure versus Rate
This function displays a plot of Friction Pressure versus Flow Rate for the fluid to be used in the design process.
Proppant Selection - F5

Fluid and Proppant Selection - Proppant Selection [F5]


Pinnacle has introduced a new methodology to determine a hydraulic fracture design that is based on what treatment is
required to optimally stimulate the reservoir. This Proppant Selection tab provides functionality to help the user select a
proper proppant for the fracture treatment.

Proppant Selection tab of the Fluid and Proppant Selection screen

Brief Instructions
Pinnacles Fracture Design Mode has been completely redesigned to introduce a new methodology for determining an
optimal pump schedule for a given reservoir. The Proppant Selection screen provides a way to automatically select a
proppant for the fracture treatment. FracproPT has internal proppant libraries containing many proppants from the major
proppant vendors, as well as other "general" proppants and any proppants that users may input themselves.
1.

First, Closure Stress and Average Payzone Permeability are calculated automatically as the weightedby-layer-height average of those properties in all Pay Zones (as selected in the Layers tab on the
Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen). The difference between the Closure Stress and Bottomhole
Flowing Pressure determines the Effective Stress on Proppant during production; FracproPT
determines the proppant permeability under these effective stress conditions.

2.

Next, the user must also account for the Proppant Damage (including, if applicable, the so-called
apparent damage) to the proppant permeability from all flow-related and non-flow-related phenomena,
which is represented by the Total Damage Factor that FracproPT calculates and displays here. The
Total Damage Factor results from the effects of Proppant Embedment and Proppant Perm Damage.

119

FracproPT 2007

An approximation of Proppant Embedment effects on fracture conductivity can be made using a


StimLab correlation that is based on Youngs Modulus; this effect is based on the number of proppant
layers embedded in one fracture face, which can be input directly or suggested by FracproPT.

Select Proppant Perm Damage to access the Proppant Perm Damage screen where multiple
causes of this damage (or apparent damage) is modeled (see Help for that screen for more details on
how this is done).

1.

The next step is to make a Proppant Library Selection and a Proppant Type Selection such that only
those proppants in which you are interested are available. Note that you can select All for both of these
criteria such that all proppants are available.

2.

After the proppant-selection criteria are set and the required libraries and vendors are selected, the
Qualifying Proppants table will automatically update.

1.

The Qualifying Proppants table shows the proppant Vendor and System information, as well as
Mesh Size, Conductivity for 2 Pounds/Square-Foot, Proppant Cost, and Conductivity Cost
information, for all of the proppants (can be up to 100) that meet the Proppant Selection Criteria.
The proppants are sorted in terms of cost per unit fracture conductivity, with the lowest listed first and
highlighted in yellow.

Proppants are also filtered to be of a median proppant diameter that is equal to or smaller than 6
times the smallest perf diameter size specified on the WELLBORE CONFIGURATION [F7] screen.
This admittance criterion is determined in various publications and, if adhered to, can minimize
proppant bridging at the perforations. Proppant costs were taken from StimLabs SLFrac (Version
2.21, November 2000) and have been multiplied by a factor of 1.25 to reflect changes in proppant
pricing. However, please check with you local vendor to determine the actual proppant price and
discount, since it can greatly vary with location and availability.

Once the Qualifying Proppants table is filled with different proppants, the user can browse through the list
and put the cursor on the desired proppant, and then finally select that proppant using the Add button to
move it to the Selected Proppants table. The first proppant in the Selected Proppants table will be used
throughout the fracture design process.

PROPPANT SELECTION CRITERIA


Closure Stress
This parameter is determined automatically: it is the weighted average of the stresses in all Pay Zones selected on the
Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen. The difference between the Closure Stress and the Bottomhole Flowing Pressure
determines the effective stress on the proppant during production, which is the condition under which FracproPT will
determine the proppant permeability.
Bottomhole Flowing Pressure
Enter the expected bottomhole flowing pressure in this field. The difference between the Closure Stress and the
Bottomhole Flowing Pressure determines the effective stress on the proppant during production, which is the condition
under which FracproPT will determine the proppant permeability. This pressure has a wide range of values that may
depend on gathering-system line pressure, reservoir or proppant sensitivity to the drawdown pressure, or some other
production-related constraint. This pressure will always be less than reservoir pressure and it may be as low as a few tens
or hundreds of psi (above zero) in low-permeability gas wells.
Average Payzone Permeability
This parameter is determined automatically: it is the weighted average of the permeabilities in all Pay Zones selected on
the Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen.
Minimum Proppant Permeability after Damage
The difference between the Closure Stress and the Bottomhole Flowing Pressure determines the effective stress on
the proppant during production, which is the condition under which FracproPT will determine the proppant permeability. In
this field you enter the minimum permeability that you are willing to accept in your fracture design. The default value for
this parameter is 100 Darcy.

Proppant Damage
Proppant Damage Factor
This the damage factor resulting from non-flow-related proppant damage, such as gel residue.
Apparent Damage Factor (Non-Darcy, Multi-Phase Flow)
This is the apparent damage due to non-Darcy and multi-phase flow. In order to see a value here, you must select nonDarcy flow in the PROPPANT PERM DAMAGE screen, and specify an expected production rate.
Total Damage Factor

120

FracproPT 2007

This is the parameter actually used in FracproPT to calculate fracture conductivity and dimensions fracture conductivity.
This the total damage factor applied to the proppant permeability, which is calculated automatically from the damage
factors resulting from non-flow-related (that is, the Proppant Damage Factor) and flow-related (that is, the Apparent
Damage Factor) phenomena if you so specify; those damage factors are specified on the proppant perm damage
screen.
Note:
This damage factor is shown on this screen in read-only format.
Proppant Perm Damage
Select this function to go to the
proppant perm damage screen where you can enter information and select options,
including non-Darcy and multiphase flow effects, related to the calculation of proppant conductivity in the fractures
during production.

Library and Vendor Selection


Proppant Library
This field contains a drop-down list of the proppant libraries available for use: The choices available are All, System, User,
and Proprietary.
Vendor
This field contains a drop-down list of the proppant vendors available for use: The choices available are All, Unimin,
Unimin/Oglebay, Colorado Silica Sand, Sibelco, Badger Mining, Arizona Silica Sand, Borden Chemical, Santrol, Carbo
Ceramics, Norton Alcoa, Sintex, and Generic.

Control Functions
Search Proppants
Once you have entered all necessary Proppant Selection Criteria, Proppant Damage information, and made selections
in the Proppant Library and Vendor fields, select this function to search among the selected proppants for the ones that
meet the criteria. Those proppants, if any, will be listed in the Proppant Selection Results table.
Manual Proppant Selection
This function allows you manually select proppants from among all of FracproPTs proppant libraries.
Select Proppant for Design
Once the Proppant Selection Results table is filled with different proppants, you can browse through the list and put the
cursor on the proppant that you want to select. The selection can be executed using the Use Proppant for Design
function, which causes that proppant to be moved into row 1 and then highlighted in yellow. This proppant will be used
throughout the remainder of the fracture design process.
Select Backup Proppant for Design
You can also select a backup proppant, which can be used for comparison purposes later in the design process.
Edit Design Proppant
Proppant properties of the selected design proppant can be edited using this function, which activates the
proppant library screen.

Edit/View

QUALIFYING PROPPANTS
Proppant System
This column of the Proppant Selection Results table shows the proppant "system" of all the proppants found to meet the
criteria specified for the fracture design.
Vendor
This column of the Proppant Selection Results table shows the vendor of all the proppants found to meet the criteria
specified for the fracture design.
Mesh Size
This column of the Proppant Selection Results table shows the mesh size of all the proppants found to meet the criteria
specified for the fracture design.
Conductivity for 2 Pounds/Square-Foot
This column of the Proppant Selection Results table shows the conductivity (at 2 lb/square-ft) of all the proppants found
to meet the criteria specified for the fracture design.
Proppant Cost

121

FracproPT 2007

This column of the Proppant Selection Results table shows the cost (per pound) of all the proppants found to meet the
criteria specified for the fracture design.
Conductivity Cost
This column of the Proppant Selection Results table shows the cost (per mD-ft of conductivity) of all the proppants
found to meet the criteria specified for the fracture design.
Move Up
Moves highlighted fluid upward in Selected Proppants table.
Move Down
Moves highlighted fluid downward in Selected Proppants table.
Add
Add highlighted fluid in Qualifying Fluids table to the Selected Proppants table.
Remove
Removes highlighted fluid from Selected Proppants table.
Add Fluid from Library
Opens library screen to add a fluid to the Selected Proppants table.

SELECTED PROPPANTS
Proppant System
This column of the Proppant Selection Results table shows the proppant "system" of all the proppants found to meet the
criteria specified for the fracture design.
Note:
The first proppant in the table is highlighted in yellow, indicating that this is the main fluid for further design
calculations. Other proppants in this table can be used for Proppant Comparison in the Economic Optimization
module.
If a proppant property is highlighted in red, this indicates that this property does not properly qualify, despite the fact
that it was selected by the user.
Vendor
This column of the Proppant Selection Results table shows the vendor of all the proppants found to meet the criteria
specified for the fracture design.
Mesh Size
This column of the Proppant Selection Results table shows the mesh size of all the proppants found to meet the criteria
specified for the fracture design.
Conductivity for 2 Pounds/Square-Foot
This column of the Proppant Selection Results table shows the conductivity (at 2 lb/square-ft) of all the proppants found
to meet the criteria specified for the fracture design.
Proppant Cost
This column of the Proppant Selection Results table shows the cost (per pound) of all the proppants found to meet the
criteria specified for the fracture design.
Conductivity Cost
This column of the Proppant Selection Results table shows the cost (per mD-ft of conductivity) of all the proppants
found to meet the criteria specified for the fracture design.
Fluid Data - Shift + F5

Fluid Data Fluid Friction Properties [Shift+F5]


This tab of the FLUID DATA screen shows the actual wellbore-friction data used by the simulator for any of the fluids
listed on the FLUID AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen. All the wellbore-friction data are interpolated or taken
directly from the two Fluid Libraries, which are the System Library (which contains data supplied to Pinnacle by the
service companies) and the User Library (which contains data input by you when defining fluids).
Note:
The effects of proppant on fluid friction are handled on the
Proppant Effects on Wellbore Friction screen. However,
the changes in friction associated with the addition of nitrogen or carbon dioxide for foamed fluids is not handled

122

FracproPT 2007

automatically and you must make those corrections in the data shown on this screen. There are some foamed fluids
stored in the System Fluid Library, but you should contact the service company to obtain friction pressure estimates for
the specific foamed fluids you are using.
Any changes made to the data on this screen do not affect the Fluid Library data. However, the contents of this screen are
saved with the other simulation inputs (for example, the treatment schedule, model parameters, reservoir parameters,
wellbore configuration, etc.) whenever you save an input file.
If you choose Ignore Wellbore and Perforations on the FRACTURE Analysis OPTIONS [F4] screen, the wellborefriction parameters are displayed in blue on this screen and cannot accessed.

The Fluid Friction Properties tab of the FLUID DATA screen.

Selected Fluid
Name
This is the name of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library. To view the friction properties of another fluid listed on the
Fluid and Proppant Selection [F5] screen, simply select it from the Name drop-down list.
Vendor
This is the vendor of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library.
System
This is the fluid system as entered in the Fluid Library.
Description
This is the description of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library.
Modified Properties
This field displays a message indicating from where the data on this screen was interpolated or taken, and whether or not
any of the data have been modified since retrieval.

Selected Wellbore Segment


123

FracproPT 2007

Segment Number
This is the wellbore segment number for which wellbore friction data are currently displayed. Segment Number
corresponds to the entries on the Path Summary tab of the Wellbore Configuration [F7] screen, which are also
displayed directly below this field for reference.
To view the configuration and the friction data for a different wellbore segment, you can either enter a segment number
directly in the field, or you may use the Previous Segment and Next Segment functions described below.
Previous Segment
Select this function to view the configuration and the friction data for the previous wellbore segment.
Next Segment
Select this function to view the configuration and the friction data for the next wellbore segment.

Friction Data for Selected Fluid and Wellbore Segment


Three points of friction-pressure versus flow-rate data are shown for each Selected Fluid in each Selected Wellbore
Segment. The first and second flow-rate/pressure points define the laminar-flow regime, while the second and third points
define the turbulent-flow regime.
Q
This the flow rate for which friction pressure, P, is measured.
P
This is the friction pressure corresponding to the flow rate, Q.
Peff
This the actual friction pressure (that is, the effective friction pressure) that the model will actually use when you select
Use Multiplier as the Wellbore Friction Modification Mode. It is the product of the Friction Multiplier and the friction
pressure, P.
Wellbore Friction Modification Mode
These controls facilitate two methods by which you may change the wellbore friction parameters:

If you select Use Multiplier, you can enter a value for Friction Multiplier to change all friction pressure (P)
values by the same factor. This method preserves the shape of the wellbore friction vs. flow-rate curve,
essentially shifting it up or down.

If you select Set Individual Values, you can change all of data points individually (both flow rate and friction
pressure).

Plot Data
Friction Pressure vs. Rate
Select this function to plot friction-pressure versus flow-rate data for the Selected Wellbore Segment. You have the option
of plotting this data for either the Selected Fluid or All Fluids.

Other Functions
Library Data
Select this function to view the FLUID LIBRARY DATA screen where you access (for viewing, entering, or editing) the
Fluid Library data for the fluids listed on the FLUID AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen.

Fluid Data Fluid Rheology Properties [Shift+F5]


This tab of the FLUID DATA screen shows the actual rheology data used by the simulator for any of the fluids listed on
the FLUID AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen. All the rheology data are interpolated or taken directly from the
two Fluid Libraries, which are the System Library (which contains data supplied to Pinnacle by the service companies)
and the User Library (which contains data input by you when defining fluids).
Note:
The changes in rheology associated with the addition of nitrogen or carbon dioxide for foamed fluids is not handled
automatically, therefore you must make those corrections in the data shown on this screen. There are some foamed
fluids stored in the System Fluid Library, but you should contact the service company to obtain rheology estimates for
the specific foamed fluids you are using.
Any changes made to the data on this screen do not affect the Fluid Library data. However, the contents of this screen are
saved with the other simulation inputs (for example, the treatment schedule, model parameters, reservoir parameters,
wellbore configuration, etc.) whenever you save an input file.

124

FracproPT 2007

The Fluid Rheology Properties tab of the FLUID DATA screen.

Selected Fluid
Name
This is the name of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library. To view the rheology properties of another fluid listed on the
Fluid and Proppant Selection [F5] screen, simply select it from the Name drop-down list.
Vendor
This is the vendor of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library.
System
This is the fluid system as entered in the Fluid Library.
Description
This is the description of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library.
Modified Properties
This field displays a message indicating from where the data on this screen was interpolated or taken, and whether or not
any of the data have been modified since retrieval.

Rheology for Selected Fluid


In-fracture rheology data for the current fluid (n' and K' as functions of time, at the current reservoir temperature) are
shown in this table. Notice that there is room in the rheology table for five different entries (that is, n' and K' at five different
times), while the rheology data taken from the Fluid Libraries consists of only two entries. This is so that you can enter a
more detailed rheology time-history if it is available (for example, for fluids that have been more fully investigated in a
laboratory).
Time
This is the time (at temperature) for which n and K are measured.

125

FracproPT 2007

n'
This is the flow behavior index for the Selected Fluid at the current Time and Reservoir Temperature.
K
This is the consistency index for the Selected Fluid at the current Time and Reservoir Temperature.
In Wellbore
Just below the five-row Rheology Data Table there are fields to enter values of n' and K' for the fluid while it is still in the
wellbore. For example, a crosslinked fluid would typically not be crosslinked until it was in the fracture. The In Wellbore
rheology values default to the initial n' and K' values from the table, which is correct for a linear gel. For a crosslinked gel,
you should enter the correct values.
Note:
The In Wellbore rheology is used for only two purposes:

In the Keck Correlation for calculating the effect of proppant on wellbore friction (see the Proppant
Effects on Wellbore Friction screen).

For display purposes on the Wellbore Profile [Alt+F9] screen.

Apparent Viscosity Calculator


Enter a Time and a Shear Rate to display the Apparent Viscosity of the Displayed Fluid at the current Reservoir
Temperature.
Reservoir Temperature
This parameter is entered either on the Heat Transfer Parameters [SHIFT+F9] or Reservoir Parameters [F9] screens
and is displayed here for reference.

Plot Data
n' vs. Time
Select this function to plot n data as a function of time. You have the option of plotting this data for either the Selected
Fluid or All Fluids. You can also set the Maximum Time for Plots.
K vs. Time
Select this function to plot K data as a function of time. You have the option of plotting this data for either the Selected
Fluid or All Fluids. You can also set the Maximum Time for Plots.
Apparent Viscosity vs. Time
Select this function to plot apparent viscosity data (evaluated at the Shear Rate entered in the Apparent Viscosity
Calculator) as a function of time. You have the option of plotting this data for either the Selected Fluid or All Fluids. You
can also set the Maximum Time for Plots.

Other Functions
Library Data
Select this function to view the FLUID LIBRARY DATA screen where you access (for viewing, entering, or editing) the
Fluid Library data for the fluids listed on the FLUID AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen.

Fluid Data Fluid Loss and Thermal Properties [Shift+F5]


This tab of the FLUID DATA screen shows the actual fluid-loss and thermal properties used by the simulator for any of
the fluids listed on the FLUID AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen. All the data are taken directly from the two
Fluid Libraries, which are the System Library (which contains data supplied to Pinnacle by the service companies) and the
User Library (which contains data input by you when defining fluids).
Any changes made to the data on this screen do not affect the Fluid Library data. However, the contents of this screen are
saved with the other simulation inputs (for example, the treatment schedule, model parameters, reservoir parameters,
wellbore configuration, etc.) whenever you save an input file.

126

FracproPT 2007

The Fluid Loss and Thermal Properties tab of the FLUID DATA screen.

Selected Fluid
Name
This is the name of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library. To view the properties of another fluid listed on the FLUID
AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen, simply select it from the Name drop-down list.
Vendor
This is the vendor of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library.
System
This is the fluid system as entered in the Fluid Library.
Description
This is the description of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library.
Modified Properties
This field displays a message indicating from where the data on this screen was interpolated or taken, and whether or not
any of the data have been modified since retrieval.

Thermal Properties
Thermal Conductivity
This is a measure of the fluids conductive heat transfer ability (in units of btu/foot-hour-F).
Specific Heat
For engineering purposes, this is essentially the heat capacity of the fluid, which is a measure of the heat transfer required
to increase a "unit mass" of the fluid by 1 degree (in units of btu/pound-F).
Fluid Density
This is the total density of the clean fluid (including all the fluid additives) in the units of specific gravity (for example, pure
water at 4 degrees Celsius has a specific gravity of 1.0). This parameter is extremely important in modeling the
hydrostatic pressure in the wellbore. Most water-based fracturing fluids have densities very close to 1.01. When using
fracturing fluids with different densities, be sure to enter the actual density for each fluid.

127

FracproPT 2007

Note:
The effects of proppant and foam on hydrostatic wellbore pressure are handled automatically.

Wall Building Coefficient


Wall Building Coefficient
The Wall Building Coefficient is used to model the additional resistance to fluid leakoff created by the polymer filter-cake
that builds up on the fracture walls as fluid leaks off. Wall Building Coefficient is entered in units of feet/square-rootminute, as given by service company fluid manuals (that is, with 1,000 psi of pressure across the filter-cake). Select here
for additional information on the wall-building coefficient.
If you select either the Grid-Based Classical Model or the Grid-Based FLIC Model on the
Simulation Options [F4]
screen, you will see entries for low (1md) and high-perm (1,000 md) wall building coefficients (read additional information
on these parameters).
The wall-building coefficient for low perm (1 mD) will normally always be around 0.003 for 180 F but will adjust with
temperature slightly (higher number with higher temperature). Fluids without filtercakes are typically modeled using higher
spurt values.
The wall-building coefficient for high perm (1,000 mD) will typically be very large for linear gels (for example, 0.1), while it
is typically very close to the low perm (1 mD) value for crosslinked fluids.
Note:
Enter 0.0 to model no wall building effects.

Other Fluid Loss Properties


Spurt Loss
This parameter is defined as the amount of fluid that must leak off (per unit area) before a contiguous filter-cake begins to
form. Spurt loss (defined at 1 md and 1,000 psi) will range from 0.003 to 0.006 for most borate crosslinked fluids. The
higher the gel loading and viscosity, the lower the value. Spurt loss ranges from 0.005 to 0.009 for most metal crosslinked
systems (Ti/Zr, etc.). Values range from 0.01 to 0.02 for linear gels, while fluids without filtercakes can be modeled using a
value of 10. Read additional information on spurt loss.
Newtonian Leakoff Filtrate Viscosity
This parameter is the viscosity of the fluid leaking off from the fracture (that is, the filtrate fluid). This value is typically
close to that of water at the leakoff temperature.
Dynamic Equilibrium Fluid Loss Coefficient
If you select either the Grid-Based Classical Model or the Grid-Based FLIC Model on the
Simulation Options [F4]
screen, you will have access to this parameter. This parameter accounts for filtercake removal due to the shear forces
applied by fluid/proppant flow in the fracture.
This parameter is set at the conditions of 1 mD, 1,000 psi, 50 1/seconds, and 180 degrees F. The value is 0.0 for noncrosslinked fluids, while it ranges from 0.0 to 0.0007 (feet/minute) for borate crosslinked fluids and 0.0 to 0.0015 for metal
crosslinked fluids. An initial guess of 0.0005 is good for borate fluids, while a guess of 0.0008 would be best for metal
crosslinked fluids. The higher the polymer loading and viscosity, the greater the value will become.
Filtercake Compressibility Exponent
If you select either the Grid-Based Classical Model or the Grid-Based FLIC Model on the
Simulation Options [F4]
screen, you will have access to this parameter, which should always be around 0.2 for all polymer fluids.
Particulate Loss Additive
If you select either the Grid-Based Classical Model or the Grid-Based FLIC Model on the
Simulation Options [F4]
screen, you have access to this selection. If you activate this option, the effect of reduced fluid loss due to particulate
additives will be modeled.

Leakoff Parameters Reference Table


This table displays, for the current fluid, the effect of the Wall Building Coeff on the Total Leakoff Coeff. The Depth, Pore
Fluid Perm, and Reservoir Leakoff Coeff are taken from the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen and are displayed
in the table. The resulting Total Leakoff Coeff for each individual layer (which is a combination of the Reservoir Leakoff
Coeff and the Wall Building Coeff) is also displayed in the table. Only 10 layers are displayed in the table at any one time,
but up to a maximum of 100 can be accessed using the scroll bar.
The displayed Total Leakoff Coeff is for the current fluid only, and it is not necessarily representative of the overall leakoff
of a treatment if other fluids are also used. Note that a given Wall Building Coeff may dramatically affect the Total Leakoff
Coeff in a higher permeability zone while having a negligible effect on the Total Leakoff Coeff in a lower permeability
zone.

Other Functions

128

FracproPT 2007

Library Data
Select this function to view the FLUID LIBRARY DATA screen where you access (for viewing, entering, or editing) the
Fluid Library data for the fluids listed on the FLUID AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen.

Fluid Data Fluid Acid Properties [Shift+F5]


This tab of the FLUID DATA screen shows the actual acid properties used by the simulator for any of the fluids listed on
the FLUID AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen. All the data are taken directly from the two Fluid Libraries, which
are the System Library (which contains data supplied to Pinnacle by the service companies) and the User Library (which
contains data input by you when defining fluids).
Any changes made to the data on this screen do not affect the Fluid Library data. However, the contents of this screen are
saved with the other simulation inputs (for example, the treatment schedule, model parameters, reservoir parameters,
wellbore configuration, etc.) whenever you save an input file.

The Acid Properties tab of the FLUID DATA screen.

Selected Fluid
Name
This is the name of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library. To view the properties of another fluid listed on the FLUID
AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen, simply select it from the Name drop-down list.
Vendor
This is the vendor of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library.
System
This is the fluid system as entered in the Fluid Library.
Description
This is the description of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library.
Modified Properties

129

FracproPT 2007

This field displays a message indicating from where the data on this screen was interpolated or taken, and whether or not
any of the data have been modified since retrieval.

Acid Components and Properties


Acid Table
For each type of Acid in the table that is added to the Selected Fluid, enter the Concentration (in mass percentage).
Fluid Diffusivity
Enter the Diffusivity for the Selected Fluid to which an Acid is added.
Non-Reactive Concentration
This is the concentration (by weight percent) below which no acid-rock reaction occurs.
Retardation Factor
This factor is used to affect the acid reaction rate (typically to retard the acid reaction). For example, entering 0.75 means
that the reaction rate occurs at 75% of its maximum value.

Conductivity Calculation
Correlation
The default correlation in FracproPT for calculating acid-etched fracture conductivity is the Nierode-Kruk Correlation.
Maximum Effect of Acid on Leakoff
Fluid loss is increased due to acid, both by etching of rock and by degradation of filter cake. Leakoff increase due to acid
can increase no more than by the factor entered here. For example, a value of 2.5 means that leakoff can increase (due
to acid) by no more than 2.5 times the leakoff from a non-reactive fluid (assuming that there is enough acid to increase
leakoff by that amount before being completely spent).
Conductivity Multiplier Factor
The conductivity predicted by the correlation selected above is multiplied by this factor. For example, an entry of 2.0
implies that conductivity is twice that indicated by the correlation.
Producing Bottomhole Pressure
Enter a pressure here for use in calculating the net closure stress, which is necessary to calculate the conductivity of the
proppant or acid-etched fracture.

Mass Transfer Coeff. Determination


This coefficient is needed for calculating acid concentration at the fracture wall and acid spending.
Public Correlation
This correlation is based on publications from M.H. Lee and L.D. Roberts (SPE 7893), K.K. Lo and R.H. Dean (SPE
17110), and A. Settari (SPE 21870).
Manual
Select this option to enter your own value of the Mass Transfer Coefficient.

Other Functions
Reset Acid Properties to Defaults
Select this function to set all the Acid Properties to their default values.
Model Viscous Fingering
The Viscous Fingering Model is implemented to the ADP (Acid Design Program) acid fracturing model in FracproPT. The
model can handle viscous fingering development for a multi-stage acid treatment, which is recognized as an effective
means to create differential etching and longer acid etching length. With the modeling capabilities for viscous fingering,
and leakoff increase due to acid reaction, heat transfer calculation, and organic acid reactivity, the acid fracturing model is
a valuable tool for stimulation engineers.
The viscous fingering effect can occur during an acid fracture treatment when a viscous preflush is pumped prior to an
acid stage. There needs to be a viscosity difference of 50 cp or more between the preflush and acid stages. As a result of
this viscosity difference, the less viscous acid "channels" through the more viscous pad in the fracture. Because of the
viscous fingering effect, a long penetration distance can be achieved with a relatively modest amount of acid. The viscous
fingering effect is modeled by assuming that, for a given gross fracture height at any location along the fracture, the acid
can channel through only a fraction of this height. This fraction is called the Fingering Coefficient and can be estimated
from laboratory tests based on the viscosity difference between the viscous preflush and the acid. This coefficient has
been built into the program based on information provided by the fluid providers. Since the acid is less viscous and travels

130

FracproPT 2007

forward through a narrow channel created inside the viscous preflush region, it moves with a speed much greater than the
viscous preflush. Once the channels overtake the viscous preflush, they become widener, spreading out to cover the
entire fracture height. Before the acid overtakes the viscous preflush, the advancement of acid inside the fracture is rapid,
and the acid creates an effective etching pattern. Once the acid overtakes the viscous preflush, its advancement slows
down, resulting in a less effective etching pattern. Since the overflush usually has a viscosity comparable to the viscosity
of the acid, it will follow the channels created by the acid.

HOW TO SELECT THE FEATURE


To use the feature of the Viscous Fingering Model, a user needs to:
Select "ADP" for Acid Fracturing Model on the FRACTURE ANALYSIS OPTIONS [F4] screen, Additional Options tab,
Then select the acid to be used for the job by going to the FLUID AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen ( icon),
and selecting Add New Fluid to List. Most acids can be found under Vendor-Miscellaneous and System-Acids. Some
acids are listed for different Vendors. Select the acid and choose OK.
Go to the acids data page by double-clicking the fluid name on the FLUID SELECTION [F5] screen or selecting the
Shift+F5 hotkey combination and checking Model Viscous Fingering on the Acid Properties Tab.
As described above, a viscous pad prior to an acid stage in the TREATMENT SCHEDULE [F6] screen is required in order
to achieve the viscous fingering effect.

LOOKING AT THE RESULTS


The results of viscous fingering can be graphically viewed on the STAGE PROFILE [Ctrl+F5] screen (or selecting the
icon) or the INTEGRATED FRACTURE PICTURE [Alt-F2] screen by selecting either Acid Concentration, Reservoir
Etching or Fluid Positions form the drop-down box. Remember to rescale the picture using the button next to Max Value.
Another way to visualize the results is by going to the Plot List (Alt-F8, or
Icon) and choosing a blank plot. When in the
plot, go to the Plot Preferences screen (right click in the center of the plot). Double click on the first cell in the Channel
Name column. Under Channel Type select Length Channel, and then Acid Cond for the Channel Name. This will plot the
Acid Conductivity achieved at the end of simulation on the Y-Axis and the Fracture Half-length on the X-Axis.

Stage profile plot showing fluid position

131

FracproPT 2007

The figure above shows the position of each fluid simulated by the viscous fingering model. The white color represents the
wellbore fluid; the red is the acid; the blue is the viscous preflush; and the green is the overflush.

Stage profile plot showing acid concentration

References:
Lee, W.S.: "Geometry Determination for Multi-Stage Acidizing Treatment With or Without Viscous Preflush", SPE 14515,
presented at the SPE 1985 Eastern Regional Meeting held in Morgantown, West Virginia, November 6-8, 1985.
Gdanski, R.D. and Lee, W.S.: "On the Design of Fracture Acidizing Treatment", SPE 18885, presented at the SPE 1989
Production Operations Symposium held in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, March 13-14, 1989.

Fluid Data Other Properties [Shift+F5]


This tab of the FLUID DATA screen shows the actual acid properties used by the simulator for any of the fluids listed on
the FLUID AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen. All the data are taken directly from the two Fluid Libraries, which
are the System Library (which contains data supplied to Pinnacle by the service companies) and the User Library (which
contains data input by you when defining fluids).
Any changes made to the data on this screen do not affect the Fluid Library data. However, the contents of this screen are
saved with the other simulation inputs (for example, the treatment schedule, model parameters, reservoir parameters,
wellbore configuration, etc.) whenever you save an input file.

132

FracproPT 2007

The Other Properties tab of the FLUID DATA screen.

Selected Fluid
Name
This is the name of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library. To view the properties of another fluid listed on the FLUID
AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen, simply select it from the Name drop-down list.
Vendor
This is the vendor of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library.
System
This is the fluid system as entered in the Fluid Library.
Description
This is the description of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library.

Costs
Unit Cost
This provides the total cost for the fluid, including all additives. This information will be used in the Fracture Design /
Economic Optimization module for fluid selection purposes, and in the Treatment Totals [F6] screen to calculate total
treatment cost. Note that most service companies do not disclose this information.
If you have this information available for many service company fluids, you could create User-defined fluids that include
the unit cost. Also, you could edit the FracproPT.fld file, which contains all FracproPT Fluids in the System Library, in the
..\FracproPT\Program directory using Notepad and manually add prices under the appropriate field.

Edit Halliburton Fluid


The Edit Halliburton Fluid screen is accessed by clicking on the Library Data button in the Fluid Data - Shift + F5 screen if
a Halliburton fluid is selected.
This screen is used to edit the properties of a Halliburton fluid from one of FracproPTs Halliburton fluid libraries for use in
the pump schedule.

133

FracproPT 2007

Edit Halliburton Fluid screen


In this screen, a selected Halliburton fluid can be edited. This converts a pre-defined system fluid to a user-defined fluid.
In addition, a user-defined fluid can be saved to the User Library.
Properties may be changed for an existing user-defined fluid, and then either saved directly to that fluid (over-writing the
previous properties) or saved to a new fluid. In addition, properties may be changed for a pre-defined system fluid, and
these changes saved as a new user-defined fluid. The default properties for internal fluids cannot be changed.

Columns

Property Name: The name of the property.

Minimum Value: The minimum allowed numeric value of the property.

Maximum Value: The maximum allowed numeric value of the property.

Default Value: The default numeric value of the property.

Units: The (oilfield) units of the property, if it is numeric.

Value: The current value of the property.

Material: Material-dependent fluid properties.


(for example, gel, base gel, stabilizer, hydration, crosslink, break properties)

Match Factors: Correction factors, to multiply the pre-defined fluid properties to match the desired
user-defined properties.

Additives: Components that can be added to the fluids.


(for example, solid fluid loss, diesel fluid loss, diesel, xylene)

Salts: Concentrations of salt components that can be added to the fluids.


(for example, NaCl, KCl, NH4Cl, CaCl, KBr, NaBr, CaBr2, ZnBr2, NaHCO2, KHCO2)

Acids: Concentrations of acid components.


(for example, acetic acid, citric acid, formic acid, HCl, HF)

Material Name: The name of the fluid.

Density: The density of the fluid, in lb/gal for atmospheric conditions (that is, at a temperature of
70.0F and a pressure of 14.7 psia).

OK: Exit the Edit Halliburton Fluid screen and save the current values of the properties of the active
fluid:

Tabs

Fields

Buttons

134

FracproPT 2007

Cancel: Exit the Edit Halliburton Fluid screen without saving the current values of the properties of
the selected or newly created user-defined fluid.

Save to User Library: Save the fluid with the current values of the properties to the User Library.
This saves the active fluid in an Extensible Markup Language (XML) ASCII text file in a folder similar
to "...\My Documents\MaterialsLibrary\UserMaterials\"; the names of the XML files are determined by
the identifier (OID) of the active fluid.

Fluid Library Data

Fluid Library Data Friction Data


This screen shows the Fluid Library entries of friction-pressure versus flow-rate data for the Selected Fluid, for a number
of different wellbore configurations. Three points of friction-pressure versus flow-rate data are shown: The first and second
flow-rate/pressure points define the laminar-flow regime, while the second and third points define the turbulent-flow
regime. There are two Fluid Libraries: The System Library (which contains data supplied to Pinnacle by the service
companies) and the User Library (which contains data input by you when defining fluids).
The wellbore-friction data actually used by the simulator are shown on the FLUID DATA [SHIFT+F5] screen. Those data
are taken directly from this screen if the current wellbore configuration corresponds to one of the configurations for which
data are entered. If the current wellbore configuration does not correspond to one of the configurations in the tables on
this screen, the friction data are interpolated.

The Friction Data tab of the Fluid Library Data screen.

Tubing and Casing Data


This table shows the library entries (three points each) of Friction Pressure (P) versus Flow Rate (Q) for a number of
Casing or Tubing IDs.

Annulus Data
This table shows the library entries (three points each) of Friction Pressure (P) versus Flow Rate (Q) for a number of
Casing ID-Tubing OD annuli.

Other Functions
Save Fluid to User Library
Select this function to save the Selected Fluid to the User Library of fluids. Any changes made to the data on this screen
are not saved unless you use this function.

135

FracproPT 2007

Note:
To change the friction-pressure versus flow-rate data interpolated from this screen and actually used by the simulator,
you must go to the Fluid Friction Properties tab of the FLUID DATA [SHIFT+F5] screen where any changes made
to the data are saved when you save the input file.
Delete Fluid from User Library
Select this function to delete the Selected Fluid from the User Library, which of course implies that the Selected Fluid is in
the User Library.
Note:
You cannot use this function to delete fluids from the System Library.

Fluid Library Data Rheology Data


This screen shows the Fluid Library entries of n and K data at five different times for the Selected Fluid, for a number of
different reservoir temperatures. There are two Fluid Libraries: The System Library (which contains data supplied to
Pinnacle by the service companies) and the User Library (which contains data input by you when defining fluids).
The rheology data actually used by the simulator are shown on the FLUID DATA [SHIFT+F5] screen. Those data are
taken directly from this screen if the current reservoir temperature corresponds to one of the temperatures for which data
are entered. If the reservoir temperature does not correspond to one of the table entries on this screen, the rheology data
are interpolated.

The Rheology Data tab of the Fluid Library Data screen.

Selected Fluid
Name
This is the name of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library. To view the properties of another fluid listed on the FLUID
AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen, simply select it from the Name drop-down list.
Vendor
This is the vendor of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library.
System
This is the fluid system as entered in the Fluid Library.
Description
This is the description of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library.

136

FracproPT 2007

Rheology Data
This table shows the library entries (five points each) of Flow Behavior Index (n) and Consistency Index (K) for a number
of (reservoir) Temperatures.

Other Functions
Save Fluid to User Library
Select this function to save the Selected Fluid to the User Library of fluids. Any changes made to the data on this screen
are not saved unless you use this function.
Note:
To change the rheology data interpolated from this screen and actually used by the simulator, you must go to the
Fluid Rheology Properties tab of the FLUID DATA [SHIFT+F5] screen where any changes made to the data are
saved when you save the input file.
Delete Fluid from User Library
Select this function to delete the Selected Fluid from the User Library, which of course implies that the Selected Fluid is in
the User Library.
Note:
You cannot use this function to delete fluids from the System Library.

Fluid Library Data Fluid Loss and Thermal Data


This screen shows the Fluid Library entries of a number of fluid loss and thermal properties for the Selected Fluid. There
are two Fluid Libraries: The System Library (which contains data supplied to Pinnacle by the service companies) and the
User Library (which contains data input by you when defining fluids).
The fluid loss and thermal data actually used by the simulator are shown on the FLUID DATA [SHIFT+F5] screen. Unlike
the friction and rheology data, those data are always taken directly from this screen (that is, there is no need to interpolate
from the data on this screen).

The Fluid Loss and Thermal Data tab of the Fluid Library Data screen.

Selected Fluid
Name

137

FracproPT 2007

This is the name of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library. To view the properties of another fluid listed on the FLUID
AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen, simply select it from the Name drop-down list.
Vendor
This is the vendor of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library.
System
This is the fluid system as entered in the Fluid Library.
Description
This is the description of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library.

Wall Building Coefficient


Wall Building Coefficient
The Wall Building Coefficient is used to model the additional resistance to fluid leakoff created by the polymer filter-cake
that builds up on the fracture walls as fluid leaks off. Wall Building Coefficient is entered in units of feet/square-rootminute, as given by service company fluid manuals (that is, with 1,000 psi of pressure across the filter-cake).
Click here for additional information on the wall-building coefficient.
Note:
Enter 0.0 to model no wall building effects.

Other Fluid Loss Properties


Spurt Loss
This parameter is defined as the amount of fluid that must leak off (per unit area) before a contiguous filter-cake begins to
form. Spurt Loss is generally not a parameter that plays a significant role in hydraulic fracturing. Values for Spurt Loss can
be obtained for different fluids from service company fluid-data books. Spurt Loss not only changes with fluid type,
additives, temperature, etc., but it also changes over the range of formation permeability.
Newtonian Leakoff Filtrate Viscosity
Enter the viscosity of the leakoff fluid in this field, which is typically around 1 centipoise.

Thermal Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Enter the thermal conductivity of the fluid in this field. A typical value for this parameter in oil field units is 0.3.
Specific Heat
Enter the specific heat of the fluid in this field. A typical value in oil field units is around 1.0.
Fluid Density
This is the total density of the clean fluid (including all the fluid additives) in the units of specific gravity (for example, pure
water at 4 degrees Celsius has a specific gravity of 1.0). This parameter is extremely important in modeling the
hydrostatic pressure in the wellbore. Most water-based fracturing fluids have densities very close to 1.01. When using
fracturing fluids with different densities, be sure to enter the actual density for each fluid.

Other Functions
Save Fluid to User Library
Select this function to save the Selected Fluid to the User Library of fluids. Any changes made to the data on this screen
are not saved unless you use this function.
Note:
To change the fluid loss and thermal data read directly from this screen and actually used by the simulator, you must
go to the Fluid Loss and Thermal Properties tab of the FLUID DATA [SHIFT+F5] screen where any changes made
to the data are saved when you save the input file.
Delete Fluid from User Library
Select this function to delete the Selected Fluid from the User Library, which of course implies that the Selected Fluid is in
the User Library.
Note:
You cannot use this function to delete fluids from the System Library.
Proppant Data

138

FracproPT 2007

Proppant Data
The Proppant Data screen is accessed by:

clicking on the Edit Current Proppant button in the Proppant Selection tab in the Fluid and Proppant
- F5 screen

selecting from the main menu Data > Fluids and Proppantns > Select Proppant

This screen is where properties of the current proppant are viewed, edited and, optionally, saved for future re-use. Other
proppants from the proppant list may be viewed by selecting the desired proppant in the Proppant Identifier drop-down
list.
The proppant list is shown on the the Proppant Selection tab in the Fluid and Proppant - F5 screen if you are in Fracture
Analysis Mode, Fracture Design Mode, or Economic Optimization Mode: it is shown on the Proppant Selection screen if
you are Production Analysis Mode.
There are two libraries, the System Library and the User Library.

Proppant Data screen

Selected Proppant

Name: The common, unique name of the proppant.

Vendor: The vendor of the proppant.


(for example, Atlas, Badger, Borden, Borovichi, Carbo, Curimbaba, Fores, Hepworth-Sibelco, Hexion)

System: The system of the proppant.


(for example, Accupak, AcPack, Arizona Sand, Atlas CRC Premium, Atlas PRC, Atlas PRC Premium,
Badger Frac, Badger Sand, Badger Special Cut)

Mesh Size: The minimum and maximum sieve mesh.


(for example, 6/12, 8/12, 8/16, 10/20, 12/18, 12/20, 14/20, 16/20, 16/30, 16/40, 18/30, 18/40, 20/40,
25/50, 30/50, 30/60, 40/60, 40/70, 70/140)

139

FracproPT 2007

Source: The source of the proppant data.

compiled from various sources (generally based on the most reliable proppant data that is
available).

vendors documentation (that is, not published on their World Wide Web site).

Stim-Lab 6.0

Stim-Lab 1999.

unknown (typically historic data).

web site: The vendors World Wide Web site.


User-defined fluids do not have a "Source" entry (that is, it is blank).

Status: This field displays a message indicating from which Proppant Library the data for the
Selected Proppant comes and whether or not it has been modified from library values.
proppant source

Cost: This is the cost of the proppant in dollars per pound, which is used for reports only.

Bulk Density: This is the bulk density of the proppant, which typically measures about 100 lb/ft^3 for
sand, and 110-150 lb/ft^3 for manufactured proppants.

Packed Porosity: This is the porosity of the proppant in a closed fracture. This value is calculated
from the Bulk Density and Specific Gravity.

Specific Gravity: This property is calculated from the Proppant Bulk Density and the Packed
Proppant Porosity.

Turbulence Coeff a / b at Low / High Stress: These are the coefficients that are used in the
correlation of Forcheimer's beta coefficient with proppant permeability (see the Cooke reference in
Technical References).

Threshold Stress: This is a threshold value to distinguish between low and high stress for the
Turbulence Coeff a / b. If the stress is less than the threshold stress, Turbulence Coeff a / b Low
Stress are used. Otherwise, Turbulence Coeff a / b High Stress are used.

Diameter: This is the average grain diameter of the proppant.

Fields

Note:
If the diameter is less than the value entered in the Proppant Diameter Greater Than field on the Proppant Model tab
of the Fracpropt Model Parameters screen (the default is 0.0125 inches), the proppant is ignored for calculations of
propped dimensions, but it is considered in calculating wellbore friction and hydrostatic head. This function is useful
for modeling proppant slugs.

Width at 2 PSF: This is the width as measured by StimLab at 2 lbs/ft .

Width Correction a: The width reduction as a function of the effective stress on proppant for a 2
2
lbs/ft proppant pack. This data comes from a StimLab correlation.

Width Correction b: Initial width correction at 2000 psi as measured by StimLab at 2 lbs/ft .

140

Stress Cycle Exponent:


Proppant Permeability" = "Proppant Permeability" "Number of stress cycles" ^ "Stress Cycle
Exponent"
where "Number of stress cycles" can be entered in the Proppant Perm Damage screen in the
Additional Damage Effects section after enabling Include effect of stress cycles on proppant
permeability checkbox.

Proppant Type: This refers to the general classification of the proppant (that is, Sand, Resin Coated
Sand, Ceramic, Low Density Ceramic, Medium Density Ceramic, High Density Ceramic, Resin
Coated Low Density Ceramic, Resin Coated Medium Density Ceramic, Resin Coated High Density
Ceramic).
For proppants from FracproPT 10.2 and earlier, the Proppant Type is automatically set to
undefined.

Proppant Coating: This refers to the type of proppant coating. The temperature correction for
proppant permeability is only used when the Proppant Coating is set to Precured or Curable.
For proppants from FracproPT 10.2 and earlier, Proppant Coating is automatically set to None.

FracproPT 2007

Proppant Permeability Versus Effective Stress Table


Data in this table are used by ReservoirPT to determine how proppant permeability changes as stress increases with
reservoir depletion. It is also used to determine the proppant

Effective Stress on Proppant: This is the value of effective closure stress acting on the proppant. In
a producing well, this is roughly similar to the difference between the far-field closure stress and the
bottomhole flowing pressure (BHFP).
prop=Pfrac-Pi-(Po-Pn)
where
prop is the stress on the proppant
Pfrac is the pressure required to open the fracture (roughly equal to frac gradient times depth)
Pi is the current, local pore pressure
is the poroelastic coefficient (typically 0.5)
Po is the original reservoir pressure
Pn is the current average reservoir pressure

Proppant Permeability: This is the permeability of the proppant pack corresponding to the value of closure stress.
Additional Information: ReservoirPT Stress on Proppant
For non-Halliburton proppants, the Proppant Permeability can be modified. In contrast, for Halliburton proppants, the
Proppant Permeability is computed during fracture model runs from a proprietary Halliburton model (this model is
available to all users).

Perm at Resvr Temp: Correlations for the Perm at Resvr Temp are adapted from PredK version 6.57, Feb 2002.
Proppant permeability is only corrected if Proppant Type is set to Precured or Curable.
Additional Information: Perm at Resvr Temp Correlations

Avg Width for 2 lb/ft2: This is the average fracture width for a proppant loading of 2 lbs/ft .

Avg Width after Embedment for 2 lb/ft2: This is the average fracture width after embedment is
2
subtracted (twice, for both walls) for a proppant loading of 2 lbs/ft .

Conductivity after Embedment for 2 lb/ft2: This is the conductivity of the proppant pack after
2
embedment is subtracted (twice, for both walls) for a proppant loading of 2 lbs/ft .
Beta Factor: Forcheimer's beta coefficient calculated from the permeability k using Cookes
turbulence coefficients a and b.
a
=b/k

Perm vs. Stress: Display plot of Proppant Permeability versus Effective Stress on Prop.

Width vs. Stress: Display plot of Avg Width for 2 lb/ft versus Effective Stress on Prop.

Sieve Dist.: Display plot of Weight versus Sieve.

Conductivity vs. Stress: Display plot of Conductivity after Embedment for 2 lb/ft2 versus
Effective Stress on Prop.

Beta Factor vs. Stress: Display plot of Beta Factor versus Effective Stress on Prop.

Selected Proppant: Display plots for selected proppant only.

All Proppants: Display plots for all proppants.

Permeability: Display bar diagram of Proppant Permeability per proppant.

Conductivity: Display bar diagram of Conductivity after Embedment for 2 lb/ft2 per proppant.

Beta Factor: Display bar diagram Beta Factor per proppant.

Plot Data
Buttons

Radio Buttons

Bar Diagrams

Proppant Data Fields

Date of Measurements: The date of the last measurement.

Independent Lab Verification: Whether the proppant data was obtained and verified by an
independent laboratory (for example, Stim-Lab) or by a laboratory that is somehow dependent on a
proppant vendor.
(that is, No, Yes)

141

FracproPT 2007

Comments: Notes that summarize the algorithms that were used to compile missing data for each
proppant, if relevant.

User Library Buttons

Save Proppant to User Library: Select this function to save the proppant to the User Library of
proppants. Any changes made to the data on this screen are not saved unless you use this function.

Delete Proppant from User Library: Select this function to delete the proppant from the User
Library, which of course implies that the proppant is in the User Library.
You cannot use this function to delete proppants from the System Library.
Additional Information: Proppant Data Compilation

Proppant Permeability Damage


FracproPT models the proppant permeability as being damaged, or apparently damaged, by flow related and non-flow
related phenomena. The effects of these two phenomena are represented separately by two damage factors, which are
then effectively summed to arrive at a total damage factor that is the actual parameter used to reduce the effective infracture proppant permeability (that is, fracture conductivity), as shown in the figure below.
A damage factor of 1 represents 100% damage, or a proppant permeability of zero. A damage factor of 0 implies no
damage and the proppant has the permeability corresponding to the value interpreted from the Closure Stress versus
Proppant Permeability table shown on the PROPPANT DATA screen.
Additional Information: Proppant Damage Factors

142

FracproPT 2007

The Proppant Permeability Damage screen

Non-flowrate Dependent Damage


The non-flowrate dependent effects that damage, or appear to damage, proppant permeability are accounted for in
FracproPT by the Proppant Damage Factor.
Producing Bottomhole Pressure
Enter a pressure here for use in calculating the net closure stress on the proppant, which is necessary to calculate the
conductivity of the propped fracture. This pressure has a wide range of values that may depend on gathering-system line
pressure, reservoir or proppant sensitivity to the drawdown pressure, or some other production-related constraint. This
pressure will always be less than reservoir pressure and it may be as low as a few tens or hundreds of psi (above zero) in
low-permeability gas wells.
Note:
This is the same parameter shown on the FLUID AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen; changing this
parameter on either screen will change it on the other as well.
Proppant Damage Factor
In prior versions of FracproPT, this parameter (which was also called the Proppant Damage Factor) was the only (and
total) damage applied to the proppant permeability. However, with Version 10.1 the capability to account for certain flowdependent phenomena that, in essence, behave like proppant permeability damage has been added (see below).
Therefore, this parameter is now meant to account only for non-flow-dependent proppant damage, such as that from gel
residue.

143

FracproPT 2007

Note:
Prior to Version 10.1, this was the actual number (damage factor) used by the simulator. But now that an additional
damage factor can also be applied (that is, the Apparent Damage Factor described below), the Total Damage
Factor (described below) is the actual number used by the simulator. However, if you recall an old input file saved
with an older version of FracproPT, the Apparent Damage Factor is set automatically to zero such that only this
Proppant Damage Factor is active and will, therefore, be equivalent to the Total Damage Factor.
This field is read-only if the Suggest value based on fluid type checkbox is enabled.
Suggest value based on fluid type
If this checkbox is enabed, a fluid can be selected from the adjacent drop-down menu. On the basis of this fluid, the value
for the Proppant Damage Factor will be set (and that field will be deactivated). These values are obtained from StimLabs Predict-K and Proppant Manager database.

Flowrate Dependent Damage


The flowrate dependent effects that damage, or appear to damage, proppant permeability are accounted for in FracproPT
by the Apparent Damage Factor.
These options allow you to approximate the reduced hydrocarbon production attributable to non-Darcy and multiphase
flow effects in the proppant pack. You can model non-Darcy effects only, or Non-Darcy effects and multiphase flow
effects, but you cannot model multiphase flow effects only.
Include Non-Darcy Effects
Select the check box to include non-Darcy flow effects. You must also select the type of hydrocarbon you will be
producing and estimate the rate at which it will be produced (this can be done manually or automatically).
Well Type
Select either Gas Well or Oil Well in this field. If you receive an error message when you enter the Hydrocarbon
Standard Gravity in the next field, then you may have to change your selection.
Hydrocarbon Standard Gravity
This is gas gravity (at standard conditions) if you selected Gas Well as the Well Type, or API gravity if you select Gas
Well as the Well Type.
Proppant Concentration per Frac
Enter the average expected in-fracture proppant concentration in this field. If you are dealing with a multiple
(simultaneous) fracture scenario, this is the value for one of the fractures. Rather than manually entering this parameter,
you can use the result from the last run of the fracture model by selecting the Use Frac Length and Prop Conc from
Last Run function described below.
Enter HC Production Rate / Automatically Estimate HC Production Rate
Use this option to choose whether you want to enter your own estimate of what the postfrac hydrocarbon production will
be, or to have FracproPT automatically estimate the production. If you choose the later, the following fields will be
activated and you must enter various reservoir and fracture characteristics in order for the postfrac production to be
estimated.
Water Saturation
This number is entered as a fractional number less than one. For example, a value of 0.25 indicates that 25% of the
porosity does not contain hydrocarbons.
X-Direction Extent
This is the distance from the wellbore to the drainage boundary in the direction parallel to the fracture. You may wish to
make this number greater than the Y-Direction Extent by an amount equal to the propped-fracture length. Values for this
parameter that describe common reservoir/drainage sizes are shown in the table found in the description of Drainage
Area shown below.
Y-Direction Extent
This is the distance from the wellbore to the drainage boundary in the direction normal to the fracture. Values for this
parameter that describe common reservoir/drainage sizes are shown in the table found in the description of Drainage
Area shown below.
Drainage Area
This is a calculated number, based on your entries for X-Direction Extent and Y-Direction Extent. The following table
lists values for some common drainage areas.
Drainage Area

144

X-Direction Extent

Y-Direction Extent

FracproPT 2007

40 acres

660 feet

660 feet

80 acres

933 feet

933 feet

160 acres

1,320 feet

1,320 feet

320 acres

1,867 feet

1,867 feet

640 acres

2,640 feet

2,640 feet

Fracture Half Length


Enter the estimated propped fracture half-length in this field. Alternatively, this parameter may also be taken automatically
from the last run of the fracture model by using the Use Frac Length and Prop Conc from Last Run function described
below.
Use Frac Length and Prop Conc from Last Run
Values for the Proppant Concentration per Frac and Fracture Half Length fields (described above) may be entered
manually, or this function may be used to use the results from the last run of the fracture model.
Include Multiphase Flow Effects
Liquid/Gas Ratio
Enter an estimate for the condensate or water production versus the gas production in the well. This parameter is used to
estimate the permeability reduction in the fracture, based on a correlation released by StimLab in February 2001.
Initial Solution Gas/Oil Ratio
This field is activated when choosing an Oil Well as the Well Type for the Flowrate Dependent Damage (described
above), and represents the amount of gas contained in a standard volume unit of oil.

Reservoir Permeability
The permeability of the reservoir is displayed in this field.
Hydrocarbon Viscosity
The viscosity of the hydrocarbons is displayed in this field.
Net Pay Thickness
The thickness of the net pay is displayed in this field.
Initial Reservoir Pressure
The initial pressure of the reservoir is displayed in this field.
Porosity
The porosity is displayed in this field.

Proppant
Select the proppant from the list of proppant in the PROPPANT SELECTION screen for which the apparent and total
damage factor is to be displayed.
Apparent Damage Factor
This is the additional proppant permeability damage factor that is calculated from the entries describing the non-Darcy and
multiphase flow effects. This damage factor, along with the Proppant Damage Factor described above, are essentially
summed to obtain the Total Damage Factor (described below) that is actually used by the simulator.

Proppant Embedment
The embedment (that is, infiltration) of proppant into the reservoir that surrounds the fracture can be specified here.
Proppant Embedment
This field specifies the proppant embedment. This field is deactivated if the Suggest value based on payzone modulus
checkbox is selected.

145

FracproPT 2007

In soft rock, proppant tends to be pushed into the walls of the fracture. This reduces the final conductivity that can be
obtained from a fracture treatment, as the embedded proppant does not actively contribute to production. Proppant
embedment is in general a small or large fraction of a proppant grain.
This embedment is always for a single fracture face. Consequently, the total embedment effect for both fracture faces is
twice the number on this screen.
Embedment is never subtracted from fracture width. Instead, embdedment is used to adjust the effective conductivity of
the fracture.
Suggest value based on payzone modulus
If this checkbox is selected, a value for the Proppant Embedment is suggested based on the modulus of the payzone, and
the Proppant Embedment field is deactivated.
A correlation released by Stim-Lab in February 2001 is used to calculate the embedment of proppant based on the
modulus of the payzone rock. Above a modulus of 5,000,000 psi, embedment is absent. For relatively soft rock,
embedment can be of the order of the diameter of a proppant grain

Fracture Filter Cake


The thickness of the filter cake in the fracture, and whether the effects of the filter cake on the conductivity of the fracture
should be included can be specified here.
Fracture Filter Cake Thickness
This field specifies the thickness of the filter cake in the fracture.
Include Filtercake effects on conductivity
Select this checkbox to include the effects of the filter cake on the conductivity of the fracture.

Additional Damage Effects


The additional damage effects of temperature and stress cycles on proppant permeability can be specified here.
Include effect of temperature on proppant permeability
Select this checkbox to include the additional damage effect of temperature on proppant permeability.
Research by Stim-Lab indicates that resin-coated proppant can show higher damage at higher temperatures as the resin
flows into the pore space of the proppant grains. The temperature multiplier has a direct effect on the Perm at Resvr
Temp column in the PROPPANT DATA screen.
Include effect of stress cycles on proppant permeability
Select this checkbox to include the additional damage effect of stress cycles on proppant permeability.
Number of stress cycles
Select the Include effect of stress cycles on proppant permeability checkbox to modify the value in this field to specify
the number of stress cycles. The default value is 1.

Total Damage
Both the flowrate dependent and the non-flowrate dependent effects that damage, or appear to damage, proppant
permeability are accounted for in FracproPT by the Total Damage Factor, which is the sum of the damage represented
by the Proppant Damage Factor and the Apparent Damage Factor.
Total Damage Factor
This the total damage factor applied to the proppant permeability, which is calculated automatically from the damage
factors resulting from both non-flow-related (that is, the Proppant Damage Factor) and flow-related (that is, the
Apparent Damage Factor) phenomena. This is the parameter actually used by FracproPT.

Permeability Diagram
This diagram displays the proppant permeability versus the proppant name.

Conductivity Diagram
This diagram displays the proppnt conductivity versus the proppant name.

Beta Factor Diagram


This diagram displays the proppant beta factor versus the proppant name.

146

FracproPT 2007

Calculation of Proppant Perm Damage Factors


The values for the proppant perm damage factor change during a fracture model simulation, because the inputs to the
damage factor calculation are dependent on the fracture model results.
For the non-Darcy damage factor and the multi-phase effect, the flow geometry is needed. This depends on the payzone
height and the fracture height.
Before running the fracture model, the geometry is not yet known. Consequently, the smaller of the net pay height and
100 ft i is used. Once the model is run, the propped height is used, unless the pay height is less than the propped height,
in which case the average of the two is used.
The damage factor shown on this screen also uses the Proppant Concentration per Frac and the Fracture Half-Length
that can be entered in the Include Non-Darcy Effects section in the Flowrate Dependent Damage section.
In all the calculations and results that are displayed in the reports, these values are not used. Instead, the internally
calculated damage factor (that depends on the fracture length and width from the most recent FracproPT simulation) is
used. Consequently, the results in this screen do not necessarily match up with the damage factor in the reports.
After running the model, the final values for the proppant perm damage factors on this screen do not necessarily match up
with those in the reports. The reason is that the logic of this screen is that the damage factor can be (pre-) calculated
based on the inputs on this screen (for example, length, concentration), in contrast to the values obtained from the results
of the model run. To view the values that are obtained from the model run, click on the Use Frac Length and Prop Conc
from Last Run button in the Include Non-Darcy Effects section in the Flowrate Dependent Damage section.

Treatment Selection - F8
Treatment Selection [F8]
This screen will only be accessible if Automated Treatment Selection is chosen as the Fracture Design Goal option on
the Additional Options tab of the Fracture Design Options [F4] screen. After selecting the appropriate fluids and
proppants for the pump schedule on the Fluid and Proppant Selection [F5] screen, this Treatment Selection [F8]
screen is the next screen in the sequence.
This screen is used to investigate the sensitivities of fracture growth behavior so that a proper pump rate and maximum
treatment size can be selected. The user will basically determine how large a job needs to be pumped (in terms of fluid
volume and proppant concentration) in order to obtain a specified fracture dimension, while keeping the dimensionless
conductivity set at a user-defined goal.
There are four basic steps necessary to use this screen, which are described in greater detail below:
1.

Use the Injection Rate Selector to let FracproPT determine the maximum possible injection rate, or to
input a desired injection rate.

2.

Using the Obtain FcD Goal for Every Treatment Size inputs and functions, let FracproPT estimate the
total treatment volume required to achieve a range of fracture sizes while a user-defined dimensionless
conductivity is fulfilled. This will populate the Treatment Choices Table.

3.

Use the Treatment Size Selector to pick the treatment (that is, in terms of fluid volume and proppant
concentration) from the main table that meets various criteria (that is, criteria in addition to the fracture size
and fracture conductivity criteria). Various Plots are available to investigate the various sensitivities of
fracture growth (that is, fracture size).

4.

Evaluate Economics using the Economic Analysis button..

Once these four steps have been completed, the total fracture treatment size and proppant concentration
necessary to achieve the required fracture conductivity will have been approximated. As the final step in
the entire design process, the actual pump schedule necessary to achieve the required conductivity
distribution in the fracture (as function of the distance from the wellbore) that corresponds to the selected
fracture treatment size can be generated. This is done in the Fracture Design Control [F10] screen
(select Next).

147

FracproPT 2007

The Treatment Selection screen

Step 1 Injection Rate Selector


In the first step, FracproPT will determine the maximum possible injection rate using the Injection Rate Selector. The
user can manually enter an injection rate, or have FracproPT Suggest a Limit Using a Criterion such as Max Surface
Pressure or Max Horse Power. When the Determine Rate function is selected, FracproPTs Fluid Library values are
used to estimate wellbore friction at different rates, and the fracture model will run briefly to estimate the corresponding
surface pressure.
Note:
If you choose to have FracproPT determine the maximum possible injection rate for you, you should be aware that
the program is simply using the friction data supplied in the Fluid Library. Due to the extreme variability possible in
preparing the fluids, as well as the variability in tubings and casings, the wellbore friction experienced in the field may
be radically different from the predicted amount.

Injection Rate
If preferred over letting FracproPT estimate a maximum possible Injection Rate (see the Suggest Limit Using Criterion
option described below), manually enter an injection rate for the fracture treatment. If FracproPT estimates the injection
rate, this number will appear in red and will be uneditable.

Suggest Limit Using Criterion


Check this option to have FracproPT estimate a maximum possible Injection Rate. In the drop-down list that will then be
active, choose from among Max Surface Pressure, Max Bottomhole Pressure, Max Wellbore Friction, or Max
Horsepower (and then enter that particular "max value") as the criterion used to limit Injection Rate.

Determine Rate
If you choose the Suggest Limit Using Criterion option described above, you must use this function (after selecting your
criterion of choice in the drop-down list) to have FracproPT use the wellbore model to estimate Injection Rate, which will
then be displayed (uneditable) in red. If you choose to enter Injection Rate manually, this function will not be available.

Step 2 Obtain FcD Goal for Every Treatment Size

148

FracproPT 2007

In the second step of the fracture design process, FracproPT approximates the total treatment volume needed to obtain a
range of fracture sizes (that is, fracture lengths) while fulfilling a user-defined dimensionless conductivity criterion.
1.

The user first sets an FcD Goal (that is, a dimensionless conductivity goal). The default of 10 provides
nearly infinite conductivity, meaning that the fracture will not act as the bottleneck for production
performance. Recent work, for example by Valko, has shown that an ideal FcD is about 1.6. Note that it
may not be possible to achieve the FcD Goal if either Max TSO Net Pressure Increase or Max Proppant
Concentration is exceeded.

2.

Next, a Fracture Half-Length Increment is entered, which dictates the different between the fracture halflengths that FracproPT will consider. For high-perm frac-and-pack treatments, this value should be only a
few feet; it should be set to a larger value (for example, 50 ft or 100 ft) for low permeability reservoirs.

3.

Enter the Max TSO Net Pressure Increase to specify the maximum net pressure increase that
FracproPT will consider to achieve the FcD Goal. Generally, this parameter should be limited to 1,0002,000 psi, since excessive net pressure increases may cause formation or proppant pack damage. For
lithologies like coal that are very sensitive to such damage, this value should be limited to 100-500 psi.

4.

Enter the Max Proppant Concentration that you are willing to pump during a treatment to achieve the
FcD Goal. Typically, service companies are uncomfortable to pump proppant in excess of 22 ppg, since
this is getting very close to pumping a "solid" or immobile proppant.

5.

The final task in this second step of the process is to select the Determine Treatment Size vs Length
function, which will fill the Treatment Choices Table with treatments of varying size. Upon doing so,
FracproPT how much fluid must be pumped and how much proppant needs to be available in the fracture
to obtain the FcD Goal. For any given fracture size, the FracproPT model run will provide a fracture width
under normal circumstances. For the given width, FracproPT will calculate the sand concentration
necessary to provide the required conductivity. If the Max Proppant Concentration must be exceeded in
order to obtain the FcD Goal, fracture width is increased by changing the design to a tip screen-out
(TSO) design.

FcD Goal
This is the primary design criterion. This channel was called Dimls Cond Ratio in FracproPT versions prior to 10.1. The
average (over the fracture) dimensionless conductivity, FCD, is calculated by the following formula:
FCD=kfwf/(kLf)
where,
kf is the fracture permeability, which is calculated by multiplying the proppant permeability (determined from the Closure
Stress -vs- Proppant Perm table on the Edit/View Proppant Library screen) by the so-called Total Damage Factor,
wf is the propped fracture width (that is, the Avg Width on Proppant channel calculated by FracproPT); at any point in
time before the fracture has closed on proppant, the theoretical packed width is calculated for the current distribution of
proppant assuming all fluid leaks off without further proppant re-distribution,
k is the average reservoir permeability, which is the height-weighted permeability of all zones (that is, layers) identified as
Pay Zones on the Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen. In versions prior to 10.1, and in later versions if no zones are
identified as Pay Zones, the permeability is that entered for the zone where the fracture initiates (hence, when multiple
permeable zones with significantly varying permeabilities are propped, this calculation may be inaccurate); if the fracture
initiates in an impermeable zone, the closest permeable zone is used; and
Lf is the propped fracture length (Prop Length) calculated by FracproPT, which is dependent on the minimum proppant
concentration entered on the PROPPANT MODEL PARAMETERS screen.
The default of FcD Goal of 10 provides nearly infinite conductivity, which means that the fracture will not act as the
bottleneck for production performance. Recent work, for example by Valko, has shown that an ideal FcD is about 1.6.

Fracture Half-Length Increment


This parameter reflects the fracture half-lengths that FracproPT will consider when the user starts the sensitivity study.
For high-perm frac-and-pack treatments, this value should be as small as a few feet, while for low-perm treatments this
parameter should be set to a larger value (for example, 50 or 100 feet).

Max TSO Net Pressure Increase


This parameter reflects the maximum pressure that FracproPT will allow while still achieving the user-defined FcD Goal.
Generally, this parameter should be limited to 1,000-2,000 psi since excessive net pressure increases may cause
formation or proppant-pack damage. For lithologies that are very sensitive to damage be excessive pressurization (for
example, coals), this parameter should be even further limited (for example, 100-500 psi).

Max Proppant Concentration

149

FracproPT 2007

This parameter sets the maximum proppant concentration that FracproPT will allow while still achieving the user-defined
FcD Goal. The entry here may reflect equipment limitations or prior experiences where higher concentrations are not
easily accepted by the formations.

Use Effective Propped Length


The Use Effective Propped Length option is available in order to more realistically model the actual propped fracture
half length that contributes to the post-fracture production. Experience has shown that especially in low permeability
formations, the actual fracture length that contributes to the production can be significantly less than the created propped
fracture half length. This can occur for several reasons, but the main reason is thought to be poor cleanup of the gel
residue in the proppant pack. Additional factors can be proppant embedment and filtercake embedment, which are
modeled separately in FracproPT.
By checking the Use Effective Propped Length checkbox, you are turning on an additional calculation, which uses a
theoretical formula to predict the effectiveness of the post-fracture cleanup, based on the fracture half length, conductivity
and reservoir permeability. The formula for effective length calculations is based on correlations developed by the StimLab consortium in 2006. The effective length is strongly a function of the reservoir permeability.
The better the reservoir permeability, the closer the effective fracture half length will be to the created propped half length.
Since fracture conductivity is also a factor, increasing the proppant size, or going to a higher grade of proppant will also
increase the effective length. The gel damage that is entered (or calculated from the fluid type) will also affect the effective
length through the conductivity term.
Since the fracture conductivity is a function of non-Darcy effects, which are in turn a function of the production rate, which
is a function of the effective length, a simple iteration is used to solve for the effective fracture length including non-Darcy
and multi-phase effects.
The program uses a simple analytic solution for the pseudo-steady state flow to estimate the production rate within this
iteration. It should be noted that in Production Analysis mode, the program does not try to model a changing effective
fracture length versus time. Rather, it first calculates what the estimated ultimate effective length will be, and passes that
number to the reservoir simulator. This is the same number that is displayed on the Fracture Parameters tab of the
Fracture Parameters and Proppant Selection - F5 screen. It is important to enter a reasonable value for the Stabilized
Bottomhole Flowing Pressure on this screen (also called Producing Bottomhole Pressure on other screens) to get
the correct estimate for the effective fracture length.

Determine Treatment Size vs Length


Once you have entered the Obtain FcD Goal for Every Treatment Size parameters described above, use this function
to actually populate the Treatment Choices Table with a range of fracture treatment results (that is, pump schedules that
meet the various design criteria).
Click the button below to view more detailed information on what this function does.
Additional Information: Treatment Selection

Treatment Choices Table


This table lists a number of important parameters (that are described below) as a function of fracture half-length. Many of
these values can also be displayed and investigated graphically (see the Plots section described below). This table is
populated automatically when the Determine Fracture Size vs Length function is used in Step 2.

Fracture Half Length


This parameter shows the fracture half-length for the each treatment. The difference in frac lengths for the table entries is
set with the Fracture Half-Length Increment parameter described above.

PI Ratio Estimate
This parameter reflects the approximate increase from the non-fractured production (based on steady-state flow solution)
to the propped-fracture production.

Fracture Height
This parameter shows the total height of the fracture at the wellbore.

Fracture Top
This parameter shows the depth to the top of the fracture.

Fracture Bottom

150

FracproPT 2007

This parameter shows the depth to the bottom of the fracture.

Payzone Coverage Ratio


This parameter represents the payzone-height covered by the fracture, divided by total height of all payzones.
Note:
If the payzones are not fully covered, these entries will be highlighted in red.

Average Fracture Conductivity


This is the average fracture conductivity, and it incorporates all damage mechanisms specified in the PROPPANT PERM
DAMAGE screen.

FcD
This is the average dimensionless conductivity. If it is not possible to achieve the desired minimum conductivity
requirements because the Max Proppant Concentration and Max TSO Net Pressure Increase criteria would be
violated, this entry will be highlighted in red.

Average Proppant Concentration


This parameter represents average proppant concentration in the fracture.

Slurry Volume
This parameter represents an estimate of the total slurry volume that will have to be pumped to achieve the required halflength and conductivity.

Max Proppant Concentration


This parameter represents the maximum (surface) proppant concentration that must be pumped in order to achieve the
conductivity requirement.

TSO Net Pressure Increase


This parameter represents the total increase in net pressure seen once the tip of the fracture screens out and stops
growing.

Step 3 Treatment Size Selector


In Step 2, the total fracture treatment size and proppant concentration necessary to achieve the required fracture
conductivity was approximated for a range of fracture half-lengths. In Step 3, the actual treatment size can be selected
manually or automatically based on user-defined criteria.

Select Size Using Criteria


If the fracture treatment is to be selected automatically by FracproPT, up to two criteria must be specified in these fields
using the drop-down lists. If two criteria are specified, the And or Or logic options may be used. The available criteria are
described below.

NPV, Incr. NPV, ROI, Incr. ROI Select either of these economic criteria in the first field. If an
economic criterion is selected, you will have to select the Economic Analysis button to go to the
OPTIMIZATION ECONOMIC DATA [F8] screen in FracproPTs Fracture Optimization module.

Fracture Top Depth / Fracture Bottom Depth Select either of these criteria, one of the three
operators (<, >, or =), and then enter a depth. As an example, these criteria can be used to avoid
upward or downward growth (or both) into a water-bearing zone.

Fracture Half Length Select this criterion, one of the three operators (<, >, or =), and then enter a
fracture half-length. As an example, this criterion can be used to specify the length of the fracture.

Payzone Height Coverage Ratio Select this criterion, one of the three operators (<, >, or =), and
then enter a payzone height coverage ratio. As an example, this criterion can be used to ensure that
most of the user-defined Pay Zone intervals (as defined on the Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen)
are covered by the propped fracture. Payzone height coverage ratio is defined as the total payzoneheight covered by the fracture divided by total height of all payzones.

151

FracproPT 2007

Payzone Fracture Area Ratio Select this criterion, one of the three operators (<, >, or =), and then
enter a payzone fracture area ratio. This is the ratio of the fracture (surface) area in contact with
payzones divided by the total fracture (surface) area. The Pay Zone intervals are defined on the
Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen. As an example, this criterion can be used to ensure that some
percentage of the total fracture area contacts payzones.

Payzone Proppant Ratio Select this criterion, one of the three operators (<, >, or =), and then
enter a payzone proppant ratio. This is the ratio of the amount of proppant placed opposite payzones
divided by the total amount of proppant in the fracture. The Pay Zone intervals are defined on the
Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen. As an example, this criterion can be used to ensure that some
percentage of the proppant is placed opposite payzones.

Once at least one user-specified selection criterion has been set, the Select Size Using Criteria function will be
available. Using this function will cause the automatically selected treatment (size) in the Treatment Choices Table to be
highlighted in yellow.

Select Size Manually


The treatment size may optionally be selected manually. After clicking on the row in the Treatment Choices Table of the
preferred approximate pump schedule, use this function to actually select that pump schedule; the selected row will be
highlighted in yellow.

Step 4 Economic Analysis


In this last step, FracproPT brings you automatically into its Fracture optimization module to evaluate the economics for all
fracture treatment sizes in the main table. To be able to do so, you need to specify the cost as a function of various
fracture treatment sizes and other specifics, and you need to specify future production revenues.

Economic Analysis
Go to the OPTIMIZATION ECONOMIC DATA [F8] screen in FracproPTs Fracture Optimization module. After specifying
costs here, click Next to define production constraints in the WELL PRODUCTION [F6] screen, and the onward to the
OPTIMIZATION CONTROL [F10] screen to calculate the economics for all jobs and select the one with the best economic
performance.

Plots
Various Plots are available to investigate the various sensitivities of fracture growth (that is, fracture size) by graphically
viewing the data in the Treatment Choices Table.

vs Length
Select this function to plot various parameters for the selection in the Treatment Choices Table as a function of fracture
half-length.

vs Time
Select this function to plot various parameters for the selection in the Treatment Choices Table as a function of pumping
time (and, thus, also as a function of total treatment volume).

Geometry
Select this function to show the Integrated Fracture Profile with fracture growth rings shown for every half-length
increment. This view provides an informative way to evaluate fracture growth behavior with increasing treatment volume.

PI Ratio
This plot (for proprietary use only) shows the required fracture conductivity versus fracture half-length, together with PI
Ratio curves.
Additional Information

Background Information
In detail, FracproPT conducts two primary tasks when the Determine Treatment Size vs Length function is invoked to
fill the Treatment Choices Table.

152

FracproPT 2007

Task 1
Determine the full dimensions, width, net pressure, etc. for the fracture at the specific half-lengths specified by the
Fracture Half-Length Increment. This task is accomplished by simply running the fracture model and reporting the
various parameters for each fracture half-length.

Task 2
Determine the necessary propped-fracture width based on the open-fracture width calculated during pumping. This task
requires additional calculations, which are described below.
The required width to obtain the FcD Goal at closure on proppant is a function of the width at the end of pumping and the
actual proppant concentration in the fracture at that time:
wclosedonproppant=wendofpumping[XpropvolCmax/(1-prop)/(1+XpropvolCmax)]
where Cmax is the maximum proppant concentration, prop is the proppant porosity, and Xpropvol is the proppant volume
factor in gal/lbs (which equals 1/ (SG*8.345404), where SG is the proppant Specific Gravity in kg/l).
The desired width to obtain the FcD Goal is calculated by
wFcDgoal=FcDkLf/kf+2Mdembedment
where k is the average permeability for all pay zones combined, Lf is the fracture half-length, and kf is the permeability
(after damage) of the proppant pack. M is the number of conductive multiples and dembedment is the embedment depth into
one fracture face.
Next, FracproPT determines the maximum proppant concentration that needs to be pumped to obtain the required
propped width by setting
wFcDgoal=wclosedonproppant
If
wFcdgoal>wclosedonproppant(Cmax=20 ppg)
with 20 set as the default Max Proppant Concentration, then the program will evaluate a tip screen-out (TSO) design.
To do this, the Max Proppant Concentration is maintained for the proppant concentration and the net pressure increase
is kept within the user-defined limits for the Max TSO Net Pressure Increase. The net pressure increase to reach the
FcD Goal can be calculated as follows:
pnet,Fcdgoal=pnet,endofpumpingwFcDgoal/wclosedonproppant(Cmax=20 ppg)
It could be that the FcD Goal cannot be achieved, in which case the only other available alternative is to pump higherconductivity proppant or a higher maximum proppant concentration. Pumping at higher rates may also help, as this
increases slurry efficiency, thereby making it possible to create more fracture width with the same amount of pumped
fluid. For these cases, the reported FcD value in the Treatment Choices Table will be smaller than the FcD Goal, and
TSO Net Pressure Increase and Max Proppant Concentration will be maximized at the values entered by the user in
the Obtain FcD Goal for Every Treatment Size area of the screen.

Fracture Design Parameters [F8]


This screen will only be accessible if Manual Entry is chosen as the Fracture Design Goal option on the Additional
Options tab of the Fracture Design Options [F4] screen.
This is where you enter the specifications (primarily length and proppant concentration) of a propped fracture for which
you wish to design a pump schedule. You also specify any operational limitations (such as maximum blender proppant
concentration or pump rate). The simulator uses these parameters and automatically generates a pumping schedule to
achieve the desired specifications.

153

FracproPT 2007

The Fracture Design Parameters screen.

Pump Rate Options


Treatment Pumping Rate
Enter the pump rate you want to use in your design. Typically, you are limited in terms of this parameter because of pipe
(friction) and horsepower-cost limitations.

Pad Volume Options


User Specified Pad Volume
If you wish to manually specify the relative size of the pad volume, choose this option and then enter the size in the User
Specified Pad Volume Percentage field below. This option is useful if you have a fixed pad percentage that you prefer to
use.
FracproPT Calculated Pad Volume
If you wish to have FracproPT automatically determine the pad size, choose this option. If you wish, you can also modify
the program-determined pad volume by entering a positive or negative Calculated Pad Volume Extra Safety Margin
below. FracproPT determines the "ideal" pad volume, but you retain design control in that you can increase or decrease
the calculated pad volume by whatever percentage you enter below for Calculated Pad Volume Extra Safety Margin. If
you use the default value of 0 %, FracproPT finds a pad volume that allows slurry fluid to almost reach the fracture tip just
at the end of pumping. If you want to pump a larger pad than calculated, enter a positive percentage. If you want to pump
a smaller pad than calculated, enter a negative percentage.
Tip Screenout Design
Selecting this option tells FracproPT to attempt a tip screenout type design, meaning that the program picks the pad
volume such that the first proppant carrying stage has dehydrated enough to bank and stop fracture growth when the pad
leaks off completely. This is only feasible in formations with high fluid leakoff (that is, slurry efficiency less than about
40%). This type of design is based on leakoff causing the proppant to pack at the edge of the fracture. It is not based on
any bridging criteria at the fracture tip. If you wish, you can also modify the program-determined pad volume by entering a
positive or negative Calculated Pad Volume Extra Safety Margin below.

154

FracproPT 2007

User Specified Pad Volume Percentage / Calculated Pad Volume Extra Safety Margin
If you select the User Specified Pad Volume option above, you enter that pad volume (percentage) in this field. If you
select either the FracproPT Calculated Pad Volume or the Tip Screenout Design option above, you can use this field
to enter a number by which to modify (that is, add to or subract from) the pad volume calculated by the simulator. This
entry is defined as the pad-fluid percentage of the total slurry volume to be pumped.

Proppant Options
Range of Values for Proppant in Slurry at End of Pumping
This field is where you specify the final (surface) proppant concentration in your pump schedule. You do this in terms of a
range of final concentrations using Min and Max. For example, if you enter 5 for Min and 8 for Max, FracproPT will try to
design a job such that the last proppant concentration in it is greater than 5 ppg by no more than 8 ppg.
Available equipment, fluid type, and previous experience with the formation to be fracture treated, and economics typically
place some upper limits on the maximum proppant concentration that can be pumped. A minimum value should also be
entered to limit the lowest proppant concentrations in the slurry that you want to consider (which is primarily for time-toclosure and conductivity reasons).
Proppant Ramp Exponent Modifier
This parameter allows you to modify how fast the simulator steps-up proppant concentration in the treatment schedule,
thereby tailoring the FracproPT-generated proppant ramp to any desired shape.
If you are using the FracproPT Calculated Pad Volume Percentage option and a value close to 0% for the Calculated
Pad Volume Extra Safety Margin, the default entry of 1.0 produces a constant volume-fraction of proppant in slurry
throughout the fracture at the end of pumping, which minimizes the in-fracture density differences that drives proppant
convection. In high-efficiency (low fluid-loss) situations, the default value of 1.0 yields a very steep ramp up to the
maximum concentration. If you prefer a more gradual ramp, use a lower value (for example, 0.5 or 0.2). If you prefer an
even steeper ramp, use a value greater than 1.0.
Once the design iteration is completed, you can view the details of the proppant ramp, either graphically in the Proppant
Concentration versus Time display on the Fracture Design Control [F10] screen or numerically on the Treatment
Schedule [F6] screen.

Design Parameters
Desired Propped Fracture Length
Enter the desired propped-fracture length that you would like to generate with the design.
Fracture Area is Considered Propped for Conc > Than
You must specify a proppant concentration threshold here such that low-concentration parts of the fracture are not
considered propped. Only locations within the fracture having in-fracture proppant concentrations higher than this
threshold are considered propped. A typical value in low permeability reservoir situations is 0.2 pounds/square-foot, which
corresponds approximately to a packed single layer of 20/40-mesh proppant.
Desired Average Proppant Concentration in Fracture at End of Pumping
Specify a lower limit on in-fracture proppant concentration that you would like to see at the end of pumping in this field.
FracproPT attempts to exceed this user-entered value while staying within the user-specified Range of Values for
Proppant in Slurry at End of Pumping. If the value you enter cannot be achieved within the other specified limits, a
message is displayed indicating what specifications need to be changed.
Maximum Net Pressure Increase
Specify the maximum increase (above the average level before proppant starts) in net pressure that is tolerable in the
treatment.
% of Multiple Fracs Are Considered Conductive
This field becomes visible if you model the simultaneous growth of multiple hydraulic fractures on the MULTIPLE
FRACTURES [SHIFT+F7] screen. FracproPT already calculates the reduction in conductivity due to embedment and will
correct for that when designing a treatment schedule. If you believe that there is additional damage and that some of the
"equivalent" multiple fractures may not contribute to production, you can specify a number smaller that 100% here, and
FracproPT will correct this loss in conductivity.

Fracture Design Control - F10


Fracture Design Control [F10]
The fracture treatment size and proppant concentration necessary to achieve the required fracture conductivity were
approximated on the previous screen (that is, on the Treatment Selection [F8] screen). On this screen, in what is the
final step of the design process, the detailed pump schedule that is required to obtain an appropriate conductivity
distribution in the fracture (that is, as function of the distance from the wellbore) will be generated.

155

FracproPT 2007

The Fracture Design Control screen

Brief Instructions

The first step on this screen is to choose the "ideal" Conductivity Profile, which the actual conductivity
profile will be matched to as closely as possible.

FracproPT will be iterating to have the actual conductivity profile match the selected Conductivity Profile,
so the user must enter the Iteration Settings to control the process. The Current Error is weighted more
heavily toward the wellbore because it is more important to match the profile in that region than it is farther
toward the fracture tip.

To start the iteration, select the Fit Conductivity Profile function; it may take several minutes before
FracproPT finds the best fit to the Conductivity Profile. FracproPT will automatically change the ramp
schedule, pad size, and maximum proppant concentration as it iterates to find the best match the ideal
conductivity profile.

Finally, when the iteration completes and FracproPT has created a pump schedule that achieves the FcD
Goal and fracture dimensions, the Proppant Concentration vs. Time area of the screen will display a
graphical representation of the proppant schedule. Select Next to go to the Treatment Schedule [F6]
screen to view the pump schedule that has been generated.

Conductivity Profile
Select one of FracproPTs "ideal" conductivity profiles (that is, fracture conductivity as a function of distance from the
wellbore) to which the actual conductivity profile that results from the pump schedule will be matched as closely as
possible.

156

The Standard Profile is intended to minimize slurry density differences (after leakoff) in the fracture,
which will minimize proppant convection.

FracproPT 2007

The Linear Profile is simply a linear decrease in proppant concentration from the wellbore to the
fracture tip for linear fluid flow in long, confined fractures.

The Proprietary Profile minimizes the proppant required and maximizes the achievable fracture length
while ensuring a constant pressure drop along the fracture length.

Pre-Selected Design Parameters


Dimensionless Conductivity (FcD)
This parameter is for display purposes only. It was taken from the (approximate) treatment selected from the Treatment
Choices Table on the Treatment Selection [F8] screen.

Average Fracture Conductivity


This parameter is for display purposes only. It was taken from the (approximate) treatment selected from the Treatment
Choices Table on the Treatment Selection [F8] screen.

Fracture Half-Length
This parameter is for display purposes only. It was taken from the (approximate) treatment selected from the Treatment
Choices Table on the Treatment Selection [F8] screen.

Slurry Rate
This parameter is for display purposes only. It was taken from the (approximate) treatment selected from the Treatment
Choices Table on the Treatment Selection [F8] screen.

Max Proppant Concentration


This parameter is for display purposes only. It was taken from the (approximate) treatment selected from the Treatment
Choices Table on the Treatment Selection [F8] screen.

Selected Fluid
This is the fluid chosen on the Fluid Selection tab of the Fluid and Proppant Selection [F5] screen.

Selected Proppant
This is the proppant chosen on the Proppant Selection tab of the Fluid and Proppant Selection [F5] screen.

Current Fracture Results


Propped Length
As FracproPT iterates (that is, as the fracture model runs) to generate the final pump schedule, the final propped fracture
length of each completed iteration is shown in this field.

Fracture Efficiency
As FracproPT iterates (that is, as the fracture model runs) to generate the final pump schedule, the final fracture
efficiency of each completed iteration is shown in this field.

Dimensionless Conductivity (FcD)


As FracproPT iterates (that is, as the fracture model runs) to generate the final pump schedule, the dimensionless
conductivity of each completed iteration is shown in this field.

Average Prop Conc


As FracproPT iterates (that is, as the fracture model runs) to generate the final pump schedule, the average proppant
concentration in the fracture of each completed iteration is shown in this field.

Iteration Settings
Maximum # of Iterations

157

FracproPT 2007

Enter the maximum number of FracproPT iterations that should be completed during the process of generating the final
pump schedule. If an appropriate pump schedule is determined before reaching this number, the program will stop
automatically and display a graphical representation of the proppant schedule in the Proppant Concentration vs Time
viewing area.

Current Iteration
This uneditable field shows the number of the last iteration that was executed.

Max Error
Enter the maximum percent error that should be allowed during the process of generating the final pump schedule.

Current Error
This uneditable field shows the percent error of the last iteration that was executed.

Proppant Concentration vs Time


Once FracproPT iterates and generates the final pump schedule, the program will stop automatically and display a
graphical representation of the proppant schedule this viewing area.

Other Options
Run Treatment Schedule Iteration
Use this function to start the pump-schedule iteration process.

Stop
Use this function to stop the pump-schedule iteration process at any time.

Fracture Conductivity Profile Plot


Use this function to display a plot that compares the Ideal Conductivity and the Normalized Conductivity.

Next
Select this function to view the pump schedule that you just generated.

Quick Fracture Design Mode


Quick Fracture Design Control
The Quick Fracture Design Control screen is accessed by:

clicking on the Xpress Design button in the Navigation Tree

selecting from the main menu Options > Quick Fracture Design Mode

The Quick Fracture Design mode is part of FracproXPRESS. This mode provides for a quick single-screen approach to
fracture design for coarse preliminary simulations. The results can be transferred to the Fracture Design mode.
Only the following basic data needs to be entered:

well

formation of the layer above the payzone, the payzone, and the layer below the payzone

reservoir

fracturing model

treatment schedule or fracture dimensions

The Quick Fracture Design mode will then calculate either the Fracture Dimensions (from the Treatment Schedule) or
the Treatment Schedule (from the Fracture Dimensions).

158

FracproPT 2007

Quick Fracture Design Control screen


Reservoir and Well

Well

Well Fluid: This is the type of fluid that is pumped down the well.

Wellbore Volume: This is the volume of the wellbore.

Casing/Tubing ID: This is the inner diameter (ID) of the casing or tubing inside the well.

Formation Above Pay / Pay Zone / Formation Below Pay

Formation: This is the type of rock of the formation.

Closure Stress: This is the closure stress of the formation.

Youngs Modulus: This is the Youngs modulus of the formation.

Permeability: This is the permeability of the formation.

Top of Pay / Bottom of Pay: This is the true vertical depth (TVD) of the top or bottom of the
payzone.

Reservoir Pressure: This is the initial, ambient pressure of the reservoir.

ReservoirTemp: This is the initial, ambient temperature of the reservoir.

Reservoir Type: This is the type of hydrocarbon (Gas or Oil) that is to be produced from the
reservoir.

Porosity: This is the porosity of the reservoir.

Water Saturation: This is the water saturation of the reservoir.

Reservoir

159

FracproPT 2007

3D Fracture: This is the type of model for the hydraulic fracturing simulation. Built-in models are
displayed with a white background, and custom (calibrated) models are displayed with a yellow
background.

Treatment
If the Calc... Frac Dimensions from Treatment Schedule radio button is selected, then this sections is used to specify
the desired Quick Fracture Design parameters in terms of the Treatment Schedule.
If the Calc... Treatment from Frac Dimensions radio button is selected, then this section displays the results of the
Quick Fracture Design calculations in terms of the Treatment Schedule. The fields will be read-only.

Treatment Schedule Plot


This plot displays the treatment schedule in terms of the Design Rate and Design Conc versus Time.

Slurry Rate
This is the pump rate of the slurry for the Treatment Schedule.

Treatment Schedule Table


This table is used to specify or display the details of the Treatment Schedule.

Stage: Thjs is the type of stage.

Fluid: This is the fluid that is pumped during the stage.

Clean Vol: This is the volume of clean fluid that is pumped during the stage.

Prop Conc: This is the concentration of proppant that is pumped during the stage.

Stage Prop: This is the amount of proppant that is pumped during the stage.

Add Fluid: Press this button to add the selected fluid to the selected stage in the Treatment
Schedule table.

Add Proppant: Press this button to add the selected proppant to the selected stage in the Treatment
Schedule table.

Fracture Dimensions
If the Calculate... Frac Dimensions from Treatment Schedule radio button is selected, then this section displays the
results of the Quick Fracture Design calculations in terms of the Fracture Dimensions. The fields will be read-only.
If the Calculate... Treatment from Frac Dimensions radio button is selected, then this sections is used to specify the
desired Quick Fracture Design parameters in terms of the Fracture Dimensions.

Propped Half-Length: This is the half-length of the propped fracture after closure.

Propped Height: This is the height of the propped fracture after closure.

Avg. Width on Prop: This is average width of the propped fracture after closure.

FcD: This is the dimensionless conductivity, which is the ratio of the ability of a fracture to carry oil or
gas to the well to the ability of the formation to feed oil or gas into the fracture.
For conventional reservoirs it is widely accepted that one should design to achieve Fcd of 2. For tight
gas sands one needs an extra margin of safety with the optimum Fcd range being 8 to 10 to ensure
cleanup.

EOJ Net Pressure: This is the net pressure at the end of the job (EOJ).

EOJ Slurry Efficiency: This is the efficiency of the slurry at the end of the job (EOJ).

Frac Dimensions From Treatment Schedule: Select this radio button to calculate the Fracture
Dimensions from the Treatment Schedule.

Treatment Schedule From Frac Dimensions: Select this radio button to calculate the Treatment
Schedule from the Fracture Dimensions.

Calculate...

160

FracproPT 2007

Run: This button is only displayed if the Frac Dimensions From Treatment Schedule radio button
is selected. Press this button to run through the Quick Fracture Design calculations.

Iterate: This button is only displayed if the Treatment Schedule From Frac Dimensions radio
button is selected. Press this button to iterate through the Quick Fracture Design calculations.

Calculate... section of Quick Fracture Design Control screen

Calculate... section of Quick Fracture Design Control screen

FracproPTXPRESS
FracproXPRESS consists of the Quick Fracture Design mode and the Quick Minifrac Analysis mode. These two modes
provide for a quick single quick single-screen approach to fracture design and minifrac analysis for coarse preliminary
simulations. The results can be transferred to the Fracture Design mode and the Fracture Analysis mode, respectively.
Only the following basic data needs to be entered:

well

formation of the layer above the payzone, the payzone, and the layer below the payzone

reservoir

fracturing model (for the Quick Fracture Design mode)

treatment schedule or fracture dimensions (for the Quick Fracture Design mode)

perforations (for the Quick Minifrac Analysis mode)

The Quick Fracture Design mode will then calculate either the Fracture Dimensions (from the Treatment Schedule) or
the Treatment Schedule (from the Fracture Dimensions).
The Quick Minifrac Analysis modewill then calculate the results of a minifrac analysis from the measured minifrac data,
and an entered Treatment Schedule.

Fracture Analysis Mode


Overview - Fracture Analysis Mode
Fracture Analysis Mode is intended for detailed pre-frac design and also for real-data analysis and history matching. The
real-data analysis may be either in real-time, or post-frac with previously acquired treatment data. Like all other
FracproPT modes, Fracture Analysis Mode is selected from the
MAIN [F2] screen; a message is displayed in the
status bar at the bottom of the screen indicating that this mode is active.
When you select a mode from the MAIN screen, you can use the Next field to progress through a sequence of screens,
beginning with the
WELL AND TREATMENT INFORMATION [F3] screen and ending with the
SIMULATiON
CONTROL [F10] screen for that mode. The screens are listed here in the same order that you will see them if you use the
Next fields to progress through the sequence of screens.

Well and Treatment Information - F3


Well and Treatment Information General Information [F3]
The Well and Treatment Information - F3 screen is accessed by:

pressing the function key F3

clicking on Well&Treatment Info in the Navigation Tree

The General Information tab is the first tab on the Well and Treatment Information - F3 screen.

161

FracproPT 2007

This screen is used to enter various data and information, such as general comments, about the simulation represented
by this input file. Some of the information can be included automatically on plot titles and report page headers.
The information entered here is also displayed in the Input File Preview area of the standard FileOpen dialog. It can
also be used by the Input File Search utility that is also a part of that dialog.
Note:
The path and file name of the current input file are displayed at the top of this screen, which is common to all four
FracproPT modes.

General Information tab of the Well and Treatment Information screen


Well and Treatment Information Job Comments [F3]
The Well and Treatment Information screen - F3 is accessed by:

pressing the function key F3

clicking on Well&Treatment Info in the Navigation Tree

The Job Comments tab is the second tab on the Well and Treatment Information - F3 screen.
This screen is used to record, as a function of model time, information about noteworthy events that occur during a frac
job. Model time is displayed in the Status Bar in the lower-right corner of the FracproPT window.
For example, you may want to record the time a pump went down, when additives were started, or when you start the
wellbore flush. You can enter these comments manually on this screen, or you can right click on any channel of a

162

FracproPT 2007

particular plot, which you specify, to enter them more conveniently. Aside from being able to see all these events together
on this screen, you can also view (and print) these comments on the corresponding plot.

Job Comments tab of the Well and Treatment Information screen

Columns

Date: For database files that are collected or converted using FracproPT version 10.3, the date is
saved as part of the DBS file. The Date shown here comes from the database file and cannot be
edited. The Date column is not shown if the date is not present in the DBS file.

Time: For database files that are collected or converted using FracproPT version 10.3, the absolute
time is saved as part of the DBS file. The Time shown here comes from the database file and cannot
be edited. The Time column is not shown if the time is not present in the DBS file.

Database Time: You may enter the Database Time manually here. Or, if you are viewing the plot
selected for comments, you may right click on any data channel, select Add Comment and the
Database Time will be automatically entered in this table. If you enter the Database Time manually
and would rather type in decimal minutes, FracproPT will automatically convert the time to the
correct units.

Comments: Any comments corresponding to a particular time at which some event occurs should be
entered in this field.

Buttons

163

FracproPT 2007

Display Plot # from Plot List: This button allows you to view the plot on which all of the comments
should be included. The plot number refers to the number in the Plot Display List - ALT+F8 screen. If
you are in the selected plot, you may right click on any data channel, select Add Comment and the
Time will be automatically entered in this table.

Note:
These comments are shown only on the plot selected in this field.

Add Stage Comments: This function adds comments from the stages in the Treatment Schedule F6 screen.

Delete: This function deletes comment and time (that is, the entire row in the table) at the current
cursor position.

Delete All: This function deletes all of the comments and times in the Job Comments table.

Well and Treatment Information Fracture Diagnostic Results [F3]


The Well and Treatment Information - F3 screen is accessed by:

pressing the function key F3

clicking on Well&Treatment Info in the Navigation Tree

The Fracture Diagnostic Results tab is the third tab on the Well and Treatment Information - F3 screen.
This screen is used to record information about results from fracture diagnostics that is related to the frac job.

164

FracproPT 2007

Fracture Diagnostic Results tab of the Well and Treatment Information screen

Fracture Diagnostic
Enable or disable these checkboxes to indicate whether these measurements have been performed.

Microseismic Mapping

Treatment Well Tilt Mapping

Offset Well Tilt Mapping

Surface Tilt Mapping x

Temperature Logging

Tracer Logging

Numeric Fields
Enter the various properties of the fracture determined by fracture diagnostics into the appropriate numeric fields.

Fracture Half-Length

Total Fracture Height

Fracture Top

Fracture Bottom

Fracture Network Width

Stimulated Reservoir Volume

Fracture Azimuth

Fracture Dip

Fracture Asymmetry: Enable or disable this checkbox to indicate whether it has been determined
from fracture diagnostic results that the fracture is likely assymmetric.

Comments: Enter comments that are related to fracture diagnostic results in this textbox.

Fracture Analysis Options - F4


Fracture Analysis Main Options [F4]
This screen is where you choose from among the main options available for fracture simulation and analysis (that is, when
running in Fracture Analysis Mode).

165

FracproPT 2007

Main Options tab of the Fracture Analysis Options screen

Run Fracture and Wellbore Models From


Job-Design Data
If actual treatment data (real data) is not being input to the fracture model, selecting this option causes the fracture
simulator to run from the clean volume, flow rate, and sand concentration data shown on the
TREATMENT
SCHEDULE [F6] screen Design Treatment Schedule tab. The simulator also uses the fluids and proppants defined for
each stage on that screen tab.

Database Data
Select this option if real data exists in FracproPT's database format or ASCII or Excel format, and that you would like to
use as input to the fracture simulator (for example, data from a service company ASCII file converted using
DataConvertPT, or data previously recorded using FracproPT in real-time). Next, you must select the database file in
the Database File Location fields by choosing Select. Any database channels that you specify on the
CHANNEL
INPUTS FOR MODEL [Shift+F6] screen will be used as inputs to the fracture simulator. However, even when running the
simulator from database data, FracproPT still uses the stage times, fluid types, and proppant types specified on the
TREATMENT SCHEDULE [F6] screen.

Real-Time Data
Select this option when you are running FracproPT from real-time data (that is, using data being sent from a service
company data acquisition system). Any real-time channels that you specify on the
CHANNEL INPUTS FOR MODEL
[Shift+F6] screen will be used as inputs to the fracture simulator, however the stage times, fluid types, and proppant
types specified on the
TREATMENT SCHEDULE [F6] screen still used.

Fracture Model to Use


It should first be noted that there is really only one model in the FracproPT System, which is commonly referred to as a
lumped-parameter model. However, by choosing the correct values for certain parameters that control function of the
lumped model, it can be made to behave (in terms of pressures, dimensions, etc.) like any other model. In the FracproPT
System, six sets of parameters have been defined and hardwired into six of the model options available on this screen:

166

3D Shear-Decoupled (Default)

3D Tip-Dominated

3D Conventional (Linear Elastic)

2D PKN

FracproPT 2007

2D KGD

2D Radial

3D Shear-Decoupled (Default)
This is the new default model for FracproPT version 10.3. In hundreds of fracture treatments where Pinnacle has utilized
direct fracture diagnostics (microseismic fracture mapping and tiltmeter fracture mapping), we have seen that fracture
growth is in general more confined than we would initially think based on "classical" assumptions, for example the
presence of closure stress barriers or permeability barriers. In several cases, we have seen confined fracture growth
(length-height aspect ratios of 2 and larger) in areas with a single thick pay zone and no nearby barriers (see SPE paper
56724). It has long been postulated that this is due to a "composite layering effect". This composite layering effect causes
partial decoupling of the fracture width profile along layer interfaces, and results in slower fracture growth trough layer
interfaces (in fracture height).
The 3D Shear-Decoupled model predicts longer, more confined fractures caused by the introduction of an average
Composite Layering Effect (CLE) for the layers outside the Pay Zone. This average value is based on hundreds of
fracture treatment that were monitored using direct fracture diagnostics. As a result of greater confinement, net pressures
are typically also slightly higher for the 3D Shear-Decoupled model than for the 3D Tip-Dominated model. Note however,
that the Composite Layering Effect that is needed to match actual geometries can sometimes vary widely in different
regions and formations, and the default Composite Layering Effect of 25 (resulting in an estimated incremental
height/length growth of about 0.25 outside the pay) used in the 3D Shear-Decoupled model is only an average. All other
parameters for this model are the same as for the 3D Tip-Dominated model described below.

3D Tip-Dominated
This is the lumped 3D model developed for GRI, which is not a so-called pseudo 3D model. In general, the model predicts
shorter, wider fractures due to higher predicted net pressures that, in general, have been found to match very closely with
observed field data. In the 3D Tip-Dominated model, the most important parameter that is hardwired is the Tip Effect
Coefficient (see FRACPROPT MODEL PARAMETERS [Shift+F3] screen, FracproPT 3D Parameters tab), to a value of
0.0001.

3D Conventional (Linear Elastic)


This mode should give results very similar to those from the few other 3D models available. Note that this also is not a
pseudo 3D model, although it may predict similar results and it has many of the same problems (for example, low net
pressures and great sensitivity to fluid rheology). In the 3D Conventional model, the most important parameter that is
hardwired is the Tip Effect Coefficient (see FRACPROPT MODEL PARAMETERS [SHIFT+F3] screen, FracproPT 3D
Parameters tab), to a value of 0.4.

3D Calibrated
To load a calibrated settings file, select this 3D Calibrated radio button and then select the appropriate file in the
associated combo box on the left. Only engineers from Pinnacle can save and generate these calibrated settings files,
which are located in the FracproPT program folder (for example, for a default installation: c:\Program Files\Pinnacle
Technologies\FracproPT\Program) as CMS-files (Calibrated Model Settings).
Pinnacle has learned from direct fracture diagnostic data, such as tiltmeter fracture mapping and micro-seismic fracture
mapping, that fractures can grow very differently in different environments. In some areas, the default settings in fracture
models accurately predict directly observed fracture growth, but in other areas these default settings do not accurately
reflect actual fracture growth. In these areas, the default model settings do not provide an accurate description of fracture
growth, and other physical mechanisms such composite layering effects should be introduced by changing the default
fracture model parameters to provide a calibrated 3D model.
Pinnacle has provided some model settings that have been released for publication in this category, and the number of
released model settings keeps on growing as we learn more about fracture growth behavior in more regions and
formations. Note that Pinnacle also distributes confidential calibrated model settings to clients that have utilized our
fracture mapping services.
If a 3D Calibrated model is selected, the FracproPT logo on the Navigation Bar and in hardcopies of plots changes to the
FracproXACT logo, indicating that model settings were used that tie back to direct measurements of fracture growth in
that environment. This should provide a better estimate of fracture growth behavior for that specific region of formation
that one of the "hardwired" model settings.

3D User-Defined
If you routinely change the default model parameters for your work in one or more areas, you can save those model
parameters and easily recall them at any time.

Saving a User-Defined Model You first select this 3D User-Defined option and then go to the
FracproPT 3D Parameters tab of the FRACproPT MODEL PARAMETERS [Shift-F3] screen and

167

FracproPT 2007

change any of the model parameters. While still on this screen and after making your changes, press
the Save These Settings As A User-Defined Parameter File, which will create and save a UMS-file
(User-defined Model Settings) in the FracproPT program folder (for example, c:\Program
Files\Pinnacle Technologies\FracproPT\Program).

Using a User-Defined Model Press the Load These Settings As A User-Defined Parameter File
and then select the desired UMS-file. Of course you must have first created or copied a UMS-file
before you can select one.

2D
You can choose from among the three common 2D models using this drop-down list.

PKN 2D Model This is one of the classical 2D models with constant (specified) height and width
proportional to height. It is still often used (with high gel viscosity) to force a pressure "match" in the
later treatment stages, almost always ignoring early pressure data that results from water injection.

KGD 2D Model This is one of the classical 2D models with constant (specified) height and with
width proportional to length. It can rarely be used to match measured pressures (except perhaps with
forced use of backstress).

Radial Model This is one of the classical 2D models. The model assumes axisymmetry in radial
growth.

The 2D PKN and 2D KGD models do not, in general, give reasonable answers, even in reservoirs where there is almost
perfect containment, due to their unrealistically low net fracturing pressure predictions. The same is true of the 2D radial
model, even in homogeneous reservoirs where radial fractures may indeed be created. The 2D radial model generally
predicts dramatically lower net fracturing pressures than are observed in the field and, thus, predicts fractures with much
larger radii and much smaller widths than are actually created.
The 2D models are available in FracproPT for a number of reasons. Results (especially dimensions) from the 2D models
can be compared to 3D results. As well, the 2D models can be used in an attempt to match observed net pressures, a
process that should readily demonstrate their inadequacy. Also, the 2D models can be used as a starting point for
understanding typical fracture treatment designs provided to you on the basis of other 2D models.

Other Options
FracproPT Model Parameters
Select this button as a shortcut to get to the FracproPT Model Parameters [Shift+F3] screen.
Fracture Analysis Additional Options [F4]
This screen is where you choose from among the numerous, but less often used, options available for fracture simulation
and analysis (that is, when running in Fracture Analysis Mode).

168

FracproPT 2007

Additional Options tab of the Fracture Analysis Options screen

Fracture Model Options


Leakoff Model
FracproPT has three leakoff models, which are described below. Due to recent leakoff model changes and additions, you
may see certain messages when loading input files from previous FracproPT versions or when you switch between the
three leakoff model options. Select the button below to read about these messages.
Additional Information: Leakoff Model Options

Lumped-Parameter (Default)
This is the original leakoff model used in the FracproPT system. It can best be described as a classical leakoff model in
terms of the physics that are modeled, however it has been formulated such that it executes extremely fast (that is, for
real-time analysis). The model formulation gives rise to the model characterization as "lumped."
This model generally works quite well in most situations, however it may lose accuracy in higher permeability situations
and in reservoirs with complex permeability profiles (that is, when permeability varies significantly with depth).
Additional details regarding the Lumped-Parameter Model can be found in the FracproPT Technical Description section of
Help.

Grid-Based Classical
This is a classical leakoff model in terms of the physics that are modeled. However, this model overlays a grid on the
fracture face and tracks the leakoff history of each individual grid block in time. In general, this model should be more
accurate than the Lumped-Parameter Model, but it is also noticeably slower and the difference between it and the
Lumped-Parameter Model will most often be very small. Use this model if you have permeability contrast of at least 2
orders of magnitude.
Additional details regarding the Grid-Based Classical Model can be found in the FracproPT Technical Description section
of Help.

Grid-Based FLIC
This model is similar to the Grid-Based Classical model, however two additional physical processes are accounted for:
Dynamic filter cake buildup and non-Newtonian gel invasion into the reservoir. Use this model if you have a pay zone
permeability of at least 100 mD.

169

FracproPT 2007

Additional details regarding the Grid-Based FLIC Model can be found in the FracproPT Technical Description section of
Help.

Backstress
Ignore
Backstress is the change in formation closure stress induced by elevated (or reduced) pore pressure, which is caused by
fluid leakoff from the fracture (or production from the reservoir). In reservoirs that are not near 100% liquid saturation (that
is, dry gas reservoirs), the increase in backstress is usually not significant and may needlessly complicate the analysis
and slow numerical computations. In such cases, you should choose to ignore this option.

Model
This option should be used only when there is relatively high fluid leakoff, very high fluid saturation, and (therefore) low
pore-fluid compressibility (for example, in oil reservoirs). Sometimes, measured data provides a justification to Model
Backstress when the fracture closure stress (measure using pressure decline analysis) continues to increase with
subsequent injections.

Acid Fracturing Model


FracproPT (Default)
If you define a fluid containing acid on the Fluid and Proppant Selection [F5] screen, FracproPTs fracture model will
be used to estimate the geometry and etching of an acid frac treatment. Details regarding the acid reactivity model can be
found in the FracproPT Technical Description section of Help.

ADP
If you are an authorized user of FracproPT, you will have the choice of choosing an acid reactivity model based on a
proprietary acid frac model.

Growth After Shut-In


Allow
This is the default and recommended option. Fracture growth at shut-in, forward or backward, almost always plays a
significant role in correctly interpreting pressure-decline behavior (particularly in very high efficiency or very low efficiency
situations). Use this option when pressure decline behavior is concave, with fast decline at early times due to tip
extensions and slower decline near fracture closure as the fracture tip recedes back to the wellbore.

Freeze Dimensions
Most other fracture models generally freeze fracture dimensions at shut in, so this option is provided (primarily) for
comparison purposes. Also, certain stress profiles may sometimes cause near-discontinuous fracture growth from the
simulator after shut-in. Use this option when pressure decline behavior shows an almost constant slope.

Proppant Transport Model


Settling
Selecting Proppant Settling allows settling of proppant in the fracture based primarily on fluid viscosity and particle
diameter (that is, Stokes Law). Use this option for slickwater treatments, where proppant settling is the main downward
proppant transport mechanism.

Convection
Proppant Convection may be a dominant mechanism for proppant transport and placement in hydraulic-fracture
stimulation treatments. However, the convective process will be slowed impeded by fracture offsets (for example, at
bedding planes), narrow fractures (for example, when multiple fractures are created), and highly viscous fluids in the
fracture.
Proppant Convection is a process whereby heavier treatment stages (for example, proppant stages) displace rapidly
downward from the perforations to the bottom of the fracture. Those stages nearest the perforations may then be replaced
by the pad or by low-concentration proppant stages.

170

FracproPT 2007

Use this option for linear or crosslink gel treatments, where proppant convection is generally more important than
proppant settling.

No Convection or Settling
No Convection or Settling should be selected only when modeling a horizontal fracture where those effects can be
ignored.

Fracture Orientation
Vertical
Vertical Fracture is generally selected. The FRACTURE PICTURE [Alt+F5] screen, the STAGE PROFILE PICTURE
[Ctrl+F5] screen, and the WIDTH PROFILE PICTURE [Alt+F7] screen all show a vertical fracture with a depth scale and
a vertical profile of the minimum horizontal stress.

Horizontal
If you select Horizontal Fracture, FracproPT grows a horizontal fracture at the Initial Frac Depth shown on the
RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen. You must first select Lithology Based Reservoir (in another section of this
FRACTURE ANALYSIS OPTIONS [F4] screen) before selecting Horizontal Fracture. The FRACTURE PICTURE
[Alt+F5] screen, the STAGE PROFILE PICTURE [Ctrl+F5] screen, and the WIDTH PROFILE PICTURE [Alt+F7] screen
display the horizontal fracture, but with a vertical screen orientation.

Heat Transfer Effects


Ignore
If you choose this option, the fluid is assumed to be at reservoir temperature as soon as it enters the fracture. This can
save some CPU time on slower computers.

Model
Choosing this option activates FracproPT's wellbore temperature model. The calculated bottomhole temperature of the
pumped fluids is then passed to the fracture model where any additional heat transfer between the reservoir rock and the
pumped fluids is calculated. Various parameters for the model are entered on the WELLBORE HEAT TRANSFER
screen, which is accessed by selecting Wellbore Heat Transfer from the WELLBORE CONFIGURATION [F7] screen.

Wellbore Model Options


Run Fracture and Wellbore Models
This is the default and most often used of these options. As the name implies, both the fracture and the wellbore models
are run.

Run Wellbore Model Only


You may choose Run Wellbore Model Only while going through the process of removing all friction from measured
pressure data. Doing so causes FracproPT to run much faster. This option is very useful for large treatments where the
user is trying to determine and subtract friction from the measured pressure data near the end of pumping. This option
temporarily disables the fracture model. Once all of the friction is accounted for, the fracture model may be reactivated.

Run Fracture Model Only


If Run From Job-Design Data is selected and only net fracturing pressures and fracture growth are of interest to you, it is
possible to the wellbore and perforations in terms of predicting fracture growth. However, the wellbore and perforations
must be modeled to predict surface pressure.

Multiple Perf Intervals


Limited Entry Simplified Iteration
This option can be selected to allow the flow split between multiple perforated intervals to be calculated solely on the
basis of the total perforation area for each zone. This option runs faster than the Limited Entry General Iteration
(described below), but it will give valid results only if the number of perforations is actually controlling the flow split.
Note:

171

FracproPT 2007

This was previously known as Limited Entry Iteration Simlified Iteration.

Limited Entry General Iteration


This is the default option, which should be used in general. In a true limited entry situation, this option will give the same
results as the Limited Entry Simplified Iteration option, but it will run somewhat slower. This option takes into account
perforation friction, near-wellbore friction, wellbore friction between perforations, hydrostatic pressure differences between
perforations, and net pressure in the fracture.

Multiple Fracture Stages


This option can be selected to set-up multiple fracture stages within a single job. This option will execute subsequent
fracture simulations for each stage. Consequently, the computation time will typically be a multitude of the computation
time for a single fracture simulation.

Reservoir Data-Entry Options


Lithology Based
If you select Lithology Based Reservoir, all mechanical properties (for opening, etc.), all chemical properties (for
acidizing), and all thermal properties (for injection-fluid heating and reservoir cooling) will be input to the simulator based
on rock type and a single set of depths.
In general, this is the most convenient way to specify model inputs. Once you have constructed your Lithology Based
Reservoir, FracproPT can automatically convert it to a General Reservoir if necessary. Unfortunately, there is no way to
convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir without loosing some of this data. However, you should
rarely, if ever, want or need to convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir.
Use this type of data entry if you do not know many properties about the reservoir, and if you want to set up a layered
profile quickly. Once you assigned the main properties of the lithologies that you are using and defining the depth of
individual layers, you are ready to start modeling.

General Multi-Scale
If you select General Multi-Scale Reservoir, you will enter each of the mechanical properties (for example, stress,
modulus, etc.) with its own independent set of layer depths. Chemical properties (for acidizing) and thermal properties (for
injection-fluid heating and reservoir cooling) are input to the simulator based on rock type and a single set of depths.
FracproPT can automatically convert a Lithology Based Reservoir to a General Reservoir, if necessary. Unfortunately,
there is no way to convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir without loosing some of this data.
However, you should rarely, if ever, want or need to convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir.
Use this type of data entry if you can assign reservoir properties using various different log files and if you have no log
information on other parameters. Once you have assigned specific properties using the Log-Layer Editor, you need to
provide only a few entries for estimates of properties on which you do not have more specific data.

General Single Scale


If you select General Reservoir, you will enter each of the mechanical properties (for example, stress, modulus, etc.) with
its own independent set of layer depths. Chemical properties (for acidizing) and thermal properties (for injection-fluid
heating and reservoir cooling) are input to the simulator based on rock type and a single set of depths.
FracproPT can automatically convert a Lithology Based Reservoir to a General Reservoir, if necessary. Unfortunately,
there is no way to convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir without loosing some of this data.
However, you should rarely, if ever, want or need to convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir.
Use this type of data entry if you can assign all reservoir properties different log files. Once you have assigned specific
properties using the Log-Layer Editor, you are ready to use the model.

Real-Time Use
Real-Time Control [Ctrl+F1]
This screen is where real-time data from a treatment is input to FracproPT. Note that this screen will automatically
become available in the FracproPT Next-loop if Run Fracture and Wellbore Models from Real-Time Data is
selected on the FRACTURE ANALYSIS OPTIONS [F4] screen.
The data is received from DataAcqPT, which can be configured to accept data from a variety of sources, such as direct
serial (cable) connection, a cellular phone/modem connection to a service company computer system or from a shared
network file. FracproPT then reads the data from that file in real-time.

172

FracproPT 2007

Recording service company data on-site is a relatively simple procedure since all of the major service companies routinely
provide data to computers running FracproPT on site, either for clients or for themselves. In general, you should notify the
service company well before going to the field so that they can make sure their field personnel can transmit the data to
you without difficulty. You can also collect real-time data for FracproPT modeling remotely by using a modem to receive
data from the service company computer at the well site. Further details on both setups for receiving real-time data can be
found in the DataAcqPT Help system.
Most data shown on the REAL-TIME CONTROL screen are read directly from DataAcqPT and are displayed for control
purposes in read-only format.

The Real-Time Control screen

Starting Data Acquisition

Select Load DataAcqPT on this screen to start the data acquisition program, DataAcqPT.

Once the set up is completed, select Start to begin data acquisition.

Once data acquisition has started in DataAcqPT, FracproPT automatically starts receiving data.

FracproPT is collecting and saving real-time data and is ready for real-time use.

From the DataAcqPT main screen, select Setup to prepare for data acquisition (from within DataAcqPT,
press F1 or select Help to view detailed instructions on how to set up and start the data acquisition
program).

Return to this screen in FracproPT, either by minimizing DataAcqPT or selecting FracproPTs icon on the
taskbar.

Using the Select checkboxes in the DataAcqPT Data Table or the Select All function, select the channels
being passed from DataAcqPT to FracproPT that you wish to use from the database file that DataAcqPT
is generating.

DataAcqPT Data
Data Format
This shows the format of the data currently being received from DataAcqPT.

173

FracproPT 2007

Columns

DataAcqPT Channels
This column lists all channels received from DataAcqPT. Channel names are specified during setup
procedure inside DataAcqPT and cannot be edited here. To edit channel names, you must switch
back to DataAcqPT, either by selecting Go to DataAcqPT or by selecting the DataAcqPT icon on
the taskbar.
Unit
This column displays the units for each data channel received. Units are specified during setup of
DataAcqPT and cannot be edited here. To edit the units, you must switch back to DataAcqPT, either
by selecting Load DataAcqPT / Go To DataAcqPT or by selecting the DataAcqPT icon on the
taskbar.
ID
This column displays the 4-character channel IDs for each channel received. IDs are specified
during setup of DataAcqPT and cannot be edited here. To edit the IDs, you must switch back to
DataAcqPT, either by selecting Show Server or by selecting the DataAcqPT icon on the taskbar.
Incoming Data
This column shows the numeric values for each channel of incoming data received from DataAcqPT.
Select
The check boxes in this column allow you to select and unselect individual channels for use in
FracproPT.

Buttons

Select All
By selecting this function, all channels being received from DataAcqPT are marked as selected for
use in FracproPT.
Unselect All
By selecting this function, all channels being received from DataAcqPT are unmarked for use in
FracproPT.

ACQUISITION PROGRESS
Status
This field indicates the Status of data transmission, which displays either On or Off to indicate that FracproPT is
connected or disconnected from DataAcqPT. However, even though On may be displayed, you must also make sure that
DataAcqPT is activated and receiving data.
Records Received
This field displays the number of records (data lines) received by FracproPT from DataAcqPT. The maximum expected
number of data records (Maximum Acquisition Time in minutes from DataAcqPT * 60 / Time Step from DataAcqPT) is
displayed in parentheses.
Channels Received
This field shows the total number of data channels (both selected and unselected) received by FracproPT from
DataAcqPT. Currently, FracproPT can receive a maximum of 45 channels.
Channels To Be Acquired
This field displays the number of selected data channels being used by FracproPT (that is, the number of selected
channels). Currently, FracproPT can acquire a maximum of 45 channels.

DATA ACQUISITION CONTROL


Load DataAcqPT / Go to DataAcqPT
This control switches between these two labels, depending on whether or not DataAcqPT is active.
If DataAcqPT is not active, then Load DataAcqPT activates and switches the focus to the data acquisition program. If
DataAcqPT is already active, then Go to DataAcqPT simply switches focus to it.
Real-Time Channels [Ctrl+F2]
This screen allows you to view the numeric values of all incoming data channels being received by FracproPT from
DataAcqPT.

174

FracproPT 2007

The Real-Time Channels screen.

Channel Name
Channel Name is where the name of each data channel is displayed.

Unit
The corresponding unit is displayed for each channel in the Unit column. Units are specified during setup of DataAcqPT
and cannot be edited here. These Units will show up on all on-screen and hardcopy plots and printouts.

ID
ID is the 4-letter identifier for each data channel. IDs are specified during setup of DataAcqPT and cannot be edited here.
These IDs will show up on all on-screen and hardcopy plots and printouts.

Multiplier
Multiplier values are for display only: they are specified during setup of DataAcqPT and cannot be edited here.

Offset
Offset values are for display only: they are specified during setup of the DataAcqPT and cannot be edited here.

Unscaled Value
Unscaled Value displays the "raw" data as received by DataAcqPT.

Scaled Value
Scaled Value displays the data as used and stored in the FracproPT database. Scaled Value is the Unscaled Value after
being scaled by the Multiplier and the Offset.

Channel Inputs for Model - Shift + F6


Channel Inputs for Model [Shift+F6]
This screen is where you specify one or more channels of real data (either real-time data or data from a FracproPT
database) as simulator inputs. Of course, all simulator inputs can come from the TREATMENT SCHEDULE [F6] screen
as well. If you choose Run From Job Design Data on the FRACTURE SIMULATION OPTIONS [F4] screen, this screen is
not accessible since, by definition, all inputs come from the treatment schedule.

175

FracproPT 2007

The Channel Inputs for Model screen.


You can also use this screen to identify production data inputs. If you choose Production Constraints Come From
User Entered Table on the production analysis OPTIONS [F4] screen, this screen is not accessible since, by definition,
all inputs come from the WELL PRODUCTION [F6] screen. Production Constraints tab.

176

FracproPT 2007

The Channel Inputs for Model screen.

Model Input Channels


The first column in the menu shows the various Model Input Channels that may be input from real data. You do not have
to specify all of these channels as real-data inputs to the model. For example, you can use measured flow rate data along
with job-design sand-concentration data, or vice-versa.

Unit
This column displays the unit for each of the Model Input Channels.

Database Channel Names / Real-Time Channel Names


This column is where real data (either database or real-time) channel names are entered. To select real data channel as
simulator input, simply select the corresponding cell to activate a drop-down list that will display all channels from the realtime or database inputs. To delete a channel from a field, select the line from the drop-down list that contains only "-".

Observed Net Pressure Calculation Mode


There are two net pressures that are involved in the net pressure history matching process; Observed Net Pressure and
Net Pressure.
Observed Net Pressure, which is somewhat of a misnomer, is calculated from some measured pressure (surface, dead
string, or bottomhole), closure stress where the fracture initiates, and the outputs from FracproPTs wellbore, perforation,
and near-wellbore friction models. The accuracy of the Observed Net Pressure calculation depends on what measured
pressure is available. Bottomhole pressure provides the most accuracy, followed by dead string pressure, and then finally
surface pressure. FracproPT will automatically select the most accurate channel in this same order, unless the user
selects otherwise.
Net Pressure is calculated by FracproPTs fracture model, based on the fluid and proppant flowing into the formation, as
well as the best estimate for the reservoir properties (for example, stress, modulus, permeability, etc.).
The ultimate goal of net pressure history matching is to first ensure an accurate calculation of Observed Net Pressure,
and then to make Net Pressure match it.

177

FracproPT 2007

After specifying the real-data model inputs (either real-time or database), you must choose an Observed Net Pressure
Calculation Mode from among the available options. The number of options (up to the maximum of four) and your final
choice depend upon what measured pressure data you specify as model inputs.

Observed Net Not Calculated


If no real-data channels are specified for any of the pressure inputs (that is, Treating Pressure, Bottomhole Pressure, or
Dead String Pressure), this is the only option available.

From Dead String Pressure


If you have specified a real-data input for Dead String Pressure, this option will be available. When you select this mode,
you must enter the (fluid) Dead String SG, which is the density expressed in terms of specific gravity.
The measured Dead String Pressure is read directly into the simulator from the database or real-time data and the
hydrostatic pressure of the fluid in the wellbore (down to the perforations) is added to it. The total hydrostatic pressure is
comprised of two components: the hydrostatic pressure within the dead string and the hydrostatic pressure from the end
of the dead string down to the center of the fracture. Any wellbore friction present from the bottom of the dead string down
to the perforations is then subtracted from the result to yield what is referred to in the simulator as the Measured
Bottomhole Pressure.
Perf Friction, Near Wellbore Friction, (as calculated from the actual flow rate and data entered on the PERF AND NEARWELLBORE FRICTION [F8] screen) and closure stress in the pay zone (as taken from the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS
[F9] screen) are then subtracted from the Measured Bottomhole Pressure to yield the Observed Net Pressure. The
proceeding is reflected in the following equation:

From Bottomhole Pressure


If you have specified a real-data input for Bottomhole Pressure, this option will be available. When you select this mode,
you must enter the Measured Depth to Bottomhole Gauge.
The measured Bottomhole Pressure is read directly into the simulator from the database or real-time data and the
hydrostatic pressure of the fluid in the wellbore from Measured Depth to Bottomhole Gauge down to the perforations is
added to it. Any wellbore friction present from the Measured Depth to Bottomhole Gauge down to the perforations is then
subtracted from the result to yield what is referred to in the simulator as the Measured Bottomhole Pressure.
Perf Friction, Near Wellbore Friction, (as calculated from the actual flow rate and data entered on the PERF AND NEARWELLBORE FRICTION [F8] screen) and closure stress in the pay zone (as taken from the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS
[F9] screen) are then subtracted from the Measured Bottomhole Pressure to yield the Observed Net Pressure. The
proceeding is reflected in the following equation:

From Surface Treating Pressure


If you have specified a real-data input for Surface Treating Pressure, this option will be available. The measured Surface
Treating Pressure is read directly into the simulator from the database or real-time data and the hydrostatic pressure of
the fluid in the wellbore (from the surface down to the perforations) is added to it. Any wellbore friction (from the surface
down to the perforations) is then subtracted from the result to yield what is referred to in the simulator as the Measured
Bottomhole Pressure.
Perf Friction, Near Wellbore Friction, (as calculated from the actual flow rate and data entered on the PERF AND NEARWELLBORE FRICTION [F8] screen) and closure stress in the pay zone (as taken from the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS
[F9] screen) are then subtracted from the Measured Bottomhole Pressure to yield the Observed Net Pressure. The
proceeding is reflected in the following equation:

Other Functions
View Measured Data
Selecting View Measured Data takes you to a plot of the Measured Data (for example, the channels entered on this
screen, incorporated in automatic plot #36 on the PLOT LIST [ALT+F8] screen).
From that plot screen, you may choose the Cursor Editing option in order to simplify synchronization of the TREATMENT
SCHEDULE [F6] (that is, the stage lengths, fluid types, and proppant types used for each stage) with the measured data.
Specific information about this option is available in the Cursor Editing help screen.

Production History Matching


Production history matching can be done using either rates or pressures. You can select the rates or pressures that have
been measured, and the Production Analysis module in FracproPT can provide the equivalent parameter from the model
for matching purposes.

178

FracproPT 2007

No Producing Pressure Available


If no real-data channels are specified for any of the pressure inputs (that is, Producing Pressure, Bottomhole Pressure, or
Dead String Pressure), this is the only option available.

From Bottomhole Pressure


If you have specified a real-data input for Btm Producing Pressure, this option will be available. When you select this
mode, you must enter the Measured Depth to Bottomhole Gauge.
The measured Btm Producing Pressure is read directly into the simulator from the database and the hydrostatic pressure
of the fluid in the wellbore from Measured Depth to Bottomhole Gauge down to the perforations is added to it. Any
wellbore friction present from the Measured Depth to Bottomhole Gauge down to the perforations is then subtracted from
the result to yield what is referred to in the simulator as the Measd Btm Press.

From Surface Pressure


If you have specified a real-data input for Surf Producing Pressure, this option will be available. The measured Surface
Producing Pressure is read directly into the simulator from the database and the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid in the
wellbore (from the surface down to the perforations) is added to it. Any wellbore friction (from the surface down to the
perforations) is then subtracted from the result to yield what is referred to in the simulator as the Measd Btm Press.

Other Functions
View Measured Data
Selecting View Measured Data takes you to a plot of the Measured Data (for example, the channels entered on this
screen, incorporated in automatic plot #36 on the PLOT LIST [ALT+F8] screen).

Wellbore Configuration - F7
Wellbore Configuration Drilled Hole [F7]
This screen allows you to specify how the wellbore is configured. FracproPT builds the wellbore from a number (up to 20)
of discrete wellbore segments.
The well configuration, including perforations, is typically input in five discrete sections, each with a representative tab on
this screen:

Drilled Hole Tab


Casing Tab
Surface Line/Tubing Tab
Perforated Intervals Tab
Directional Survey Tab

Note that the information on this tab is NOT used for any of the calculations in FracproPT. The only time this information is
used is for the SCHEMATIC VIEW, the 2D SCHEMATIC VIEW and WELLBORE VIEWER, all of which can be selected
from the icon bar or the FracproPT Menu > View.

179

FracproPT 2007

The Drilled Hole tab of the Wellbore Configuration screen.

Drilled Hole Tab


This table is used to enter the geometry of the hole as drilled.
Note:
Drilled Hole information is not required. However, if you want the wellbore Schematic Viewers to be accurately
depicted you should enter the Drilled Hole information.

Segment #
The first column shows the Segment #. Up to 20 different segments can be specified. Whole segments (that is, rows in
the table) may be added or deleted: A blank line is inserted at the current cursor position by highlighting a Segment # and
pressing [Ins], while a line is deleted by highlighting a Segment # and pressing [Del].

Length
Length refers to the measured length, not the true vertical length, of the segment. The sum of all Length entries is the
measured depth (MD) of the wellbore. Depending on the choice made in the Compute selection box (described below),
Length may either be entered or it may be calculated based on entries for Top MD (measured depth at the beginning of
the segment) and Bottom MD (measured depth at the end of the segment). If Length is calculated, it will show up in blue.

Top MD
Top MD is the measured depth at the beginning of the segment. Depending on the choice made in the Compute selection
box (described below), Top MD may either be entered or it may be calculated based on entries for Length (the measured
length of the segment) and Bottom MD (measured depth at the end of the segment). If Top MD is calculated, it will show
up in blue.

Bottom MD
Bottom MD is the measured depth at the end of the segment. Depending on the choice made in the Compute selection
box (described below), Bottom MD may either be entered or it may be calculated based on entries for Length (the

180

FracproPT 2007

measured length of the segment) and Top MD (measured depth at the beginning of the segment). If Bottom MD is
calculated, it will show up in blue.

Open Hole
This column contains a selection box that allows you to choose whether this segment is open hole (Open Hole) or
cemented open hole (Cemented OH). This choice affects only the wellbore schematic views, not the model results.

Bit Diameter
You enter the Bit Diameter in this column. This entry affects only the wellbore schematic views, not the model results.

Effective Diameter
You enter the Effective Diameter of the drilled hole in this column. This choice affects only the wellbore schematic views,
not the model results.

Other Options
Injection is Down
Select Tubing, Annulus, or Casing to specify the path in the wellbore through which treatment fluids flow to the
perforations.

If you select Tubing, fluid will flow through the tubing in any wellbore segments where tubing is
present and through the casing in any wellbore segments where tubing is not present.

If you select Annulus, fluid will flow through the casing/tubing annulus in any wellbore segments
where tubing is present and through the casing in any wellbore segments where tubing is not present.

Frac String Partially Full / Frac String Full

Select Frac String Full if the wellbore is completely full of fluid at the start of pumping. In this case,
Frac String Volume and zotal Frac String Volume are non-editable fields and will display the same
values.

Select Frac String Partially Full if the wellbore is not completely full of fluid at the start of pumping,
and then enter the volume of fluid in the frac string in the Frac String Volume field. In this case Total
Frac String Volume is a non-editable field and shows the total volume of the frac string.

Compute
Using the Compute selection box to select one of three options for entering the depth/length data for each wellbore
segment:

Length Length for each segment is calculated from entries for Top MD and Bottom MD for each
segment.

Top MD Top MD for each segment is calculated from entries for Length and Bottom MD for each
segment.

Bottom MD Bottom MD for each segment is calculated from entries for Length and Top MD for each
segment.

The Compute option can be changed at any time, and it is not necessary to use the same option for whole sections of
Drilled Hole, Casing, or Surface Line/Tubing.
Wellbore Configuration Casing [F7]
This screen allows you to specify how the wellbore is configured. FracproPT builds the wellbore from a number (up to 20)
of discrete wellbore segments.
The well configuration, including perforations, is typically input in five discrete sections, each with a representative tab on
this screen:

Drilled Hole Tab


Casing Tab
Surface Line/Tubing Tab
Perforated Intervals Tab

181

FracproPT 2007

Directional Survey Tab

The Casing tab of the Wellbore Configuration screen.

Casing
This table is used to describe the casing, whether or not any or the entire casing is actually the pipe string used to carry
the treatment fluids. The Top MD entry for segment number one defaults to zero. For each segment, the user must enter
the OD and ID, while Weight and Grade are optional.

Segment #
The first column shows the Segment #. Up to 20 different segments can be specified. Whole segments (that is, rows in
the table) may be added or deleted: A blank line is inserted at the current cursor position by highlighting a Segment # and
pressing [Ins], while a line is deleted by highlighting a Segment # and pressing [Del].

Length
Length refers to the measured length, not the true vertical length, of the segment. The sum of all Length entries is the
measured depth (MD) of the wellbore. Depending on the choice made in the Compute selection box (described below),
Length may either be entered or it may be calculated based on entries for Top MD (measured depth at the beginning of
the segment) and Bottom MD (measured depth at the end of the segment). If Length is calculated, it will show up in blue.

Top MD
Top MD is the measured depth at the beginning of the segment. Depending on the choice made in the Compute selection
box (described below), Top MD may either be entered or it may be calculated based on entries for Length (the measured
length of the segment) and Bottom MD (measured depth at the end of the segment). If Top MD is calculated, it will show
up in blue.

Bottom MD
Bottom MD is the measured depth at the end of the segment. Depending on the choice made in the Compute selection
box (described below), Bottom MD may either be entered or it may be calculated based on entries for Length (the

182

FracproPT 2007

measured length of the segment) and Top MD (measured depth at the beginning of the segment). If Bottom MD is
calculated, it will show up in blue.

Casing
This column contains a selection box that allows you to choose whether this segment is Cemented Casing or Free
Casing that is not cemented. This choice affects only the wellbore schematic views, not the model results.

OD
Select a casing outer diameter (OD) for this segment from the Casing Library that contains all standard API casing
diameters or enter the OD directly if the casing is not of a standard API diameter.

Weight
Select a casing Weight for this segment from the Casing Library or enter the Weight directly.

ID
If you selected a casing OD and Weight for this segment from the Casing Library, the corresponding casing inner
diameter (ID) will already be entered. Alternatively, you may enter the ID directly.

Grade
Select a casing grade for this segment from the selection box. This information is not currently used for anything other
than display and record-keeping purposes.

Other Options
Injection is Down
Select Tubing, Annulus, or Casing to specify the path in the wellbore through which treatment fluids flow to the
perforations.

If you select Tubing, fluid will flow through the tubing in any wellbore segments where tubing is
present and through the casing in any wellbore segments where tubing is not present.

If you select Annulus, fluid will flow through the casing/tubing annulus in any wellbore segments
where tubing is present and through the casing in any wellbore segments where tubing is not present.

Frac String Partially Full / Frac String Full

Select Frac String Full if the wellbore is completely full of fluid at the start of pumping. In this case,
Frac String Volume and Total Frac String Volume are non-editable fields and will display the same
values.

Select Frac String Partially Full if the wellbore is not completely full of fluid at the start of pumping,
and then enter the volume of fluid in the frac string in the Frac String Volume field. In this case Total
Frac String Volume is a non-editable field and shows the total volume of the frac string.

Compute
Using the Compute selection box to select one of three options for entering the depth/length data for each wellbore
segment:

Length Length for each segment is calculated from entries for Top MD and Bottom MD for each
segment.

Top MD Top MD for each segment is calculated from entries for Length and Bottom MD for each
segment.

Bottom MD Bottom MD for each segment is calculated from entries for Length and Top MD for each
segment.

The Compute option can be changed at any time, and it is not necessary to use the same option for whole sections of
Drilled Hole, Casing, or Surface Line/Tubing.
Wellbore Configuration Surface Line/Tubing [F7]
This screen allows you to specify how the wellbore is configured. FracproPT builds the wellbore from a number (up to 20)
of discrete wellbore segments.

183

FracproPT 2007

The well configuration, including perforations, is typically input in five discrete sections, each with a representative tab on
this screen:

Drilled Hole Tab


Casing Tab
Surface Line/Tubing Tab
Perforated Intervals Tab

Directional Survey Tab


Tip for Entering a Frac Pack Configuration

The Surface Line/Tubing tab of the Wellbore Configuration screen.

Surface Line/Tubing
Segment #
The first column shows the Segment #. Up to 20 different segments can be specified. Whole segments (that is, rows in
the table) may be added or deleted: A blank line is inserted at the current cursor position by highlighting a Segment # and
pressing [Ins], while a line is deleted by highlighting a Segment # and pressing [Del].

Length
Length refers to the measured length, not the true vertical length, of the segment. The sum of all Length entries is the
measured depth (MD) of the wellbore. Depending on the choice made in the Compute selection box (described below),
Length may either be entered or it may be calculated based on entries for Top MD (measured depth at the beginning of
the segment) and Bottom MD (measured depth at the end of the segment). If Length is calculated, it will show up in blue.
Note:
If you are entering a segment to represent the surface line, which can be important in terms of performing a proper
flush at the end of the treatment, there is an easy method to get the correct surface-line volume; simply set the ID of
the segment to 32" and then enter the number of barrels in the surface line in the Length field.

184

FracproPT 2007

Top MD
Top MD is the measured depth at the beginning of the segment. Depending on the choice made in the Compute selection
box (described below), Top MD may either be entered or it may be calculated based on entries for Length (the measured
length of the segment) and Bottom MD (measured depth at the end of the segment). If Top MD is calculated, it will show
up in blue.

Bottom MD
Bottom MD is the measured depth at the end of the segment. Depending on the choice made in the Compute selection
box (described below), Bottom MD may either be entered or it may be calculated based on entries for Length (the
measured length of the segment) and Top MD (measured depth at the beginning of the segment). If Bottom MD is
calculated, it will show up in blue.

Surface Line/Tubing
This column contains a selection box that allows you to choose whether this segment is comprised of Tubing, Drill Pipe,
or a Packer. In addition, you have the additional choices of Surface Line or Surface CTU for the first segment.
Note:
If you are entering a segment to represent the surface line, which can be important in terms of performing a proper
flush at the end of the treatment, there is an easy method to get the correct surface-line volume; simply set the ID of
the segment to 32" and then enter the number of barrels in the surface line in the Length field.

OD
Select an outer diameter (OD) for this segment from the Tubing Library that contains all standard API tubing diameters or
enter the OD directly if the tubing is not of a standard API diameter.

Weight
Select a Weight for this segment from the Tubing Library or enter the Weight directly.

ID
If you selected an OD and a Weight for this segment from the Tubing Library, the corresponding segment inner diameter
(ID) will already be entered. Alternatively, you may enter the ID directly.
Note:
If you are entering a segment to represent the surface line, which can be important in terms of performing a proper
flush at the end of the treatment, there is an easy method to get the correct surface-line volume; simply set the ID of
the segment to 32" and then enter the number of barrels in the surface line in the Length field.

Grade
Select a grade for this segment from the selection box. This information is not currently used for anything other than
display and record-keeping purposes.

Other Options
Injection is Down
Select Tubing, Annulus, or Casing to specify the path in the wellbore through which treatment fluids flow to the
perforations.

If you select Tubing, fluid will flow through the tubing in any wellbore segments where tubing is
present and through the casing in any wellbore segments where tubing is not present.

If you select Annulus, fluid will flow through the casing/tubing annulus in any wellbore segments
where tubing is present and through the casing in any wellbore segments where tubing is not present.

Frac String Partially Full / Frac String Full

Select Frac String Full if the wellbore is completely full of fluid at the start of pumping. In this case,
Frac String Volume and Total Frac String Volume are non-editable fields and will display the same
values.

185

FracproPT 2007

Select Frac String Partially Full if the wellbore is not completely full of fluid at the start of pumping,
and then enter the volume of fluid in the frac string in the Frac String Volume field. In this case Total
Frac String Volume is a non-editable field and shows the total volume of the frac string.

Compute
Using the Compute selection box to select one of three options for entering the depth/length data for each wellbore
segment:

Length Length for each segment is calculated from entries for Top MD and Bottom MD for each
segment.

Top MD Top MD for each segment is calculated from entries for Length and Bottom MD for each
segment.

Bottom MD Bottom MD for each segment is calculated from entries for Length and Top MD for each
segment.

The Compute option can be changed at any time, and it is not necessary to use the same option for whole sections of
Drilled Hole, Casing, or Surface Line/Tubing.
Tip for Entering a Frac Pack Configuration

Enter the correct tubing size and length down to the top of the crossover.

Even though in reality you will be injecting down the casing-screen annulus below the crossover tool, enter
that wellbore segment as a tubing segment of the actual length but with a diameter that yields the correct
wellbore volume (that is, the actual casing-screen volume). You may adjust the friction to represent the
actual friction expected for this segment, but it is typically quite small and can be ignored.

Although this step is usually skipped, you may enter a segment to represent the crossover by selecting
tubing with the corresponding size and length. If necessary, you can adjust the wellbore friction for this
segment by selecting the correct segment and fluids on the Fluid Friction Properties tab of the
EDIT/VIEW INTERPOLATED FLUID DATA [SHIFT+F5]Fluid_Friction_Properties screen.

Wellbore Configuration Perforated Intervals [F7]


This screen allows you to specify how the wellbore is configured. FracproPT builds the wellbore from a number (up to 20)
of discrete wellbore segments.
The well configuration, including perforations, is typically input in five discrete sections, each with a representative tab on
this screen:

186

Drilled Hole Tab


Casing Tab
Surface Line/Tubing Tab
Perforated Intervals Tab
Directional Survey Tab

FracproPT 2007

The Perforated Intervals tab of the Wellbore Configuration screen.

Perforated Intervals
FracproPT can model up to 20 separate perforated intervals. See Application Notes below for information on how to set
up and model some common well scenarios in terms of Perforated Intervals.

Use
Selecting, or checking, this box in the Use column specifies whether or not the perforations defined by this line are
actually used in the simulation. Therefore, if you do not want to use one or more sets of perforations that are entered, you
can simply unselect the Use box to ignore them.
Note:
While selecting and unselecting sets of perforations, you may notice that the display order in the table may change.
However, among the perforation sets that are actually used (that is, checked), their display order should be from
shallowest to deepest.

Top MD
Top MD is the measured depth at the top of the perforation interval.

Bottom MD
Bottom MD is the measured depth at the bottom of the perforation interval.

Top TVD
Using data from other tabs on this WELLBORE CONFIGURATION [F7] screen, the true vertical depth (TVD) to the top of
the perforated interval is calculated and displayed in this field.

Bottom TVD

187

FracproPT 2007

Using data from other tabs on this WELLBORE CONFIGURATION [F7] screen, the true vertical depth (TVD) to the
bottom of the perforated interval is calculated and displayed in this field.

Diameter
Diameter is the average perforation diameter for the interval.

Number of Perfs
Number of Perfs is the total number of perforations for the interval.

Application Notes
Modeling as Multiple Perfed Intervals versus a Single Perfed Interval
There are three ways to model multiple perforated intervals in FracproPT. Below are some rules of thumb of when to use
each of these three different strategies:

For zones that are separate but still relatively close to one another in comparison to the total fracture
height that you are expecting (you are expecting substantial overlap between multiple fractures), it is
generally better to model them with a single perforated interval. You can account for the flow split and
additional leakoff between multiple fractures by selecting a Volume Factor and a Leakoff Factor in
the MULTIPLE FRACTURES [SHIFT+F7] screen that are equal to the number of perforated intervals.
You can also account for the interference between these multiple fractures by changing the Opening
Factor. Please refer to the MULTIPLE FRACTURES [SHIFT+F7} screen for more information.
People most often choose this option if they do not accurately know the rock properties, closure and
permeability profile with depth that drive fracture growth, and if they only want a very approximate
answer as to what they are achieving. The choice here is to keep it simple, as we dont have the
detailed information to justify a very detailed analysis.

When simulating limited-entry perforating where the number of perforations per interval is the main
driver for flow split between zones, define multiple perforated intervals on the WELLBORE
CONFIGURATION [F7] screen AND use Simplified Iteration on the Additional Options tab of the
FRACTURE ANALYSIS OPTIONS [F4] screen. In this case, you are assuming that closure stress
changes and net pressure changes per interval are small in comparison to the limited-entry
perforation friction pressure drop.

When simulating limited-entry perforating of multiple zones AND when you know that properties such
as fracture closure stress and permeability vary significantly between the perforated intervals, you
may wish to model each zone as an independent fracture by specifying multiple perforated intervals
on the WELLBORE CONFIGURATION [F7] screen AND use General Iteration on the Additional
Options tab of the FRACTURE ANALYSIS OPTIONS [F4] screen. In this case, the fracture model will
run much more slowly, because you are actually simulating several fractures growing at once. The
model may also slow considerably due to the complex nature of calculating the flow split and frictional
pressure losses between perforated intervals. When you do model more than one set of perforations,
simulator output (such as net pressure, fracture dimensions, or fracture/proppant pictures) is
displayed in terms of one fracture (that is, one perforated interval) at a time. You can toggle between
the different fractures (that is, the different perforated intervals) by pressing [CNTR+F] or by selecting
the Next Interval icon on the toolbar. Note that conducting net pressure history matching for multiple
intervals requires one match for each interval, and can therefore become quite a laborious task.

How FracproPT Picks the Depth for Fracture Initiation

188

For each perforated interval, FracproPT automatically searches the interval for the lowest stress zone
and sets the center of that zone to be the Initial Frac Depth (as displayed on the RESERVOIR
PARAMETERS [F9] screen). Total perforated height for each interval, whether entered by you here,
or on the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen in the case where you are ignoring the wellbore,
has no effect on the perforation friction predicted by FracproPT. Perforation friction is calculated
based solely on the flow rate, the number and diameter of the perfs you enter here, and on the data
entered on the PERF AND NEAR-WELLBORE FRICTION [F8] screen.

Therefore, you do not have to, nor do you necessarily always want to, enter the true total perforated
height. Rather, you may want to enter the perforation information such that fracture initiation in the
simulator is guaranteed at the location you desire.

Special cases are very large perforated heights and small-volume treatments. In those situations, you
may want to enter the actual perforated height and turn the Set Minimum Fracture Height option on.
Doing so causes the fracture to initiate from the entire perforated height (that is, as a line source
rather than a point source). The Set Minimum Fracture Height option is accessed from the MODEL
PARAMETERS screen.

FracproPT 2007

Other Options
Injection is Down
Select Tubing, Annulus, or Casing to specify the path in the wellbore through which treatment fluids flow to the
perforations.

If you select Tubing, fluid will flow through the tubing in any wellbore segments where tubing is
present and through the casing in any wellbore segments where tubing is not present.

If you select Annulus, fluid will flow through the casing/tubing annulus in any wellbore segments
where tubing is present and through the casing in any wellbore segments where tubing is not present.

Frac String Partially Full / Frac String Full

Select Frac String Full if the wellbore is completely full of fluid at the start of pumping. In this case,
Frac String Volume and Total Frac String Volume are non-editable fields and will display the same
values.

Select Frac String Partially Full if the wellbore is not completely full of fluid at the start of pumping,
and then enter the volume of fluid in the frac string in the Frac String Volume field. In this case Total
Frac String Volume is a non-editable field and shows the total volume of the frac string.

Compute
Using the Compute selection box to select one of three options for entering the depth/length data for each wellbore
segment:

Length Length for each segment is calculated from entries for Top MD and Bottom MD for each
segment.

Top MD Top MD for each segment is calculated from entries for Length and Bottom MD for each
segment.

Bottom MD Bottom MD for each segment is calculated from entries for Length and Top MD for each
segment.

The Compute option can be changed at any time, and it is not necessary to use the same option for whole sections of
Drilled Hole, Casing, or Surface Line/Tubing.
Wellbore Configuration Path Summary [F7]
This screen displays a summary of the path that treatment fluids take to go from the surface to the perforations. No input
of data is possible on this screen: The tubing, casing, and hole configuration as entered on various other tabs of the
WELLBORE CONFIGURATION screen are used to construct this summary. Hole deviation data is also shown.

189

FracproPT 2007

The Path Summary tab of the Wellbore Configuration screen.

Other Options
Injection is Down
Select Tubing, Annulus, or Casing to specify the path in the wellbore through which treatment fluids flow to the
perforations.

If you select Tubing, fluid will flow through the tubing in any wellbore segments where tubing is
present and through the casing in any wellbore segments where tubing is not present.

If you select Annulus, fluid will flow through the casing/tubing annulus in any wellbore segments
where tubing is present and through the casing in any wellbore segments where tubing is not present.

Frac String Partially Full / Frac String Full

Select Frac String Full if the wellbore is completely full of fluid at the start of pumping. In this case,
Frac String Volume and Total Frac String Volume are non-editable fields and will display the same
values.

Select Frac String Partially Full if the wellbore is not completely full of fluid at the start of pumping,
and then enter the volume of fluid in the frac string in the Frac String Volume field. In this case Total
Frac String Volume is a non-editable field and shows the total volume of the frac string.

Compute
Using the Compute selection box to select one of three options for entering the depth/length data for each wellbore
segment:

190

Length Length for each segment is calculated from entries for Top MD and Bottom MD for each
segment.

Top MD Top MD for each segment is calculated from entries for Length and Bottom MD for each
segment.

FracproPT 2007

Bottom MD Bottom MD for each segment is calculated from entries for Length and Top MD for each
segment.

The Compute option can be changed at any time, and it is not necessary to use the same option for whole sections of
Drilled Hole, Casing, or Surface Line/Tubing.
Wellbore Configuration Directional Survey [F7]
On this screen, you can manually enter a wellbore trajectory using up to 100 wellbore segments, or you can import a
FracproPT depth-based database file containing wellbore trajectory data (up to 1000 points). Input of wellbore trajectory
data may be accomplished in one of four different formats.
The well configuration, including perforations, is typically input in five discrete sections, each with a representative tab on
this screen:

Drilled Hole Tab


Casing Tab
Surface Line/Tubing Tab
Perforated Intervals Tab
Directional Survey Tab

The Directional Survey tab of the Wellbore Configuration screen.

Specify
Build, Turn, MD
For this selection, enter the build rate, the turn rate, and the measured depth for the beginning of each segment in the
appropriate columns. The remaining data in the table is calculated and filled in automatically. If you have this data in an
Excel, you can also simple Copy and Paste columns to populate this screen.

MD, Inclination, Azimuth

191

FracproPT 2007

For this selection, enter the measured depth, the inclination, and the azimuth for the beginning of each segment in the
appropriate columns. The remaining data in the table is calculated and filled in automatically. If you have this data in an
Excel, you can also simple Copy and Paste columns to populate this screen.

N-S, E-W, TVD


For this selection, enter the north-south distance, the east-west distance, and the true vertical depth for the beginning of
each segment in the appropriate columns. The remaining data in the table is calculated and filled in automatically. If you
have this data in an Excel, you can also simple Copy and Paste columns to populate this screen.

MD, TVD, Azimuth


For this selection, enter the measured depth, the true vertical depth, and the azimuth for the beginning of each segment in
the appropriate columns. The remaining data in the table is calculated and filled in automatically. If you have this data in
an Excel, you can also simple Copy and Paste columns to populate this screen.

Importing a Wellbore Survey


Load Survey
Load Survey opens the standard file open dialog from which you load a FracproPT depth-based database file
(file_name.DBD) containing wellbore survey data. Select Clear Survey to delete all data from the Directional Survey data
table.

Azimuth Format
Selecting the Azimuth Format checkbox toggles the Azimuth column between a simple degrees format and a compass
point display. In the latter format, you still enter simple degrees (that is, 0 to 359 degrees), but the entry is converted to the
compass point format.

Other Options
Injection is Down
Select Tubing, Annulus, or Casing to specify the path in the wellbore through which treatment fluids flow to the
perforations.

If you select Tubing, fluid will flow through the tubing in any wellbore segments where tubing is
present and through the casing in any wellbore segments where tubing is not present.

If you select Annulus, fluid will flow through the casing/tubing annulus in any wellbore segments
where tubing is present and through the casing in any wellbore segments where tubing is not present.

Frac String Partially Full / Frac String Full

Select Frac String Full if the wellbore is completely full of fluid at the start of pumping. In this case,
Frac String Volume and Total Frac String Volume are non-editable fields and will display the same
values.

Select Frac String Partially Full if the wellbore is not completely full of fluid at the start of pumping,
and then enter the volume of fluid in the frac string in the Frac String Volume field. In this case Total
Frac String Volume is a non-editable field and shows the total volume of the frac string.

Compute
Using the Compute selection box to select one of three options for entering the depth/length data for each wellbore
segment:

Length Length for each segment is calculated from entries for Top MD and Bottom MD for each
segment.

Top MD Top MD for each segment is calculated from entries for Length and Bottom MD for each
segment.

Bottom MD Bottom MD for each segment is calculated from entries for Length and Top MD for each
segment.

The Compute option can be changed at any time, and it is not necessary to use the same option for whole sections of
Drilled Hole, Casing, or Surface Line/Tubing.

192

FracproPT 2007

Heat Transfer Parameters - Shift + F9


Heat Transfer Parameters [Shift+F9]
This screen is where you enter the parameters necessary to model the time-temperature history of the wellbore fluids.
The calculated fluid temperature at the perforations is then passed to the fracture heat transfer model so that the
temperature of fluids in the fracture can be tracked. If you choose not to model heat transfer effects, all fluids are assumed
to be at reservoir temperature (which is entered on the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen) as soon as they enter
the fracture. The temperature distribution in the wellbore can be viewed on the WELLBORE PROFILE PICTURE [Alt+F9]
screen. The in-fracture temperature of any stage can be tracked in time on a FracproPT data plot.
The wellbore heat transfer model is a rigorous, numerical model that has been verified against analytical solutions,
measured temperature data, and other commercially available wellbore heat transfer models.
Additional Information: Heat Transfer Models

The Heat Transfer Parameters screen.

Parameters for Heat Transfer Model


Surface Fluid Temperature
This is the temperature of the fluid entering the wellbore at the surface (that is, tank temperature). If you are simulating a
foam treatment, this is the fluid temperature before the addition of carbon dioxide or nitrogen.

Surface Proppant Temperature


This is the temperature of the proppant before it is pumped into the wellbore.

Surface N2 Temperature
This is the temperature of the nitrogen before it is added to the main fluid-proppant stream.

Surface CO2 Temperature


This is the temperature of the carbon dioxide before it is added to the main fluid-proppant stream.

193

FracproPT 2007

Surface Rock Temperature


This is the temperature of the earth at, or near, the surface. Although this number is not widely known with great accuracy,
relatively large variations in it make only minor differences in predictions of wellbore heat transfer.

Reservoir Temperature at Frac Center Depth


This is the reservoir temperature at the mid-perf depth. In addition to heat transfer calculations, this number is used to
select the correct rheology data from the Fluid Library.
Note:
Unless you use the Enter Temperature vs. Depth table, FracproPT assumes a linear temperature gradient between
Surface Rock Temperature and Reservoir Temperature at Frac Center Depth.

Display Temperature at
Although fluid temperature is modeled throughout the wellbore (which can be viewed on the WELLBORE PROFILE
PICTURE [Alt+F9] screen), only one channel is available for plotting it in a standard time-varying plot. This output channel
is called Bottomhole Temperature but, by entering a depth in this field, the temperature at any point (depth) in the
wellbore can be plotted versus time. Check the Use Fracture Center Depth box to display Bottomhole Temperature at
the point (depth) of fracture initiation.

Wellbore Heat Transfer Coefficient Multiplier


The properties and configuration of the various tubulars, cements, and earth materials are used in calculating the heat
flow between the earth and the wellbore fluids. This Wellbore Heat Transfer Coefficient Multiplier simply multiplies the
overall effects. Under most circumstances, increasing this multiplier speeds up the wellbore fluid heat-up process.

Fracture Heat Transfer Coefficient Multiplier


The various fluid properties, rock properties, and fracture properties (for example, length, width, and height) are used to
calculate the heat flow between the fluids in the fracture and the rock surrounding the fracture. This Fracture Heat
Transfer Coefficient Multiplier simply multiplies the overall effects. Unfortunately, due to complicating factors such as the
limited heat capacity of near-fracture rock and fluid leak off into the reservoir, it is difficult to generalize the effects of
raising or lowering the Fracture Heat Transfer Coefficient Multiplier.

Offshore Wells
Select the Offshore Well check box if you are fracture treating an offshore well.
Note:
When you check this option, you will notice that the Surface Rock Temperature field becomes unavailable since you
now must enter Surface Water Temperature instead.

Water Depth
This is the depth of the water in which the well sits.

Surface Water Temperature


This is the temperature at or near the water surface.

Seabed Temperature
This is the temperature at the bottom of the body of water.
Note:
Unless you use the Enter Temperature vs. Depth table (which applies to both the water depth and the depth from the
sea bed to the center of the frac depth), FracproPT assumes two linear temperature gradients: one between Surface
Water Temperature and Seabed Temperature and another between Seabed Temperature and Reservoir
Temperature at Frac Center Depth.

Sea Current
This is the average sea current in knots. The current is assumed to be constant from the surface to bottom of the body of
water.
Note:
Risers typically limit the effects of currents.

194

FracproPT 2007

Ocean-Wellbore Heat Transfer Coefficient Multiplier


The properties and configuration of the various tubulars, treatment fluids, and the surrounding water are used in
calculating the heat flow between the sea and the wellbore fluids. This Ocean-Wellbore Heat Transfer Coefficient
Multiplier simply multiplies the overall effects. Under most circumstances, increasing this multiplier speeds up the cooling
of fluid as it flows through the sea-surrounded wellbore.

Enter Temperature vs. Depth


For onshore wells, FracproPT normally assumes a linear temperature gradient between Surface Rock Temperature and
Reservoir Temperature at Frac Center Depth. For offshore wells, FracproPT assumes two linear temperature gradients:
one between Surface Water Temperature and Seabed Temperature and another between Seabed Temperature and
Reservoir Temperature at Frac Center Depth.
However, if you have other temperature versus depth information, either in the earth or the sea or both, you can enter that
data here to more accurately model wellbore heat transfer. FracproPT assumes a linear temperature profile between the
depths entered in the table. For example, you may opt to use this to incorporate how fluid will heat up in the wellbore the
presence of a shallow high-temperature steam flood zone.

Depth TVD
This is the true vertical depth to the point where you wish to specify a temperature.

Temperature
This is the temperature at the corresponding true vertical depth.

Other Options
Thermal Fluid Properties
Selecting this field takes you to the Fluid Loss and Thermal Properties tab of the Edit/View Interpolated Fluid Data
[SHIFT+F5] screen where those properties can be modified.

Thermal Rock Properties


Selecting this field takes you to the Thermal Rock Properties screen where those properties can be modified.
Additional Information

Wellbore Heat Transfer Coefficient Multiplier


A fast, unique numerical scheme is used for temperature calculations in the wellbore. The model was verified against
analytical results for constant rate injection and by comparison to fracture treatments where temperature was measured at
one or more points in the wellbore. The model was found to accurately predict the wellbore temperature profile during
both pumping and shut-in stages.
The following heat transfer is modeled:

Between different fluids in the wellbore

Between wellbore fluids and the formation(s)

Inside the formation(s)

The heat transfer between fluids pumped along the wellbore is handled as linear flow. The heat transfer between the
wellbore fluids and the formation is handled through a heat transfer coefficient, which is automatically estimated based on
the correlations found in the literature. Finally, the heat transfer in the formation is handled as radial flow.
The correlation for the wellbore heat transfer coefficient is dependent on fluid properties, flow regime, wellbore geometry,
thickness of the pipe wall, thickness of the cement sheath, the presence or absence of a deal fluid in the annulus, etc.
However, the estimated wellbore heat transfer coefficient may vary because of complex wellbore conditions. To overcome
the problem, you can calibrate the wellbore heat transfer coefficient using the Wellbore Heat Transfer Coefficient
Multiplier.
The default value for Wellbore Heat Transfer Coefficient Multiplier is 1.0, however, if model results are different from any
measured wellbore temperature data that you may have, you can adjust the multiplier until the model and measurements
match. For a typical fracturing treatment, the fluid pumped is cooler than the reservoir rock, therefore the reservoir rock
loses heat to the pumped fluids and they are heated up during the job. In this case, increasing the Wellbore Heat Transfer
Coefficient Multiplier will speed up the wellbore fluid heat-up process.
Reference:

195

FracproPT 2007

SPE 96 by H.J. Ramey, 1962.


SPE 1449 by Paul Willhite, 1967.
SPE 2497 by N.F. Whitsitt and G.R. Dysart, 1970.
SPE 3011 by A.R. Sinclair, 1971.
SPE 8441 by G.R. Wooley, 1980.
SPE 17041 by B.R. Meyer, 1987.
SPE 22948 by A.R. Hasan and C.S.Kabir, 1994.
SPE 49056 by J. Romero and E. Touboul, 1998.
Mark's Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, 1978.

Fracture Heat Transfer Coefficient Multiplier


A fast, unique numerical scheme is used for temperature calculations in the fracture. The model was verified against
analytical results and, as closely as possible, against actual data measured during fracture treatments, including during
flow backs after the treatment. This more accurate temperature model for the fracture is very important when planning a
fluid breaker schedule for your treatment.
The following heat transfer is modeled:

Between different fluids in the fracture

Between fracture fluids and the formation(s)

Inside the formation(s)

The heat transfer between fluids pumped along the fracture is handled as linear flow. The heat transfer between the
fracture fluids and the formation is handled through a heat transfer coefficient. Finally, the heat transfer in the formation is
also handled as linear flow.
The correlation for the fracture heat transfer coefficient is dependent on fluid properties and flow regime, however it may
vary from estimates due to unknown flow patterns, unknown reservoir properties, or other complexities. To overcome this
problem, you can calibrate the fracture heat transfer coefficient using the Fracture Heat Transfer Coefficient Multiplier.
The default value for Fracture Heat Transfer Coefficient Multiplier is 1.0, however, if model results are different from any
measured temperature data that you may have, you can adjust the multiplier until the model and measurements match.
Unfortunately, it is difficult to generalize the effect of changing the multiplier: increasing it will increase the heat transfer
rate, but the limited supply of heat in the rock near the fracture face will limit that increase. Other issues such as the
amount of fluid leaked off also complicate the process of providing a simple rule of thumb as to the effect of changing the
Fracture Heat Transfer Coefficient Multiplier.
Reference:

SPE 96 by H.J. Ramey, 1962.


SPE 1449 by Paul Willhite, 1967.
SPE 2497 by N.F. Whitsitt and G.R. Dysart, 1970.
SPE 3011 by A.R. Sinclair, 1971.
SPE 8441 by G.R. Wooley, 1980.
SPE 17041 by B.R. Meyer, 1987.
SPE 22948 by A.R. Hasan and C.S.Kabir, 1994.
SPE 49056 by J. Romero and E. Touboul, 1998.
Mark's Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, 1978.

Reservoir Parameters - F9
Using Lithology-Based Reservoir Model

Multi-Layer Reservoir Leakoff Parameters


This screen is accessed only if you choose Multi-Layer as the Reservoir Type on the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9]
screen. In this case, the parameters on this screen are entered and displayed on a layer-by-layer basis. If you want these
parameters to be the same for all layers, you should choose Gas, Oil, or User Specified as the Reservoir Type.

196

FracproPT 2007

The Multi-Layer Reservoir Leakoff Parameters screen.


Depth
These entries correspond to the layer depths shown for the Pore Fluid Permeability and Leakoff Coefficient columns in the
Reservoir Layer Table on the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen. The numbers cannot be changed on this screen.
The layer where the fracture initiates (depending on the position of the perforated interval defined on the WELLBORE
CONFIGURATION [F7] screen) is highlighted in the table. If you have more than one perforated interval defined, you can
toggle between them by pressing [Ctrl+F] or by using the Next Interval toolbar button.
Kp/Kl
This is the ratio of formation pore-fluid permeability to formation leakoff-fluid permeability (usually water). Typical values
for this ratio are from 1.0 to 50. For oil reservoirs, values close to 1.0 are common. For gas reservoirs, values of order 10
or higher are common.
Pore Pressure
This parameter is commonly measured for other reasons (for example, reserve calculations) and is usually a well-known
parameter. A typical pore pressure gradient is about 0.43 psi/foot.
Average Frac Pressure
This parameter indicates the pressure inside the fracture soon after fracture initiation. A good estimate for this number is
typically about 500 psi higher than pay zone closure stress. This parameter has two functions:

To convert Permeability to Leak-Off Coefficient and vice versa as displayed on the Reservoir Parameters
[F9] screen.

As the initial fluid-loss driving pressure for the first simulator time step.

Note:
Once the fracture has initiated (for example, after the first time step), the actual pressure in the fracture is used to
drive fluid leakoff.
Compressibility
This is the compressibility (that is, the inverse of modulus) of the fluid in the pores. For oil reservoirs, compressibility can
be as low as 3e-6 1/psi. In gas reservoirs, the compressibility is the reciprocal of the pore pressure (for example, if the
pore pressure equals about 5000 psi, the compressibility would be about 0.0002 1/psi).
Pore Fluid Viscosity
This input refers to the mobile reservoir fluid. Typical values for a gas reservoir would be low, of order 0.01 to 0.1 cp, with
very little change with temperature. For an oil reservoir, typical values could be much higher, of order one to several
hundred cp, and significant changes with temperature would be expected.
Porosity

197

FracproPT 2007

This is the volume fraction of formation rock that is occupied by pores where oil or gas is stored. Typical values are
around 10% (entered as 0.10), but porosity may be as high as 60% (0.60) or as low as only a few percent.
Gas In Foam Leakoff Percentage
This parameter relates the quality of the leakoff fluid to the quality of the fluid in the fracture. For example, a Gas In Foam
Leakoff Percentage of 25 with 80-quality foam in the fracture means that the leakoff fluid is 20-quality (that is, 20 percent
gas, 80 percent liquid). This field is accessible only if you have foam inputs on the Treatment SCHEDULE [F6] screen.

Other Functions
Reservoir Depletion
Select this function to view the DEPLETION MENU screen where you can model the effects (on pore pressure, pore fluid
compressibility, and closure stress) of production from the reservoir. A message field adjacent to the Reservoir Depletion
selection indicates whether or not the depletion model is currently In Use or Not Used.
Set To Gas Defaults
Select this function to set the parameters on this screen to values that are estimated for a typical gas reservoir. You may
change individual numbers afterwards.
Set To Oil Defaults
Select this function to set the parameters on this screen to values that are estimated for a typical oil reservoir. You may
change individual numbers afterwards.
Set To User Defined
Select this function to set the parameters on this screen to the values entered on the Reservoir Leakoff Parameters
screen that was used when you last choose User Specified as the Reservoir Type. You may change individual numbers
afterwards.

Reservoir Depletion
This screen is where you can model the change in closure stress, pore pressure, and pore-fluid compressibility that has
resulted from production in a finite region around a wellbore. For example, in an oil reservoir produced from an acid
fracture such that the region around the fracture has a pore pressure below the bubble point (that is, resulting in a higher
pore-fluid compressibility) and a lower closure stress due to the lower pore pressure.
Note:
When modeling depletion effects, you should enter the current (that is, depleted) values for closure stress on the
RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen.

The Reservoir Depletion screen.


This is the distance out from the wellbore that you believe has been depleted (produced).
Original Pore Pressure

198

FracproPT 2007

This is the virgin pore pressure. The depleted, or current, pore pressure is entered on either the Reservoir Leakoff
Parameters screen and it is displayed below for reference.
Note:
FracproPT multiplies the change in pore pressure by 0.5 (which is a mid-range value for the so-called poro-elastic
coefficient) to determine the change in closure stress due to depletion. At a distance from the wellbore equal to the
Radius of Depletion, the closure stress entered on the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen (that is, the current
or depleted closure stress) is increased by the change in closure stress due to depletion and the pore pressure is
increased to this Original Pore Pressure.
Depleted Pore Pressure
This is the current (that is, depleted) pore pressure that is entered on the Reservoir Leakoff Parameters screen. This
number is displayed here for reference only.
Original Pore Fluid Compressibility
This is the virgin pore fluid compressibility. At a distance out from the wellbore equal to the Radius of Depletion, pore fluid
compressibility decreases to this Original Pore Fluid Compressibility.

Layer Display
This screen displays the lithology (that is, Rock Type) of the reservoir and a log-style view of the following properties:
stress, permeability, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and fracture toughness.

The Layer Display screen.

Reservoir Parameters - F9
Lithology-Based Reservoir Parameters Layers [F9]
This screen is accessible only if you select Lithology Based Reservoir and either 3D Tip-Dominated Model or 3D
Conventional Model on the FRACTURE SIMULATION OPTIONS [F4] screen. Here you specify all rock properties
according to lithology as defined by a single set of layer depths and the Rock Type in each layer.
Use this type of data entry if you do not know many properties about the reservoir, and if you want to set up a layered
profile quickly. Once you assigned the main properties of the lithologies that you are using and defining the depth of
individual layers, you are ready to start modeling.

199

FracproPT 2007

The Lithology-Based Reservoir Parameters screen.


Reservoir Data-Entry Options
Lithology Based
If you select Lithology Based Reservoir, all mechanical properties (for opening, etc.), all chemical properties (for
acidizing), and all thermal properties (for injection-fluid heating and reservoir cooling) will be input to the simulator based
on rock type and a single set of depths.
In general, this is the most convenient way to specify model inputs. Once you have constructed your Lithology Based
Reservoir, FracproPT can automatically convert it to a General Reservoir if necessary. Unfortunately, there is no way to
convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir without loosing some of this data. However, you should
rarely, if ever, want or need to convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir.
Use this type of data entry if you do not know many properties about the reservoir, and if you want to set up a layered
profile quickly. Once you assigned the main properties of the lithologies that you are using and defining the depth of
individual layers, you are ready to start modeling.
General Multi-Scale
If you select General Multi-Scale Reservoir, you will enter each of the mechanical properties (for example, stress,
modulus, etc.) with its own independent set of layer depths. Chemical properties (for acidizing) and thermal properties (for
injection-fluid heating and reservoir cooling) are input to the simulator based on rock type and a single set of depths.
FracproPT can automatically convert a Lithology Based Reservoir to a General Reservoir, if necessary. Unfortunately,
there is no way to convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir without loosing some of this data.
However, you should rarely, if ever, want or need to convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir.
Use this type of data entry if you can assign reservoir properties using various different log files and if you have no log
information on other parameters. Once you have assigned specific properties using the Log-Layer Editor, you need to
provide only a few entries for estimates of properties on which you do not have more specific data.
General Single Scale
If you select General Reservoir, you will enter each of the mechanical properties (for example, stress, modulus, etc.) with
its own independent set of layer depths. Chemical properties (for acidizing) and thermal properties (for injection-fluid
heating and reservoir cooling) are input to the simulator based on rock type and a single set of depths.
FracproPT can automatically convert a Lithology Based Reservoir to a General Reservoir, if necessary. Unfortunately,
there is no way to convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir without loosing some of this data.
However, you should rarely, if ever, want or need to convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir.
Use this type of data entry if you can assign all reservoir properties different log files. Once you have assigned specific
properties using the Log-Layer Editor, you are ready to use the model.
Reservoir Layer Table

200

FracproPT 2007

This is where you define the layers comprising the reservoir and surrounding strata by entering the depth to the top of
each layer. Up to 100 layers may be entered, but only 8 are shown at any time. Blank rows in the table may be added by
selecting a whole row and pressing [Ins], and lines may be deleted by selecting the whole row and pressing [Del].
You must define at least three layers and the fractures must initiate in the middle layers. If you do not, FracproPT will
display an error message and the simulator will not run. The layers where the fractures initiate (depending on the position
of the perforated interval defined on the WELLBORE CONFIGURATION [F7] screen) are highlighted yellow in the table.
If you have more than one perforated interval defined, you can cycle through them by pressing [CNTR+F] or selecting the
Next Interval toolbar button.
Depth TVD
If you select Enter TVD, enter the true vertical depth to the top of each layer in this column. If you select Enter MD, the
true vertical depth will be calculated and displayed in this column.
Depth MD
If you select Enter MD, enter the measured depth to the top of each layer in this column. If you select Enter TVD, the
measured depth will be calculated and displayed in this column.
Layer Thickness
This value represents the layer thickness in TVD. This value is not editable and calculated from the top of each layer in
the Depth TVD column.
Rock Type
Select a Rock Type from the drop-down list for each layer in this column.
Pore Fluid Permeability
If you select Enter Permeability, enter the Pore Fluid Permeability for each layer in this column. If you select Enter
Leakoff Coefficient, the permeability will be calculated and displayed in this column.
Leakoff Coefficient
If you select Enter Leakoff Coefficient, enter the (total) Leakoff Coefficient for each layer in this column. If you select
Enter Permeability, the leakoff coefficient will be calculated and displayed in this column.
Stress
Fracture closure in the middle of the layer that is calculated using the specified gradient under the Rock Properties tab.
Youngs Modulus
Youngs Modulus for the layer based on the assigned modulus for that lithology in the Rock Properties tab.
Poissons Ratio
Poissons Ratio for the layer based on the assigned Poissons ratio for that lithology in the Rock Properties tab.
Fracture Toughness
Fracture Toughness for the layer based on the assigned toughness for that lithology in the Rock Properties tab.
Composite Layering Effect
Composite layering effect for the layer based on the assigned composite layering effect for that lithology in the Rock
Properties tab.
Pay Zone
Use this check box to mark all zones that you consider pay zones. This is information is used by Fracture Design Mode
and also in the calculation of the Payzone Height Coverage Ratio and Payzone Fracture Area Ratio model channels.
In Production Analysis Mode, if you use the Import Frac Interval Properties function, Permeability on the
PRODUCTION ANALYSIS Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen is the average of all the permeabilities of all zones
marked as pay zones, not just the permeability of the zone containing the perforated interval. The average permeability is
calculated as sum of kh for all zones divided by the total height of all zones:
Average Permeability=kh/Total Height
Depth Entry Mode
Enter TVD
Select this option to enter the layer depths in the Reservoir Layer Table in terms of the true vertical depth (TVD). The
corresponding measured depth (MD) will be calculated and displayed in the adjacent column in the table.
Enter MD
Select this option to enter the layer depths in the Reservoir Layer Table in terms of the measured depth (MD). The
corresponding true vertical depth (TVD) will be calculated and displayed in the adjacent column in the table.
Fluid Loss Entry Mode

201

FracproPT 2007

You have the choice of entering either Permeability or (total) Leakoff Coefficient. Whichever one you choose to enter,
FracproPT uses a permeability-to-leakoff-coefficient relationship to calculate the other.
Enter Permeability
Select this option to enter the Pore-Fluid Permeability in the Set Lithology Permeability dialog for each Rock Type in the
Reservoir Layer Table. The corresponding (total) Leakoff Coefficient will be calculated and displayed in the adjacent
column in the table.
Enter Leakoff Coefficient
Select this option to enter the (total) Leakoff Coefficient in the Set Lithology Leakoff Coefficient dialog for each Rock Type
in the Reservoir Layer Table. The corresponding Pore-Fluid Permeability will be calculated and displayed in the adjacent
column in the table.
Set Lithology Permeability / Set Lithology Leakoff Coefficient
This option allows you to set the values for either Pore-Fluid Permeability or Leakoff Coefficient (depending on whether
you have chosen Enter Permeability or Enter Leakoff Coefficient above) for all the current reservoir layers specified with a
particular Rock Type. Selecting this function causes a dialog to appear where you select a Rock Type from a drop-down
list and then enter either the Pore-Fluid Permeability or Leakoff Coefficient for that Rock Type.
Otherwise, you may enter Pore-Fluid Permeability or Leakoff Coefficient on a layer-by-layer basis, regardless of Rock
Type.
Other Reservoir Properties
Reservoir Temperature
This is the reservoir temperature at the mid-perf depth. In addition to heat transfer calculations, this number is used to
select the correct rheology data from the Fluid Library.
Perforations
Total perforated height, whether entered by you here, or on the WELLBORE CONFIGURATION [F7] screen in the case
where you are not modeling the wellbore, has no effect on the perforation friction predicted by FracproPT. Perforation
friction is calculated based solely on the flow rate and the data entered on the PERF AND NEAR-WELLBORE FRICTION
[F8] screen.
Note:
The perforation and initial frac depths are always entered and/or display here in terms of true vertical depth (TVD).
Note:
If you have more than one perforated interval defined on the WELLBORE CONFIGURATION [F7] screen, you can
toggle through a display of each interval by pressing [Ctrl+F] or selecting the Next Interval toolbar button.
Note:
For large perforated intervals, you may elect to have the fracture initiate from a line source (details of which can be
found on the Growth Parameters tab of the FracproPT MODEL PARAMETERS screen).
Depth to Top of Perfs
If you choose Ignore Wellbore and Perforations on the FRACTURE SIMULATION OPTIONS [F4] screen, you must
enter a value for Depth to Top of Perfs here. If you choose Model Wellbore and Perforations on the FRACTURE
SIMULATION OPTIONS [F4] screen, Depth to Top of Perfs is taken from data entered on the WELLBORE
CONFIGURATION [F7] screen and displayed (uneditable) on this screen.
Depth to Bottom of Perfs
If you choose Ignore Wellbore and Perforations on the FRACTURE SIMULATION OPTIONS [F4] screen, you must
enter a value for Depth to Bottom of Perfs here. If you choose Model Wellbore and Perforations on the FRACTURE
SIMULATION OPTIONS [F4] screen, Depth to Bottom of Perfs is taken from data entered on the WELLBORE
CONFIGURATION [F7] screen and displayed (uneditable) on this screen.
Initial Frac Depth
FracproPT always calculates this value; it is approximately the center of the zone with lowest stress found within the
perforated interval. If you want to guarantee fracture initiation from a particular zone (regardless of the stress profile and
the true perforated interval), you can make the perforated interval small enough such that you control where the simulator
initiates the fracture.
Initial Frac Depth must fall within one of the inner Rock Type layers (that is, it cannot fall within either the top layer or the
bottom layer).
Other Functions
Layer Display
Select this function to view the INTEGRATED FRACTURE PICTURE with the Layer Properties Template.

202

FracproPT 2007

Logs/Layers Editor
If a standard Log ASCII (LAS) file is available, layers can be built automatically and properties can be assigned
automatically using the Logs/Layers Editor.

Additional Information: Composite Layering Effect


The so-called composite layering effect provides a user with an additional fracture height growth confinement
mechanism in addition to those provided by stress or permeability contrasts.
Direct fracture diagnostics, such as tiltmeter and microseismic fracture mapping, have shown in many cases that fracture
growth is more confined than can sometimes be explained by "classical" confinement mechanisms such as stress
contrasts, permeability contrasts, or other such contrast in mechanical properties (see SPE 56724). The composite
layering effect should be used when the causes for fracture containment are most likely explained by the impediment to
fracture growth presented by material interfaces themselves as opposed to contrasts in mechanical properties in different
layers. Basically, this makes it easier for fractures to grow along layer boundaries (fracture length) than to grow across
layer interfaces (fracture height). In the figure below, we adopt the "composite material effect" terminology of Warpinski
(SPE 39950) to refer to this phenomenon that was first postulated two decades ago.

Schematic of Composite Layering Effect


By increasing composite layering effects in the zones outside the payzones, fracture height-growth confinement can be
increased while not dramatically changing the net pressure response (as is almost always the case if stress or other
material property contrasts are used to increaseor decreaseheight-growth confinement). In some areas, the use of a
composite layering effect is not required to match both net pressure response and directly observed fracture geometry,
and the default value of 1.0 is valid. However, in some areas Pinnacle has observed extreme fracture confinement, even
in the absence of significant material property contrasts, and a composite layering effects of order 1,000 were necessary
in the layers surrounding the payzone to match the observed fracture geometry.
Pinnacle recommends the use of a modest composite layering effect in your designs under most circumstances, as we
have observed confined fracture growth in hundreds of mapping projects. This modest composite layering effect is
implemented in the new 3D Shear-Decoupled (Default) Model. If there is direct evidence that fracture growth is indeed
more confined than can be explained by "classical" mechanisms, and if you have sufficient knowledge about the closure
stress profile, it will be necessary to use the Composite Layering Effect in your model. It is possible to set the Composite
Layering Effect for individual lithologies or for individual layers.

Reservoir Parameters Rock Properties [F9]


This screen is where you view and/or enter the mechanical properties for the various Rock Types.

203

FracproPT 2007

The Rock Properties screen.


Rock Type
The mechanical properties are listed as a function of Rock Type. There are seven Rock Types defined in the System
Library of rocks whose names cannot be changed, but whose properties can be changed. You also have the capability to
add (many) new Rock Types to the User Library of rocks. However, a total of only 15 different Rock Types can be
displayed here and used in any particular fracture simulation.
Closure Stress Gradient
If you select Calculate Stress from Stress Gradient, enter a Closure Stress Gradient for each Rock Type in this column.
If you select Calculate Stress from A,B,C Model, you will be denied access to this column.
Stress Coefficient A
If you select Calculate Stress from A,B,C Model, enter the multiplier of overburden stress (gradient) as Stress
Coefficient A in this column. If you select Calculate Stress from Stress Gradient, you will be denied access to this
column.
Stress Coefficient B
If you select Calculate Stress from A,B,C Model, enter the multiplier of pore pressure (gradient) as Stress Coefficient B
in this column. If you select Calculate Stress from Stress Gradient, you will be denied access to this column.
Stress Coefficient C
If you select Calculate Stress from A,B,C Model, enter the tectonic stress (or correction) term as Stress Coefficient C in
this column. If you select Calculate Stress from Stress Gradient, you will be denied access to this field.
Young's Modulus
This is the Young's Modulus for each Rock Type. Be aware the Youngs Modulus from logs (that is, dynamically
measured) is typically 100% higher than Youngs Modulus measured from static stress-strain tests.
Poisson's Ratio
This is the Poisson's Ratio for each Rock Type. Any reasonable value of Poissons Ratio (for example, 0.25) is adequate.
Most methods of estimation are questionable.
Fracture Toughness
This is the Fracture Toughness for each Rock Type. Reasonable values for Fracture Toughness will have a minimal effect
on all but relatively small fractures (for example, as in so-called micro-fracture stress tests).
Composite Layering Effect
On a per-layer basis, this number is multiplied by the default Tip Effects Coefficient, which is entered on the FracproPT
3D tab of the FracproPT MODEL Parameters [SHIFT+F3] screen. Generally, this number should be left at 1. However,
in order to specify the relative tip effects for any particular layers, thereby specifying the relative degree of fracture growth

204

FracproPT 2007

into said layers, you may enter some number other than 1. For example, if you wanted a particular Rock Type to exhibit
higher composite layering effects characteristics, you would enter a number greater than 1.
Est Ht/Len Growth
This parameter provides an estimate for the ratio of fracture height growth versus fracture length growth if the composite
layering effect would be the main driving force for fracture growth. For example, if the Composite Layering effect is set to
10, the Est Ht/Len Growth shows that for every foot the fracture grows in length, it grows about 0.32 foot in height.

Set Composite Layering Effect from


These options will only be available if 3D User-Defined is selected as the Fracture Model to Use option on the Fracture
Analysis Options [F4] screen.
Lithology Type
Select this option to set the Composite Layering Effect as a function of Rock Type in the Mechanical Rock Properties
Table.
Payzone Flag
Select this option to set the Composite Layering Effect for all zones (no matter what the Rock Type) that are not
selected as Pay Zones on the Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen. The Composite Layering Effect for the Pay Zones
will automatically be set to 1.0, while the value for all non-Pay Zones is set below by the entry for Composite Layering
Effect Outside Payzone.
Composite Layering Effect Outside Payzone
If Payzone Flag is selected as the Set Composite Layering Effect from option (see description above), the value for
that effect is entered here. This value will overwrite all values entered in the Mechanical Rock Properties Table.

Calculate Stress from


A,B,C
Select this option to calculate closure stress gradient using FracproPTs ABC Stress Model.
Closure Stress Gradient
Select this option to calculate closure stress using the Closure Stress Gradient entered in the table.
Vertical Stress Gradient
This number is used by the ABC Stress Model to calculate stress, as well by the fracture model when simulating
horizontal fractures.
The following equation is used to model the acid-rock reaction rate, Qr, as a function of acid concentration, c:
Qr=krcm
where
kr=k0exp[-Ea/(RT)]

205

FracproPT 2007

The Chemical Rock Properties screen.


Calcite Fraction (% mass)
This is the mass percentage of calcite comprising the Rock Type.
Dolomite Fraction (% mass)
This is the mass percentage of dolomite comprising the Rock Type.
Reference Temperature
This is the reference temperature of the reaction rate parameters entered for the Rock Type).
Reaction Rate Constant
This is the reaction rate constant for the Rock Type (kr in the equation above).
Reaction Order
This is the reaction rate order for the Rock Type (m in the equation above).
Activation Energy
This is the activation energy for the Rock Type (Ea in the equation above).
Rock Embedment Strength
This Rock Type property is used in the calculation of fracture conductivity after acidizing. The default values are based on
the work of Nierode and Kruk.
Other Functions
Reset Rock Chemical Properties
Select this function to overwrite any changes that you may have made in the chemical properties of the System Library
of Rock Types. Properties for any User Library Rock Types are not modified.

206

FracproPT 2007

The Thermal Rock Properties screen.


Specific Gravity
This is the specific gravity for the Rock Type.
Specific Heat
This is the specific heat for the Rock Type.
Thermal Conductivity
This is the thermal conductivity for the Rock Type.

ABC Stress Model


There are two choices for entering stresses: You may do so via a simple stress gradient, or you may use a more
"sophisticated" equation of the type often specialized as the "frac height" or stress logs. In the latter case, stresses are
calculated based on overburden stress, pore pressure, and the so-called tectonic stress (that is, correction) term, using
the following equation with the A, B, and C coefficients taken from the table on the Rock Properties screen:
Stress = (A * Vertical Stress Gradient + B * Pore Pressure Gradient) * Depth + C
Use of the above equation is similar to the method used in the various stress logs, where estimates of Poisson's ratio from
sonic logs and many other simplifying assumptions are used to estimate the coefficients. Note that the default values of
the coefficients assume an Overburden Gradient of 1.0 psi/foot and a Pore Pressure Gradient of 0.433 psi/foot. Any
reasonable value of Poissons Ratio (for example, 0.25) is adequate.

Reservoir Parameters Additional Properties [F9]

207

FracproPT 2007

The Reservoir Leakoff Parameters screen.


Reservoir Type
Select the Reservoir Type from one of the radio buttons. The choices are Single Layer or Multi Layer.
Single Layer
For Single Layer, the parameters entered and displayed on this screen apply to all the layers defined on the
RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen.
If you want to enter different parameters for each layer, for example if you have significant differences in reservoir
pressure, porosity or compressibility in various payzones, you should choose Multi-Layer as the Reservoir Type.
Note:
In most situations, choosing either Gas or Oil (depending on your reservoir) yields acceptable results.
Multi Layer
Choosing Multi-Layer allows you to set those same Reservoir Leakoff Parameters to whatever values you choose, but
now they can be set differently to each layer in the Reservoir Layer Table. As you might expect, the Reservoir LEAKOFF
PARAMETERS screen will appear somewhat different in this case.
HC Type
The type of hydrocarbons is specified here.
Gas Well
The well is used primarily to produce gas.
Oil Well
The well is used primarily to produce oil.
Leakoff Fluid Permeability Ratio, Kp/Kl
This is the ratio of formation pore-fluid permeability to formation leakoff-fluid permeability (usually water). Typical values
for this ratio are from 1.0 to 50. For oil reservoirs, values close to 1.0 are common. For gas reservoirs, values of order 10
or higher are common.
Reservoir Pore Pressure
This parameter is commonly measured for other reasons (for example, reserve calculations) and is usually a well-known
parameter. A typical pore pressure gradient is about 0.43 psi/foot.
Average Pressure In Fracture

208

FracproPT 2007

This parameter indicates the pressure inside the fracture soon after fracture initiation. A good estimate for this number is
typically about 500 psi higher than pay zone closure stress. This parameter has two functions:

To convert Permeability to Leak-Off Coefficient and vice versa as displayed on the RESERVOIR
PARAMETERS [F9] screen, Layers tab.

As the initial fluid-loss driving pressure for the first simulator time step.

Note:
Once the fracture has initiated (for example, after the first time step), the actual pressure in the fracture is used to
drive fluid leakoff and calculate the actual leakoff coefficient.
Pore Fluid Compressibility
This is the compressibility (that is, the inverse of modulus) of the fluid in the pores. For oil reservoirs, compressibility can
be as low as 3e-6 1/psi. In gas reservoirs, the compressibility is the generally the reciprocal of the pore pressure (for
example, if the pore pressure is about 5000 psi, the compressibility would be about 0.0002 1/psi).
Pore Fluid Viscosity
This input refers to the mobile reservoir fluid. Typical values for a gas reservoir would be low, of order 0.01 to 0.1 cp, with
very little change with temperature. For an oil reservoir, typical values could be much higher, of order one to several
hundred cp, and significant changes with temperature would be expected.
Porosity
This is the volume fraction of formation rock that is occupied by pores where oil or gas is stored. Typical values are
around 10% (entered as 0.10), but porosity may be as high as 60% (0.60) or as low as only a few percent.
Gas In Foam Leakoff Percentage
This parameter relates the quality of the leakoff fluid to the quality of the fluid in the fracture. For example, a Gas In Foam
Leakoff Percentage of 25 with 80-quality foam in the fracture means that the leakoff fluid is 20-quality (that is, 20 percent
gas, 80 percent liquid). This field is accessible only if you have foam inputs on the Treatment SCHEDULE [F6] screen.
Set to Gas Defaults and Set to Oil Defaults
If you choose the buttons to Set to Gas Defaults or Set to Oil Defaults, the parameters on this screen are overwritten by
FracproPT. However, you can always set these parameters yourself after that by editing them individually.
Choosing Set to Gas Defaults or Set to Oil Defaults automatically sets a number of Reservoir Leakoff Parameters to
default values for "typical" reservoirs (that is, normally pressured, etc.). These parameters apply to all layers in the
Reservoir Layer Table.
Reservoir Depletion
Select this function to view the DEPLETION MENU screen where you can model the effects (on pore pressure, pore fluid
compressibility, and closure stress) of production from the reservoir. A message field adjacent to the Reservoir Depletion
selection indicates whether or not the depletion model is currently In Use or Not Used.
Drainage Area
The drainage area in terms of its extent and the well spacing is specified here.
X-Direction Extent
This parameter is the extent of the drainage area along the length of the fracture (that is, the x direction).
Y-Direction Extent
This parameter is the extent of the drainage area along the width of the fracture (that is, the y direction).
Well Spacing
This parameter is used to calculate a pseudo-steady state PI ratio in the Fracture Design module and is linked to the
Reservoir Extent in the Production Analysis module.
Fracture Azimuth
This parameter describes the fracture orientation with respect to north, with the positive direction defined to be clockwise
(for example, 45 degrees corresponds to the NE-to-SW direction). This parameter is used only for display purposes by the
Wellbore Viewer and does not affect model results.
Suggest Viscosity and Compressibility
Pressing this button will set Pore Fluid Viscosity and Pore Fluid Compressibility (described above) to suggested values.

209

FracproPT 2007

Reservoir Parameters - Rock Library [F9]


This screen is used to maintain a database (library) of Rock Types with particular mechanical, chemical, and thermal
properties. There are several pre-defined rock-types included with FracproPT in the System Library, but these can be
edited, deleted, or renamed, as the user requires.

The Rock Library screen.


Add New Rock Type to List
This function opens the Select Rock Type dialog that allows you to select Rock Types from either the System Library or
User Library. This function will only be allowed if there is room in the list for a new Rock Type (a maximum of 15 are
available at any time).
Remove Rock Type from List
You can select a Rock Type from the list and then select this function to remove it from the list permanently. You will not
be able to use this function if the Rock Type you are attempting to delete is currently in use by FracproPT (you must
remove the rock type from all modes in order to be able to delete it).
Create User Defined Rock Type
This function takes you to the Mechanical ROCK PROPERTIES screen where you can enter a new Rock Type and its
properties. After entering data there, you should also go to the CHEMICAL ROCK PROPERTIES screen and the
THERMAL ROCK PROPERTIES screen to enter those properties if they are needed.
Save Rock Type to User Library
Once you have entered all the mechanical, chemical, and thermal properties of the new Rock Type, you can save it to the
User Library by selecting this function.
Delete Rock Type from User Library
Select a Rock Type from the list and use this function to delete it from the User Library.

Additional Information
Set Lithology Permeability / Leakoff
You can use this dialog to set the primary leakoff parameter (Pore Fluid Permeability or Leakoff Coefficient, depending
on your choice for the Fluid Loss Entry Mode option on the Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen) for all layers with a
given lithology (as opposed to setting that leakoff parameter individually for each layer).

210

FracproPT 2007

The Set Lithology Permeability dialog


Rock Type
Using the drop-down list, select the rock type (lithology) for which you would like to set the primary leakoff parameter.
Set Lithology Permeability To
Enter the Pore Fluid Permeability for all layers with the rock type selected above.
Shift Lithology Permeability By
Enter the shift (addition constant) and scaling (multiplication coefficient) for the Pore Fluid Permeability for all layers with
the rock type selected above.

The Set Lithology Leakoff dialog


Rock Type
Using the drop-down list, select the rock type (lithology) for which you would like to set the primary leakoff parameter.
Set Lithology Leakoff Coefficient
Enter the Leakoff Coefficient for all layers with the rock type selected above.
Using General Reservoir Model

Multi-Layer Reservoir Leakoff Parameters


This screen is accessed only if you choose Multi-Layer as the Reservoir Type on the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9]
screen. In this case, the parameters on this screen are entered and displayed on a layer-by-layer basis. If you want these
parameters to be the same for all layers, you should choose Gas, Oil, or User Specified as the Reservoir Type.

211

FracproPT 2007

The Multi-Layer Reservoir Leakoff Parameters screen.


Depth
These entries correspond to the layer depths shown for the Pore Fluid Permeability and Leakoff Coefficient columns in the
Reservoir Layer Table on the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen. The numbers cannot be changed on this screen.
The layer where the fracture initiates (depending on the position of the perforated interval defined on the WELLBORE
CONFIGURATION [F7] screen) is highlighted in the table. If you have more than one perforated interval defined, you can
toggle between them by pressing [Ctrl+F] or by using the Next Interval toolbar button.
Kp/Kl
This is the ratio of formation pore-fluid permeability to formation leakoff-fluid permeability (usually water). Typical values
for this ratio are from 1.0 to 50. For oil reservoirs, values close to 1.0 are common. For gas reservoirs, values of order 10
or higher are common.
Pore Pressure
This parameter is commonly measured for other reasons (for example, reserve calculations) and is usually a well-known
parameter. A typical pore pressure gradient is about 0.43 psi/foot.
Average Frac Pressure
This parameter indicates the pressure inside the fracture soon after fracture initiation. A good estimate for this number is
typically about 500 psi higher than pay zone closure stress. This parameter has two functions:

To convert Permeability to Leak-Off Coefficient and vice versa as displayed on the Reservoir Parameters
[F9] screen.

As the initial fluid-loss driving pressure for the first simulator time step.

Note:
Once the fracture has initiated (for example, after the first time step), the actual pressure in the fracture is used to
drive fluid leakoff.
Compressibility
This is the compressibility (that is, the inverse of modulus) of the fluid in the pores. For oil reservoirs, compressibility can
be as low as 3e-6 1/psi. In gas reservoirs, the compressibility is the reciprocal of the pore pressure (for example, if the
pore pressure equals about 5000 psi, the compressibility would be about 0.0002 1/psi).
Pore Fluid Viscosity
This input refers to the mobile reservoir fluid. Typical values for a gas reservoir would be low, of order 0.01 to 0.1 cp, with
very little change with temperature. For an oil reservoir, typical values could be much higher, of order one to several
hundred cp, and significant changes with temperature would be expected.
Porosity

212

FracproPT 2007

This is the volume fraction of formation rock that is occupied by pores where oil or gas is stored. Typical values are
around 10% (entered as 0.10), but porosity may be as high as 60% (0.60) or as low as only a few percent.
Gas In Foam Leakoff Percentage
This parameter relates the quality of the leakoff fluid to the quality of the fluid in the fracture. For example, a Gas In Foam
Leakoff Percentage of 25 with 80-quality foam in the fracture means that the leakoff fluid is 20-quality (that is, 20 percent
gas, 80 percent liquid). This field is accessible only if you have foam inputs on the Treatment SCHEDULE [F6] screen.

Other Functions
Reservoir Depletion
Select this function to view the DEPLETION MENU screen where you can model the effects (on pore pressure, pore fluid
compressibility, and closure stress) of production from the reservoir. A message field adjacent to the Reservoir Depletion
selection indicates whether or not the depletion model is currently In Use or Not Used.
Set To Gas Defaults
Select this function to set the parameters on this screen to values that are estimated for a typical gas reservoir. You may
change individual numbers afterwards.
Set To Oil Defaults
Select this function to set the parameters on this screen to values that are estimated for a typical oil reservoir. You may
change individual numbers afterwards.
Set To User Defined
Select this function to set the parameters on this screen to the values entered on the Reservoir Leakoff Parameters
screen that was used when you last choose User Specified as the Reservoir Type. You may change individual numbers
afterwards.

Reservoir Depletion
This screen is where you can model the change in closure stress, pore pressure, and pore-fluid compressibility that has
resulted from production in a finite region around a wellbore. For example, in an oil reservoir produced from an acid
fracture such that the region around the fracture has a pore pressure below the bubble point (that is, resulting in a higher
pore-fluid compressibility) and a lower closure stress due to the lower pore pressure.
Note:
When modeling depletion effects, you should enter the current (that is, depleted) values for closure stress on the
RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen.

The Reservoir Depletion screen.


This is the distance out from the wellbore that you believe has been depleted (produced).
Original Pore Pressure

213

FracproPT 2007

This is the virgin pore pressure. The depleted, or current, pore pressure is entered on either the Reservoir Leakoff
Parameters screen and it is displayed below for reference.
Note:
FracproPT multiplies the change in pore pressure by 0.5 (which is a mid-range value for the so-called poro-elastic
coefficient) to determine the change in closure stress due to depletion. At a distance from the wellbore equal to the
Radius of Depletion, the closure stress entered on the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen (that is, the current
or depleted closure stress) is increased by the change in closure stress due to depletion and the pore pressure is
increased to this Original Pore Pressure.
Depleted Pore Pressure
This is the current (that is, depleted) pore pressure that is entered on the Reservoir Leakoff Parameters screen. This
number is displayed here for reference only.
Original Pore Fluid Compressibility
This is the virgin pore fluid compressibility. At a distance out from the wellbore equal to the Radius of Depletion, pore fluid
compressibility decreases to this Original Pore Fluid Compressibility.

Layer Display
This screen displays the lithology (that is, Rock Type) of the reservoir and a log-style view of the following properties:
stress, permeability, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and fracture toughness.

The Layer Display screen.

Reservoir Parameters - F9
General Reservoir Parameters - Layers [F9]
This screen is accessible only if you select General Multi-Scale Reservoir or General Single Scale Reservoir and
when selecting one of the 3D Models on the FRACTURE SIMULATION OPTIONS [F4] screen.
Use General Multi-Scale Reservoir from the FRACTURE SIMULATION OPTIONS [F4] screen if you can assign
reservoir properties using various different log files and if you have no log information on other parameters. Once you
have assigned specific properties using the Logs/Layers Editor, you need to provide only a few entries for estimates of
properties on which you do not have more specific data.
Use General Single Scale Reservoir from the FRACTURE SIMULATION OPTIONS [F4] screen if you can assign all
reservoir properties different log files. Once you have assigned specific properties using the Logs/Layers Editor, you are
ready to use the model.
This is where you define the layers and their various properties that comprise the reservoir and surrounding strata by
entering the depth to the top of each layer. Up to 100 layers may be entered, but only 14 are shown at any time. Blank
rows in the table may be added by right-clicking and selecting Insert Row, and rows may be deleted by right-clicking and
selecting Delete Row or by pressing [Del].

214

FracproPT 2007

You must define at least three layers in each of the data tables described below and the fracture must initiate in a middle
layer. The layers where the fractures initiate (depending on the position of the perforated interval defined on the
WELLBORE CONFIGURATION [F7] screen) are highlighted yellow in the table. If you have more than one perforated
interval defined, you can cycle through them by pressing [CNTR+F] or selecting the Next Interval toolbar button.
Note:
The actual depths you enter and the numbers of layers you define do not have to be identical in each of the data
tables.

The General Multi-Scale Reservoir Parameters screen.

The General Single Scale Reservoir Parameters screen.


Reservoir Data-Entry Options
Lithology Based

215

FracproPT 2007

If you select Lithology Based Reservoir, all mechanical properties (for opening, etc.), all chemical properties (for
acidizing), and all thermal properties (for injection-fluid heating and reservoir cooling) will be input to the simulator based
on rock type and a single set of depths.
In general, this is the most convenient way to specify model inputs. Once you have constructed your Lithology Based
Reservoir, FracproPT can automatically convert it to a General Reservoir if necessary. Unfortunately, there is no way to
convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir without loosing some of this data. However, you should
rarely, if ever, want or need to convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir.
Use this type of data entry if you do not know many properties about the reservoir, and if you want to set up a layered
profile quickly. Once you assigned the main properties of the lithologies that you are using and defining the depth of
individual layers, you are ready to start modeling.
General Multi-Scale
If you select General Multi-Scale Reservoir, you will enter each of the mechanical properties (for example, stress,
modulus, etc.) with its own independent set of layer depths. Chemical properties (for acidizing) and thermal properties (for
injection-fluid heating and reservoir cooling) are input to the simulator based on rock type and a single set of depths.
FracproPT can automatically convert a Lithology Based Reservoir to a General Reservoir, if necessary. Unfortunately,
there is no way to convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir without loosing some of this data.
However, you should rarely, if ever, want or need to convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir.
Use this type of data entry if you can assign reservoir properties using various different log files and if you have no log
information on other parameters. Once you have assigned specific properties using the Log-Layer Editor, you need to
provide only a few entries for estimates of properties on which you do not have more specific data.
General Single Scale
If you select General Reservoir, you will enter each of the mechanical properties (for example, stress, modulus, etc.) with
its own independent set of layer depths. Chemical properties (for acidizing) and thermal properties (for injection-fluid
heating and reservoir cooling) are input to the simulator based on rock type and a single set of depths.
FracproPT can automatically convert a Lithology Based Reservoir to a General Reservoir, if necessary. Unfortunately,
there is no way to convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir without loosing some of this data.
However, you should rarely, if ever, want or need to convert from General Reservoir to Lithology Based Reservoir.
Use this type of data entry if you can assign all reservoir properties different log files. Once you have assigned specific
properties using the Log-Layer Editor, you are ready to use the model.
Reservoir Rock Type Table
Depth TVD / Depth MD
Depending on your selection in the Depth Entry Mode options, you enter either Depth TVD (true vertical depth) or Depth
MD (measured depth) to the top of each layer in this column.
Layer Thickness
This value represents the layer thickness in TVD. This value is not editable and calculated from the top of each layer in
the Depth TVD column.
Rock Type
Enter the rock type or lithology name in each layer in this column.
Reservoir Stress Table
Depth TVD / Depth MD
Depending on your selection in the Depth Entry Mode options, you enter either Depth TVD (true vertical depth) or Depth
MD (measured depth) to the top of each layer in this column.
Stress
Enter the closure stress in each layer in this column.
Reservoir Elastic Properties Table
Depth TVD / Depth MD
Depending on your selection in the Depth Entry Mode options, you enter either Depth TVD (true vertical depth) or Depth
MD (measured depth) to the top of each layer in this column.
Youngs Modulus
Enter the Young's Modulus in each layer in this column.
Poissons Ratio
Enter the Poisson's Ratio in each layer in this column.
Fracture Toughness

216

FracproPT 2007

Fracture toughness for the layer based on the assigned toughness for that lithology in the Rock Properties tab.
Composite Layering Effect
Composite layering effect for the layer based on the assigned composite layering effect for that lithology in the Rock
Properties tab.
On a per-layer basis, this number is multiplied by the default Tip Effects Coefficient, which is entered on the FracproPT
3D tab of the FracproPT MODEL Parameters [SHIFT+F3] screen. Generally, this number should be left at 1. However,
in order to specify the relative tip effects for any particular layers, thereby specifying the relative degree of fracture growth
into said layers, you may enter some number other than 1. For example, if you wanted a particular Rock Type to exhibit
higher composite layering effects characteristics, you would enter a number greater than 1.
Additional Information: Composite Layering Effects
Est Ht/Len Growth
This parameter provides an estimate for the ratio of fracture height growth versus fracture length growth if the composite
layering effect would be the main driving force for fracture growth. For example, if the Composite Layering effect is set to
10, the Est Ht/Len Growth shows that for every foot the fracture grows in length, it grows about 0.32 foot in height.
Reservoir Fluid Loss Table
Depth TVD / Depth MD
Depending on your selection in the Depth Entry Mode options, you enter either Depth TVD (true vertical depth) or Depth
MD (measured depth) to the top of each layer in this column.
Pore Fluid Permeability
If you select Enter Permeability in the Fluid Loss Entry Mode options, enter the Pore Fluid Permeability for each layer
in this column. If you select Enter Leakoff Coefficient, the permeability will be calculated and displayed in this column.
Leakoff Coefficient
If you select Enter Leakoff Coefficient in the Fluid Loss Entry Mode options, enter the (total) Leakoff Coefficient for
each layer in this column. If you select Enter Permeability, the leakoff coefficient will be calculated and displayed in this
column.
Pay Zone
Use this check box to mark all zones that you consider pay zones. This is information is used by Fracture Design Mode
and also in the calculation of the Payzone Height Coverage Ratio and Payzone Fracture Area Ratio model channels.
In Production Analysis Mode, if you use the Import Frac Interval Properties function, Permeability on the
PRODUCTION ANALYSIS Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen is the average of all the permeabilities of all zones
marked as pay zones, not just the permeability of the zone containing the perforated interval. The average permeability is
calculated as sum of kh for all zones divided by the total height of all zones:
Average Permeability=kh/Total Height
Depth Entry Mode
Enter TVD
Select this option to enter the layer depths in the Reservoir Tables in terms of the true vertical depth (TVD).
Enter MD
Select this option to enter the layer depths in the Reservoir Tables in terms of the measured depth (MD).
Fluid Loss Entry Mode
You have the choice of entering either Pore Fluid Permeability or (total) Leakoff Coefficient. Whichever one you choose to
enter, FracproPT uses a permeability-to-leakoff-coefficient relationship to calculate the other.
Enter Permeability
Select this option to enter the Pore-Fluid Permeability for each Rock Type in the Reservoir Layer Table. The
corresponding (total) Leakoff Coefficient will be calculated and displayed in the adjacent column in the table.
Enter Leakoff Coefficient
Select this option to enter the (total) Leakoff Coefficient for each Rock Type in the Reservoir Layer Table. The
corresponding Pore-Fluid Permeability will be calculated and displayed in the adjacent column in the table.
Perforations
Total perforated height, whether entered by you here, or on the WELLBORE CONFIGURATION [F7] screen in the case
where you are not modeling the wellbore, has no effect on the perforation friction predicted by FracproPT. Perforation
friction is calculated based solely on the flow rate and the data entered on the PERF AND NEAR-WELLBORE FRICTION
[F8] screen.
Note:

217

FracproPT 2007

The perforation and initial frac depths are always entered and/or display here in terms of true vertical depth (TVD).
Note:
If you have more than one perforated interval defined on the WELLBORE CONFIGURATION [F7] screen, you can
toggle through a display of each interval by pressing [Ctrl+F] or selecting the Next Interval toolbar button.
Note:
For large perforated intervals, you may elect to have the fracture initiate from a line source (details of which can be
found on the Growth Parameters tab of the FracproPT MODEL PARAMETERS screen).
Depth to Top of Perfs
If you choose Ignore Wellbore and Perforations on the FRACTURE SIMULATION OPTIONS [F4] screen, you must
enter a value for Depth to Top of Perfs here. If you choose Model Wellbore and Perforations on the FRACTURE
SIMULATION OPTIONS [F4] screen, Depth to Top of Perfs is taken from data entered on the WELLBORE
CONFIGURATION [F7] screen and displayed (uneditable) on this screen.
Depth to Bottom of Perfs
If you choose Ignore Wellbore and Perforations on the FRACTURE SIMULATION OPTIONS [F4] screen, you must
enter a value for Depth to Bottom of Perfs here. If you choose Model Wellbore and Perforations on the FRACTURE
SIMULATION OPTIONS [F4] screen, Depth to Bottom of Perfs is taken from data entered on the WELLBORE
CONFIGURATION [F7] screen and displayed (uneditable) on this screen.
Initial Frac Depth
FracproPT always calculates this value; it is approximately the center of the zone with lowest stress found within the
perforated interval. If you want to guarantee fracture initiation from a particular zone (regardless of the stress profile and
the true perforated interval), you can make the perforated interval small enough such that you control where the simulator
initiates the fracture.
Initial Frac Depth must fall within one of the inner Rock Type layers (that is, it cannot fall within either the top layer or the
bottom layer).
This screen is where you modify the composite layering effects on various layers of rock. This screen is available only if
you choose General Reservoir in the Reservoir Options on the FRACTURE Analysis OPTIONS [F4] screen.
Define the layers and their various properties that comprise the reservoir and surrounding strata by entering the depth to
the top of each layer. Up to 100 layers may be entered, but only 14 are shown at any time. Blank rows in the table may be
added by selecting a whole row and pressing [Ins], and rows may be deleted by selecting the whole row and pressing
[Del].
The layer where the fracture initiates (depending on the position of the perforated interval defined on the WELLBORE
CONFIGURATION [F7] screen) is highlighted yellow in the table. If you have more than one perforated interval defined,
you can cycle through them by pressing [Ctrl+F] or selecting the Next Interval toolbar button.
Note:
The actual depths you enter and the numbers of layers you define here do not have to coincide with the depths and
layers you enter in any other Reservoir Property Table.
Set Composite Layering Effect from
These options will only be available if 3D User-Defined is selected as the Fracture Model to Use option on the Fracture
Analysis Options [F4] screen.
Table Entry
Select this option to set the Composite Layering Effect in the Mechanical Rock Properties Table.
Payzone Flag
Select this option to set the Composite Layering Effect for all zones (no matter what the Rock Type) that are not
selected as Pay Zones on the Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen. The Composite Layering Effect for the Pay Zones
will automatically be set to 1.0, while the value for all non-Pay Zones is set below by the entry for Composite Layering
Effect Outside Payzone.
Composite Layering Effect Outside Payzone
If Payzone Flag is selected as the Set Composite Layering Effect from option (see description above), the value for
that effect is entered here. This value will overwrite all values entered in the Mechanical Rock Properties Table.
Additional Information: Composite Layering Effects
Other Functions
Layer Display
Select this function to view the INTEGRATED FRACTURE PICTURE with the Layer Properties Template.
Logs/Layers Editor

218

FracproPT 2007

If a standard Log ASCII (LAS) file is available, layers can be built automatically and properties can be assigned
automatically using the Logs/Layers Editor.

Layers (Additional Information)


Closure Stress
The fracture closure stress determines the shape of the fracture, as it is one of the most important confinement
mechanisms

Radial fracture growth if stress profile is uniform (theoretical decrease in net pressure with pump time)

Confined height growth if closure stress "barriers" are present (theoretical increase in net pressure
with pump time).

The effectiveness of a fracture growth "barrier" is determined by the level of the closure stress contrast between pay zone
and the layers above and below the pay, and the level of the net pressure inside the fracture. If the net pressure is high in
comparison to the closure stress contrast, the fracture will significantly grow into the neighboring zones.
The best and most reliable way to measure the stress is to do a pump-in shut-in test. This is typically done prior to the
fracture treatment in attempt to determine the fracture closure stress in the pay zone. Fracture closure stress
measurements can also be done separately in the zones around the pay zone by shooting some perforations in these
zones and conducting a pump-in shut-in test, but this is generally somewhat costly and not without risks.
Fracture closure stress is sometimes determined using a dipole sonic log. This log measures the dynamic Poissons ratio,
and various assumptions are required to "translate" that into a closure stress profile. Unfortunately, these assumptions
drive the final results, and it has often been observed that sonic-log derived closure stresses are very different from
directly measured closure stresses. In the absence of more than one directly measure closure stress (in the pay zone),
the dipole sonic log interpretation of stress is often used as a first guess of the stress contrast, while the pump-in shut-in
closure measurement in the pay is used as a calibration point.
In the absence of any knowledge about stress in a reservoir (apart from the pump-in shut-in measurement prior to the
propped frac), a typical sand-shale closure stress contrast of about 0.05 - 0.1 psi/ft can be assumed, with the lower
closure stress in the sands. The main reason for this is that sands typically have a slightly lower Poissons ratio than
shales, and thus transfer less of the overburden stress gradient into a horizontal stress component.
A lower contrast should be assumed if sands are not clean. A higher sand-shale closure stress contrast should be
anticipated if there has been significant depletion in the sand. A rule-of thumb is that the closure stress in the san reduces
by about 2/3 of the reduction in pore pressure. For example, if reservoir pressure has been depleted by 1000 psi, a 670
psi reduction in the closure stress can be assumed, on top of the original contrast of 0.05 0.1 psi/ft.
If you have evidence that fracture growth is confined, for example because you know that the fracture is not penetrating a
nearby water-bearing zone, you can use this knowledge to contain the fracture more in the model by increasing the
fracture closure stress in the zones above and below the pay zone. Once you have to raise the fracture closure stress
above about 1.0 psi/ft to get the desired confinement, you need to switch over to other confinement mechanisms, such as
the composite layering effect.
Poisson's Ratio
The Poisson's Ratio () is typically not a very important parameter in fracture growth and has only a second-order effect
on the fracture geometry.
Typical Poissons ratios range between about 0.2 for sandstones and about 0.3 for shales. Coals have a relatively high
Poissons Ratio of about 0.4.
Young's Modulus
Youngs Modulus is a measure of the stiffness of the rock. It should be obtained from static loading tests on core,
preferably similar to stress conditions in the reservoir of interest. You can generally use core data from nearby wells and
use this to populate modulus data in FracproPT.
In the absence of any core measurements, static Youngs Modulus could also be indirectly obtained from measurement of
dynamic modulus using sonic log measurements. Note however, that rocks appear stiffer under dynamic load, and the
dynamic Youngs modulus is usually at least two times higher than the static modulus. In soft rock, the dynamic/static
modulus ratio can be significantly higher than 2.
Sometimes, it is possible to correlate the modulus with the shale fraction in the rock or with the porosity. These
correlations are generally based on a few core measurements, after which this correlation is used to estimate modulus
along the entire depth of the interval of interest based on Vshale or porosity log measurements.
Typical Young's Moduli range between 100,000 psi for soft rocks such as coals, diatomite or unconsolidated sands, to up
to 10,000,000 psi for extremely hard rocks such as granite. Well-consolidated sandstones typically have a Young's
Modulus in the range of 3,000,000 to 6,000,000 psi.
Permeability to Leakoff Coefficient Relationship

219

FracproPT 2007

You have the option to enter either Pore Fluid Permeability (which is the permeability of the formation to the oil or gas in
the reservoir) or Leakoff Coefficient (which is the total leakoff coefficient, C_total). Whichever parameter you enter,
FracproPT automatically solves for and displays the other in blue to indicate that it is a calculated value. In general, it is
more appropriate to enter permeability since FracproPT runs internally from permeabilities.
The relationship between permeability and leak-off coefficient is a function of the parameters accessed by selecting
Additional Reservoir Properties. Each time one of the leakoff parameters is changed, FracproPT re-solves the
permeability-to-leakoff coefficient relationship, holding constant the last value entered for either Pore Fluid Permeability or
Leakoff Coefficient (that is, the column of numbers displayed in black type are held constant).
The "total" Leakoff Coefficient determines the rate of fluid leakoff into the formation, per unit area. Values typically range
from 0.04 to 0.0001 feet/square-root-minute. Leakoff coefficient can be found reliably only by using FracproPT to match
the pressure decline during a shut-in. FracproPT calculates the most reasonable estimate of fracture contact with
permeable area and takes into account the change in fracture dimensions, as well as fluid leakoff, when calculating the
pressure decline during shut-in.
Matching a pressure decline with any fracture model (including type curves) to determine leakoff coefficient is geometry
dependent (that is, dependent upon fracture area in contact with permeable rock). Therefore, leakoff coefficients derived
from one fracture model cannot accurately be used with other fracture models. However, the deduced efficiency may not
be greatly different between most models.

Reservoir Parameters Additional Properties [F9]

The Reservoir Leakoff Parameters screen.


Reservoir Type
Select the Reservoir Type from one of the radio buttons. The choices are Single Layer or Multi Layer.
Single Layer
For Single Layer, the parameters entered and displayed on this screen apply to all the layers defined on the
RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen.
If you want to enter different parameters for each layer, for example if you have significant differences in reservoir
pressure, porosity or compressibility in various payzones, you should choose Multi-Layer as the Reservoir Type.
Note:
In most situations, choosing either Gas or Oil (depending on your reservoir) yields acceptable results.
Multi Layer

220

FracproPT 2007

Choosing Multi-Layer allows you to set those same Reservoir Leakoff Parameters to whatever values you choose, but
now they can be set differently to each layer in the Reservoir Layer Table. As you might expect, the Reservoir LEAKOFF
PARAMETERS screen will appear somewhat different in this case.
HC Type
The type of hydrocarbons is specified here.
Gas Well
The well is used primarily to produce gas.
Oil Well
The well is used primarily to produce oil.
Leakoff Fluid Permeability Ratio, Kp/Kl
This is the ratio of formation pore-fluid permeability to formation leakoff-fluid permeability (usually water). Typical values
for this ratio are from 1.0 to 50. For oil reservoirs, values close to 1.0 are common. For gas reservoirs, values of order 10
or higher are common.
Reservoir Pore Pressure
This parameter is commonly measured for other reasons (for example, reserve calculations) and is usually a well-known
parameter. A typical pore pressure gradient is about 0.43 psi/foot.
Average Pressure In Fracture
This parameter indicates the pressure inside the fracture soon after fracture initiation. A good estimate for this number is
typically about 500 psi higher than pay zone closure stress. This parameter has two functions:

To convert Permeability to Leak-Off Coefficient and vice versa as displayed on the RESERVOIR
PARAMETERS [F9] screen, Layers tab.

As the initial fluid-loss driving pressure for the first simulator time step.

Note:
Once the fracture has initiated (for example, after the first time step), the actual pressure in the fracture is used to
drive fluid leakoff and calculate the actual leakoff coefficient.
Pore Fluid Compressibility
This is the compressibility (that is, the inverse of modulus) of the fluid in the pores. For oil reservoirs, compressibility can
be as low as 3e-6 1/psi. In gas reservoirs, the compressibility is the generally the reciprocal of the pore pressure (for
example, if the pore pressure is about 5000 psi, the compressibility would be about 0.0002 1/psi).
Pore Fluid Viscosity
This input refers to the mobile reservoir fluid. Typical values for a gas reservoir would be low, of order 0.01 to 0.1 cp, with
very little change with temperature. For an oil reservoir, typical values could be much higher, of order one to several
hundred cp, and significant changes with temperature would be expected.
Porosity
This is the volume fraction of formation rock that is occupied by pores where oil or gas is stored. Typical values are
around 10% (entered as 0.10), but porosity may be as high as 60% (0.60) or as low as only a few percent.
Gas In Foam Leakoff Percentage
This parameter relates the quality of the leakoff fluid to the quality of the fluid in the fracture. For example, a Gas In Foam
Leakoff Percentage of 25 with 80-quality foam in the fracture means that the leakoff fluid is 20-quality (that is, 20 percent
gas, 80 percent liquid). This field is accessible only if you have foam inputs on the Treatment SCHEDULE [F6] screen.
Set to Gas Defaults and Set to Oil Defaults
If you choose the buttons to Set to Gas Defaults or Set to Oil Defaults, the parameters on this screen are overwritten by
FracproPT. However, you can always set these parameters yourself after that by editing them individually.
Choosing Set to Gas Defaults or Set to Oil Defaults automatically sets a number of Reservoir Leakoff Parameters to
default values for "typical" reservoirs (that is, normally pressured, etc.). These parameters apply to all layers in the
Reservoir Layer Table.
Reservoir Depletion
Select this function to view the DEPLETION MENU screen where you can model the effects (on pore pressure, pore fluid
compressibility, and closure stress) of production from the reservoir. A message field adjacent to the Reservoir Depletion
selection indicates whether or not the depletion model is currently In Use or Not Used.

221

FracproPT 2007

Drainage Area
The drainage area in terms of its extent and the well spacing is specified here.
X-Direction Extent
This parameter is the extent of the drainage area along the length of the fracture (that is, the x direction).
Y-Direction Extent
This parameter is the extent of the drainage area along the width of the fracture (that is, the y direction).
Well Spacing
This parameter is used to calculate a pseudo-steady state PI ratio in the Fracture Design module and is linked to the
Reservoir Extent in the Production Analysis module.
Fracture Azimuth
This parameter describes the fracture orientation with respect to north, with the positive direction defined to be clockwise
(for example, 45 degrees corresponds to the NE-to-SW direction). This parameter is used only for display purposes by the
Wellbore Viewer and does not affect model results.
Suggest Viscosity and Compressibility
Pressing this button will set Pore Fluid Viscosity and Pore Fluid Compressibility (described above) to suggested values.

Reservoir Parameters - Rock Library [F9]


This screen is used to maintain a database (library) of Rock Types with particular mechanical, chemical, and thermal
properties. There are several pre-defined rock-types included with FracproPT in the System Library, but these can be
edited, deleted, or renamed, as the user requires.

The Rock Library screen.


Add New Rock Type to List
This function opens the Select Rock Type dialog that allows you to select Rock Types from either the System Library or
User Library. This function will only be allowed if there is room in the list for a new Rock Type (a maximum of 15 are
available at any time).
Remove Rock Type from List
You can select a Rock Type from the list and then select this function to remove it from the list permanently. You will not
be able to use this function if the Rock Type you are attempting to delete is currently in use by FracproPT (you must
remove the rock type from all modes in order to be able to delete it).

222

FracproPT 2007

Create User Defined Rock Type


This function takes you to the Mechanical ROCK PROPERTIES screen where you can enter a new Rock Type and its
properties. After entering data there, you should also go to the CHEMICAL ROCK PROPERTIES screen and the
THERMAL ROCK PROPERTIES screen to enter those properties if they are needed.
Save Rock Type to User Library
Once you have entered all the mechanical, chemical, and thermal properties of the new Rock Type, you can save it to the
User Library by selecting this function.
Delete Rock Type from User Library
Select a Rock Type from the list and use this function to delete it from the User Library.

Select Rock Type


Use this dialog to first select either the System or User library of rock types, and then select the actual rock Type.

The Select Rock Type dialog

Stress Perturbation
This screen is for proprietary use only. The purpose of this screen is to calculate the increase in closure stress in each
FracproPT Layer as caused by the presence of previously created fractures that have closed on proppant.

The Stress Perturbation screen.

223

FracproPT 2007

Fracturing pressures have been observed to increase with subsequent fracture stages in horizontal wells, because
previous propped fractures that are closed on proppant change the state of stress in the reservoir. This change has an
impact on the fracture design for subsequent fracture treatments. For example, the stress increase in a pay zone due to
the presence of a propped fracture created in a previous stage could cause the new fracture to grow preferentially outside
the pay zone if the new fracture is placed close to the previous one. This can have a huge impact on the wells production
performance.
Pinnacle Technologies has implemented existing algorithms and equations to calculate the change in closure stress
profile along a well due to the presence of nearby hydraulic fractures that have been pumped in previous fracture
treatments. The existing algorithms and equations are explained in detail by Sneddon [1946a], Sneddon [1946b], Uhri
[1987] and Warpinski et al. [1988].
STRESS PERTURBATION TABLE
This lists all layer depths and rocktypes as defined in the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] Layers tab.

Stress
The minimum principle stress (or fracture closure stress) for each layer.

Perturbation
The Stress Perturbation column displays the increase or decrease in fracture closure stress at the location of the current
fracture due to the presence of fractures defined in the Import Fractures box.

Stress + Perturbation
Sum of the two values above.

IMPORT FRACTURES
Identifier
Represents the name of the RFR file that contains the fracture geometry information. An RFR file is automatically created
for every FracproPT INP file once you Run the Fracture Analysis model. The RFR file contains the fracture dimensions,
the center depth of the fracture, and the net fracturing pressure as the fracture closes on proppant.

Fracture Center
X represents the coordinate along an East-West axis (with East being positive) of the center of the previously created
fracture. Y represents the coordinate along an North-South axis (with North being positive) of the center of the previously
created fracture. Both coordinates have to be entered in this screen. The Z coordinate represents the center depth (TVD)
of the fracture and originates from the RFR file.

Fracture Geometry
Lf represents the fracture half-length, and Hf represents the total fracture height. Pnet represents the net pressure in the
fracture at the time when the fracture closes on proppant. All these parameters originate from the RFR file.

STRESS IN PAY
Minimum Stress
The Minimum Stress equals the closure stress in the fracture initiation layer, which is represented in bright yellow in the
Stress Perturbation Table.

Intermediate Stress
The Intermediate Stress equals the intermediate (horizontal stress). Right now, this is not used for any calculation, but is
only displayed for comparison with the Stress+Perturbation in the Stress Perturbation Table.

Vertical Stress
Right now, this is not used for any calculation, but is only displayed for comparison with the Stress+Perturbation in the
Stress Perturbation Table.

224

FracproPT 2007

Fracture Azimuth
We assume that all fractures (current and previously created and loaded in the Import Fractures table) have the same
Fracture Azimuth. Azimuth is defined from the North, with azimuths East of North as positive and West of North
negative.

STRESS ON LAYERS TAB


Stress
Displays Stress column in the Stress Perturbation Table as the Stress column in the Layers tab of the RESERVOIR
PROPERTIES [F9] screen.

Stress + Perturbation
Displays Stress + Perturbation column in the Stress Perturbation Table as the Stress column in the Layers tab of the
RESERVOIR PROPERTIES [F9] screen. To account for the influence of previous fractures, the fracture model needs to
be run using this selection.

Browse
Locate and add RFR files using this button.

Remove
Highlight the identifier of the fracture you would like to remove and select the Remove button.
References

Sneddon, I.N. and H.A. Elliot: "The opening of a Griffith crack under internal pressure," The Quarterly of
Applied Mathematics, Vol IV, No. 3, pp. 262-267, 1946.

Sneddon, I.N. :"The distribution of Stress in the neighborhood of a crack in an elastic solid", Proceedings,
Royal Society, Series A, Vol 1987, 1946, pp. 229-260.

Uhri, D.C.:"Stimulation of earth formations surrounding a deviated wellbore by sequential hydraulic


fracturing," United States Patent 4,687,061, August 18, 1987.

Warpinski, N.R. and Branagan, P.T.:"Altered-Stress Fracturing," SPE paper 17533 presented at the Rocky
Mounbtain Regional Meeting, Casper, WY, May 11-13, 1988.

Reservoir Data for the 2D Fracture Models

2D Reservoir and Fracture Parameters [F9]


This screen, which is accessible only if you selected either PKN 2D Model, KGD 2D Model, or Radial Model on the
FRACTURE SIMULATION OPTIONS [F4] screen, is where you specify the parameters needed to characterize the
reservoir for the 2D fracture models.

225

FracproPT 2007

The 2D Reservoir and Fracture Parameters screen.


Fracture Height (Gross Pay)
This is the total fixed fracture height that you must enter for the PKN 2D Model and the KGD 2D Model. For the Radial
Model, fracture "height" is always equal to total fracture length and, therefore, requires no entry in this field.
Payzone Height (Net Pay)
This is the height used for leakoff (or permeable height) in the 2D models. This height is typically less than or equal to
Fracture Height (Gross Pay).
Depth to Center of Pay
This is the depth to the center of the pay (and the center of the fracture).
Closure Stress In Payzone
An entry in this field is important only if you are running the simulator from actual treatment data and comparing the
Observed Net Pressure to the Net Pressure. Closure stress gradient is typically between 0.5 psi/ft and 0.8 psi/ft in
sandstones.
Formation Modulus
This is the Young's modulus for the zone you are fracturing. Young's modulus ranges from 100,000 psi for very soft,
unconsolidated sandstones or coals to 10,000,000 psi for extremely hard granites. Sandstones typically have Young's
modulus values in the range of 3,000,000 to 6,000,000 psi.
Formation Poisson's Ratio
This is the Poisson's ratio for the zone you are fracturing. Typical values range from 0.1 to 0.4. Any reasonable value of
Poissons Ration (for example, 0.25) is adequate.
Leakoff Coefficient
This is the total leakoff coefficient, which determines the rate per unit area of fluid leakoff into the formation. Values
typically range from 0.04 to 0.0001 feet/square-root-minute. Values of leakoff coefficient can be reliably found only by
matching the pressure decline during a shut-in or at the end of a treatment. Furthermore, leakoff coefficient is specific to
the fracture model used, so you must determine leakoff coefficient and predict future fracture behavior with the same
fracture model to be consistent.
Pore Fluid Permeability
Based on the Leakoff Coefficient you enter, and the Reservoir Type you select, an estimated value of reservoir
permeability is displayed in this field.
Reservoir Temperature
This is the actual reservoir temperature. It is used to select the correct rheology data from the fluid library.

226

FracproPT 2007

Fracture Toughness
Enter the fracture toughness for the layer of rock you are fracturing.
Reservoir Type
Define the reservoir type by selecting either Oil or Gas from the drop-down list.
Reservoir Lithology
Make a selection from the available Rock Types from the drop-down list. The rock type is important (in this simulation)
only for chemical properties (for example, for acid reaction) and for thermal properties (for example, fluid heating).

Fluid and Proppant Selection - F5


Fluid Selection - F5

Fluid and Proppant Selection Fluid Selection [F5]


The Fluid and Proppant Selection - F5 screen can be accessed by:

pressing the function key F5

selecting from the main menu Data > Fluids and Proppants > Select Fluids and Proppants F5

selecting Fluid&Proppant Selection from the Navigation Tree

The Fluid Selection tab is the first tab on the Fluid and Proppant Selection - F5 screen.
The fluids listed on this screen are the ones available for use in the current fracture and reservoir simulations. Up to ten
fluids can be selected. They are a subset of the hundreds found in the Fluid Libraries (there are System Libraries and
User Libraries for fluids). The fluids displayed here are either selected from the libraries or created from scratch.

227

FracproPT 2007

Fluid Selection screen

Fluids List
This is the list of fluids currently available for use in the simulator. Additional fluids may be added from the Fluid Libraries.
Note:
Fluids with a red background indicate fluids that have acid added to them. Fluids displayed on a faint yellow
background are actually used in the Treatment Schedule - F6 screen or elsewhere in FracproPT in other modules.
Columns

Fluid Name: Name of the fluid.

Edit Current Fluid: Use this function to view the friction, rheology, fluid-loss, thermal, and chemical
data for any fluid in the list by first selecting the fluid and then selecting this function. Alternatively,

Buttons

228

FracproPT 2007

you can also simply double-click on the fluid. Both actions display the Fluid Data [Shift+F5] screen
where those data are accessible.

Add New Fluid to List: Select this function to add a new fluid to the list from either the System
Library or User Library of fluids in the Select Fluid screen. See also description for Add New
Halliburton 2007 Fluid to List button below.

Note:
If you wish to create a modified version of a fluid that is already on the Fluids List, select the fluid by clicking on the
row number and then press [Ins]. This action will create a new fluid that is a copy of the first fluid, the only difference
being that "-A" will be appended to the name. If you repeat this process to create more copies of the original fluid,
they will have -B, -C, etc. appended to the original name. You can then modify the new fluid's properties. This is a
handy feature for foam treatments where you need to use the same basic fluid with varying quality.

Remove Fluid from List: Select a fluid with the cursor and then use this function to delete it from the
Fluid List.

Note:
If a fluid is currently in use on the Treatment Schedule - F6 screen, you will not be able to remove it unless you
remove it from the schedule first.

Create User Defined Fluid: Select this function to create a fluid from "scratch." A blank version of the
Fluid Data - Shift+F5 screen will appear where you must enter a fluid name, rheology data, friction
data, and fluid-loss data. The fluid will not be a valid fluid (that is, it will not be usable) until all
necessary data are entered.

Add New Halliburton 2007 Fluid to List: Select this function to add a new Halliburton fluid to the list
from either the System Library or User Library of Halliburton fluids in the Select Halliburton Fluid
screen.

Select Fluid
The Select Fluid screen can be accessed by clicking on the Add New Fluid to List button on the Fluid Selection tab of
the Fluid and Proppant Selection - F5 screen.
This screen is where you select a fluid from one of FracproPTs fluid libraries for use in the pump schedule.

Select Fluid screen

Library

System: The System fluid library contains all of the fluids supplied with FracproPT. These data were
obtained directly from the service companies.

User: The User fluid library contains data that you have stored when entering a fluid from scratch, or
if you have modified fluids from the System library and saved it to the User library.

Vendor

229

FracproPT 2007

After selecting a fluid Library, you should select a Vendor in this field.

System
After selecting a fluid Library and Vendor, you should select a fluid System in this field.

Name - Description
After selecting a fluid Library, Vendor, and System, you should select the actual fluid (that is, in terms of a fluid Name
and Description) in this field.

Select Halliburton Fluid


The Select Halliburton Fluid screen is accessed by clicking on the Add Halliburton 2007 Fluid to List button on the Fluid
Selection tab of the Fluid and Proppant Selection - F5 screen.
This screen is used to select a Halliburton fluid from one of FracproPTs Halliburton fluid libraries for use in the pump
schedule.

Select Halliburton Fluid screen


In this screen, a Halliburton fluid can be selected and added to the list of selected fluids. In addition, pre-defined system
fluids can be edited (which converts them to user-defined fluids), user-defined fluids can be edited and deleted, and any
fluid can be exported to and imported from a file.
The purpose of the Select Halliburton Fluid screen is to identify the fluid for which properties are desired, by clicking on
a row to select and highlight the desired fluid. The user may simply scroll down through the list to find and select the
material of interest. For each fluid, various properties are displayed in the data columns.

Halliburtons Material Library


The purpose of Halliburtons Material Library is to allow the user to access, view, and use the data which describes the
physical properties of Halliburton materials and fluids. The current Material Library is populated primarily with stimulation
treatment materials. Future releases will contain additional materials.
The fundamental properties provided by the Material Library include density, rheology, friction, fluid loss, and
thermodynamic properties for fluids. Actual lab data for fluids may be input and compared to Material Library values, and
user-defined fluids may be generated for export and use elsewhere.
It is crucial that the user exercise sound engineering judgment in defining the base fluid properties and other input
parameters from which the calculated parameters will be determined. It is possible to input conditions that would be
illogical, impractical, or physically impossible to attain in the field, and still calculate material properties for these inputs.
The Material Library software is owned and maintained by Halliburton. Please refer to the Material Library license
agreement that is included with the distribution of FracproPT for more detailed information.
A number of properties of Halliburtons fluids are required by FracproPT, but they are not (yet) available in the Material
Library. Consequently, FracproPTgenerates these properties from look-up tables.

230

FracproPT 2007

Newtonian leakoff filtrate viscosity

acid fluid diffusivity

non-reactive acid concentration

acid retardation factor

unit cost (always set to 0)

is water sensitive (for Fracture Analysis)

is dry gas reservoir suitable (for Fracture Analysis)

In addition, FracproPT overrides the properties of Halliburtons fluids in the Material Library to make them more suitable
for use in FracproPT:

wall building coefficient

spurt loss

For non-wall-building fluids, FracproPT overrides these two properties to zero. The reason is that non-wall-building fluids
have no wall-building characteristics. Consequently, it would make sense to set the wall building coefficient and the spurt
to zero. However, Halliburtons Material Library is using the classical definition where the wall building coefficient is equal
to half the slope of the fluid loss versus square-root time (that is, the rate of fluid leakoff). Of course, for non-wall-building
fluids this is a very steep slope compared to fracturing gels. However, when the wall building coefficient is defined like
this, for non-wall-building fluids it has to be a non-zero value, since it has a leakoff volume over time. Unfortunately, this
definition may be confusing for FracproPT users.
Additional Information: Wallbuilding Coefficient

User-defined Fluids
The Material Library contains all the standard Halliburton stimulation fluids. However, in field operations fluids are
formulated for specific job applications. The Material Library facilitates definition of such formulated fluids. User-defined
fluids can be exported and sent to other users for their use, and received from other users and imported into the User
Library.

User Library
When a user-defined fluid is created by editing a pre-defined system fluid or another user-defined fluid, it is automatically
added to the User Library. In the Select Halliburton Fluid screen, fluids in the User Library are displayed as rows with a
yellow background, which distinguishes them from pre-defined system fluids with a white background. The fluids in the
User Library are stored in separate Extensible Markup Language (XML) ASCII text files in a folder similar to ...\My
Documents\MaterialsLibrary\UserMaterials\; the names of these XML files are determined by the identifier (OID) of
each user-defined fluid in the User Library.

Columns

Name: The common, unique name of the fluid. The names of pre-defined system fluids cannot be
edited. The names of user-defined fluid may be changed

OID: The unique identifier of the fluid, which is used for internal purposes only. For pre-defined
system fluids, the OIDs are generally the same as or similar to the fluid names. However, for userdefined fluids, a unique OID is generated, which unfortunately looks rather obscure (for example,
AFAZYL0IIJ33OAAA).

Data Source: The source of the fluid data.

Internal (pre-defined system fluid)

User (user-defined fluid)

Context Type: The general classification of the fluid.


(that is, Muds, Waters, Reservoir Fluids, Other Treatment Fluids, Acids, Base Gels, Crosslinked
Fluids)

Fluid Type: The fundamental fluid on which the material is based.

gas-based (for example, CO2, N2)

oil-based (that is, liquid hydrocarbon)

water-based

231

FracproPT 2007

Well Type: The type of well for the primary application of the fluid.
(that is, Gas, Oil)

CO2 Compatibility: Whether the fluid is compatible for use with carbon dioxide (CO2) gas.
(that is, true, false)

Minimum Temperature: The minimum applicable temperature for which the fluid is recommended, in
degrees Fahrenheit (F).

Maximum Temperature: The minimum applicable temperature for which the fluid is recommended,
in degrees Fahrenheit (F).

Sorting
By default, the fluids are listed in alphabetical order by their name. Each column can be sorted by clicking on the column
header. Subsequently clicking on the same column header toggles the sorting between ascending and descending order.

Filtering
The columns can be filtered by clicking on the downward pointing arrow
box
column Context Type:

to the right of the Select pull-down combo-

below the column headers. By default, all filter choices are checked on. For example, for the

Filters are summative (that is, setting multiple filters requires that all filter conditions be met).

Buttons

Import: Read a user-defined fluid from an Extensible Markup Language (XML) ASCII text file into the
User Library. A single XML file can contain multiple fluids, and all of these fluids will be read into the
User Library.

Edit: Modify the properties of the fluid. This converts a pre-defined system fluid to a user-defined
fluid.

Save: Generate a new user-defined fluid based on the currently active fluid. This function will not only
make a copy of a pre-defined system fluid, but also of another user-defined fluid. Thus, subsequent
derivatives of a user-defined fluid may be created as needed.

Delete: Remove a user-defined fluid from the User Library. Multiple user-defined fluids can be
removed from the User Library by selecting them in the fluid selection screen before pressing the
"Delete" button. Upon delete of one or more user-defined fluids, the fluid in the row below the lowest
deleted fluid becomes the active fluid. Pre-defined system fluids cannot be deleted.

Export: Write a user-defined fluid from the User Library to an Extensible Markup Language (XML)
ASCII text file. Multiple user-defined fluids can be exported by selecting them in the fluid selection
screen before pressing the "Export" button. This functionality can be used to make a backup copy of
the User Library in a single file for safekeeping.

OK: Exit the Select Halliburton Fluid screen and add the active fluid to the list of selected fluids.

Cancel: Exit the Select Halliburton Fluid screen without adding the active fluid to the list of selected
fluids.

Proppant Selection - F5

Fluid and Proppant Selection Proppant Selection [F5]


he Fluid and Proppant Selection - F5 screen can be accessed by:

232

pressing the function key F5

selecting from the main menu Data > Fluids and Proppants > Select Fluids and Proppants F5

selecting Fluid&Proppant Selection from the Navigation Tree

FracproPT 2007

The Proppant Selection tab is the second tab on the Fluid and Proppant Selection - F5 screen.
The proppants listed on this screen are the ones available for use in the current fracture and reservoir simulations. Up to
ten proppants can be selected. They are a subset of the proppants found in the Proppant Libraries (there are System
Libraries and User Libraries for proppants). The proppants displayed here are either selected from the libraries or created
from scratch.

Proppant Selection screen

Proppants List
This is the list of proppants currently available for use in the simulator. Additional proppants may be added from the
Proppant Libraries.
Note:
If the diameter for a proppant displayed in the list is smaller than the threshold diameter defined on the Proppant
Model Parameters tab of the FracproPT Model Parameters - Shift + F3 screen (so that it will be ignored as proppant

233

FracproPT 2007

by the fracture simulator), the proppant will be displayed with a yellow background in the list. Proppants displayed on
a faint yellow background are actually used in the Treatment Schedule - F6 screen or elsewhere in FracproPT in
other modules.
Columns

Proppant Name: Name of the proppant.

Source: The source of the proppant data.

COMP: Compiled from various sources (generally based on the most reliable proppant data that
is available).

DOC: The vendors documentation (that is, not published on their World Wide Web site).

SL6.0: Stim-Lab 6.0.

SL99: Stim-Lab 1999.

UNKN: Unknown (typically historic data).

WWW: The vendors World Wide Web site.


User-defined fluids do not have a "Source" entry (that is, it is blank).

Buttons

Edit Current Proppant: Use this function to view data (for example, density, porosity, average
diameter) the data describing any fluid in the list by first selecting the proppant and then selecting this
function. Alternatively, you can also simply double-click on the proppant. Both actions display the
Proppant Data screen where that data are accessible.

Add New Proppant to List: Select this function to add a new proppant to the list from either the
System Library or User Library of proppants in the Select Proppant screen.

Create User Defined Proppant: Select this function to create a proppant from "scratch." A blank
version of the Proppant Data screen will appear where you must enter a proppant name and other
data to describe the proppant. The proppant will not be a valid proppant (that is, it will not be usable)
until all necessary data are entered.

Remove Proppant from List: Select a proppant with the cursor and then use this function to delete it
from the Proppant List.

Note:
If a proppant is currently in use on the Treatment Schedule - F6 screen, you will not be able to remove it unless you
remove it from the schedule first.

Proppant Effects on Wellbore Friction: Select this function to view the Proppant Effects On
Wellbore FrictioN screen where the effects of proppant on wellbore friction can be viewed and
modified.

Fracture Conductivity Calculation

Producing Bottomhole Pressure: Enter a pressure here for use in calculating the net closure stress
on the proppant, which is necessary to calculate the conductivity of the propped fracture. This
pressure has a wide range of values that may depend on gathering-system line pressure, reservoir or
proppant sensitivity to the drawdown pressure, or some other production-related constraint. This
pressure will always be less than reservoir pressure and it may be as low as a few tens or hundreds
of psi (above zero) in low-permeability gas wells.

Note:
This is the same parameter shown on the Proppant Perm Damage screen.

Proppant Damage Factor: This the damage factor applied to the proppant permeability resulting
from non-flow-related phenomena such as gel residue. This damage factor can be specified on the
Proppant Perm Damage screen.

Note:
This damage factor is shown on this screen in read-only format.

Note:

234

Apparent Damage Factor (Non-Darcy, Multi-Phase Flow): This attempts to estimate the apparent
damage factors resulting from flow-related phenomena such as non-Darcy and multi-phase flow
effects. This damage factor can be specified on the Proppant Perm Damage screen.

FracproPT 2007

This damage factor is shown on this screen in read-only format.


Total Damage Factor: This is the damage parameter that FracproPT actually uses to calculate
conductivity and dimensionless conductivity. This total damage factor is applied to the proppant
permeability, which is calculated automatically from the damage factors resulting from non-flowrelated (that is, the Proppant Damage Factor) and flow-related (that is, the Apparent Damage
Factor) phenomena if you so specify; those damage factors are specified on the Proppant Perm
Damage screen. The Total Damage Factor is calculated using the following simple equation:
Dtotal=1-[(1-Dapparent)(1-Dproppant)]
Note:
This damage factor is shown on this screen in read-only format.

Proppant Perm Damage: Select this function to go to the Proppant Perm Damage screen where you
can enter information and select options, including non-Darcy and multiphase flow effects, related
to the calculation of proppant conductivity in the fractures during production.

Proppant Effects on Wellbore Friction: Go to Proppant Effect on Wellbore Friction screen.

Select Proppant
The Select Proppant screen is accessed by clicking on the Add New Proppant to List button on the Proppant Selection
tab of the Fluid and Proppant Selection - F5 screen.
This screen is where you select a proppant from one of FracproPTs proppant libraries for use in the pump schedule.

Select Proppant screen

Library

System: The pre-defined system proppants.

User: The user-defined proppants.

HES: The Halliburton proppants. They account for the non-linear effects of the proppant
2
2
concentration (that is, the conductivity at 2 lb/ft is not twice the conductivity at 1 lb/ft ). Since the
Halliburton library returns a conductivity, it is converted back to permeability to display on the
Proppant Data screen.

235

FracproPT 2007

Columns

Name: The common, unique name of the proppant.

Vendor: The vendor of the proppant.


(for example, Atlas, Badger, Borden, Borovichi, Carbo, Curimbaba, Fores, Hepworth-Sibelco, Hexion)

System: The system of the proppant.


(for example, Accupak, AcPack, Arizona Sand, Atlas CRC Premium, Atlas PRC, Atlas PRC Premium,
Badger Frac, Badger Sand, Badger Special Cut)

Type: The general classification of the proppant.


(that is, Sand, Resin Coated Sand, Ceramic, Low Density Ceramic, Medium Density Ceramic, High
Density Ceramic, Resin Coated Low Density Ceramic, Resin Coated Medium Density Ceramic, Resin
Coated High Density Ceramic)

Mesh Min: The minimum sieve mesh.


(for example, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 25, 30, 40, 70, 100)

Mesh Max: The maximum sieve mesh.


(for example, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 100, 140)

Coating: The type of resin coating of the proppant.


(that is, None, Precured, Curable)

Source: The source of the proppant data.

COMP: Compiled from various sources (generally based on the most reliable proppant data that
is available).

DOC: The vendors documentation (that is, not published on their World Wide Web site).

SL6.0: Stim-Lab 6.0.

SL99: Stim-Lab 1999.

UNKN: Unknown (typically historic data).

WWW: The vendors World Wide Web site.


User-defined fluids do not have a "Source" entry (that is, it is blank).

Date: The date of the last measurement.

Lab Verif.: Whether the proppant data was obtained and verified by an independent laboratory (for
example, Stim-Lab) or by a laboratory that is somehow dependent on a proppant vendor.
(that is, No, Yes)

Sorting
By default, the proppants are listed in alphabetical order by their name. Each column can be sorted by clicking on the
column header. Subsequently clicking on the same column header toggles the sorting between ascending and
descending order.

Filtering
The columns can be filtered by clicking on the downward pointing arrow

to the right of the pull-down combo-box

below the column headers. By default, all filter choices are set to All. For example, for the column
"Coating":

Filters are exclusive (that is, only one filter value can be set for each column).

Fields

236

Comments: Notes that summarize the algorithms that were used to compile missing data for each
proppant, if relevant.

FracproPT 2007

Buttons

Clear All Filters: Set all filters to their default of All.

OK: Exit the Select Proppant screen and add the active proppant to the list of selected proppants.

Cancel: Exit the Select Proppant screen without adding the active proppant to the list of selected
proppants.

Fluid Data - Shift + F5

Fluid Data Fluid Friction Properties [Shift+F5]


This tab of the FLUID DATA screen shows the actual wellbore-friction data used by the simulator for any of the fluids
listed on the FLUID AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen. All the wellbore-friction data are interpolated or taken
directly from the two Fluid Libraries, which are the System Library (which contains data supplied to Pinnacle by the
service companies) and the User Library (which contains data input by you when defining fluids).
Note:
The effects of proppant on fluid friction are handled on the
Proppant Effects on Wellbore Friction screen. However,
the changes in friction associated with the addition of nitrogen or carbon dioxide for foamed fluids is not handled
automatically and you must make those corrections in the data shown on this screen. There are some foamed fluids
stored in the System Fluid Library, but you should contact the service company to obtain friction pressure estimates for
the specific foamed fluids you are using.
Any changes made to the data on this screen do not affect the Fluid Library data. However, the contents of this screen are
saved with the other simulation inputs (for example, the treatment schedule, model parameters, reservoir parameters,
wellbore configuration, etc.) whenever you save an input file.
If you choose Ignore Wellbore and Perforations on the FRACTURE Analysis OPTIONS [F4] screen, the wellborefriction parameters are displayed in blue on this screen and cannot accessed.

The Fluid Friction Properties tab of the FLUID DATA screen.

237

FracproPT 2007

Selected Fluid
Name
This is the name of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library. To view the friction properties of another fluid listed on the
Fluid and Proppant Selection [F5] screen, simply select it from the Name drop-down list.
Vendor
This is the vendor of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library.
System
This is the fluid system as entered in the Fluid Library.
Description
This is the description of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library.
Modified Properties
This field displays a message indicating from where the data on this screen was interpolated or taken, and whether or not
any of the data have been modified since retrieval.

Selected Wellbore Segment


Segment Number
This is the wellbore segment number for which wellbore friction data are currently displayed. Segment Number
corresponds to the entries on the Path Summary tab of the Wellbore Configuration [F7] screen, which are also
displayed directly below this field for reference.
To view the configuration and the friction data for a different wellbore segment, you can either enter a segment number
directly in the field, or you may use the Previous Segment and Next Segment functions described below.
Previous Segment
Select this function to view the configuration and the friction data for the previous wellbore segment.
Next Segment
Select this function to view the configuration and the friction data for the next wellbore segment.

Friction Data for Selected Fluid and Wellbore Segment


Three points of friction-pressure versus flow-rate data are shown for each Selected Fluid in each Selected Wellbore
Segment. The first and second flow-rate/pressure points define the laminar-flow regime, while the second and third points
define the turbulent-flow regime.
Q
This the flow rate for which friction pressure, P, is measured.
P
This is the friction pressure corresponding to the flow rate, Q.
Peff
This the actual friction pressure (that is, the effective friction pressure) that the model will actually use when you select
Use Multiplier as the Wellbore Friction Modification Mode. It is the product of the Friction Multiplier and the friction
pressure, P.
Wellbore Friction Modification Mode
These controls facilitate two methods by which you may change the wellbore friction parameters:

If you select Use Multiplier, you can enter a value for Friction Multiplier to change all friction pressure (P)
values by the same factor. This method preserves the shape of the wellbore friction vs. flow-rate curve,
essentially shifting it up or down.

If you select Set Individual Values, you can change all of data points individually (both flow rate and friction
pressure).

Plot Data
Friction Pressure vs. Rate
Select this function to plot friction-pressure versus flow-rate data for the Selected Wellbore Segment. You have the option
of plotting this data for either the Selected Fluid or All Fluids.

238

FracproPT 2007

Other Functions
Library Data
Select this function to view the FLUID LIBRARY DATA screen where you access (for viewing, entering, or editing) the
Fluid Library data for the fluids listed on the FLUID AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen.

Fluid Data Fluid Rheology Properties [Shift+F5]


This tab of the FLUID DATA screen shows the actual rheology data used by the simulator for any of the fluids listed on
the FLUID AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen. All the rheology data are interpolated or taken directly from the
two Fluid Libraries, which are the System Library (which contains data supplied to Pinnacle by the service companies)
and the User Library (which contains data input by you when defining fluids).
Note:
The changes in rheology associated with the addition of nitrogen or carbon dioxide for foamed fluids is not handled
automatically, therefore you must make those corrections in the data shown on this screen. There are some foamed
fluids stored in the System Fluid Library, but you should contact the service company to obtain rheology estimates for
the specific foamed fluids you are using.
Any changes made to the data on this screen do not affect the Fluid Library data. However, the contents of this screen are
saved with the other simulation inputs (for example, the treatment schedule, model parameters, reservoir parameters,
wellbore configuration, etc.) whenever you save an input file.

The Fluid Rheology Properties tab of the FLUID DATA screen.

Selected Fluid
Name
This is the name of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library. To view the rheology properties of another fluid listed on the
Fluid and Proppant Selection [F5] screen, simply select it from the Name drop-down list.
Vendor
This is the vendor of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library.

239

FracproPT 2007

System
This is the fluid system as entered in the Fluid Library.
Description
This is the description of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library.
Modified Properties
This field displays a message indicating from where the data on this screen was interpolated or taken, and whether or not
any of the data have been modified since retrieval.

Rheology for Selected Fluid


In-fracture rheology data for the current fluid (n' and K' as functions of time, at the current reservoir temperature) are
shown in this table. Notice that there is room in the rheology table for five different entries (that is, n' and K' at five different
times), while the rheology data taken from the Fluid Libraries consists of only two entries. This is so that you can enter a
more detailed rheology time-history if it is available (for example, for fluids that have been more fully investigated in a
laboratory).
Time
This is the time (at temperature) for which n and K are measured.
n'
This is the flow behavior index for the Selected Fluid at the current Time and Reservoir Temperature.
K
This is the consistency index for the Selected Fluid at the current Time and Reservoir Temperature.
In Wellbore
Just below the five-row Rheology Data Table there are fields to enter values of n' and K' for the fluid while it is still in the
wellbore. For example, a crosslinked fluid would typically not be crosslinked until it was in the fracture. The In Wellbore
rheology values default to the initial n' and K' values from the table, which is correct for a linear gel. For a crosslinked gel,
you should enter the correct values.
Note:
The In Wellbore rheology is used for only two purposes:

In the Keck Correlation for calculating the effect of proppant on wellbore friction (see the Proppant
Effects on Wellbore Friction screen).

For display purposes on the Wellbore Profile [Alt+F9] screen.

Apparent Viscosity Calculator


Enter a Time and a Shear Rate to display the Apparent Viscosity of the Displayed Fluid at the current Reservoir
Temperature.
Reservoir Temperature
This parameter is entered either on the Heat Transfer Parameters [SHIFT+F9] or Reservoir Parameters [F9] screens
and is displayed here for reference.

Plot Data
n' vs. Time
Select this function to plot n data as a function of time. You have the option of plotting this data for either the Selected
Fluid or All Fluids. You can also set the Maximum Time for Plots.
K vs. Time
Select this function to plot K data as a function of time. You have the option of plotting this data for either the Selected
Fluid or All Fluids. You can also set the Maximum Time for Plots.
Apparent Viscosity vs. Time
Select this function to plot apparent viscosity data (evaluated at the Shear Rate entered in the Apparent Viscosity
Calculator) as a function of time. You have the option of plotting this data for either the Selected Fluid or All Fluids. You
can also set the Maximum Time for Plots.

Other Functions
Library Data

240

FracproPT 2007

Select this function to view the FLUID LIBRARY DATA screen where you access (for viewing, entering, or editing) the
Fluid Library data for the fluids listed on the FLUID AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen.

Fluid Data Fluid Loss and Thermal Properties [Shift+F5]


This tab of the FLUID DATA screen shows the actual fluid-loss and thermal properties used by the simulator for any of
the fluids listed on the FLUID AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen. All the data are taken directly from the two
Fluid Libraries, which are the System Library (which contains data supplied to Pinnacle by the service companies) and the
User Library (which contains data input by you when defining fluids).
Any changes made to the data on this screen do not affect the Fluid Library data. However, the contents of this screen are
saved with the other simulation inputs (for example, the treatment schedule, model parameters, reservoir parameters,
wellbore configuration, etc.) whenever you save an input file.

The Fluid Loss and Thermal Properties tab of the FLUID DATA screen.

Selected Fluid
Name
This is the name of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library. To view the properties of another fluid listed on the FLUID
AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen, simply select it from the Name drop-down list.
Vendor
This is the vendor of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library.
System
This is the fluid system as entered in the Fluid Library.
Description
This is the description of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library.
Modified Properties
This field displays a message indicating from where the data on this screen was interpolated or taken, and whether or not
any of the data have been modified since retrieval.

241

FracproPT 2007

Thermal Properties
Thermal Conductivity
This is a measure of the fluids conductive heat transfer ability (in units of btu/foot-hour-F).
Specific Heat
For engineering purposes, this is essentially the heat capacity of the fluid, which is a measure of the heat transfer required
to increase a "unit mass" of the fluid by 1 degree (in units of btu/pound-F).
Fluid Density
This is the total density of the clean fluid (including all the fluid additives) in the units of specific gravity (for example, pure
water at 4 degrees Celsius has a specific gravity of 1.0). This parameter is extremely important in modeling the
hydrostatic pressure in the wellbore. Most water-based fracturing fluids have densities very close to 1.01. When using
fracturing fluids with different densities, be sure to enter the actual density for each fluid.
Note:
The effects of proppant and foam on hydrostatic wellbore pressure are handled automatically.

Wall Building Coefficient


Wall Building Coefficient
The Wall Building Coefficient is used to model the additional resistance to fluid leakoff created by the polymer filter-cake
that builds up on the fracture walls as fluid leaks off. Wall Building Coefficient is entered in units of feet/square-rootminute, as given by service company fluid manuals (that is, with 1,000 psi of pressure across the filter-cake). Select here
for additional information on the wall-building coefficient.
If you select either the Grid-Based Classical Model or the Grid-Based FLIC Model on the
Simulation Options [F4]
screen, you will see entries for low (1md) and high-perm (1,000 md) wall building coefficients (read additional information
on these parameters).
The wall-building coefficient for low perm (1 mD) will normally always be around 0.003 for 180 F but will adjust with
temperature slightly (higher number with higher temperature). Fluids without filtercakes are typically modeled using higher
spurt values.
The wall-building coefficient for high perm (1,000 mD) will typically be very large for linear gels (for example, 0.1), while it
is typically very close to the low perm (1 mD) value for crosslinked fluids.
Note:
Enter 0.0 to model no wall building effects.

Other Fluid Loss Properties


Spurt Loss
This parameter is defined as the amount of fluid that must leak off (per unit area) before a contiguous filter-cake begins to
form. Spurt loss (defined at 1 md and 1,000 psi) will range from 0.003 to 0.006 for most borate crosslinked fluids. The
higher the gel loading and viscosity, the lower the value. Spurt loss ranges from 0.005 to 0.009 for most metal crosslinked
systems (Ti/Zr, etc.). Values range from 0.01 to 0.02 for linear gels, while fluids without filtercakes can be modeled using a
value of 10. Read additional information on spurt loss.
Newtonian Leakoff Filtrate Viscosity
This parameter is the viscosity of the fluid leaking off from the fracture (that is, the filtrate fluid). This value is typically
close to that of water at the leakoff temperature.
Dynamic Equilibrium Fluid Loss Coefficient
If you select either the Grid-Based Classical Model or the Grid-Based FLIC Model on the
Simulation Options [F4]
screen, you will have access to this parameter. This parameter accounts for filtercake removal due to the shear forces
applied by fluid/proppant flow in the fracture.
This parameter is set at the conditions of 1 mD, 1,000 psi, 50 1/seconds, and 180 degrees F. The value is 0.0 for noncrosslinked fluids, while it ranges from 0.0 to 0.0007 (feet/minute) for borate crosslinked fluids and 0.0 to 0.0015 for metal
crosslinked fluids. An initial guess of 0.0005 is good for borate fluids, while a guess of 0.0008 would be best for metal
crosslinked fluids. The higher the polymer loading and viscosity, the greater the value will become.
Filtercake Compressibility Exponent
If you select either the Grid-Based Classical Model or the Grid-Based FLIC Model on the
Simulation Options [F4]
screen, you will have access to this parameter, which should always be around 0.2 for all polymer fluids.
Particulate Loss Additive
If you select either the Grid-Based Classical Model or the Grid-Based FLIC Model on the
Simulation Options [F4]
screen, you have access to this selection. If you activate this option, the effect of reduced fluid loss due to particulate
additives will be modeled.

242

FracproPT 2007

Leakoff Parameters Reference Table


This table displays, for the current fluid, the effect of the Wall Building Coeff on the Total Leakoff Coeff. The Depth, Pore
Fluid Perm, and Reservoir Leakoff Coeff are taken from the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen and are displayed
in the table. The resulting Total Leakoff Coeff for each individual layer (which is a combination of the Reservoir Leakoff
Coeff and the Wall Building Coeff) is also displayed in the table. Only 10 layers are displayed in the table at any one time,
but up to a maximum of 100 can be accessed using the scroll bar.
The displayed Total Leakoff Coeff is for the current fluid only, and it is not necessarily representative of the overall leakoff
of a treatment if other fluids are also used. Note that a given Wall Building Coeff may dramatically affect the Total Leakoff
Coeff in a higher permeability zone while having a negligible effect on the Total Leakoff Coeff in a lower permeability
zone.

Other Functions
Library Data
Select this function to view the FLUID LIBRARY DATA screen where you access (for viewing, entering, or editing) the
Fluid Library data for the fluids listed on the FLUID AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen.

Additional Information: Wallbuilding Coefficient


It is important to realize that the Fluid Library contains laboratory-determined values for Wall Building Coefficient, Cw. The
modeling of wall building involves certain physical assumptions that may not always be valid. For example, in very high
permeability reservoirs, or reservoirs where natural fractures dominate, fluid leakoff may not even allow the creation of a
contiguous filter-cake. In these cases, typical library values of Cw may yield a total leakoff coefficient, Ct, which is almost
independent of reservoir permeability because the total leakoff resistance is dominated by the filter-cake rather than
reservoir permeability. Therefore, modeling leakoff as being dominated by Cw will be in error for cases where no filter-cake
layer actually forms.
Another reason for not expecting wall building arises from the dynamic conditions of flow past the fracture walls, which
tends to wash away the residue material after it attains a certain thickness. In these situations, where it is possible that
little or no filter-cake layer will form, it is recommended that you run simulations without any wall building (that is, Cw set
equal to 0.0000). Another reason for this is that, in higher permeability reservoirs, the permeability profile (that is,
contrasts in permeability) may play an even more dominant role in determining fracture growth (geometry). Assuming that
a filter-cake layer forms, the fracture model is presently underestimating the effects of contrast in reservoir permeability,
which will persist even after the fracture crosses well into the high-permeability region.
Indeed, if wall building is assumed not to occur and leakoff is modeled assuming that the entire gel (polymer and all) leaks
off, there will still be enhanced resistance to fluid leakoff. This is due to the increased viscosity of the leakoff fluid (as
compared to the viscosity of water, which is normally assumed to be the fluid actually leaking off). In such cases, the
contrasts in reservoir permeability will still play a dramatic role in determining fracture geometry. The Leakoff Fluid
Viscosity is entered on the Reservoir Leakoff Parameters screen that is accessed from the Reservoir Parameters - F9
screen.
The great difference between these two methods of modeling the effect of fluid type on leakoff resistance (that is, filtercake versus viscosity dominated) requires that you carefully evaluate which model best represents physical reality.
An additional caution about the use of Cw is that proper modeling of a given value of Cw requires that you closely estimate
the correct value of "net leakoff height" for all heterogeneous (that is, layered) zones. For example, underestimating net
leakoff height would lead to an exaggerated wall building effect on total leakoff.

Permeabilities versus Leakoff Coefficients


FracproPT does not use leakoff coefficients but permeabilities in the filtrate-invaded zone (Leakoff Fluid Permeability
Ratio Kp/Kl in the Additional Properties tab of the Reservoir Parameters - F9 screen) and reservoir zone (with gas or
oil). This will even apply to the wall-building coefficient Cw (uses a very small permeability). The viscosity of the fluid that
invades the rock (filtrate invaded zone) should be controlled with Newtonian Leakoff Filtrate Viscosity in the Fluid Loss
and Thermal Properties tab of the Fluid Data - Shift + F5 screen, with leakoff in this region described by the Leakoff
Fluid Permeability Ratio Kp/Kl in the Additional Properties tab of the Reservoir Parameters - F9 screen.

Fluid Data Fluid Acid Properties [Shift+F5]


This tab of the FLUID DATA screen shows the actual acid properties used by the simulator for any of the fluids listed on
the FLUID AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen. All the data are taken directly from the two Fluid Libraries, which
are the System Library (which contains data supplied to Pinnacle by the service companies) and the User Library (which
contains data input by you when defining fluids).
Any changes made to the data on this screen do not affect the Fluid Library data. However, the contents of this screen are
saved with the other simulation inputs (for example, the treatment schedule, model parameters, reservoir parameters,
wellbore configuration, etc.) whenever you save an input file.

243

FracproPT 2007

The Acid Properties tab of the FLUID DATA screen.

Selected Fluid
Name
This is the name of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library. To view the properties of another fluid listed on the FLUID
AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen, simply select it from the Name drop-down list.
Vendor
This is the vendor of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library.
System
This is the fluid system as entered in the Fluid Library.
Description
This is the description of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library.
Modified Properties
This field displays a message indicating from where the data on this screen was interpolated or taken, and whether or not
any of the data have been modified since retrieval.

Acid Components and Properties


Acid Table
For each type of Acid in the table that is added to the Selected Fluid, enter the Concentration (in mass percentage).
Fluid Diffusivity
Enter the Diffusivity for the Selected Fluid to which an Acid is added.
Non-Reactive Concentration
This is the concentration (by weight percent) below which no acid-rock reaction occurs.

244

FracproPT 2007

Retardation Factor
This factor is used to affect the acid reaction rate (typically to retard the acid reaction). For example, entering 0.75 means
that the reaction rate occurs at 75% of its maximum value.

Conductivity Calculation
Correlation
The default correlation in FracproPT for calculating acid-etched fracture conductivity is the Nierode-Kruk Correlation.
Maximum Effect of Acid on Leakoff
Fluid loss is increased due to acid, both by etching of rock and by degradation of filter cake. Leakoff increase due to acid
can increase no more than by the factor entered here. For example, a value of 2.5 means that leakoff can increase (due
to acid) by no more than 2.5 times the leakoff from a non-reactive fluid (assuming that there is enough acid to increase
leakoff by that amount before being completely spent).
Conductivity Multiplier Factor
The conductivity predicted by the correlation selected above is multiplied by this factor. For example, an entry of 2.0
implies that conductivity is twice that indicated by the correlation.
Producing Bottomhole Pressure
Enter a pressure here for use in calculating the net closure stress, which is necessary to calculate the conductivity of the
proppant or acid-etched fracture.

Mass Transfer Coeff. Determination


This coefficient is needed for calculating acid concentration at the fracture wall and acid spending.
Public Correlation
This correlation is based on publications from M.H. Lee and L.D. Roberts (SPE 7893), K.K. Lo and R.H. Dean (SPE
17110), and A. Settari (SPE 21870).
Manual
Select this option to enter your own value of the Mass Transfer Coefficient.

Other Functions
Reset Acid Properties to Defaults
Select this function to set all the Acid Properties to their default values.
Model Viscous Fingering
The Viscous Fingering Model is implemented to the ADP (Acid Design Program) acid fracturing model in FracproPT. The
model can handle viscous fingering development for a multi-stage acid treatment, which is recognized as an effective
means to create differential etching and longer acid etching length. With the modeling capabilities for viscous fingering,
and leakoff increase due to acid reaction, heat transfer calculation, and organic acid reactivity, the acid fracturing model is
a valuable tool for stimulation engineers.
The viscous fingering effect can occur during an acid fracture treatment when a viscous preflush is pumped prior to an
acid stage. There needs to be a viscosity difference of 50 cp or more between the preflush and acid stages. As a result of
this viscosity difference, the less viscous acid "channels" through the more viscous pad in the fracture. Because of the
viscous fingering effect, a long penetration distance can be achieved with a relatively modest amount of acid. The viscous
fingering effect is modeled by assuming that, for a given gross fracture height at any location along the fracture, the acid
can channel through only a fraction of this height. This fraction is called the Fingering Coefficient and can be estimated
from laboratory tests based on the viscosity difference between the viscous preflush and the acid. This coefficient has
been built into the program based on information provided by the fluid providers. Since the acid is less viscous and travels
forward through a narrow channel created inside the viscous preflush region, it moves with a speed much greater than the
viscous preflush. Once the channels overtake the viscous preflush, they become widener, spreading out to cover the
entire fracture height. Before the acid overtakes the viscous preflush, the advancement of acid inside the fracture is rapid,
and the acid creates an effective etching pattern. Once the acid overtakes the viscous preflush, its advancement slows
down, resulting in a less effective etching pattern. Since the overflush usually has a viscosity comparable to the viscosity
of the acid, it will follow the channels created by the acid.

HOW TO SELECT THE FEATURE


To use the feature of the Viscous Fingering Model, a user needs to:
Select "ADP" for Acid Fracturing Model on the FRACTURE ANALYSIS OPTIONS [F4] screen, Additional Options tab,

245

FracproPT 2007

Then select the acid to be used for the job by going to the FLUID AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen ( icon),
and selecting Add New Fluid to List. Most acids can be found under Vendor-Miscellaneous and System-Acids. Some
acids are listed for different Vendors. Select the acid and choose OK.
Go to the acids data page by double-clicking the fluid name on the FLUID SELECTION [F5] screen or selecting the
Shift+F5 hotkey combination and checking Model Viscous Fingering on the Acid Properties Tab.
As described above, a viscous pad prior to an acid stage in the TREATMENT SCHEDULE [F6] screen is required in order
to achieve the viscous fingering effect.

LOOKING AT THE RESULTS


The results of viscous fingering can be graphically viewed on the STAGE PROFILE [Ctrl+F5] screen (or selecting the
icon) or the INTEGRATED FRACTURE PICTURE [Alt-F2] screen by selecting either Acid Concentration, Reservoir
Etching or Fluid Positions form the drop-down box. Remember to rescale the picture using the button next to Max Value.
Another way to visualize the results is by going to the Plot List (Alt-F8, or
Icon) and choosing a blank plot. When in the
plot, go to the Plot Preferences screen (right click in the center of the plot). Double click on the first cell in the Channel
Name column. Under Channel Type select Length Channel, and then Acid Cond for the Channel Name. This will plot the
Acid Conductivity achieved at the end of simulation on the Y-Axis and the Fracture Half-length on the X-Axis.

Stage profile plot showing fluid position

The figure above shows the position of each fluid simulated by the viscous fingering model. The white color represents the
wellbore fluid; the red is the acid; the blue is the viscous preflush; and the green is the overflush.

246

FracproPT 2007

Stage profile plot showing acid concentration

References:
Lee, W.S.: "Geometry Determination for Multi-Stage Acidizing Treatment With or Without Viscous Preflush", SPE 14515,
presented at the SPE 1985 Eastern Regional Meeting held in Morgantown, West Virginia, November 6-8, 1985.
Gdanski, R.D. and Lee, W.S.: "On the Design of Fracture Acidizing Treatment", SPE 18885, presented at the SPE 1989
Production Operations Symposium held in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, March 13-14, 1989.

Fluid Data Other Properties [Shift+F5]


This tab of the FLUID DATA screen shows the actual acid properties used by the simulator for any of the fluids listed on
the FLUID AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen. All the data are taken directly from the two Fluid Libraries, which
are the System Library (which contains data supplied to Pinnacle by the service companies) and the User Library (which
contains data input by you when defining fluids).
Any changes made to the data on this screen do not affect the Fluid Library data. However, the contents of this screen are
saved with the other simulation inputs (for example, the treatment schedule, model parameters, reservoir parameters,
wellbore configuration, etc.) whenever you save an input file.

247

FracproPT 2007

The Other Properties tab of the FLUID DATA screen.

Selected Fluid
Name
This is the name of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library. To view the properties of another fluid listed on the FLUID
AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen, simply select it from the Name drop-down list.
Vendor
This is the vendor of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library.
System
This is the fluid system as entered in the Fluid Library.
Description
This is the description of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library.

Costs
Unit Cost
This provides the total cost for the fluid, including all additives. This information will be used in the Fracture Design /
Economic Optimization module for fluid selection purposes, and in the Treatment Totals [F6] screen to calculate total
treatment cost. Note that most service companies do not disclose this information.
If you have this information available for many service company fluids, you could create User-defined fluids that include
the unit cost. Also, you could edit the FracproPT.fld file, which contains all FracproPT Fluids in the System Library, in the
..\FracproPT\Program directory using Notepad and manually add prices under the appropriate field.

Edit Halliburton Fluid


The Edit Halliburton Fluid screen is accessed by clicking on the Library Data button in the Fluid Data - Shift + F5 screen if
a Halliburton fluid is selected.
This screen is used to edit the properties of a Halliburton fluid from one of FracproPTs Halliburton fluid libraries for use in
the pump schedule.

248

FracproPT 2007

Edit Halliburton Fluid screen


In this screen, a selected Halliburton fluid can be edited. This converts a pre-defined system fluid to a user-defined fluid.
In addition, a user-defined fluid can be saved to the User Library.
Properties may be changed for an existing user-defined fluid, and then either saved directly to that fluid (over-writing the
previous properties) or saved to a new fluid. In addition, properties may be changed for a pre-defined system fluid, and
these changes saved as a new user-defined fluid. The default properties for internal fluids cannot be changed.

Columns

Property Name: The name of the property.

Minimum Value: The minimum allowed numeric value of the property.

Maximum Value: The maximum allowed numeric value of the property.

Default Value: The default numeric value of the property.

Units: The (oilfield) units of the property, if it is numeric.

Value: The current value of the property.

Material: Material-dependent fluid properties.


(for example, gel, base gel, stabilizer, hydration, crosslink, break properties)

Match Factors: Correction factors, to multiply the pre-defined fluid properties to match the desired
user-defined properties.

Additives: Components that can be added to the fluids.


(for example, solid fluid loss, diesel fluid loss, diesel, xylene)

Salts: Concentrations of salt components that can be added to the fluids.


(for example, NaCl, KCl, NH4Cl, CaCl, KBr, NaBr, CaBr2, ZnBr2, NaHCO2, KHCO2)

Acids: Concentrations of acid components.


(for example, acetic acid, citric acid, formic acid, HCl, HF)

Material Name: The name of the fluid.

Density: The density of the fluid, in lb/gal for atmospheric conditions (that is, at a temperature of
70.0F and a pressure of 14.7 psia).

OK: Exit the Edit Halliburton Fluid screen and save the current values of the properties of the active
fluid:

Tabs

Fields

Buttons

249

FracproPT 2007

Cancel: Exit the Edit Halliburton Fluid screen without saving the current values of the properties of
the selected or newly created user-defined fluid.

Save to User Library: Save the fluid with the current values of the properties to the User Library.
This saves the active fluid in an Extensible Markup Language (XML) ASCII text file in a folder similar
to "...\My Documents\MaterialsLibrary\UserMaterials\"; the names of the XML files are determined by
the identifier (OID) of the active fluid.

Fluid Library Data

Fluid Library Data Friction Data


This screen shows the Fluid Library entries of friction-pressure versus flow-rate data for the Selected Fluid, for a number
of different wellbore configurations. Three points of friction-pressure versus flow-rate data are shown: The first and second
flow-rate/pressure points define the laminar-flow regime, while the second and third points define the turbulent-flow
regime. There are two Fluid Libraries: The System Library (which contains data supplied to Pinnacle by the service
companies) and the User Library (which contains data input by you when defining fluids).
The wellbore-friction data actually used by the simulator are shown on the FLUID DATA [SHIFT+F5] screen. Those data
are taken directly from this screen if the current wellbore configuration corresponds to one of the configurations for which
data are entered. If the current wellbore configuration does not correspond to one of the configurations in the tables on
this screen, the friction data are interpolated.

The Friction Data tab of the Fluid Library Data screen.

Tubing and Casing Data


This table shows the library entries (three points each) of Friction Pressure (P) versus Flow Rate (Q) for a number of
Casing or Tubing IDs.

Annulus Data
This table shows the library entries (three points each) of Friction Pressure (P) versus Flow Rate (Q) for a number of
Casing ID-Tubing OD annuli.

Other Functions
Save Fluid to User Library
Select this function to save the Selected Fluid to the User Library of fluids. Any changes made to the data on this screen
are not saved unless you use this function.

250

FracproPT 2007

Note:
To change the friction-pressure versus flow-rate data interpolated from this screen and actually used by the simulator,
you must go to the Fluid Friction Properties tab of the FLUID DATA [SHIFT+F5] screen where any changes made
to the data are saved when you save the input file.
Delete Fluid from User Library
Select this function to delete the Selected Fluid from the User Library, which of course implies that the Selected Fluid is in
the User Library.
Note:
You cannot use this function to delete fluids from the System Library.

Fluid Library Data Rheology Data


This screen shows the Fluid Library entries of n and K data at five different times for the Selected Fluid, for a number of
different reservoir temperatures. There are two Fluid Libraries: The System Library (which contains data supplied to
Pinnacle by the service companies) and the User Library (which contains data input by you when defining fluids).
The rheology data actually used by the simulator are shown on the FLUID DATA [SHIFT+F5] screen. Those data are
taken directly from this screen if the current reservoir temperature corresponds to one of the temperatures for which data
are entered. If the reservoir temperature does not correspond to one of the table entries on this screen, the rheology data
are interpolated.

The Rheology Data tab of the Fluid Library Data screen.

Selected Fluid
Name
This is the name of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library. To view the properties of another fluid listed on the FLUID
AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen, simply select it from the Name drop-down list.
Vendor
This is the vendor of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library.
System
This is the fluid system as entered in the Fluid Library.
Description
This is the description of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library.

251

FracproPT 2007

Rheology Data
This table shows the library entries (five points each) of Flow Behavior Index (n) and Consistency Index (K) for a number
of (reservoir) Temperatures.

Other Functions
Save Fluid to User Library
Select this function to save the Selected Fluid to the User Library of fluids. Any changes made to the data on this screen
are not saved unless you use this function.
Note:
To change the rheology data interpolated from this screen and actually used by the simulator, you must go to the
Fluid Rheology Properties tab of the FLUID DATA [SHIFT+F5] screen where any changes made to the data are
saved when you save the input file.
Delete Fluid from User Library
Select this function to delete the Selected Fluid from the User Library, which of course implies that the Selected Fluid is in
the User Library.
Note:
You cannot use this function to delete fluids from the System Library.

Fluid Library Data Fluid Loss and Thermal Data


This screen shows the Fluid Library entries of a number of fluid loss and thermal properties for the Selected Fluid. There
are two Fluid Libraries: The System Library (which contains data supplied to Pinnacle by the service companies) and the
User Library (which contains data input by you when defining fluids).
The fluid loss and thermal data actually used by the simulator are shown on the FLUID DATA [SHIFT+F5] screen. Unlike
the friction and rheology data, those data are always taken directly from this screen (that is, there is no need to interpolate
from the data on this screen).

The Fluid Loss and Thermal Data tab of the Fluid Library Data screen.

Selected Fluid
Name

252

FracproPT 2007

This is the name of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library. To view the properties of another fluid listed on the FLUID
AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen, simply select it from the Name drop-down list.
Vendor
This is the vendor of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library.
System
This is the fluid system as entered in the Fluid Library.
Description
This is the description of the fluid as entered in the Fluid Library.

Wall Building Coefficient


Wall Building Coefficient
The Wall Building Coefficient is used to model the additional resistance to fluid leakoff created by the polymer filter-cake
that builds up on the fracture walls as fluid leaks off. Wall Building Coefficient is entered in units of feet/square-rootminute, as given by service company fluid manuals (that is, with 1,000 psi of pressure across the filter-cake).
Click here for additional information on the wall-building coefficient.
Note:
Enter 0.0 to model no wall building effects.

Other Fluid Loss Properties


Spurt Loss
This parameter is defined as the amount of fluid that must leak off (per unit area) before a contiguous filter-cake begins to
form. Spurt Loss is generally not a parameter that plays a significant role in hydraulic fracturing. Values for Spurt Loss can
be obtained for different fluids from service company fluid-data books. Spurt Loss not only changes with fluid type,
additives, temperature, etc., but it also changes over the range of formation permeability.
Newtonian Leakoff Filtrate Viscosity
Enter the viscosity of the leakoff fluid in this field, which is typically around 1 centipoise.

Thermal Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Enter the thermal conductivity of the fluid in this field. A typical value for this parameter in oil field units is 0.3.
Specific Heat
Enter the specific heat of the fluid in this field. A typical value in oil field units is around 1.0.
Fluid Density
This is the total density of the clean fluid (including all the fluid additives) in the units of specific gravity (for example, pure
water at 4 degrees Celsius has a specific gravity of 1.0). This parameter is extremely important in modeling the
hydrostatic pressure in the wellbore. Most water-based fracturing fluids have densities very close to 1.01. When using
fracturing fluids with different densities, be sure to enter the actual density for each fluid.

Other Functions
Save Fluid to User Library
Select this function to save the Selected Fluid to the User Library of fluids. Any changes made to the data on this screen
are not saved unless you use this function.
Note:
To change the fluid loss and thermal data read directly from this screen and actually used by the simulator, you must
go to the Fluid Loss and Thermal Properties tab of the FLUID DATA [SHIFT+F5] screen where any changes made
to the data are saved when you save the input file.
Delete Fluid from User Library
Select this function to delete the Selected Fluid from the User Library, which of course implies that the Selected Fluid is in
the User Library.
Note:
You cannot use this function to delete fluids from the System Library.
Interpolation of Friction Data from the Libraries

253

FracproPT 2007

For the purposes of comparison and selecting friction data from the Fluid Libraries, FracproPT converts the wellbore
configuration that you enter on the WELLBORE CONFIGURATION [F7] screen (including annuli) to an effective
diameter. Then, using the effective diameter(s), wellbore-friction data for an equivalent configuration is read from the
Fluid Library data.

If the effective diameter of your wellbore configuration lies within the range of the library data,
FracproPT interpolates between library entries.

If the effective diameter of your wellbore configuration lies outside the range of the library data,
FracproPT uses data from the closest effective diameter (which is not necessarily very close) in the
library and gives you a warning message indicating that it is doing so. The warning message also
indicates from what wellbore configuration the friction data was taken.

Note:
There could be significant error in the friction-pressure calculations if the actual wellbore configuration is much
different from those configurations entered on this screen.
Interpolation of Rheology Data from the Libraries
The Fluid Libraries contain measurements of n' and K' at two times, for a range of temperatures.

If the reservoir temperature you enter falls within the range of temperatures contained in the library
data, FracproPT interpolates between temperatures to find n' and K' as functions of time for the
current reservoir temperature.

If the reservoir temperature entered falls outside the range of the library data for the fluid, FracproPT
uses library data for the temperature closest to reservoir temperature you entered (which is not
necessarily very close), and gives you a warning message indicating that it is doing so.

Note:
There could be significant error in the rheology data if the actual reservoir temperature is much different from those
entered on this screen.
Modeling No Wallbuilding Effects
The units for Wallbuilding Coefficient are in terms of conductancethe inverse of the resistanceand this sometimes
causes confusion. A fluid that exhibits much lower leakoff than water, by virtue of building a relatively impermeable filtercake layer, has a lower Wall Building Coefficient (for example, 0.0002), whereas a fluid that exhibits very little additional
resistance to leakoff due to filter-cake effects has a higher value of Wall Building Coefficient (for example, 0.05).
For a fluid where no Wallbuilding Coefficient is entered, FracproPT assumes no additional resistance to leakoff created
by a filter-cake and displays a value of 0.0000. Note that this is a special case. A Wall Building Coefficient of 0.0000
normally implies infinite resistance to fluid leakoff, and a Wallbuilding Coefficient of infinity normally implies no additional
resistance to fluid leakoff. However, infinity is not an easy number to enter on the computer, while 0.0000 is, therefore
0.0000 was chosen to represent no data entered (that is, no additional leakoff resistance due to filter-cake).
Proppant Data

Proppant Data
The Proppant Data screen is accessed by:

clicking on the Edit Current Proppant button in the Proppant Selection tab in the Fluid and Proppant
- F5 screen

selecting from the main menu Data > Fluids and Proppantns > Select Proppant

This screen is where properties of the current proppant are viewed, edited and, optionally, saved for future re-use. Other
proppants from the proppant list may be viewed by selecting the desired proppant in the Proppant Identifier drop-down
list.
The proppant list is shown on the the Proppant Selection tab in the Fluid and Proppant - F5 screen if you are in Fracture
Analysis Mode, Fracture Design Mode, or Economic Optimization Mode: it is shown on the Proppant Selection screen if
you are Production Analysis Mode.
There are two libraries, the System Library and the User Library.

254

FracproPT 2007

Proppant Data screen

Selected Proppant

Name: The common, unique name of the proppant.

Vendor: The vendor of the proppant.


(for example, Atlas, Badger, Borden, Borovichi, Carbo, Curimbaba, Fores, Hepworth-Sibelco, Hexion)

System: The system of the proppant.


(for example, Accupak, AcPack, Arizona Sand, Atlas CRC Premium, Atlas PRC, Atlas PRC Premium,
Badger Frac, Badger Sand, Badger Special Cut)

Mesh Size: The minimum and maximum sieve mesh.


(for example, 6/12, 8/12, 8/16, 10/20, 12/18, 12/20, 14/20, 16/20, 16/30, 16/40, 18/30, 18/40, 20/40,
25/50, 30/50, 30/60, 40/60, 40/70, 70/140)

Source: The source of the proppant data.

compiled from various sources (generally based on the most reliable proppant data that is
available).

vendors documentation (that is, not published on their World Wide Web site).

Stim-Lab 6.0

Stim-Lab 1999.

unknown (typically historic data).

web site: The vendors World Wide Web site.


User-defined fluids do not have a "Source" entry (that is, it is blank).

Status: This field displays a message indicating from which Proppant Library the data for the
Selected Proppant comes and whether or not it has been modified from library values.
proppant source

255

FracproPT 2007

Fields

Cost: This is the cost of the proppant in dollars per pound, which is used for reports only.

Bulk Density: This is the bulk density of the proppant, which typically measures about 100 lb/ft^3 for
sand, and 110-150 lb/ft^3 for manufactured proppants.

Packed Porosity: This is the porosity of the proppant in a closed fracture. This value is calculated
from the Bulk Density and Specific Gravity.

Specific Gravity: This property is calculated from the Proppant Bulk Density and the Packed
Proppant Porosity.

Turbulence Coeff a / b at Low / High Stress: These are the coefficients that are used in the
correlation of Forcheimer's beta coefficient with proppant permeability (see the Cooke reference in
Technical References).

Threshold Stress: This is a threshold value to distinguish between low and high stress for the
Turbulence Coeff a / b. If the stress is less than the threshold stress, Turbulence Coeff a / b Low
Stress are used. Otherwise, Turbulence Coeff a / b High Stress are used.

Diameter: This is the average grain diameter of the proppant.

Note:
If the diameter is less than the value entered in the Proppant Diameter Greater Than field on the Proppant Model tab
of the Fracpropt Model Parameters screen (the default is 0.0125 inches), the proppant is ignored for calculations of
propped dimensions, but it is considered in calculating wellbore friction and hydrostatic head. This function is useful
for modeling proppant slugs.

Width at 2 PSF: This is the width as measured by StimLab at 2 lbs/ft .

Width Correction a: The width reduction as a function of the effective stress on proppant for a 2
2
lbs/ft proppant pack. This data comes from a StimLab correlation.

Width Correction b: Initial width correction at 2000 psi as measured by StimLab at 2 lbs/ft .

Stress Cycle Exponent:


Proppant Permeability" = "Proppant Permeability" "Number of stress cycles" ^ "Stress Cycle
Exponent"
where "Number of stress cycles" can be entered in the Proppant Perm Damage screen in the
Additional Damage Effects section after enabling Include effect of stress cycles on proppant
permeability checkbox.

Proppant Type: This refers to the general classification of the proppant (that is, Sand, Resin Coated
Sand, Ceramic, Low Density Ceramic, Medium Density Ceramic, High Density Ceramic, Resin
Coated Low Density Ceramic, Resin Coated Medium Density Ceramic, Resin Coated High Density
Ceramic).
For proppants from FracproPT 10.2 and earlier, the Proppant Type is automatically set to
undefined.

Proppant Coating: This refers to the type of proppant coating. The temperature correction for
proppant permeability is only used when the Proppant Coating is set to Precured or Curable.
For proppants from FracproPT 10.2 and earlier, Proppant Coating is automatically set to None.

Proppant Permeability Versus Effective Stress Table


Data in this table are used by ReservoirPT to determine how proppant permeability changes as stress increases with
reservoir depletion. It is also used to determine the proppant

Effective Stress on Proppant: This is the value of effective closure stress acting on the proppant. In
a producing well, this is roughly similar to the difference between the far-field closure stress and the
bottomhole flowing pressure (BHFP).
prop=Pfrac-Pi-(Po-Pn)
where
prop is the stress on the proppant
Pfrac is the pressure required to open the fracture (roughly equal to frac gradient times depth)
Pi is the current, local pore pressure
is the poroelastic coefficient (typically 0.5)
Po is the original reservoir pressure
Pn is the current average reservoir pressure

Proppant Permeability: This is the permeability of the proppant pack corresponding to the value of closure stress.
Additional Information: ReservoirPT Stress on Proppant
For non-Halliburton proppants, the Proppant Permeability can be modified. In contrast, for Halliburton proppants, the

256

FracproPT 2007

Proppant Permeability is computed during fracture model runs from a proprietary Halliburton model (this model is
available to all users).

Perm at Resvr Temp: Correlations for the Perm at Resvr Temp are adapted from PredK version 6.57, Feb 2002.
Proppant permeability is only corrected if Proppant Type is set to Precured or Curable.
Additional Information: Perm at Resvr Temp Correlations

Avg Width for 2 lb/ft2: This is the average fracture width for a proppant loading of 2 lbs/ft .

Avg Width after Embedment for 2 lb/ft2: This is the average fracture width after embedment is
2
subtracted (twice, for both walls) for a proppant loading of 2 lbs/ft .

Conductivity after Embedment for 2 lb/ft2: This is the conductivity of the proppant pack after
2
embedment is subtracted (twice, for both walls) for a proppant loading of 2 lbs/ft .
Beta Factor: Forcheimer's beta coefficient calculated from the permeability k using Cookes
turbulence coefficients a and b.
a
=b/k

Perm vs. Stress: Display plot of Proppant Permeability versus Effective Stress on Prop.

Width vs. Stress: Display plot of Avg Width for 2 lb/ft versus Effective Stress on Prop.

Sieve Dist.: Display plot of Weight versus Sieve.

Conductivity vs. Stress: Display plot of Conductivity after Embedment for 2 lb/ft2 versus
Effective Stress on Prop.

Beta Factor vs. Stress: Display plot of Beta Factor versus Effective Stress on Prop.

Selected Proppant: Display plots for selected proppant only.

All Proppants: Display plots for all proppants.

Permeability: Display bar diagram of Proppant Permeability per proppant.

Conductivity: Display bar diagram of Conductivity after Embedment for 2 lb/ft2 per proppant.

Beta Factor: Display bar diagram Beta Factor per proppant.

Plot Data
Buttons

Radio Buttons

Bar Diagrams

Proppant Data Fields

Date of Measurements: The date of the last measurement.

Independent Lab Verification: Whether the proppant data was obtained and verified by an
independent laboratory (for example, Stim-Lab) or by a laboratory that is somehow dependent on a
proppant vendor.
(that is, No, Yes)

Comments: Notes that summarize the algorithms that were used to compile missing data for each
proppant, if relevant.

User Library Buttons

Save Proppant to User Library: Select this function to save the proppant to the User Library of
proppants. Any changes made to the data on this screen are not saved unless you use this function.

Delete Proppant from User Library: Select this function to delete the proppant from the User
Library, which of course implies that the proppant is in the User Library.
You cannot use this function to delete proppants from the System Library.
Additional Information: Proppant Data Compilation

Additional Information: Perm at Resvr Temp Correlations


Stim-Lab chose to model the correlations for Perm at Resvr Temp with separate equations for different regions of the
curve instead of deriving a higher order curve fit.
The general equation for temperature correction is given by

257

FracproPT 2007

kT=kTcorr
where
kT is the proppant perm after correcting for temperature effects
k is the reference perm before temperature correction, and
Tcorr is the correction factor.

Uncoated Sands
If T <175F
Tcorr=1
If T = 175F
b

Tcorr=aT

The correlations are not well-bounded. Tcorr should be constrained to Tcorr = 1


Calculation of a
If stress < 3,500 psi
a=1
If 3,500 = stress < 8,000 psi
-25

a=3.5310 stress

6.89

If stress = 8,000 psi


51

a=1.6910 stress

-12.5

Calculation of b (not well founded)


If stress < 3,500 psi
b=0
If 3,500 = stress < 8,000 psi
b=-1.385ln(stress)+11.32
If stress = 8,000 psi
b=2.51ln(stress)-23.69

Pre-cured Resin-coated Sand (RCS)


A correction is needed for uncoated sands above 175 F (they are typically tested at 150F). Resin coated sands are
typically tested at 250 F, such that they only require correction above 275 F.
If T < 275F
Tcorr=1
If T = 275F
(-0.0025T+0.63)stress;1,000

Tcorr=(0.014T-2.53)2.73

Tcorr should again be constrained to Tcorr = 1.

Curable Resin-coated Sand (RCS)


A correction is needed for uncoated sands above 175F (they are typically tested at 150F). Resin-coated sands are
typically tested at 250F, such that they require correction above 275F.
If T < 275F
Tcorr=1
If T = 275F
Tcorr=mT+c
The correlations are not well-bounded and Tcorr should again be constrained to Tcorr = 1.
Calculation of m
m=-0.000000787T+0.00019675
Calculation of c

258

FracproPT 2007

c=0.0019T+0.525

Ceramic Proppants (Coated and Uncoated)


No temperature correction is required. Ceramic proppants are not measurably affected by elevated temperatures.

Additional Information: Proppant Data Compilation


The algorithms that were used to compile the properties for proppants with missing data are presented.

Turbulence Coefficients and Threshold Stress

"Turbulence Coeff a Low Stress"

"Turbulence Coeff a Low Stress"

"Turbulence Coeff b Low Stress"

"Turbulence Coeff a High Stress"

"Threshold Stress" (psi)

Algorithm
a
=1/k=b/k log10=(a-1)log10k-log10b
Stim-Labs Predict-K Baseline Conductivity Report
input

"Number of Cycles" = 1

"Bottomhole Temperature"

sand: 150F

ceramic: 200F

output
versus , and k versus versus k log10versus log10k
Plot of "Tau" verus "Permeability"

"Slope High Stress" and "Intersect High Stress": from best-fit straight line for first 25% of data
points
(that is, for low permeability and high stress)

"Slope Low Stress" and "Intersect Low Stress": from best-fit straight line for last 25% of data
points
(that is, for high permeability and low stress)

"Threshold Permeability": at intersect between these two lines

259

FracproPT 2007

"Permeability" (D)

"Turbulence Coeff a Low Stress" = "Slope Low Stress" + 1

"Turbulence Coeff b Low Stress" = 10 ^ (- "Intersect Low Stress")

"Turbulence Coeff a High Stress" = "Slope High Stress" + 1

"Turbulence Coeff b High Stress" = 10 ^ (- "Intersect High Stress")

Plot of "Proppant Permeability" versus "Effective Stress on Prop"

"Threshold Stress": from linear interpolation of "Threshold Permeability"

"Stress" (psi)

"Width at 2 PSF"
"Width at 2 PSF" = 2 "Width at 1 PSF"

"Proppant Permeability" versus "Effective Stress on Prop"


log10("Proppant Permeability") versus "Effective Stress on Prop"

260

FracproPT 2007

If possible: linear interpolation: 1-point backward and 1-point forward

otherwise: linear extrapolation: 2-point backward

Material-dependent Properties

"Specific Gravity"

Data Source
same proppant, different mesh
(for example, Colorado Silica 12/20 from Colorado Silica 10/20, 16/30, 16/40)
Algorithm
"unknown value" = mean("known values")
Properties

Size-dependent Properties

"Packed Porosity"

"Diameter"

"% Retained" versus "Sieve" (Mesh Size)

correction to assure that sum("% Retained") = 100%

Data Source
different proppant, same mesh
(for example, Colorado Silica 12/20 from Badger Sand 12/20)
Algorithm
"unknown value" = mean("known values")

Material- and Size-dependent Properties

"Bulk Density"

log10("Turbulence Coeff a Low Stress")

log10("Turbulence Coeff b Low Stress")

log10("Turbulence Coeff a High Stress")

log10("Turbulence Coeff b High Stress")

"Threshold Stress"

"Width at 2 PSF"

log10("Width Correction a")

"Width Correction b"

"Stress Cycle Exponent"

log10("Proppant Permeability") versus "Effective Stress on Prop")

Data Source
different proppant, same and different mesh
versus
same proppant, different mesh
(for example, Colorado Silica 12/20 from
Example
Badger Sand -, 12/20, 16/30, 20/40, 30/50
versus
Colorado Silica 10/20, x, 16/30, 16/40, Algorithm

261

FracproPT 2007

"unknown value": linear interpolation or extrapolation of "known values" versus "diameter"

use log10("known values") if "known values" vary significantly (that is, over an order of magnitude or
more)

Proppant Permeability Damage


FracproPT models the proppant permeability as being damaged, or apparently damaged, by flow related and non-flow
related phenomena. The effects of these two phenomena are represented separately by two damage factors, which are
then effectively summed to arrive at a total damage factor that is the actual parameter used to reduce the effective infracture proppant permeability (that is, fracture conductivity), as shown in the figure below.
A damage factor of 1 represents 100% damage, or a proppant permeability of zero. A damage factor of 0 implies no
damage and the proppant has the permeability corresponding to the value interpreted from the Closure Stress versus
Proppant Permeability table shown on the PROPPANT DATA screen.
Additional Information: Proppant Damage Factors

The Proppant Permeability Damage screen

Non-flowrate Dependent Damage


The non-flowrate dependent effects that damage, or appear to damage, proppant permeability are accounted for in
FracproPT by the Proppant Damage Factor.

262

FracproPT 2007

Producing Bottomhole Pressure


Enter a pressure here for use in calculating the net closure stress on the proppant, which is necessary to calculate the
conductivity of the propped fracture. This pressure has a wide range of values that may depend on gathering-system line
pressure, reservoir or proppant sensitivity to the drawdown pressure, or some other production-related constraint. This
pressure will always be less than reservoir pressure and it may be as low as a few tens or hundreds of psi (above zero) in
low-permeability gas wells.
Note:
This is the same parameter shown on the FLUID AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen; changing this
parameter on either screen will change it on the other as well.
Proppant Damage Factor
In prior versions of FracproPT, this parameter (which was also called the Proppant Damage Factor) was the only (and
total) damage applied to the proppant permeability. However, with Version 10.1 the capability to account for certain flowdependent phenomena that, in essence, behave like proppant permeability damage has been added (see below).
Therefore, this parameter is now meant to account only for non-flow-dependent proppant damage, such as that from gel
residue.
Note:
Prior to Version 10.1, this was the actual number (damage factor) used by the simulator. But now that an additional
damage factor can also be applied (that is, the Apparent Damage Factor described below), the Total Damage
Factor (described below) is the actual number used by the simulator. However, if you recall an old input file saved
with an older version of FracproPT, the Apparent Damage Factor is set automatically to zero such that only this
Proppant Damage Factor is active and will, therefore, be equivalent to the Total Damage Factor.
This field is read-only if the Suggest value based on fluid type checkbox is enabled.
Suggest value based on fluid type
If this checkbox is enabed, a fluid can be selected from the adjacent drop-down menu. On the basis of this fluid, the value
for the Proppant Damage Factor will be set (and that field will be deactivated). These values are obtained from StimLabs Predict-K and Proppant Manager database.

Flowrate Dependent Damage


The flowrate dependent effects that damage, or appear to damage, proppant permeability are accounted for in FracproPT
by the Apparent Damage Factor.
These options allow you to approximate the reduced hydrocarbon production attributable to non-Darcy and multiphase
flow effects in the proppant pack. You can model non-Darcy effects only, or Non-Darcy effects and multiphase flow
effects, but you cannot model multiphase flow effects only.
Include Non-Darcy Effects
Select the check box to include non-Darcy flow effects. You must also select the type of hydrocarbon you will be
producing and estimate the rate at which it will be produced (this can be done manually or automatically).
Well Type
Select either Gas Well or Oil Well in this field. If you receive an error message when you enter the Hydrocarbon
Standard Gravity in the next field, then you may have to change your selection.
Hydrocarbon Standard Gravity
This is gas gravity (at standard conditions) if you selected Gas Well as the Well Type, or API gravity if you select Gas
Well as the Well Type.
Proppant Concentration per Frac
Enter the average expected in-fracture proppant concentration in this field. If you are dealing with a multiple
(simultaneous) fracture scenario, this is the value for one of the fractures. Rather than manually entering this parameter,
you can use the result from the last run of the fracture model by selecting the Use Frac Length and Prop Conc from
Last Run function described below.
Enter HC Production Rate / Automatically Estimate HC Production Rate
Use this option to choose whether you want to enter your own estimate of what the postfrac hydrocarbon production will
be, or to have FracproPT automatically estimate the production. If you choose the later, the following fields will be
activated and you must enter various reservoir and fracture characteristics in order for the postfrac production to be
estimated.
Water Saturation
This number is entered as a fractional number less than one. For example, a value of 0.25 indicates that 25% of the
porosity does not contain hydrocarbons.
X-Direction Extent

263

FracproPT 2007

This is the distance from the wellbore to the drainage boundary in the direction parallel to the fracture. You may wish to
make this number greater than the Y-Direction Extent by an amount equal to the propped-fracture length. Values for this
parameter that describe common reservoir/drainage sizes are shown in the table found in the description of Drainage
Area shown below.
Y-Direction Extent
This is the distance from the wellbore to the drainage boundary in the direction normal to the fracture. Values for this
parameter that describe common reservoir/drainage sizes are shown in the table found in the description of Drainage
Area shown below.
Drainage Area
This is a calculated number, based on your entries for X-Direction Extent and Y-Direction Extent. The following table
lists values for some common drainage areas.
Drainage Area

X-Direction Extent

Y-Direction Extent

40 acres

660 feet

660 feet

80 acres

933 feet

933 feet

160 acres

1,320 feet

1,320 feet

320 acres

1,867 feet

1,867 feet

640 acres

2,640 feet

2,640 feet

Fracture Half Length


Enter the estimated propped fracture half-length in this field. Alternatively, this parameter may also be taken automatically
from the last run of the fracture model by using the Use Frac Length and Prop Conc from Last Run function described
below.
Use Frac Length and Prop Conc from Last Run
Values for the Proppant Concentration per Frac and Fracture Half Length fields (described above) may be entered
manually, or this function may be used to use the results from the last run of the fracture model.
Include Multiphase Flow Effects
Liquid/Gas Ratio
Enter an estimate for the condensate or water production versus the gas production in the well. This parameter is used to
estimate the permeability reduction in the fracture, based on a correlation released by StimLab in February 2001.
Initial Solution Gas/Oil Ratio
This field is activated when choosing an Oil Well as the Well Type for the Flowrate Dependent Damage (described
above), and represents the amount of gas contained in a standard volume unit of oil.

Reservoir Permeability
The permeability of the reservoir is displayed in this field.
Hydrocarbon Viscosity
The viscosity of the hydrocarbons is displayed in this field.
Net Pay Thickness
The thickness of the net pay is displayed in this field.
Initial Reservoir Pressure
The initial pressure of the reservoir is displayed in this field.
Porosity
The porosity is displayed in this field.

Proppant
Select the proppant from the list of proppant in the PROPPANT SELECTION screen for which the apparent and total
damage factor is to be displayed.

264

FracproPT 2007

Apparent Damage Factor


This is the additional proppant permeability damage factor that is calculated from the entries describing the non-Darcy and
multiphase flow effects. This damage factor, along with the Proppant Damage Factor described above, are essentially
summed to obtain the Total Damage Factor (described below) that is actually used by the simulator.

Proppant Embedment
The embedment (that is, infiltration) of proppant into the reservoir that surrounds the fracture can be specified here.
Proppant Embedment
This field specifies the proppant embedment. This field is deactivated if the Suggest value based on payzone modulus
checkbox is selected.
In soft rock, proppant tends to be pushed into the walls of the fracture. This reduces the final conductivity that can be
obtained from a fracture treatment, as the embedded proppant does not actively contribute to production. Proppant
embedment is in general a small or large fraction of a proppant grain.
This embedment is always for a single fracture face. Consequently, the total embedment effect for both fracture faces is
twice the number on this screen.
Embedment is never subtracted from fracture width. Instead, embdedment is used to adjust the effective conductivity of
the fracture.
Suggest value based on payzone modulus
If this checkbox is selected, a value for the Proppant Embedment is suggested based on the modulus of the payzone, and
the Proppant Embedment field is deactivated.
A correlation released by Stim-Lab in February 2001 is used to calculate the embedment of proppant based on the
modulus of the payzone rock. Above a modulus of 5,000,000 psi, embedment is absent. For relatively soft rock,
embedment can be of the order of the diameter of a proppant grain

Fracture Filter Cake


The thickness of the filter cake in the fracture, and whether the effects of the filter cake on the conductivity of the fracture
should be included can be specified here.
Fracture Filter Cake Thickness
This field specifies the thickness of the filter cake in the fracture.
Include Filtercake effects on conductivity
Select this checkbox to include the effects of the filter cake on the conductivity of the fracture.

Additional Damage Effects


The additional damage effects of temperature and stress cycles on proppant permeability can be specified here.
Include effect of temperature on proppant permeability
Select this checkbox to include the additional damage effect of temperature on proppant permeability.
Research by Stim-Lab indicates that resin-coated proppant can show higher damage at higher temperatures as the resin
flows into the pore space of the proppant grains. The temperature multiplier has a direct effect on the Perm at Resvr
Temp column in the PROPPANT DATA screen.
Include effect of stress cycles on proppant permeability
Select this checkbox to include the additional damage effect of stress cycles on proppant permeability.
Number of stress cycles
Select the Include effect of stress cycles on proppant permeability checkbox to modify the value in this field to specify
the number of stress cycles. The default value is 1.

Total Damage
Both the flowrate dependent and the non-flowrate dependent effects that damage, or appear to damage, proppant
permeability are accounted for in FracproPT by the Total Damage Factor, which is the sum of the damage represented
by the Proppant Damage Factor and the Apparent Damage Factor.
Total Damage Factor

265

FracproPT 2007

This the total damage factor applied to the proppant permeability, which is calculated automatically from the damage
factors resulting from both non-flow-related (that is, the Proppant Damage Factor) and flow-related (that is, the
Apparent Damage Factor) phenomena. This is the parameter actually used by FracproPT.

Permeability Diagram
This diagram displays the proppant permeability versus the proppant name.

Conductivity Diagram
This diagram displays the proppnt conductivity versus the proppant name.

Beta Factor Diagram


This diagram displays the proppant beta factor versus the proppant name.

Calculation of Proppant Perm Damage Factors


The values for the proppant perm damage factor change during a fracture model simulation, because the inputs to the
damage factor calculation are dependent on the fracture model results.
For the non-Darcy damage factor and the multi-phase effect, the flow geometry is needed. This depends on the payzone
height and the fracture height.
Before running the fracture model, the geometry is not yet known. Consequently, the smaller of the net pay height and
100 ft i is used. Once the model is run, the propped height is used, unless the pay height is less than the propped height,
in which case the average of the two is used.
The damage factor shown on this screen also uses the Proppant Concentration per Frac and the Fracture Half-Length
that can be entered in the Include Non-Darcy Effects section in the Flowrate Dependent Damage section.
In all the calculations and results that are displayed in the reports, these values are not used. Instead, the internally
calculated damage factor (that depends on the fracture length and width from the most recent FracproPT simulation) is
used. Consequently, the results in this screen do not necessarily match up with the damage factor in the reports.
After running the model, the final values for the proppant perm damage factors on this screen do not necessarily match up
with those in the reports. The reason is that the logic of this screen is that the damage factor can be (pre-) calculated
based on the inputs on this screen (for example, length, concentration), in contrast to the values obtained from the results
of the model run. To view the values that are obtained from the model run, click on the Use Frac Length and Prop Conc
from Last Run button in the Include Non-Darcy Effects section in the Flowrate Dependent Damage section.

Non-Darcy and Multiphase Flow Effects


Fracture conductivity is calculated using damage-corrected values for the closure-stress-dependent permeability of
proppant in a fracture. This permeability information can be viewed for individual proppants in the Closure Stress Versus
Proppant Permeability Table on the PROPPANT DATA screen. The various types of damage, or apparent damage, that
are accounted for in the FracproPT system are discussed below.
Prior Versions of the FracproPT System
FraPS, the 2D reservoir production model employed in the FracproPT systems Production Analysis Mode, has always
automatically accounted for non-Darcy effects when calculating production by correcting (that is, reducing) the
permeability of the proppant pack. Typically, we think of this in terms of "apparent damage" to the proppant permeability.
There was also always a user-entered Proppant Damage Factor that acted to further reduce proppant permeability (for
example, due to gel damage).
That same Proppant Damage Factor has also always been available in FracproPTs fracture geometry and proppant
placement models (that is, in Fracture Analysis, Fracture Design, or Economic Optimization Modes). However, nonDarcy effects were not accounted for and, therefore, the fracture model could easily overestimate proppant permeability
(that is, fracture conductivity).
Multiphase flow effects were not accounted for in prior versions of the FracproPT system.
FracproPT Version 10.1 and later
Proppant conductivity values used in most fracture designs are calculated using the proppant permeability measured in a
laboratory with a single-phase fluid at extremely low flow rates. However, it is well known that high flow (production) rates
cause additional pressure drop in the propped fracture due to non-Darcy effects, which results in a lower apparent
proppant permeability. In addition, multiphase flow can reduce proppant apparent permeability (and thus conductivity) by
orders of magnitude.

266

FracproPT 2007

FracproPT now accounts for all of these effects in both the 2D reservoir production model (that is, when running in
Production Analysis Mode) and in the fracture geometry model (that is, when running in Fracture Analysis, Fracture
Design, or Economic Optimization Mode) using proppant damage factors.

Non-Darcy Effects
Non-Darcy flow effects are more pronounced for gas wells because of the anticipated high flow rates. As was done in
prior versions of the FracproPT system, non-Darcy effects are always included in the two-dimensional, numerical
reservoir simulator available in Production Analysis Mode, which handles these effects through the Forchheimer
equation using Beta values estimated from the Cooke correlation for updated proppant libraries (see discussion of nonDarcy flow).
For the Fracture Analysis, Fracture Design, and Economic Optimization Modes you can now choose to include nonDarcy effects to correct the proppant permeability. To do so you must select a reservoir type (oil or gas) and enter the
standard gravity for the produced hydrocarbon. Next you must either to enter an estimated hydrocarbon production rate or
allow FracproPT to estimate the production rate based on a semi-analytical model for fractured wells. Finally, you must
estimate a propped fracture length, as well as an in-fracture proppant concentration (pounds per square-foot) for fracture
width and flow velocity calculations (the values for these parameters obtained from the last model run may be entered
automatically).

Multiphase Flow Effects


Multiphase flow effects are based on StimLabs results released in February 2001, which only apply to fractured gas wells.
These effects may reduce proppant apparent permeability by orders of magnitude.
In addition to the inputs described above for the non-Darcy flow effects, the liquid (water or condensate) production rate
must be estimated for the gas well of interest. The apparent reduction in proppant permeability due to multiphase flow is
derived from the StimLab correlation, where the effective permeability is calculated as a function of gas fractional flow.
The gas fractional flow is defined and calculated as the gas flow rate divided by the total flow rate (the summation of both
gas and liquid flow rates) under the conditions in the fracture.
In Fracture Analysis, Fracture Design, and Economic Optimization Modes the gas fractional flow is calculated from
the estimated gas and liquid production rates. However, in the Production Analysis Mode only the liquid production rate
needs to be estimated because the gas production rate is calculated from the reservoir simulator.

Proppant Damage Factors


Starting with FracproPT Version 10.1, two new proppant damage factors are defined to distinguish different damage, or
apparent damage, mechanisms.
In Fracture Analysis, Fracture Design, and Economic Optimization Modes, the Proppant Damage Factor represents
the true damage caused by gel and other non-flow dependent effects. The effects of non-Darcy and multiphase flow result
in an additional proppant damage factor called the Apparent Damage Factor. The combination of the Proppant Damage
Factor and the Apparent Damage Factor yields the Total Damage Factor, which is the parameter actually used to
determine proppant permeability (and, therefore, fracture conductivity).
In Production Analysis Mode you are only required to enter the Proppant Damage Factor (caused by gel damage and
other non-flow dependent effects) because non-Darcy and multiphase flow effects are automatically included in the
fracture conductivity and production calculations.
Note:
Because of the difference in the way that non-Darcy and multiphase flow effects are implemented, and because of the
difference in the way fracture conductivity is calculated, the calculated fracture conductivity in Fracture
Analysis/Design/Optimization is not expected to be identical to that calculated in Production Analysis Mode.

Proppant Effects on Wellbore Friction


This screen is where you model the increase in wellbore friction that results when proppant is pumped. FracproPT
calculates the increase either by multiplying the clean-fluid friction by a friction factor or by calculating the increased
friction based on various treatment parameters (for example, pipe size, fluid viscosity, and proppant density).

267

FracproPT 2007

The Proppant Effects on Wellbore Friction screen.

Proppant Effects on Wellbore Friction Table


This table lists various proppant concentrations and an associated friction factor for each one. As well, there is a so-called
multiplied friction factor that is the actual multiplier used by the model to determine the amount of increased wellbore
friction due to the addition of proppant. Lastly, the table also displays two default sets of table entries (but only one at a
time) for reference.
Proppant Concentration
This is the concentration of proppant in the clean fluid. You may enter your own data in these fields, however those
entries will be overwritten if you select either the Reset to Default Values function or the Reset to Alternate Values
function.
Friction Factor
This is the friction factor corresponding to each proppant concentration listed in the table. You may enter your own data in
these fields, however those entries will be overwritten if you select either the Reset to Default Values function or the
Reset to Alternate Values function.
Note:
This is not the actual number that the clean-fluid friction is multiplied by to determine wellbore friction. That number
(that is, the one actually used by the simulator) is the Multiplied Friction Factor described below.
Multiplied Friction Factor
This is the product of the Friction Factor and the number entered in the Multiply Proppant Effect By field.
Note:

268

FracproPT 2007

This is the number actually used by the simulator to calculate the increase in wellbore friction due to the addition of
proppant.
Default Proppant Concentration
This column is for reference only. It displays the default proppant concentrations for which friction factors are known.
Default Friction Factor
This column is for reference only. It displays the default friction factors associated with the default proppant concentrations
in the adjacent column. The values displayed here depend on whether you last selected the Reset to Default Values
function or the Reset to Alternate Values function.

The default values represent data published in Western's `Friction Pressure Manual'. These data
have also been duplicated by other investigations.

The alternate values come from data published by Keck, Nehmer & Strumolo in SPE 19771, page
10. These data agree almost exactly with results published by Shah in SPE Production and
Facilities, May 1993.

Other Functions
Reset to Default Values
Select this function to overwrite any changes you have made to the Proppant Concentration and Friction Factor columns
with the default values that are displayed in the last two columns of the table.
Reset to Alternate Values
Select this function to overwrite any changes you have made to the Proppant Concentration and Friction Factor columns
with the alternate values that are displayed in the last two columns of the table.
Use Keck Correlation / Use Table Based Values

If you select Use Table Based Data, the friction factors actually used in the calculations of wellbore
friction will always be those found in the Multiplied Friction Factor column. The table-based data
are the same for all fluids, all proppants, and all wellbore segments (that is, pipe sizes).

If you are using the table, you can modify the values. However, you should modify these numbers
only if you cannot match the actual (measured) wellbore friction by simply changing the fluid friction
parameters on the Fluid Friction Properties tab of the FLUID DATA [SHIFT+F5] screen or by
changing the Multiply Proppant Effect By parameter on this screen.

If you select Use Keck Correlation, the different shear rates in different size pipes, fluid viscosity, the
proppant density, and the proppant loading are taken into account (as shown in SPE 19771, Eqns 31
and 32).

Note:
In either case, the resulting friction factor is itself multiplied by the Multiply Proppant Effect By parameter.
Multiply Proppant Effect by
Changing this multiplier from its default value of 0.5 changes all the friction factors proportionally to the number you enter.
This multiplier also affects the Keck Correlation. In general, this should be the only number that you need to change on
this screen.
Note:
It was determined from the matching of field data that this multiplier had to be changed from 1.0 (the original default
value, which works reasonably well when pumping down casing) to 0.5 for most commonly used pipe diameters (that
is, tubing). Therefore, you may need to use a multiplier closer to 1.0 when pumping down very large tubing or casing.

Treatment Schedule - F6
Actual Treatment Schedule [F6]
This screen is where information defining the stages of a fracture treatment that has been, or is currently being, pumped is
displayed or entered. The pump schedule table has spreadsheet-like capabilities for parameters such as stage volumes,
stage lengths, pump rates, sand concentrations, fluid types, and proppant types.
If you have selected either Database Data or Real-Time Data in the Run Fracture and Wellbore Models From
section of the Simulation Options [F4] screen, then you are running the fracture model from real data, as opposed to
directly from the pump schedule. In this case, the Design Treatment Schedule will not be editable.
The basic idea behind having two treatment schedules is that you use the Design Treatment Schedule to do your frac
design work, and then use the Actual Treatment Schedule once the frac job is in progress or completed (that is, when
running the simulator from real data). The two schedules allow an easy comparison of what you planned to pump with
what was actually pumped.

269

FracproPT 2007

Basic Methodology for Using the Design and Actual Treatment Schedules

Enter information into the Design Treatment Schedule when doing your pre-frac design work. You can
either type the treatment design schedule yourself, or have FracproPT assist you with making the schedule
in the Fracture Design module. You can run the model from the Design Treatment Schedule when
selecting Job-Design Data on the FRACTURE ANALYSIS OPTIONS [F4] screen.
See also: Running from the Design Treatment Schedule.

When you go to the field to monitor and analyze the treatment as it is pumped, or when you do the
analysis after the job back in the office, you will be running the simulator from Database Data or RealTime Data on the FRACTURE ANALYSIS OPTIONS [F4] screen, so both the Design Treatment Schedule
and the Actual Treatment Schedule will be available.

Note:
To save time when you begin the process of actually pumping, use the Copy Design to Actual Schedule function to
copy your design information to the Actual Treatment Schedule.
See also: Running from the Actual Treatment Schedule.
The Design Treatment Schedule is now "locked" so that no changes can be made there anymore and your original design
is saved for comparison purposes. It now serves as a record of what you planned to pump and it can be compared to
what was actually pumped (as will be shown in this Actual Treatment Schedule). However, pressing the Edit
Schedule button (which is only visible in Fracture Analysis mode) will "unlock" the Design Treatment Schedule
again.

The Actual Treatment Schedule will reflect all changes made to plan when you synchronize the treatment
schedule to measured data (see Help for the Actual Treatment Schedule for information on synchronizing
the treatment schedule). You can synchronize the Actual Treatment Schedule with the actual data by
selecting the Set Staging from Measured Data button.

Synchronizing the Actual Treatment Schedule with Measured Treatment Data


To accurately model your fracture treatment when running the simulator with database or real-time data as inputs, the
stages defined in the Actual Treatment Schedule be synchronized with the recorded data using the Set Staging from
Measured Data button. That is, Stage Length, Fluid Type, and Proppant Type in the treatment schedule must
correspond to the stages as they were actually pumped in order for the simulator to know which materials (fluids and
proppants) were being pumped at any specific time during the treatment. In general, it is very important to define a new
stage any time a fluid or proppant type is changed.
Synchronization of the treatment schedule with measured data may be accomplished in three ways:

270

1.

Manually by simply viewing the treatment data on a plot, noting the length (that is, time) of each stage and
then entering that time in the Stage Length field of the Actual Treatment Schedule;

2.

Graphically using a special Cursor Edit plot (specific instructions for this procedure can be found on the
Cursor Edit Help screen); or

3.

Automatically using the Auto Stage function available on a Cursor Edit plot (specific instructions for this
procedure can be found on the Cursor Edit Help screen).

FracproPT 2007

The Actual Treatment Schedule screen.

Pump Schedule Table


The total number of columns displayed in the Pump Schedule Table, as well as which of those columns are used to enter
versus display data, depends on your selections for the following options. These are options are located directly below the
Pump Schedule Table:

Treatment Type Use this option to indicate whether or not you will be adding nitrogen or carbon
dioxide to the slurry being pumped. If you are (either nitrogen, carbon dioxide, or both), columns will
automatically be added to the Pump Schedule Table where you can enter the appropriate foam rates,
qualities, and volumes.

Note:
If you select any of the foam Treatment Type options, other options related to foam will appear at the bottom of the
screen below the Pump Schedule Table.

Proppant Ramp Mode Use this option to indicate whether or not you will be ramping the addition of
proppant to the slurry being pumped. If you are, each proppant concentration and flow rate entry in
the Pump Schedule Table will have two fields; one for specifying the value at the beginning of the
stage and a second for specifying the value at the end of the stage. If you are not ramping proppant,
there will be only one field for each proppant concentration or flow rate entry.

CalculateBottomhole from Surface / Surface from Bottomhole If you are pumping a foamed
treatment, you can either enter surface values that define the foam schedule and have the
bottomhole values calculated, or vice versa.

CalculateVolume from Time / Time from Volume Based on the flow rate(s) you enter in the
Pump Schedule Table, this option determines whether volume is calculated from the time or time is
calculated from volume.

All of the possible columns in the Treatment Schedule Table are described below.

Stage Number
FracproPT accepts up to 150 separate stages in the pump schedule. You can delete entire stages by selecting the entire
stage (that is, the entire row by clicking once on the Stage Number) and pressing [Del]. Insert new stages between two
existing stages (that is, at the current cursor position) by pressing [Ins].

Stage Type

271

FracproPT 2007

You can select a Stage Type from the drop-down list in this column to identify each stage in the treatment schedule. This
identification makes it easier to keep up with where you are in the treatment, and it also serves to identify minifracs and
other diagnostic injections that can be analyzed semi-automatically using some of FracproPTs diagnostic utilities.
In general, this is an optional selection. However, there is one Stage Type that must be selected to correctly simulate a
fracture treatment. A Circulation stage, when there is one, must be correctly identified to properly track the materials
being pumped down the wellbore and into the fracture. The full list of possible Stage Types reads as follows:
Water injection

Step-rate test

Main frac flush

Minifrac

Main frac pad

Terminated main frac

Proppant slug

Main frac slurry

Circulation

Note:
If you select Circulation for a stage, the fluid and proppant displaced from the wellbore will not be injected into the
fracture. This feature is useful for modeling "Frac Packs" or any other operation with a circulation stage before or
during a treatment.
Note:
The Terminated main frac is useful if you want to neglect prior stages in the various functions for which Stage Type
is used.

Flow Rate 1 / Flow Rate 2


This is the slurry flow rate, which includes the gel and proppant. If you are pumping nitrogen or carbon dioxide, the Flow
Rate field(s) refers to the liquid-plus-proppant flow rate just downstream of the blender, before the nitrogen or carbon
dioxide is added.
Two fields are provided for treatments where proppant is ramped (Flow Rate 1 at the beginning of the stage and Flow
Rate 2 at the end of the stage). If you are not ramping proppant only one Flow Rate field is available. Flow Rate is used
to calculate either Clean Vol or Stage Length, depending upon which of the two you enter.
The simulator does not use the values entered for Flow Rate if you run the simulator from real data and you specify flow
rate (either clean or slurry) as a real-data input on the CHANNEL INPUTS FOR MODEL [Shift+F6] screen. However, if
there is pumping in a stage you must enter some non-zero flow rate in order for the simulator to use the correct Fluid
Type for that stage. Furthermore, you should input the approximate actual flow rate so that the calculated leakoff
coefficient (displayed on the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen) is as close as possible to the value actually
calculated during the treatment.
To model flow back at the end of a treatment, you can enter a negative flow rate. If you are running from Database or
Real-Time data at input, the simulator uses the negative flow rate (ignoring the measured flow data) during the flow back
stage.

N2 Rate 1 / N2 Rate 2
Nitrogen flow rate fields will be visible on if you choose N2 or N2 & CO2 as the Treatment Type option. Two fields for the
entry of nitrogen flow rate (specified at the surface for the beginning and end of the stage) are provided for treatments
where proppant is ramped. If you select None as the Prop Ramp Mode option, only one N2 Rate is available.
Entries for N2 Rate are not used if you are running the fracture simulator from real data and you specified nitrogen rate as
a real-data input on the CHANNEL INPUTS FOR MODEL [Shift+F6] screen. However, you should input the approximate
actual nitrogen flow rate so that the calculated leakoff coefficient (displayed on the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9]
screen) is as close as possible to the value actually calculated during the treatment.
Note:
Nitrogen rate is always measured at standard temperature and pressure (that is, in units of standard cubic feet per
minute or standard cubic meters per minute).

CO2 Rate 1 / CO2 Rate 2


Carbon dioxide flow rate fields will be visible only if you choose CO2 or N2 & CO2 as the Treatment Type option. Two
fields for the entry of carbon dioxide flow rate (specified at the surface for the beginning and end of the stage) are
provided for treatments where proppant is ramped. If you select None as the Prop Ramp Mode option, only one CO2
Rate is available.
Entries for CO2 Rate are not used if you are running the fracture simulator from real data and you specified carbon
dioxide rate as a real-data input on the CHANNEL INPUTS FOR MODEL [Shift+F6] screen. However, you should input

272

FracproPT 2007

the approximate actual carbon dioxide flow rate so that the calculated leakoff coefficient (displayed on the RESERVOIR
PARAMETERS [F9] screen) is as close as possible to the value actually calculated during the treatment.
FracproPT assumes that carbon dioxide flow rate is being measured at a constant density (that is, constant temperature
and pressure).
Note:
Unlike nitrogen rate, which is always measured at standard temperature and pressure (that is, in units of standard
cubic feet per minute or standard cubic meters per minute), CO2 rate is measured at the flow meter (that is,
pumping) conditions. This means that the surface CO2 rate that is the input to FracproPT could be measured at
either the low-pressure side or the high-pressure side of the frac pumps. The measurement point makes a difference
in the density of the fluid, and has led to some confusion in the past. When dealing with CO2 in FracproPT, it is
important to remember the following important points:

It is best to design the treatment based on bottomhole foam quality.

You should know in advance where the CO2 flow meter will be so that you can enter the correct
temperature and pressure at the flow meter (see Metering Pressure and Metering Temperature
described below).

FracproPTs surface CO2 rate shown in the Pump Schedule Table is defined as being at the CO2
flow meter conditions (that is, at the Metering Pressure and Metering Temperature described
below).

The density (see Density at Flow Meter described below) at the CO2 flow meter is automatically
calculated based on the Metering Pressure and Metering Temperature that you enter.

The mass of CO2 calculated by FracproPT is based on the Density at Flow Meter, not at a so-called
standard density. This is true even when you are entering a design treatment schedule with a surface
CO2 rate.

If you are designing a CO2 treatment using surface rates (rather than bottomhole quality), it is very
important to know where you are planning to meter the CO2 rate because that metering location will
affect the treatment design. For example, if you are trying to achieve a specific bottomhole foam
quality, the surface pump schedule will be different depending on whether you are metering the CO2
on the low pressure side of the pumps (for example, Halliburton) or the high pressure side of the
pumps (for example, Schlumberger),

The CO2 totals in FracproPT are all calculated based on the CO2 rate at the Metering Pressure and
Metering Temperature that you enter, which will result in the correct CO2 mass calculation. If you are
interested in the volume at standard conditions (that is, the volume in the CO2 transport tankers), you
can convert the mass of CO2 to barrels at standard conditions using the standard density of 8.51
lb/gal at tanker conditions, or simply view the value shown on the Treatment Totals tab of this
Treatment Schedule [F6] screen.

Bottomhole Slurry Foam Rate


This value includes liquid (gel), carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and proppant.

Bottomhole N2 Quality
This is the desired (or calculated) bottomhole nitrogen foam quality. Depending upon your choice for Ramp/Quality
Option (discussed below), this can be either the conventional quality or the constant internal phase quality.
Conventional quality, which is defined as the percentage of the total fluid volume (that is, gel plus nitrogen plus carbon
dioxide) that is composed of nitrogen, is calculated according to the following formula:
VolumeN/(VolumeN2+VolumeCO2+Volumeliquid)
Constant internal phase quality, which includes the proppant volume with the nitrogen volume, is calculated according to
the following formula:
(VolumeN+Volumeproppant)/(VolumeN2+VolumeCO2+Volumeliquid+Volumeproppant)
For binary foams, if you select constant internal phase quality, this applies only to CO2 Qual and not to N2 Qual.
It is important to note that Bottomhole N2 Quality is defined at a bottomhole temperature that can be one of two values.
If you selected Model Heat Transfer Effects on the Simulation Options [F4] screen, then bottomhole quality is
assumed to be at the bottomhole pumping temperature. If you selected Ignore Heat Transfer Effects, then bottomhole
quality is assumed to be at the Reservoir Temperature entered on the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen. This
can make a substantial difference in predictions, so be careful of which temperature you specify for bottomhole quality.

Bottomhole CO2 Quality

273

FracproPT 2007

This is the desired (or calculated) bottomhole carbon dioxide quality. Depending upon your choice for Ramp/Quality
Option (discussed below), this can be either the conventional quality or the constant internal phase quality.
Conventional quality, which is defined as the percentage of the total fluid volume (that is, gel plus nitrogen plus carbon
dioxide) that is composed of carbon dioxide, is calculated according to the following formula:
VolumeCO2/(VolumeN2+VolumeCO2+Volumeliquid)
Constant internal phase quality, which includes the proppant volume with the carbon dioxide volume, is calculated
according to the following formula:
(VolumeCO2+Volumeproppant)/(VolumeN2+VolumeCO2+Volumeliquid+Volumeproppant)
It is important to note that Bottomhole CO2 Quality is defined at a bottomhole temperature that can be one of two
values. If you selected Model Heat Transfer Effects on the Simulation Options [F4] screen, then bottomhole quality is
assumed to be at the bottomhole pumping temperature. If you selected Ignore Heat Transfer Effects, then bottomhole
quality is assumed to be at the Reservoir Temperature entered on the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen. This
can make a substantial difference in predictions, so be careful of which temperature you specify for bottomhole quality.

Proppant Concentration 1 / Proppant Concentration 2


Two fields for entry of proppant concentration are provided for treatments where proppant is ramped. If you are not
ramping proppant, then only one Proppant Concentration is available.
Values entered for Proppant Concentration are not used if you are running the fracture simulator from real data and you
specified proppant concentration (or slurry density) as a real-data input on the CHANNEL INPUTS FOR MODEL
[Shift+F6] screen. However, you must enter some non-zero proppant concentration in order for the simulator to use the
correct Proppant Type for that stage.
If you are pumping a nitrogen or carbon dioxide (i.e. a foam treatment), Proppant Concentration refers to the proppant
concentration at the blender, before the nitrogen or carbon dioxide is added.

Bottomhole Proppant Concentration 1 / Bottomhole Proppant Concentration 2


Two fields for entry of proppant concentration are provided for treatments where proppant is ramped. If you are not
ramping proppant, then only one Proppant Concentration is available.
Values entered for Proppant Concentration are not used if you are running the fracture simulator from real data and you
specified proppant concentration (or slurry density) as a real-data input on the CHANNEL INPUTS FOR MODEL
[Shift+F6] screen. However, you must enter some non-zero proppant concentration in order for the simulator to use the
correct Proppant Type for that stage.

Clean Volume
If you select Calculate Time From Volume as the Job Design Mode option, you enter the desired clean volume of liquid
for each stage in this field. Clean Volume and Flow Rate (which you also must enter) are then used to calculate Stage
Length. Note that entries for Clean Volume are not accepted until a non-zero Slurry Rate is entered.
If you select Calculate Volume From Time, you cannot access the Clean Volume fields since it is calculated from Slurry
Rate and Stage Length.
Values entered for Clean Volume are not used if you are running the fracture simulator from real data and you specified
flow rate (either clean or slurry) as a real-data input on the CHANNEL INPUTS FOR MODEL [Shift+F6] screen.

Bottomhole Foam Clean Volume


Enter the stage clean volume of foam in this field, which includes liquid (gel), carbon dioxide, and nitrogen at bottomhole
conditions.

Stage Length
This field always defines the length of the stage, whether running the fracture simulator from real-data or from the
treatment schedule entries for flow rates and proppants (hence the need to synchronize the Actual Treatment Schedule
with the real data).
If you select Calculate Volume From Time at the Job Design Mode option, you enter stage length (in decimal minutes)
in this field. If you enter Stage Length before entering Flow Rate, the stage will be treated as a shut-in, as indicated in
the Fluid Type column. Stage Length and Flow Rate are used to calculate Clean Volume. To model shut-ins, you must
enter a non-zero Stage Length and zero for Flow Rate. This is typically how you would add a stage at the end of the
treatment to simulate the pressure decline.
If you select Calculate Time From Volume you cannot access Stage Length since it is calculated from Flow Rate and
Clean Volume.

274

FracproPT 2007

Treatment Info (user selectable)


This field displays one of several user-selected quantities that are calculated from other information entered in the
treatment schedule. The Treatment Info drop-down list where you select the quantity for display is located directly above
the Pump Schedule Table. The choices for the display are as follows:
Cumul Time Cumulative job time in minutes:seconds format
Stage Slurry Stage slurry volume
Cumul Gel Cumulative clean volume
Stage Prop Stage proppant weight
Cumul Prop Cumulative proppant weight
Clean Rate Calculated clean flow rate
Cumul Slurry Cumulative slurry volume
Stage N2 Stage nitrogen volume
Cumul N2 Cumulative nitrogen volume
Stage CO2 Stage carbon dioxide weight
Cumul CO2 Cumulative carbon dioxide weight

Wellbore Fluid
Although you have the option of ignoring the wellbore in Fracture Analysis Mode, it is typically modeled and therefore
you must select the fluid that fills (or partially fills) it initially before pumping starts. You select the Wellbore Fluid in the
same manner that you select Fluid Type for all other stages (that is, via a drop-down list). If you choose Ignore Wellbore
and Perforations on the SIMULATION OPTIONS [F4] screen, this field will not be accessible. A Wellbore Fluid must be
selected whenever you Run From Database Data or Run From Real-Time Data. The Wellbore Fluid is reported as
Stage #0 in reports and various program display screens.
The wellbore (hence, the Wellbore Fluid) is ignored by the fracture simulator in Economic Optimization Mode. However,
you can model the wellbore from a production standpoint when running in either Reservoir Production Mode or
Economic Optimization Mode.

Fluid Type
This field contains a drop-down list from which you select a fluid to use in the stage. The list displays all fluids listed on the
FLUID AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen. If you are modeling the wellbore, you also must select a fluid in the
Wellbore Fluid field located near the bottom-right corner of the screen.
With the exception of shut-ins, each stage in the treatment schedule must have a Fluid Type specified. Whenever you
define a new stage, Fluid Type defaults to the fluid selected in the previous stage.

Proppant Type
This field contains a drop-down list from which you select a proppant to use in the stage. This field will only be active if
there is a corresponding non-zero Proppant Concentration entry in the table. The list displays all proppants listed on the
FLUID AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen.
Whenever you define a new proppant stage (that is, with a non-zero entry for Prop Concentration), Proppant Type
defaults to the proppant type selected in the previous stage.
As a very useful special case (for example, when pumping proppant slugs), when you select 100 Mesh as the Proppant
Type, that particular field in the treatment schedule will appear with a yellow background to indicate that this proppant is
being ignored in propped-dimension calculations. However, hydrostatic head and wellbore friction effects are not ignored.
FracproPT ignores any proppant (for purpose of calculating propped fracture dimensions) whose diameter is less than
the threshold entered on the Proppant Model Parameters tab of the Fracpropt MODEL PARAMETERS [shift+f3] screen.
The default threshold diameter is 0.0125 inches.
The following information describes the various options located below the Treatment Schedule Table.

Treatment Type
Use this option to indicate whether or not you will be adding nitrogen or carbon dioxide to the slurry being pumped. Your
choice of No foam, N2 foam, CO2 foam, or N2 & CO2 foam determines which fields (i.e. columns) will be available in
the Pump Schedule Table.

275

FracproPT 2007

Note:
If you select any of the foam Treatment Type options, other options related to foam, which are described below, will
appear at the bottom of the screen below the Pump Schedule Table.

Proppant Ramp Mode


Use this option to indicate whether to not you will be ramping the addition of proppant to the slurry being pumped. If you
are, choose Ideal. In this case, each proppant concentration and flow rate entry in the Pump Schedule Table will have two
fields; one for specifying the value at the beginning of the stage and a second for specifying the value at the end of the
stage. If you are not ramping proppant you should choose None; as a result, there will be only one field for each proppant
concentration or flow rate entry.

CalculateVolume from Time / Time from Volume


Based on the flow rate(s) you enter in the Pump Schedule Table, this option determines whether volume is calculated
from the time or time is calculated from volume. These calculations use the following fields in the Pump Schedule Table:
Flow Rate, Stage Length, and Clean Vol.
Note:
You should typically select Calculate Time from Volume when entering design data into the Pump Schedule Table.
Calculate Volume from Time is typically used when synchronizing real data with the Pump Schedule Table.

Wellbore Volume
This non-editable field displays the wellbore volume as calculated from the wellbore segment entries on the WELLBORE
CONFIGURATION [F7] screen. This number is provided here so that displacement volumes can be checked without
having to switch between screens.

Copy Design to Actual Schedule


Select this function to automatically copy the data from the Pump Schedule Table on the Design Treatment Schedule
tab to the Pump Schedule Table on the Actual Treatment Schedule. You would typically use this function only once
(when beginning the real-data analysis of a frac job that has been, or is currently being, pumped).

Show Actual Rates and Conc.


The rates and proppant concentrations that are specified in the Actual treatment Schedule are not used by FracproPTs
internal calculations as it uses the actual rates and concentrations in the data. However, if you want to add the Actual
Treatment Schedule in a report, you may make an error, as the rates and concentrations in this table do not reflect what
actually happened during the job. The Show Actual Rates and Conc button has been added to address this
discrepancy. Once you have run the model once, FracproPT has calculated averages for rates and concentrations within
each of the stages that are specified, and will overwrite the current rate and concentration values with the averages from
the actual data.

Set Staging from Measured Data


Select this function to automatically launch plot #36 with the Measured Data from the PLOT LIST [ALT+F8] screen in
Cursor Editing mode. Specific instructions for setting stages can be found on the Cursor Edit Help screen.
The following options and fields will only be visible if you select one of the foam options as the Treatment Type.

CalculateBottomhole from Surface / Surface from Bottomhole


If you are pumping a foamed treatment, you can either enter surface values of the pumping parameters that define the
foam schedule and have the bottomhole values calculated, or vice versa. The most common scenario is to Calculate
Surface from Bottomhole where you enter the desired down hole pump schedule and let FracproPT calculate the
corresponding surface pump schedule.

Quality Option
Use this option to select whether you will be using the so-called Constant Internal Phase or the Conventional Quality
for the calculations in the Pump Schedule Table. Definitions of these two options are shown in the Help text above
describing the Bottomhole CO2 Quality and Bottomhole N2 Quality fields.

Schedule Based on Conditions


These parameters appear on this screen if you select N2 foam, CO2 foam, or N2 & CO2 foam as the Treatment Type.

276

FracproPT 2007

At Bottom of Wellbore / In Fracture


In some instances there may be a significant pressure drop through the perforations or the so-called near-wellbore region
of the fracture(s). In those cases this pressure drop may cause a significant change in foam quality between the wellbore
and the main body of the fracture(s). Choose At Bottom of Wellbore to base the pumping schedule on the true bottom
hole pressure, or choose In Fracture to account for any perforation or near-wellbore friction losses.

Estimated Foam Pressure


You can enter the estimated treating pressure (either At Bottom of Wellbore or In Fracture, as per the selection
described above) here that will be used for foam design calculations in the pump schedule, but the preferred method is to
use the Estimate Treating Conditions function (described below) to have FracproPT calculate and enter this number for
you.
This pressure is used to specify down hole conditions from which the surface pump schedule is calculated. FracproPT
assumes this constant Estimated Foam Pressure only when calculating the surface-pumping schedule that is required
to produce the bottomhole foam schedule. This number is typically 500-1000 psi above closure stress in the zone where
the fracture initiates (that is, at the Initial Frac Depth). When performing a simulation, the program does not use this
pressure any longer; it uses the current pressure from the wellbore model.

Estimated Foam Temperature


You can enter the estimated treating temperature (either At Bottom of Wellbore or In Fracture, as per the selection
described above) here that will be used for foam design calculations in the pump schedule, but the preferred method is to
use the Estimate Treating Conditions function (described below) to have FracproPT calculate and enter this number for
you.
This temperature is used to specify down hole conditions from which the surface pump schedule is calculated. FracproPT
assumes this constant Estimated Foam Temperature only when calculating the surface-pumping schedule that is
required to produce the bottomhole foam schedule. This number is typically 5 to 20 degrees-F above the surface slurry
temperature. When performing a simulation, the program does not use this temperature any longer; it uses the current
temperature from the temperature model.

Estimate Treating Conditions


This function is used to automatically calculate and enter average values for Estimated Foam Pressure and Estimated
Foam Temperature. This function actually runs FracproPTs fracture and wellbore models during this process

CO2 Properties
These parameters appear on this screen if you select CO2 foam or N2 & CO2 foam as the Treatment Type.

Metering Pressure
Enter the pressure at the point where the CO2 flow rate is metered in this field. This pressure, as well as the temperature
described below, is used in the calculation of Density at Flow Meter.

Metering Temperature
Enter the temperature at the point where the CO2 flow rate is metered in this field. This temperature, as well as the
pressure described above, is used in the calculation of Density at Flow Meter.

Density at Flow Meter


The density of the carbon dioxide (in terms of specific gravity) at the flow-meter conditions is displayed in this field. The
density is calculated according to results taken from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Fluids
Database 12, which is based on the most accurate equations currently available. The thermodynamic properties of pure
fluids are determined with a Helmholtz energy equation (FEQ), a modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation (mBWR), or an
extended corresponding states model (ECS). Viscosity and thermal conductivity values are determined with either a fluid
specific model or with a variation of the ECS method. It is important to have the correct CO2 density at the flow meter
whether you are running from design or from real-data. If you are measuring the CO2 rate at low-pressure (tanker)
conditions, the density will be on the order of 1.02. If you are measuring the CO2 rate at high-pressure (wellhead)
conditions, then the density will typically be even greater.
Design Treatment Schedule [F6]
This screen is where information defining the stages of a yet-to-be-pumped fracture treatment pump schedule is entered.
If you use FracproPTs Fracture Design Mode or Economic Optimization Mode, the resulting pump schedule will be
displayed here. The pump schedule table has spreadsheet-like capabilities for parameters such as stage volumes, stage
lengths, pump rates, sand concentrations, fluid types, and proppant types.

277

FracproPT 2007

If you have selected either Database Data or Real-Time Data in the Run Fracture and Wellbore Models From
section of the SIMULATIONS OPTIONS [F4] screen, then you are running the fracture model from real data, as opposed
to directly from the pump schedule. In this case, this Design Treatment Schedule will not be editable.
The basic idea behind having two treatment schedules is that you use the Design Treatment Schedule to do your frac
design work, and then use the Actual Treatment Schedule once the frac job is in progress or completed (that is, when
running the simulator from real data). The two schedules allow an easy comparison of what you planned to pump with
what was actually pumped.

Basic Methodology for Using the Design and Actual Treatment Schedules
1.

Enter information into the Design Treatment Schedule when doing your pre-frac design work.
See also: Running from the Design Treatment Schedule.

2.

When you go to the field to monitor and analyze the treatment as it is pumped, or when you do the
analysis after the job back in the office, you will be running the simulator from database or real-time data,
so both the Design Treatment Schedule and the Actual Treatment Schedule will be available.

Note:
To save time when you begin the process of actually pumping, use the Copy Design to Actual Schedule function to
copy your design information to the Actual Treatment Schedule.
See also: Running from the Actual Treatment Schedule.
1.

The Design Treatment Schedule is now "locked" so that no changes can be made there. It now serves as
a record of what you planned to pump and it can be compared to what was actually pumped (as will be
shown in the Actual Treatment Schedule). However, pressing the Edit Schedule button (which is only
visible in Fracture Analysis mode) will "unlock" the Design Treatment Schedule again.

2.

The Actual Treatment Schedule will reflect all changes made to plan when you synchronize the treatment
schedule to measured data (see Help for the Actual Treatment Schedule for information on synchronizing
the treatment schedule).

Design tab of the Treatment Schedule screen.

Pump Schedule Table


The total number of columns displayed in the Pump Schedule Table, as well as which of those columns are used to enter
versus display data, depends on your selections for the following options. These are options are located directly below the
Pump Schedule Table:

278

Treatment Type Use this option to indicate whether or not you will be adding nitrogen or carbon
dioxide to the slurry being pumped. If you are (either nitrogen, carbon dioxide, or both), columns will

FracproPT 2007

automatically be added to the Pump Schedule Table where you can enter the appropriate foam rates,
qualities, and volumes.
Note:
If you select any of the foam Treatment Type options, other options related to foam will appear at the bottom of the
screen below the Pump Schedule Table.

Proppant Ramp Mode Use this option to indicate whether to not you will be ramping the addition of
proppant to the slurry being pumped. If you are, each proppant concentration and flow rate entry in
the Pump Schedule Table will have two fields; one for specifying the value at the beginning of the
stage and a second for specifying the value at the end of the stage. If you are not ramping proppant,
there will be only one field for each proppant concentration or flow rate entry.

CalculateBottomhole from Surface / Surface from Bottomhole If you are pumping a foamed
treatment, you can either enter surface values that define the foam schedule and have the
bottomhole values calculated, or vice versa.

CalculateVolume from Time / Time from Volume Based on the flow rate(s) you enter in the
Pump Schedule Table, this option determines whether volume is calculated from the time or time is
calculated from volume.

All of the possible columns in the Treatment Schedule Table are described below.

Stage Number
FracproPT accepts up to 150 separate stages in the pump schedule. You can delete entire stages by selecting the entire
stage (that is, the entire row by clicking once on the Stage Number) and pressing [Del]. Insert new stages between two
existing stages (that is, at the current cursor position) by pressing [Ins].

Stage Type
You can select a Stage Type from the drop-down list in this column to identify each stage in the treatment schedule. This
identification makes it easier to keep up with where you are in the treatment, and it also serves to identify minifracs and
other diagnostic injections that can be analyzed semi-automatically using some of FracproPTs diagnostic utilities.
In general, this is an optional selection. However, there is one Stage Type that must be selected to correctly simulate a
fracture treatment. A Circulation stage, when there is one, must be correctly identified to properly track the materials
being pumped down the wellbore and into the fracture. The full list of possible Stage Types reads as follows:
Water injection

Step-rate test

Main frac flush

Minifrac

Main frac pad

Terminated main frac

Proppant slug

Main frac slurry

Circulation

Note:
If you select Circulation for a stage, the fluid and proppant displaced from the wellbore will not be injected into the
fracture. This feature is useful for modeling "Frac Packs" or any other operation with a circulation stage before or
during a treatment.
Note:
The Terminated main frac is useful if you want to neglect prior stages in the various functions for which Stage Type
is used.

Flow Rate 1 / Flow Rate 2


This is the slurry flow rate, which includes the gel and proppant. If you are pumping nitrogen or carbon dioxide, the Flow
Rate field(s) refers to the liquid-plus-proppant flow rate just downstream of the blender, before the nitrogen or carbon
dioxide is added.
Two fields are provided for treatments where proppant is ramped (Flow Rate 1 at the beginning of the stage and Flow
Rate 2 at the end of the stage). If you are not ramping proppant only one Flow Rate field is available. Flow Rate is used
to calculate either Clean Vol or Stage Length, depending upon which of the two you enter.
The simulator does not use the values entered for Flow Rate if you run the simulator from real data and you specify flow
rate (either clean or slurry) as a real-data input on the CHANNEL INPUTS FOR MODEL [Shift+F6] screen. However, if
there is pumping in a stage you must enter some non-zero flow rate in order for the simulator to use the correct Fluid
Type for that stage. Furthermore, you should input the approximate actual flow rate so that the calculated leakoff

279

FracproPT 2007

coefficient (displayed on the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen) is as close as possible to the value actually
calculated during the treatment.
To model flow back at the end of a treatment, you can enter a negative flow rate. If you are running from Database or
Real-Time data at input, the simulator uses the negative flow rate (ignoring the measured flow data) during the flow back
stage.

N2 Rate 1 / N2 Rate 2
Nitrogen flow rate fields will be visible on if you choose N2 or N2 & CO2 as the Treatment Type option. Two fields for the
entry of nitrogen flow rate (specified at the surface for the beginning and end of the stage) are provided for treatments
where proppant is ramped. If you select None as the Prop Ramp Mode option, only one N2 Rate is available.
Entries for N2 Rate are not used if you are running the fracture simulator from real data and you specified nitrogen rate as
a real-data input on the CHANNEL INPUTS FOR MODEL [Shift+F6] screen. However, you should input the approximate
actual nitrogen flow rate so that the calculated leakoff coefficient (displayed on the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9]
screen) is as close as possible to the value actually calculated during the treatment.
Note:
Nitrogen rate is always measured at standard temperature and pressure (that is, in units of standard cubic feet per
minute or standard cubic meters per minute).

CO2 Rate 1 / CO2 Rate 2


Carbon dioxide flow rate fields will be visible only if you choose CO2 or N2 & CO2 as the Treatment Type option. Two
fields for the entry of carbon dioxide flow rate (specified at the surface for the beginning and end of the stage) are
provided for treatments where proppant is ramped. If you select None as the Prop Ramp Mode option, only one CO2
Rate is available.
Entries for CO2 Rate are not used if you are running the fracture simulator from real data and you specified carbon
dioxide rate as a real-data input on the CHANNEL INPUTS FOR MODEL [Shift+F6] screen. However, you should input
the approximate actual carbon dioxide flow rate so that the calculated leakoff coefficient (displayed on the RESERVOIR
PARAMETERS [F9] screen) is as close as possible to the value actually calculated during the treatment.
FracproPT assumes that carbon dioxide flow rate is being measured at a constant density (that is, constant temperature
and pressure.
Note:
Unlike nitrogen rate, which is always measured at standard temperature and pressure (that is, in units of standard
cubic feet per minute or standard cubic meters per minute), CO2 rate is measured at the flow meter (that is,
pumping) conditions. This means that the surface CO2 rate that is the input to FracproPT could be measured at either
the low-pressure side or the high-pressure side of the frac pumps. The measurement point makes a difference in the
density of the fluid, and has led to some confusion in the past. When dealing with CO2 in FracproPT, it is important to
remember the following important points:

280

It is best to design the treatment based on bottomhole foam quality.

You should know in advance where the CO2 flow meter will be, so that you can enter the correct
temperature and pressure at the flow meter (see Metering Pressure and Metering Temperature
described below).

FracproPTs surface CO2 rate shown in the Pump Schedule Table is defined as being at the CO2
flow meter conditions (that is, at the Metering Pressure and Metering Temperature described
below).

The density (see Density at Flow Meter described below) at the CO2 flow meter is automatically
calculated based on the Metering Pressure and Metering Temperature that you enter.

The mass of CO2 calculated by FracproPT is based on the Density at Flow Meter, not at a socalled standard density. This is true even when you are entering a design treatment schedule with a
surface CO2 rate.

If you are designing a CO2 treatment using surface rates (rather than bottomhole quality), it is very
important to know where you are planning to meter the CO2 rate because that metering location will
affect the treatment design. For example, if you are trying to achieve a specific bottomhole foam
quality, the surface pump schedule will be different depending on whether you are metering the CO2
on the low pressure side of the pumps (for example, Halliburton) or the high pressure side of the
pumps (for example, Schlumberger),

The CO2 totals in FracproPT are all calculated based on the CO2 rate at the Metering Pressure and
Metering Temperature that you enter, which will result in the correct CO2 mass calculation. If you
are interested in the volume at standard conditions (that is, the volume in the CO2 transport tankers),
you can convert the mass of CO2 to barrels at standard conditions using the standard density of 8.51

FracproPT 2007

lb/gal at tanker conditions, or simply view the value shown on the Treatment Totals tab of this
Treatment Schedule [F6] screen.

Bottomhole Slurry Foam Rate


This value includes liquid (gel), carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and proppant.

Bottomhole N2 Quality
This is the desired (or calculated) bottomhole nitrogen foam quality. Depending upon your choice for Ramp/Quality
Option (discussed below), this can be either the conventional quality or the constant internal phase quality.
Conventional quality, which is defined as the percentage of the total fluid volume (that is, gel plus nitrogen plus carbon
dioxide) that is composed of nitrogen, is calculated according to the following formula:
VolumeN2/(VolumeN2+VolumeCO2+Volumeliquid)
Constant internal phase quality, which includes the proppant volume with the nitrogen volume, is calculated according to
the following formula:
(VolumeN2+Volumeproppant)(VolumeN2+VolumeCO2+Volumeliquid+Volumeproppant)
For binary foams, if you select constant internal phase quality, this applies only to CO2 Qual and not to N2 Qual.
It is important to note that Bottomhole N2 Quality is defined at a bottomhole temperature that can be one of two values.
If you selected Model Heat Transfer Effects on the Simulation Options [F4] screen, then bottomhole quality is
assumed to be at the bottomhole pumping temperature. If you selected Ignore Heat Transfer Effects, then bottomhole
quality is assumed to be at the Reservoir Temperature entered on the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen. This
can make a substantial difference in predictions, so be careful of which temperature you specify for bottomhole quality.

Bottomhole CO2 Quality


This is the desired (or calculated) bottomhole carbon dioxide quality. Depending upon your choice for Ramp/Quality
Option (discussed below), this can be either the conventional quality or the constant internal phase quality.
Conventional quality, which is defined as the percentage of the total fluid volume (that is, gel plus nitrogen plus carbon
dioxide) that is composed of carbon dioxide, is calculated according to the following formula:
VolumeCO2/(VolumeN2+VolumeCO2+Volumeliquid)
Constant internal phase quality, which includes the proppant volume with the carbon dioxide volume, is calculated
according to the following formula:
(VolumeCO2+Volumeproppant)(VolumeN2+VolumeCO2+Volumeliquid+Volumeproppant)
It is important to note that Bottomhole CO2 Quality is defined at a bottomhole temperature that can be one of two
values. If you selected Model Heat Transfer Effects on the Simulation Options [F4] screen, then bottomhole quality is
assumed to be at the bottomhole pumping temperature. If you selected Ignore Heat Transfer Effects, then bottomhole
quality is assumed to be at the Reservoir Temperature entered on the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen. This
can make a substantial difference in predictions, so be careful of which temperature you specify for bottomhole quality.

Proppant Concentration 1 / Proppant Concentration 2


Two fields for entry of proppant concentration are provided for treatments where proppant is ramped. If you are not
ramping proppant, then only one Proppant Concentration is available.
Values entered for Proppant Concentration are not used if you are running the fracture simulator from real data and you
specified proppant concentration (or slurry density) as a real-data input on the CHANNEL INPUTS FOR MODEL
[Shift+F6] screen. However, you must enter some non-zero proppant concentration in order for the simulator to use the
correct Proppant Type for that stage.
If you are pumping a nitrogen or carbon dioxide (i.e. a foam treatment), Proppant Concentration refers to the proppant
concentration at the blender, before the nitrogen or carbon dioxide is added.

Bottomhole Proppant Concentration 1 / Bottomhole Proppant Concentration 2


Two fields for entry of proppant concentration are provided for treatments where proppant is ramped. If you are not
ramping proppant, then only one Proppant Concentration is available.
Values entered for Proppant Concentration are not used if you are running the fracture simulator from real data and you
specified proppant concentration (or slurry density) as a real-data input on the CHANNEL INPUTS FOR MODEL
[Shift+F6] screen. However, you must enter some non-zero proppant concentration in order for the simulator to use the
correct Proppant Type for that stage.

281

FracproPT 2007

Clean Volume
If you select Calculate Time From Volume as the Job Design Mode option, you enter the desired clean volume of liquid
for each stage in this field. Clean Volume and Flow Rate (which you also must enter) are then used to calculate Stage
Length. Note that entries for Clean Volume are not accepted until a non-zero Slurry Rate is entered.
If you select Calculate Volume From Time, you cannot access the Clean Volume fields since it is calculated from Slurry
Rate and Stage Length.
Values entered for Clean Volume are not used if you are running the fracture simulator from real data and you specified
flow rate (either clean or slurry) as a real-data input on the CHANNEL INPUTS FOR MODEL [Shift+F6] screen.

Bottomhole Foam Clean Volume


Enter the stage clean volume of foam in this field, which includes liquid (gel), carbon dioxide, and nitrogen at bottomhole
conditions.

Stage Length
This field always defines the length of the stage, whether running the fracture simulator from real-data or from the
treatment schedule entries for flow rates and proppants (hence the need to synchronize the Actual Treatment Schedule
with the real data).
If you select Calculate Volume From Time at the Job Design Mode option, you enter stage length (in decimal minutes)
in this field. If you enter Stage Length before entering Flow Rate, the stage will be treated as a shut-in, as indicated in
the Fluid Type column. Stage Length and Flow Rate are used to calculate Clean Volume. To model shut-ins, you must
enter a non-zero Stage Length and zero for Flow Rate. This is typically how you would add a stage at the end of the
treatment to simulate the pressure decline.
If you select Calculate Time From Volume you cannot access Stage Length since it is calculated from Flow Rate and
Clean Volume.

Treatment Info (user selectable)


This field displays one of several user-selected quantities that are calculated from other information entered in the
treatment schedule. The Treatment Info drop-down list where you select the quantity for display is located directly above
the Pump Schedule Table. The choices for the display are as follows:
Cumul Time Cumulative job time in minutes:seconds format
Stage Slurry Stage slurry volume
Cumul Gel Cumulative clean volume
Stage Prop Stage proppant weight
Cumul Prop Cumulative proppant weight
Clean Rate Calculated clean flow rate
Cumul Slurry Cumulative slurry volume
Stage N2 Stage nitrogen volume
Cumul N2 Cumulative nitrogen volume
Stage CO2 Stage carbon dioxide weight
Cumul CO2 Cumulative carbon dioxide weight

Wellbore Fluid
Although you have the option of ignoring the wellbore in Fracture Analysis Mode, it is typically modeled and therefore
you must select the fluid that fills (or partially fills) it initially before pumping starts. You select the Wellbore Fluid in the
same manner that you select Fluid Type for all other stages (that is, via a drop-down list). If you choose Ignore Wellbore
and Perforations on the SIMULATION OPTIONS [F4] screen, this field will not be accessible. A Wellbore Fluid must be
selected whenever you Run From Database Data or Run From Real-Time Data. The Wellbore Fluid is reported as
Stage #0 in reports and various program display screens.
The wellbore (hence, the Wellbore Fluid) is ignored by the fracture simulator in Economic Optimization Mode. However,
you can model the wellbore from a production standpoint when running in either Reservoir Production Mode or
Economic Optimization Mode.

Fluid Type

282

FracproPT 2007

This field contains a drop-down list from which you select a fluid to use in the stage. The list displays all fluids listed on the
FLUID AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen. If you are modeling the wellbore, you also must select a fluid in the
Wellbore Fluid field located near the bottom-right corner of the screen.
With the exception of shut-ins, each stage in the treatment schedule must have a Fluid Type specified. Whenever you
define a new stage, Fluid Type defaults to the fluid selected in the previous stage.

Proppant Type
This field contains a drop-down list from which you select a proppant to use in the stage. This field will only be active if
there is a corresponding non-zero Proppant Concentration entry in the table. The list displays all proppants listed on the
FLUID AND PROPPANT SELECTION [F5] screen.
Whenever you define a new proppant stage (that is, with a non-zero entry for Prop Concentration), Proppant Type
defaults to the proppant type selected in the previous stage.
As a very useful special case (for example, when pumping proppant slugs), when you select 100 Mesh as the Proppant
Type, that particular field in the treatment schedule will appear with a yellow background to indicate that this proppant is
being ignored in propped-dimension calculations. However, hydrostatic head and wellbore friction effects are not ignored.
FracproPT ignores any proppant (for purpose of calculating propped fracture dimensions) whose diameter is less than
the threshold entered on the Proppant Model Parameters tab of the Fracpropt MODEL PARAMETERS [shift+f3]
screen. The default threshold diameter is 0.0125 inches.

The following information describes the various options located below the Treatment Schedule Table.

Treatment Type
Use this option to indicate whether or not you will be adding nitrogen or carbon dioxide to the slurry being pumped. Your
choice of No foam, N2 foam, CO2 foam, or N2 & CO2 foam determines which fields (i.e. columns) will be available in
the Pump Schedule Table.
Note:
If you select any of the foam Treatment Type options, other options related to foam, which are described below, will
appear at the bottom of the screen below the Pump Schedule Table.

Proppant Ramp Mode


Use this option to indicate whether to not you will be ramping the addition of proppant to the slurry being pumped. If you
are, choose Ideal. In this case, each proppant concentration and flow rate entry in the Pump Schedule Table will have two
fields; one for specifying the value at the beginning of the stage and a second for specifying the value at the end of the
stage. If you are not ramping proppant you should choose None; as a result, there will be only one field for each proppant
concentration or flow rate entry.

CalculateVolume from Time / Time from Volume


Based on the flow rate(s) you enter in the Pump Schedule Table, this option determines whether volume is calculated
from the time or time is calculated from volume. These calculations use the following fields in the Pump Schedule Table:
Flow Rate, Stage Length, and Clean Vol.
Note:
You should typically select Calculate Time from Volume when entering design data into the Pump Schedule Table.
Calculate Volume from Time is typically used when synchronizing real data with the Pump Schedule Table.

Wellbore Volume
This non-editable field displays the wellbore volume as calculated from the wellbore segment entries on the WELLBORE
CONFIGURATION [F7] screen. This number is provided here so that displacement volumes can be checked without
having to switch between screens.

The following options and fields will only be visible if you select one of the foam options as the Treatment Type.

CalculateBottomhole from Surface / Surface from Bottomhole

283

FracproPT 2007

If you are pumping a foamed treatment, you can either enter surface values of the pumping parameters that define the
foam schedule and have the bottomhole values calculated, or vice versa. The most common scenario is to Calculate
Surface from Bottomhole where you enter the desired down hole pump schedule and let FracproPT calculate the
corresponding surface pump schedule.

Quality Option
Use this option to select whether you will be using the so-called Constant Internal Phase or the Conventional Quality
for the calculations in the Pump Schedule Table. Definitions of these two options are shown in the Help text above
describing the Bottomhole CO2 Quality and Bottomhole N2 Quality fields.

Schedule Based on Conditions


These parameters appear on this screen if you select N2 foam, CO2 foam, or N2 & CO2 foam as the Treatment Type.

At Bottom of Wellbore / In Fracture


In some instances there may be a significant pressure drop through the perforations or the so-called near-wellbore region
of the fracture(s). In those cases this pressure drop may cause a significant change in foam quality between the wellbore
and the main body of the fracture(s). Choose At Bottom of Wellbore to base the pumping schedule on the true bottom
hole pressure, or choose In Fracture to account for any perforation or near-wellbore friction losses.

Estimated Foam Pressure


You can enter the estimated treating pressure (either At Bottom of Wellbore or In Fracture, as per the selection
described above) here that will be used for foam design calculations in the pump schedule, but the preferred method is to
use the Estimate Treating Conditions function (described below) to have FracproPT calculate and enter this number for
you.
This pressure is used to specify down hole conditions from which the surface pump schedule is calculated. FracproPT
assumes this constant Estimated Foam Pressure only when calculating the surface-pumping schedule that is required
to produce the bottomhole foam schedule. This number is typically 500-1000 psi above closure stress in the zone where
the fracture initiates (that is, at the Initial Frac Depth). When performing a simulation, the program does not use this
pressure any longer; it uses the current pressure from the wellbore model.

Estimated Foam Temperature


You can enter the estimated treating temperature (either At Bottom of Wellbore or In Fracture, as per the selection
described above) here that will be used for foam design calculations in the pump schedule, but the preferred method is to
use the Estimate Treating Conditions function (described below) to have FracproPT calculate and enter this number for
you.
This temperature is used to specify down hole conditions from which the surface pump schedule is calculated. FracproPT
assumes this constant Estimated Foam Temperature only when calculating the surface-pumping schedule that is
required to produce the bottomhole foam schedule. This number is typically 5 to 20 degree-F above the surface slurry
temperature. When performing a simulation, the program does not use this temperature any longer; it uses the current
temperature from the temperature model.

Estimate Treating Conditions


This function is used to automatically calculate and enter average values for Estimated Foam Pressure and Estimated
Foam Temperature. This function actually runs FracproPTs fracture and wellbore models during this process

CO2 Properties
These parameters appear on this screen if you select CO2 foam or N2 & CO2 foam as the Treatment Type.

Metering Pressure
Enter the pressure at the point where the CO2 flow rate is metered in this field. This pressure, as well as the temperature
described below, is used in the calculation of Density at Flow Meter.

Metering Temperature
Enter the temperature at the point where the CO2 flow rate is metered in this field. This temperature, as well as the
pressure described above, is used in the calculation of Density at Flow Meter.

Density at Flow Meter

284

FracproPT 2007

The density of the carbon dioxide (in terms of specific gravity) at the flow-meter conditions is displayed in this field. The
density is calculated according to results taken from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Fluids
Database 12, which is based on the most accurate equations currently available. The thermodynamic properties of pure
fluids are determined with a Helmholtz energy equation (FEQ), a modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation (mBWR), or an
extended corresponding states model (ECS). Viscosity and thermal conductivity values are determined with either a fluid
specific model or with a variation of the ECS method. It is important to have the correct CO2 density at the flow meter
whether you are running from design or from real-data. If you are measuring the CO2 rate at low-pressure (tanker)
conditions, the density will be on the order of 1.02. If you are measuring the CO2 rate at high-pressure (wellhead)
conditions, then the density will typically be even greater.
Treatment Totals [F6]
This screen is used to display to total amounts of fluids, proppants and other materials required in a proposed fracture
treatment (from the Design Treatment Schedule), or the total amounts actually used in an executed fracture treatment
(from the Actual Treatment Schedule). You can sort by Materials or Stage, and also view required and used materials in
common storage volumes (such as tanks and sacks). Pricing information for fluid and proppants is also available on this
screen.

Treatment Totals tab of the Treatment Schedule screen

Totals for
Design Schedule
Select this option to display the totals from the Design Treatment Schedule, which will show the materials required for
the pump schedule.

Actual Data
Select this option to display the totals from the Actual Treatment Schedule, which will show what materials were actually
pumped in the current fracture treatment (that is, as represented in the current database or real-time data file shown on
the Fracture Simulation Options [F4] screen). Note that you do need to run the model at least once to see totals for the
actual treatment.

Totals split by

285

FracproPT 2007

Materials
Select this option to group the totals in the Proppant and Fluid Table and the Additional Items Table by material.

Injection
Select this option to group the totals in the Proppant and Fluid Table and the Additional Items Table by stage.

Include Storage Units


Select this check box to include the so-called storage volumes in the Proppant and Fluid Table. The fields described
below are used to define the size of each storage volume. The numbers of storage volumes required are only shown in
integer units.

Fluid Tank Volume


Enter the total volume of the fluid tanks that you will have on location in this field. Typically, this is 500 bbls.

Include Tank Bottoms


Enter the volume of fluid that you expect to remain in the tanks after they are "empty." Typically, this is approximately 50
bbls.

Proppant Sack Weight


Enter the weight of each "sack" of proppant in this field. Note that the unit for this field is klbs, which is hundreds of
pounds, therefore a typically value would be 1.

N2 Storage Volume
Enter the total volume of each nitrogen transport in this field.

CO2 Storage Volume


Enter the total volume of each carbon dioxide transport in this field.

Treatment Specs
Except for Wellbore Volume, the values shown here are design values only. These numbers are based on Stage Type
(for example, the fluid volume of all stages identified as Main Frac Pad are added together to calculate Design Pad
Volume). All of these fields are non-editable.

Pad Fraction
This is the ratio of Pad Volume to Slurry Volume (both of which are defined below).

Pad Volume
This is the volume sum of all stages identified with the Main Frac Pad selection for Stage Type.

Clean Volume (Main Frac)


This is the fluid volume sum (that is, not including proppant volume) of all stages identified with Main Frac Pad, Main Frac
Slurry, and Main Frac Flush selections for Stage Type.

Slurry Volume (Main Frac)


This is the fluid-plus-proppant volume sum (that is, including proppant volume) of all stages identified with Main Frac Pad,
Main Frac Slurry, and Main Frac Flush selections for Stage Type.

Total Proppant (Main Frac)


This is the weight sum of proppant included in all stages identified with the Main Frac Slurry selection for Stage Type.

Flush Volume
This is the fluid (slurry) volume sum of all stages identified with the Main Frac Flush selection for Stage Type.

286

FracproPT 2007

Proppant and Fluid Table


This table displays the types and amounts or fluids and proppants required or used. Optionally, cost information may also
be included. All fields other than Unit Cost and Discount are entered automatically.

Additional Items Table


You can manually enter (type) any additional cost Item for a fracture treatment in this table, such as mobilization charges,
horsepower charges, or perhaps chemical additives. You must enter a Quantity and Unit Cost for each item, but you can
also select or manually enter information for Units for completeness. You may also which to enter a Discount for each
item that will be reflected in the Cost field.

Fracture Analysis Control - F10


Simulation Control [F10]
This is the final screen in the sequence of Fracture Analysis mode screens. From here you control simulator execution
and you can also select from among various options to display model inputs and outputs.
The current Model Time is displayed on the right side of the status bar (which is located at the bottom of the screen). The
status bar also shows the current FracproPT mode and the source of the model inputs (that is, Job Design, Database, or
Real-Time data).

The Fracture Simulation Control screen.

Graphical Stage Display


The colored columns at the top of this screen represent the treatment stages as specified by the stage numbers in the
Treatment Schedule - F6 screen, by the Design Treatment Schedule table if Job-Design Data is selected on the Fracture
Analysis Options - F4 screen, or by the Actual Treatment Schedule table if Database Data or Real-Time Data is selected

287

FracproPT 2007

on the Fracture Analysis Options - F4 screen. The column heights represent the stage lengths. As the simulator runs,
colored bars traverse the columns to indicate the progress of the simulation.

Model Input & Control


Start Time
Start Time is used as a real-data offset, primarily to skip over any initial glitches in pump rate or data that is collected prior
to actually starting the job. FracproPT sets this number automatically to the first time where there is a non-zero pump
rate, or you may enter the number (time) manually. If you are running from job design data, an entry of 0.0 is correct. Start
Time is displayed in decimal minutes.

End Time
End Time lets the simulator identify how much memory to allocate for storage of results. Normally, you set this time to
some value greater than or equal to the duration of all pumping and shut-ins stages (as indicated on the Treatment
Schedule - F6 screen). However, End Time can also be set to any number as a simple means of checking model output at
that particular time. For instance, you can set End Time to 15 minutes if you want to check the fracture dimensions and
net pressure after pumping for 15 minutes. End Time is displayed in decimal minutes.

Time Step
Time Step determines how often the simulator performs its calculations. Normally, Time Step is set to between 0.1 and
0.5 minutes. Typically, the model is ran at a small Time Step (0.017 - 0.1 minutes) before conducting Minifrac Analysis
or Friction Analysis, and is ran at a courser Time Step (0.1 0.5 minutes) when conducting net pressure matching. Of
course, a simulation run with a small Time Step requires more memory and disk space for results storage and takes
longer to complete. Time Step is displayed in decimal minutes

Model Inputs Plot


Selecting Model Inputs Plot takes you to an automatically configured plot showing the model inputs, which come from
either real-data (as specified on the Channel Inputs for Model - Shift + F6 screen) or from the Treatment Schedule - F6
screen.

Run Simulator
Selecting this function begins model execution. Pressing [Alt] -[R] from any screen also starts the model.
If you are running from real data (either real time or database data), selecting Run Simulator causes FracproPT to run to
the end of the real data currently available and then switch over and run from the remainder of the TREATMENT
SCHEDULE [F6] (if there is any). This feature allows you to run the simulator from measured data up to the current time
and then forecast the ultimate treatment outcome based on whatever stages remain in the TREATMENT SCHEDULE
[F6].

Stop Simulator
Selecting this function stops (or pauses) model execution. Pressing [Alt+S] from any screen also stops (or pauses) the
model.

Resume Run
Selecting this function resumes the current model run, but only if it was paused using Stop Simulator (or [Alt+S]) before
reaching the end of the data on the TREATMENT SCHEDULE [F6] or the End Time. Pressing [Alt+C] from any screen
also resumes the current model run.

Run To End of Data


This option is for real-time use only. When it is selected, the model runs (at top speed) up to the last point of currently
acquired data and then sits idle until enough additional data (based on the simulator Time Step) is acquired for the model
to increment another Time Step. The process repeats as more real data are collected. Pressing [Ctrl+R] from any screen
also activates this option.

Fracture Pressure Analysis


Minifrac Analysis
Selecting this function takes you to the Minifrac Analysis - Shift + F8 screen, which contains graphical utilities to aid you in
determining fracture closure stress from pressure fall-off data.

288

FracproPT 2007

Entry Friction
Selecting this function takes you to the Perf and Near-Wellbore Friction - F8 screen where you can graphically analyze
rate step down tests to determine the level and cause of fracture entry friction.

Manual Matching
Selecting this function takes you to the Manual Matching tab of the Net Pressure Matching - Ctrl + F8 screen where
numerous parameters (from other FracproPT screens) that are commonly changed during net pressure matching are
located.

Auto Matching
Selecting this function takes you to the Auto Matching tab of the Net Pressure Matching - Ctrl + F8 screen where you can
have FracproPT attempt to automatically match net pressure.

Model Output
Pressure Match
Selecting this function takes you to an automatically configured plot of net pressure. If you are running the simulator from
real data, both Net Pressure and Observed Net Pressure are shown (that is, this is the net pressure match). If you are
running from treatment schedule data, only Net Pressure is shown.

Fracture Dimensions
Selecting this function takes you to an automatically configured plot of hydraulic (that is, created) fracture dimensions.

Propped Dimensions
Selecting this function takes you to an automatically configured plot of propped fracture dimensions.

Plot List
Selecting this function takes you to the Plot List - Alt + F8 screen where all the plots (pre-configured, autoscaled as well
as user-configurable) can be quickly accessed.

Fracture Profile
Selecting this function takes you to the FRACTURE PICTURE [Alt+F5] screen that displays a schematic of the fracture
geometry.

Stage Profiles
Selecting this function takes you to the STAGE PROFILES List screen where seven different STAGE PROFILE pictures
can be easily accessed. You can display proppant concentration, fracture conductivity, proppant volume-fraction, fluid
temperature, fluid viscosity, volumetric acid concentration, or degree of acid etching as a function of position in the
fracture. Pressing [Ctrl+F5] at any time re-displays the last active STAGE PROFILE picture.

Wellbore Profile
Selecting this function takes you directly to the Wellbore Profile Picture - Alt + F9 screen where a picture of the wellbore
is displayed. This picture shows the position of various treatment stages as they are pumped down the wellbore.

Width Profile
Selecting this function takes you to the Width Profile - Alt + F7 screen where the width profile of the fracture is displayed.

System Messages
Warnings and error messages are displayed on the left side of the status bar as FracproPT generates them. Multiple
messages are sometimes difficult to read since later ones overwrite the early messages. Selecting System Messages
takes you to the System Messages - Alt + F1 screen where all the most recent messages and warnings are displayed in a
top-down stack arrangement (that is, the message on top is the latest). The System Messages - Alt + F1 screen is cleared
whenever a new input file is loaded, and blank lines are inserted between messages whenever the simulator is run again.

Numeric Output

289

FracproPT 2007

Selecting this function takes you to the Numeric Output - Alt + F3 screen where numerical values for all model calculations
of input and output channels are displayed.

Generate Report
Selecting this function takes you to the Report Setup - Shift + F2 screen where simulation reports can be generated with
minimal effort.

Compare Results
Selecting this function takes you to the Compare Simulation Results - Shift + F4 screen where results and inputs from up
to four previously stored simulations (input and results files) are specified for comparison.

Pressure Analysis
Entry Friction (Perf and Near-Wellbore Friction - F8)

Perf and Near-Wellbore Friction [F8]


This screen provides you with the capability to easily and rapidly identify and characterize fracture entry friction, which is
the source of many hydraulic fracture problems. Fracture entry friction is composed of perforation friction and nearwellbore friction. With this capability, problematic entry friction can be recognized, the correct remedial measures
identified, and the success of the remedial measures evaluated. Characterization of fracture entry friction also provides
FracproPT with the required input for removing friction pressure from measured pressure data for net pressure history
matching.
Note:
This screen will not be accessible if you choose the Run Fracture Model Only option on the Additional Options tab
of the FRACTURE SIMULATION OPTIONS [F4] screen.
Removing friction pressure from measured pressure data is an integral part of the net pressure history matching process
in which fracture model net pressure is matched to the actual net pressure in the fracture. In FracproPT, the latter
pressure is known as Observed Net Pressure and it is calculated from measured pressure data by adding hydrostatic
pressure (from the measurement point to fracture depth), subtracting out all sources of friction, and then subtracting
fracture closure stress. Errors in calculating friction will result in discontinuous Observed Net Pressure transitions at
sudden injection rate changes. Thus, before you can match Observed Net Pressure during pumping, you must accurately
model entry friction as perforation and near-wellbore effects can mask the true net pressure in a fracture and thereby lead
to erroneous analyses and interpretation of results.
Fracture entry friction commonly varies with time, as perforations continue to break down or erode, and near-wellbore
friction is affected by injection rate, viscosity, and volume. Modeling of fracture entry friction changes with time is
accomplished using the Entry Friction versus Time table on this screen. FracproPT provides you with utilities that allow
you to easily provide entries to this table through analysis of the following events that may occur during a fracture
treatment or diagnostic injection:

Injection rate step-down tests to distinguish between friction from perforations or near-wellbore
tortuosity. This is the most common technique for entry friction characterization, as it provides more
definitive and useful information than the abrupt flowrate change technique.

Abrupt injection rate changes of significant magnitude (either up or down), to use near-wellbore
friction to smooth Observed Net Pressure behavior at rate changes. Note that this analysis does not
affect perforation friction a true rate stepdown test is required to separate fracture entry friction into
perf and near-wellbore friction components.

ISIPs (instantaneous shut-in pressure) a special case for an abrupt flow-rate change to zero.

In what follows, the parameters and equations are described in oilfield units. If you are using a different unit system,
FracproPT will make the appropriate unit conversions.

290

FracproPT 2007

The Perf and Near-Wellbore Friction screen.

Entry Friction versus Time Table


These are the data used by the simulator to account for near-wellbore friction. Up to 20 entries are possible in the table.
For each row of entries (that is, for each time), FracproPT calculates fracture entry friction components using the
following equations:
2

Pperf=KperfQ

Pnear-wellbore=Knear-wellboreQ
where is the Near-Wellbore Friction Exponent (default 0.5) that is entered on the Near-Wellbore Friction tab of the
FRACPROPT MODEL PARAMETERS screen.
When the table contains more than one entry, near-wellbore friction and the perf coefficient multiplier are linearly
interpolated between table entry times. Note that this is computationally accomplished through linear interpolation of Kperf
and Knear-wellbore as defined above.
When only one set of entries is made in the table, the near-wellbore friction and perf friction parameters are modeled as
constant over the entire treatment.
You can enter these data manually, or you can use FracproPTs engineering tools/utilities to enter the data more easily.
For example, if you use the Rate Step-Down Test Analyzer (described below) on a rate step-down test during your net
pressure analysis, simply select the Use Results in Entry Friction Time Table function to automatically add a new entry
(that is, a new line) to this table. For each rate step-down test or flow-rate change analyzed, a line of data is entered into
this table. To aid in editing the table, you can insert a row of blank entries at the current cursor position by selecting a row
number pressing [Ins]. Likewise, pressing [Del] deletes the row of entries.
If you are simulating a treatment design, there are typically no entries here (unless you know by field experience that xamount of near-wellbore friction will nearly always be present).
Time
This is the time at which the instantaneous shut-in pressure (ISIP), flow-rate change, or flow rate step-down test occurs.

291

FracproPT 2007

Rate #1
This is the magnitude of the flow rate just before the instantaneous shut-in pressure (ISIP), flow-rate change, or flow rate
step-down test occurs.
Rate #2
This is the magnitude of the flow rate just after the instantaneous shut-in pressure (ISIP), flow-rate change, or flow rate
step-down test occurs.
Near-Wellbore Friction
This is the change in near-wellbore friction observed when going from Rate #1 to Rate #2. Note that near-wellbore friction
commonly varies across an injection sequence, and can be affected by injected volume, fluid viscosity, flow rate, and the
passage of proppant.
Perf Coefficient Multiplier
This is the ratio of actual perforation friction to theoretical perf friction. Theoretical perf friction is calculated from the
combination of flow rate, hole size, diameter, and other parameters appropriate for the perf model assumed. Actual perf
friction is generally derived from a rate step-down test.
This parameter commonly varies with time or injection number, due to changes in the number of holes open or perforation
erosion.
Perfs Open (effective)
The effective number of perfs open is the number of holes required to explain the observed perforation pressure drop,
which is directly calculated using the following relationship:
2

Pperfs1/N
where P is pressure and N is the number of perforations. Thus,
2
0.5
Neffective=(Nshot /Perf Coefficient Multiplier)
where Neffective is the effective number of perfs open and Nshot is the number of perfs shot.

Perforation Pressure Drop Model


There are three choices for modeling pressure losses through the perforations. In all three choices, the equation used to
calculate perf friction is as follows:
2

Pperfs=0.237(Q/N) /(Cd D )
where,
= slurry density in ppg,
Q = flow rate in bpm,
N = number of perfs,
D = perf diameter in inches, and
Cd = discharge coefficient.
The only difference between the three options regards the discharge coefficient. For the Default FracproPT Model
option, the value is constant at 0.8. The FFCF Linear Gel Correlation and FFCF X-link Gel Correlation options use
correlations for the discharge coefficient developed at the Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) at
Oklahoma University. The FFCF X-link Gel Correlation also includes an additional term for excess pressure loss. (See
SPE 38373, El-Rabaa, et. al.)
There are two important facts you should remember if you switch the perf pressure drop model:

When performing a rate step-down analysis on real data (that is, either real-time data or database data are
input to the simulator), changing the perf pressure drop model will affect the values calculated for both Perf
Coefficient Multiplier and Perfs Open (effective). However, the magnitude of the perf pressure drop
determined from the rate step-down test would not change since its calculation is based on measured
pressure data.

In contrast, when you are using the simulator in a design mode (that is, running from the treatment
schedule with no real-data model inputs), changing the perf pressure drop model will affect the calculated
perforation pressure drop, but the number of perforations is a design input in this case and will not change.

Display Step-Down Plot and New Step-Down Analysis


Select the button Display Step-Down Plot to view an existing step-down test analysis plot, or select the button New
Step-Down Analysis to create a new step-down test analysis plot.

Use Cramers Perf Erosion Model


Enable this checkbox to use the perforation erosion module based on work conducted by Dave Cramer of BJ Services in
Denver. This perforation erosion model describes the reduction of perforation friction due to smoothing of the perforation
tunnel and gradual enlargement of the perforation. These two effects are governed by a change in discharge coefficient
and a change in diameter as a function of the amount of proppant pumped through the perforation. This perforation

292

FracproPT 2007

erosion model will change perforation friction as a function of the proppant pumped through the perforation while
reconciling with the rate stepdown test results. See also the Cramer's Perforation Erosion Model screen.

Perforation Data
The location (measured depth) of the perforated intervals are entered on the WELLBORE CONFIGURATION [F7] screen
and is displayed here. The number of number of perforation and their diameter can also be entered on that screen, but
they can also be entered or changed here.
Frac #
Frac number, or perhaps more appropriately, perforated interval number, ranges from 1 to 20 depending on your entries
on the WELLBORE CONFIGURATION [F7] screen.
Top MD
These are the measured depths to the top of the (up to twenty) perfed intervals.
Bottom MD
These are the measured depths to the bottom of the (up to twenty) perfed intervals.
# Perfs
This is the number of perforations you believe are open for each of the (up to twenty) perfed intervals.
Diameter
This is the estimated average diameter of perforations for each of the (up to twenty) perfed intervals.

Wellbore Friction
Fluid
This is the fluid that is pumped down the wellbore, for which the wellbore friction is calculated.
Friction Multiplier
This is the multiplier with which the friction will be multiplied (with default value of 1.00).

Rate Step-Down Test Analyzer Table


The stepdown test analyzer (see analyzing injection rate step-down tests) is a tool designed specifically for use with
FracproPTs cursor editing mode that automates the process of marking, analyzing, and using the results of a rate stepdown test. The results of this analyzer are not actually used by the fracture simulator until you select the Use Results in
Entry Friction vs. Time Table.

Data Table
As you mark the beginning and ending of each rate step-down in a test using cursor editing, the test input data are written
into this table. Up to 5 rate steps can be included in a single rate step-down test. The final step should always end at a
rate of zero.
Time
The Time for each rate step-down is taken as the average between the beginning and end times for that step (as marked
by you on a cursor-editing plot).
Rate #1
This is the Bottomhole Slurry Rate at the beginning time of each rate step-down, as marked by you on a cursor-editing
plot. If the injected fluid is relatively incompressible (e.g. water), Bottomhole Slurry Rate will be equal to the measured
surface injection rate. For a compressible fluid such as foam, Bottomhole Slurry Rate will be calculated based on
measured or calculated bottomhole pressure.
Rate #2
This is the Bottomhole Slurry Rate at the end time of each rate step-down, as marked by you on a cursor-editing plot.
Change in Friction
This is the change in the Measured Bottomhole Pressure channel that occurs in response to each step down in rate.
The Measured Bottomhole Pressure channel is set equal to true bottom hole pressure if it is available (that is, if it is
measured). If the rate step-down analysis is based on surface pressure or pressure measured at some other depth in the
wellbore, the Measured Bottomhole Pressure channel will be calculated based on the measured pressure, corrected for
the wellbore friction and the hydrostatic pressure difference between the measurement point and frac depth.

293

FracproPT 2007

Step-Down Friction Analysis Results


For your initial review, the analysis results from the data in the Rate Step-Down Test Analyzer table are shown in the
Step-Down Friction Analysis fields.
Total Friction Power and Total Friction Coeff K
Using a least-squares technique, the rate step-down test data are first fit with a single power law equation:
Total Entry Friction=KtotalQ

If fracture entry friction is dominated by perf friction, will generally be near 2. If near-wellbore friction dominates, will
generally be closer to 0.5. A value of above 2 or significantly below 0.5 generally indicates either a) a problem with stepdown test behavior (for example, the assumption of constant pressure in the fracture during the step-down is not true), or
b) incorrect wellbore friction fluid parameters (as set on the Edit/View Interpolated Fluid Data [shift+F5] screen).
Perf Friction Coeff K and NWB Friction Coeff K
The perforation and near-wellbore friction components are analytically separated by fitting the rate step-down test data to
the following equation:
Total Entry Friction = Perf Friction + Near Wellbore Friction
where,
2

Perf Friction = KperfQ

Near Wellbore Friction = Knear-wellboreQ

In the equation above, is typically 0.5.


Effective Perfs Open
This the estimated number of perforations open at the time of the rate step-down test.
Perf Friction
This is the estimated perforation friction at the Max Flow Rate.
NWB Friction
This is the estimated near-wellbore friction at the Max Flow Rate.
Max Flow Rate
This is the injection rate at the beginning of the rate step-down test.

Step-Down Test Analysis Plot


This screen can be accessed by:

294

In the Perf and Near-Wellbore Friction - F8 screen, select the button Display Step-Down Plot.

In the Perf and Near-Wellbore Friction - F8 screen, select the button New Step-Down Plot.

FracproPT 2007

Step-Down Test Analysis Plot.

Procedure
Select Step-down Test

Set the green vertical line at the approximate beginning and the red vertical line at the approximate end of
the step-down test that you would like to analyze.

If needed, right click on the Time axis, to adjust the Axis Limits.

X-Axis Limits dialog.

Once you have selected the correct time window, select the button OK in the dialog.

295

FracproPT 2007

Step-Down Test Analysis Plot dialog.


Select Pressure Steps

FracproPT will automatically adjust the Time axis to zoom into the selected time window of the step-down
test. FracproPT will then attempt to add more pairs of green and red lines, reflecting the approximate
beginning and end of the pressure steps on the basis of its analysis of the step-down data. However, this
automatic selection may have to be adjusted for better accuracy.

Modify: Set the green vertical lines at the approximate beginnings and the red vertical lines at the
approximate ends of the pressure steps.

Insert: Right click on the approximate location of the missing pair of green and red lines, and in the
confirmation dialog, select the button Yes.

Step-Down Test Analysis Plot insert confirmation dialog.

Delete: Right click on a green or red line of the pair that you want to remove, and in the confirmation
dialog, select the button Yes.

Step-Down Test Analysis Plot delete confirmation dialog.

Last Red Line Fixed: If the last red line is fixed at the right boundary of the plot, then the checkbox Use
ISIP Pick for Step-Down Test is selected in the Options tab of the Minifrac Analysis - Shift + F8 screen. In
this case, the pick for the instantaneous shut-in pressure (ISIP) is used for the step-down test.
This automatically sets the last red line to the End Pumping time from the Input tab of the Minifrac
Analysis - Shift + F8 screen.
When selecting this option, ensure that the staging is set correctly, such that the End Pumping time has a
meaningful value.

Use Step-down Data


When you have completed the selection of the step-down test and the pressure steps, select the button Use Step-Down
Data.
This will transfer the information defined by the green and red lines to the Entry Friction versus Time table in the Perf
and Near-Wellbore Friction - F8 screen.

Cramer's Perforation Erosion Model

296

FracproPT 2007

FracproPT includes a perforation erosion module based on work conducted by Dave Cramer of BJ Services in Denver.
This perforation erosion model describes the reduction of perforation friction due to smoothing of the perforation tunnel
and gradual enlargement of the perforation. These two effects are governed by a change in discharge coefficient and a
change in diameter as a function of the amount of proppant pumped through the perforation. This perforation erosion
model will change perforation friction as a function of the proppant pumped through the perforation while reconciling with
the rate stepdown test results.

Cramers Perf Erosion Model Parameters screen


This screen is available once the Use Cramers Perf Erosion Model checkbox on the PERF AND NEAR-WELLBORE
FRICTION [F8] screen is selected.
Initial Discharge Coefficient
The Initial Discharge Coefficient accounts for the smoothness of the perforation and is set to a default starting value of
0.65.
Final Discharge Coefficient
The Final Discharge Coefficient accounts for the smoothness of the perforation and is set to a default final value of 0.90.
The actual discharge coefficient changes linearly between the Initial Discharge Coefficient and the Final Discharge
Coefficient as a function of the Proppant Volume when the Final Discharge Coefficient is Reached.
Proppant Volume when the Final Discharge Coefficient is Reached
The Proppant Volume when the Final Discharge Coefficient is Reached is typically set to about 1,500 lbs of proppant
per perforation.
Proppant Volume when Perf Diameter Increase Starts
The Proppant Volume when Perf Diameter Increase Starts is typically set to about 9000 lbs of proppant per
perforation.
Perforation Diameter Change per Proppant Pumped
The Perforation Diameter Change per Proppant Pumped is typically set to about 0.0043f inches per 1000 lbs of
proppant pumped per perforation.
Perforation Friction is Unaffected for proppant Smaller than
The Perforation Friction is Unaffected for proppant Smaller than is typically set to about 0.008 in, which is the same
as the model setting for Proppant Diameter Greater Than field on the Proppant Model parameters tab on the
FRACPROPT MODEL PARAMETERS [SHIFT+F3] screen.

Technical Background
The common equation for theoretical perforation friction is
2

pperf,theo=0.2369(Q/N) 1/C D

where Q represents the flow rate in bpm, N represents the number of perforations, C represents the discharge coefficient,
D represents the perforation diameter in in., and r represents the slurry density in lbs/gal.
Cramer found from laboratory testing that both the discharge coefficient C and the perforation diameter D are changing as
a function of the amount of proppant that is pumped through the perforation. He identified two regimes for the change in
perforation diameter:

297

FracproPT 2007

D=Di for Vproppant<VD


D=Di+M(Vproppant-VD) for VproppantVD
and two regimes for changes in the discharge coefficient:
C=Ci+Vproppant(Cf-Ci)/VCfor Vproppant<VC
C=Cffor VproppantVC
where Di represents the initial perf diameter, Ci represents the initial discharge coefficient, Cf represents the final
discharge coefficient, Vproppant represents the proppant pumped through a perforation, M represents the perforation
diameter change as a functions of the amount of proppant pumped through it, and VC and VD represent the proppant
volumes associated with the regime changes for the discharge coefficient and the perforation diameter.
Cramer found the following values to best fit the laboratory test results:
Ci=0.65
Cf=0.90
VC=7,000 lbs
VD=9,000 lbs
M=0.0043 in/Mlbs/perf

Additional Information
Analyzing Flow Rate Step-Down Tests
This procedure will show you how to use one of FracproPTs tools to easily analyze a flow rate step-down test so that
you may distinguish perforation friction from near-wellbore friction. You can graphically choose points from a suitable plot
of pressure and flow data and then automatically enter those points into the Rate Step-Down Test Analyzer (a sort of
calculator) that will do the analysis for you. The results of the rate step-down test analysis can then be accounted for in
your net pressure analysis by automatically including them in the Entry Friction versus Time table. In fact, multiple rate
step-down tests from the same treatment may be analyzed and included.
When measured bottomhole pressure is available, rate step-down analysis is straightforward and accurate. For
treatments where only surface pressure is available, wellbore friction is a third source of system friction that must be
accounted for. Wellbore friction parameters are set on the Fluid Friction Properties tab of the Edit/View Interpolated
Fluid Data [shift+F5] screen.
Wellbore friction can vary significantly with relatively small changes in fluid formulation. As a result, surface pressure rate
step-down analyses will generally involve greater uncertainty. However, despite the uncertainties, rate step-down
analyses based on surface pressure can generally provide useful engineering answers if wellbore friction is relatively
small, if wellbore friction is known (or can be bounded) with reasonable accuracy, or if total entry friction is relatively large
compared to wellbore friction.
Note that the friction resulting from turbulent flow in the wellbore is functionally close to perforation friction, which is very
different than near-wellbore friction. Thus, even if there is uncertainty in the split between perforation and wellbore friction,
calculated near-wellbore friction is generally relatively unaffected.

The general rate step-down test procedure is as follows:

298

After setting the stages so that FracproPT knows what fluids and proppants are pumped in each one, run
the fracture model with a small time step (for example, 0.02 to 0.05 minutes) to capture the details of the
flow rate and the corresponding friction pressure changes.

Go to the PLOT LIST [Alt+F8] screen and configure a user-configured plot with the channels for
Measured Bottomhole Pressure and Bottomhole Slurry Rate (both of these are calculated FracproPT
model channels).

Note that the Measured Bottomhole Pressure channel will be calculated based on surface pressure,
unless actual measured bottomhole pressure is available as an input to the model (as specified on the
CHANNEL INPUTS FOR MODEL [SHIFT+F6] screen). The Bottomhole Slurry Rate channel will be
equal to surface injection rate except for compressible fluids.

Activate cursor editing for the plot (for example, by selecting the Cursor Editing toolbar button) and put
the cursor on the Measured Bottomhole Pressure channel.

Move the cursor to a point just before the first rate cut begins and mark that point in time by pressing
[Alt+B] or by selecting Begin from the controls at the bottom of the plot. This will result in the appearance
of a vertical line to indicate the mark, and the values for flow rate and observed net pressure at that point
will be temporarily displayed in the System Messages area at the bottom left corner of the screen. Use the
mark and the temporary display to confirm that you have marked a position with the correct flow rate
because there is sometimes a small time mismatch between the flow rate and pressure data.

FracproPT 2007

Move the cursor to the point where pressure has leveled off in response to the first drop in rate and mark
that point in time by pressing [Alt+E] or by selecting End from the controls at the bottom of the plot.

Note:
In a properly executed rate step-down test (that is, with succeeding drop in rate executed as soon as the pressure
stabilizes) this point will be just before the next drop in rate.
This will result in the appearance of a second vertical line to indicate the mark, and the values for flow rate and
observed net pressure at that point will again be temporarily displayed in the System Messages area at the bottom
left corner of the screen. Use the mark and the temporary display to confirm that you have marked a position with the
correct flow rate because there is sometimes a small time mismatch between the flow rate and pressure data.

Select Step Rate to automatically calculate the changes in friction and flow rate between the marked
Begin and End times, which also automatically enters this data in the Rate Step-Down Test Analyzer
data table. Do not select Calculate NWB Friction, since this function is used to account for near-wellbore
friction only.

Note:
When selecting Step Rate for the first time during the analysis of any rate step-down test, you will be asked whether
or not you wish to delete all the current entries in the Rate Step-Down Test Analyzer table. If you are beginning
analysis of a new rate step-down test, select Yes. If you are attempting to change data in a previous test or to enter
new data in a previous test, you should select No.

Move the cursor to a point just before the second rate cut and mark that point by again pressing [Alt+B] or
selecting Begin. Note that for a properly executed rate step-down test, the cursor does not even have to
be moved. In other words, the Begin mark will be at the same location as the End mark from the previous
step down.

Position the cursor to a point just after the second rate cut ends (and pressure has stabilized) and mark
that point by again pressing [Alt+E] or selecting End.

Again select Step Rate to automatically calculate the changes in friction and flow rate for the second step
and enter that data into the Rate Step-Down Test Analyzer.

Continue this procedure, repeating 7 through 9, for all remaining steps of the rate step-down test.

Note:
The last step of the rate step-down test must have a final flow rate of zero (or, at least, less than 1 bpm).

The results of the analysis can now be viewed numerically in the Rate Step-Down Test Analyzer data
table. The Step-Down Friction Analysis results table will show the various curve-fit parameters as well as
the estimated perforation and near-wellbore friction at the maximum (that is, at the beginning of the test)
flow rate.

If you wish to use the analysis results (that is, in the calculation of Observed Net Pressure), select the
Use Results in Entry Friction versus Time table function. Doing so will automatically make an entry in
that table, which is the data actually used by the simulator to account for near-wellbore friction. This entry
will show a Time equal to the approximate center of the rate step-down test.

To assist with understanding rate step-down analyses, the results may be viewed graphically. To do this,
simply make a plot of the three friction channels (Observed Friction, which is calculated based on the
overall power-law , Estimated NWB Friction, and Estimated Perf Friction) versus flow rate. The plot
shows the how the relative magnitudes of the friction components vary with injection rate.

Continue this procedure for each rate step-down test that you wish to analyze and account for.

Analyzing Abrupt Flow Rate Changes


Many premature treatment screen-outs are the result of high near-wellbore friction due to tortuosity, but they are often
erroneously assumed to be due to insufficient pad volume or fracture width (that is, width in the main body of the fracture).
Determining the level and time dependence of near-wellbore friction using flow-rate changes, which include conducting
instantaneous shut-in pressure (ISIP) measurements, not only helps you determine an accurate Observed Net Pressure,
it also provides a valuable diagnostic for determining near-wellbore screen-out risk and the appropriate proppant
schedule.
This procedure will show you how to use one of FracproPTs tools to easily analyze an abrupt change in flow rate,
which may be a planned occurrence or it may result from some unforeseen event (for example, loss of a pump during the
treatment). You can graphically choose data from a suitable plot of pressure and flow data and then automatically enter
those data into the Entry Friction versus Time table so that they are properly accounted for in your net pressure
analysis. Multiple flow rate changes may be analyzed and included.
For this analysis, changes in fracture entry friction are assumed to be due only to near-wellbore friction. Perforation friction
(determined from the parameters you enter on the wellbore configuration [F7] screen) is assumed to be correct and it is

299

FracproPT 2007

not changed. Thus, this type of analysis is mainly used for smoothing Observed Net Pressure behavior at rate changes.
A true rate step-down test is required to separate fracture entry friction into perf and near-wellbore friction components.
Analyses of abrupt flow rate changes are most accurate when bottomhole pressure is directly measured. However, the
technique can also provide accurate results using surface pressure if wellbore friction is relatively small, if wellbore
friction is known (or can be bounded) with reasonable accuracy, or if total entry friction is relatively large compared to
wellbore friction.

After setting the stages so that FracproPT knows what fluids and proppants are pumped in each one, run
the fracture model with a small time step (for example, 0.02 to 0.05 minutes) to capture the details of the
flow rate and the corresponding friction pressure changes.

Go to the PLOT LIST [Alt+F8] screen and configure a user-configurable plot such that Observed Net
Pressure and the real-data flow rate channel being input to the fracture model (that is, the channel
specified on the CHANNEL INPUTS FOR MODEL [SHIFT+F6] screen) are displayed.

Activate cursor editing for the plot (for example, by selecting the Cursor Editing toolbar button) and put
the cursor on the Observed Net Pressure channel.

Move the cursor to a point just before the flow rate change begins (that is, just before the upward or
downward pressure spike) and mark that point in time by pressing [Alt+B] or selecting Begin from the
controls at the bottom of the plot. This will result in the appearance of a vertical line to indicate the mark.
The values for flow rate and observed net pressure at that point will be temporarily displayed in the System
Messages area at the bottom left corner of the screen. Use the mark and the temporary display to confirm
that you have marked a position with the correct flow rate because there is sometimes a small time
mismatch between the flow rate and observed net pressure data.

Move the cursor to a point just after the flow rate change ends (that is, just after the upward or downward
pressure spike) and mark that point in time by pressing [Alt+E] or selecting End from the controls at the
bottom of the plot. This will result in the appearance of a second vertical line to indicate the mark. Again,
the values for flow rate and observed net pressure at that point will be temporarily displayed in the System
Messages area at the bottom left corner of the screen. Use the mark and the temporary display to confirm
that you have marked a position with the correct flow rate because there is sometimes a small time
mismatch between the flow rate and observed net pressure data.

Select Calculate NWB Friction to automatically calculate the changes in near-wellbore friction and flow
rate between the marked Begin and End times, which also automatically enters the relevant data into the
Entry Friction versus Time table with a Time coinciding with the approximate center (in time) of the flow
rate change. Do not select Step Rate since this function is used specifically for analyzing rate step-down
tests.

Note:
When selecting Calculate NWB Friction for the first time during the analysis of an abrupt flow rate change, you will be
asked whether or not you wish to delete all the current entries in the Entry Friction versus Time table. Selecting Yes
will delete all the data, including entries that may have resulted from Rate Step-Down Test analyses. If you have
already analyzed other flow rate changes or rate step-down tests whose data you do not wish to delete, you should
select No.

Continue this procedure for each abrupt flow rate change that you wish to analyze and account for.

Note:
A rule of thumb is to only use flow rate changes that are equal to 20% (or more) of the total flow rate.

Distinguishing Perforation Friction from Near-Wellbore Friction


Near-wellbore friction varies (roughly) with the square root of flow rate, while perforation friction varies with flow rate
squared. The only way to distinguish near-wellbore friction from perforation friction is by determining the flow-rate
dependence of the measured friction pressure from a Rate Step-Down Test. To facilitate rapid and efficient rate stepdown analysis, FracproPT contains a special graphical interface for extracting rate step-down data from the treatment
data, and an automatic rate step-down analyzer tool. Since perforation and near-wellbore friction generally vary over the
course of a diagnostic injection and fracture treatment sequence, we generally recommend that every injection be ended
with a rate step-down.
Flow-rate dependence of the friction pressure can be determined by stepping-down the flow rate rather than simply
shutting off all pumps for an ISIP (for example, after diagnostic injections, during the pad, and at the end of a fracture
treatment). It is important to get data at a minimum of 3 different injection rates for a step-down test (i.e. you should step
the rate down to zero with at least two intermediate steps in between the full injection rate and the ISIP).
The exact value of flow rate achieved during each step down is not important, but it is critical to change between each rate
as quickly as possible and to hold each rate as steady as possible for a short time. This is often most easily accomplished
by having the service company simply shut down individual pumps for each step. Total rate step-down test time should be
small compared to total injection time, so that net pressure does not change significantly during the rate step-down.
Note that this may not be possible in high permeability rocks with a small injection volume of high leakoff fluid, or in cases

300

FracproPT 2007

of rapid net pressure change due to proppant effects. Unless the changing net pressure in these cases can be accounted
for, the rate step-down test results will be in error. To improve the ability to separate perf and near-wellbore friction, it can
also be helpful to do smaller magnitude rate changes at the high rate (that is, the first step down) and at the lowest rate
(that is, the final step down, or shut-in).
Example (with three steps to ISIP):
Suppose that you are pumping at 30 bpm.

After noting (for example, marking in cursor editing) the pressure at 30 bpm, quickly drop the rate to
25 bpm and hold it there long enough to allow the friction and water-hammer dynamics to dampen
(for example, typically 10 to 20 seconds)

After recording the pressure at 25 bpm, quickly drop the rate to 15 bpm and again hold it there until
the dynamics have dissipated

After recording the pressure at 15 bpm, repeat the same process for 5 bpm

Finally, shut down the injection completely and record the ISIP

From these data, a table or plot of the change in friction versus flow rate (using the value for flow rate before the actual
flow-rate change) can be constructed and the flow-rate dependence of the measured friction can be determined.
FracproPTs Rate Step-Down Test Analyzer allows you to graphically enter the stepdown table data and plot the data
for analysis.

Removing Friction Pressure from Measured Data


When trying to match the theoretical Net Pressure to the observed data (termed Observed Net Pressure) during
pumping, it is essential that you first remove all friction pressure from the measured (surface or bottomhole) pressure
data.
Errors in friction modeling will generally result in step changes in Observed Net Pressure at abrupt injection rate changes.
If perforation and near-wellbore friction are modeled correctly (that is, removed), Observed Net Pressure will be smooth
over periods of abrupt flow rate changes. The process for removing all such friction is discussed here.
To remove all friction, we make use of the fact that net fracturing pressure in a sufficiently large hydraulic
fracture does not change abruptly, due to energy storage considerations. By definition, net fracturing pressure is
gauge or measured pressure minus friction pressure, plus hydrostatic pressure if you are using surface pressure, minus
closure stress. Therefore, any abrupt changes in measured pressure data that occur with abrupt flow-rate changes are
likely due to changing friction pressure, not changes in net fracturing pressure.
The abrupt drop in surface treating pressure observed at an ISIP is due to the loss of the combination of perforation, nearwellbore, and wellbore friction. The abrupt change in downhole (or "dead-string") pressure that is observed at an ISIP
represents the sum of perforation and near-wellbore friction. These latter two quantities, although fundamentally different,
are often lumped together and referred to as fracture entry friction.
Perforation friction is modeled by a stagnation pressure (kinetic energy) calculation where the pressure drop through the
perforations varies with the square of flow velocity (where flow velocity is the total flow rate divided by total cross-sectional
area of the perforations). As such, if flow rate is doubled, perforation friction increases by a factor of four.
Near-wellbore friction, on the other hand, varies roughly with the square root of flow rate. Near-wellbore friction results
from flow through a tortuous, segmented region connecting the wellbore and the main body of the fracture(s). If this region
maintains a constant geometry, then near-wellbore friction increases linearly with flow rate. However, the near-wellbore
region generally opens wider as flow rate increases and, hence, yields a roughly square-root dependence on flow rate. As
such, if flow rate is doubled, near-wellbore friction increases by a factor of about 1.4.
Note:
Near-wellbore friction often varies significantly over the course of a fracture treatment. If near-wellbore friction is large
initially (for example, several hundred to several thousand psi), the near-wellbore tortuosity and fracture segmentation
often decreases with time as more fluid (or proppant) is pumped, resulting in a better wellbore-to-fracture connection.
Also, the level of tortuosity can sometimes be reduced with the use of proppant slugs, as described in SPE 25892.
There are two relatively simple diagnostic techniques that can be used to account for fracture entry friction. These
techniques include rate stepdown tests which allows fracture entry friction to be split into near-wellbore friction (tortuosity)
and perforation friction components, and evaluation of flow rate changes to account for errors in friction modeling using
near-wellbore friction. FracproPT includes utilities to automate these analyses.

Recognizing Errors in Friction Modeling


Recall that Observed Net Pressure is calculated by adding hydrostatic pressure and subtracting out all sources of friction
(between the pressure measurement point and frac depth), then subtracting fracture closure pressure.
Sudden changes or spikes in Observed Net Pressure when injection rate changes abruptly indicate that system friction
is not being modeled correctly. The three frictional components modeled by FracproPT are:

301

FracproPT 2007

Wellbore friction
Perforation friction
Near-wellbore friction

Note:
The wellbore friction term is not used if bottomhole pressure is measured and used as an input to FracproPT.
Predicting Too Much Friction
Indications that the simulator is predicting too much friction (for example, Figure 1) will manifest themselves as:

Observed Net Pressure spikes upward with sudden decreases in flow rate, or

Observed Net Pressure spikes downward for sudden increases in flow rate.

If you are running the simulator from measured surface pressure, then wellbore friction may be too high. Fluid friction
properties can be modified on the Fluid Friction Properties tab of the EDIT/VIEW INTERPOLATED FLUID DATA
[SHIFT+F5] screen, and the effects of proppant on wellbore friction can be modified by selecting the Proppant Effects on
Wellbore Friction function on the Fluid and proppant selection [F5] screen. Alternatively, perf friction or near-wellbore
friction may have dropped from initial assumptions or from values determined from a previous rate step-down test.

Figure 1: Example where too much friction is being calculated.

Predicting Too Little Friction


Indications that the simulator is predicting too little friction (for example, Figure 2) will manifest themselves as:

Observed Net Pressure spikes downward for sudden decreases in flow rate, or

Observed Net Pressure spikes upward for sudden increases in flow rate.

If you are running the simulator from measured surface pressure, then wellbore friction may be too low. Fluid friction
properties can be modified on the Fluid Friction Properties tab of the EDIT/VIEW INTERPOLATED FLUID DATA
screen, and the effects of proppant on wellbore friction can be modified by selecting the Proppant Effects on Wellbore
Friction function on the Fluid and proppant selection screen. Otherwise, perf friction or near-wellbore friction may have
increased from initial assumptions or from values determined from a previous rate stepdown test.

302

FracproPT 2007

Figure 2: Example where not enough friction is being calculated.

Predicting the Correct Friction


Figure 3 shows a plot where friction is calculated correctly so that Observed Net Pressure does not spike up or down
when flow rate is suddenly changed.

Figure 3: Example the correct amount of friction is being calculated.

303

FracproPT 2007

What is Entry Friction?


Entry friction is composed of perforation friction and near-wellbore friction.
Perf friction is an important fracture design parameter that is affected by both perforation design and the effectiveness by
which the perfs are "broken down." Perforation design variables include perf diameter, penetration distance, phasing, and
spacing (shot density). With a limited-entry strategy, it may be critical to maintain a relatively high perf friction over the
course of a treatment to effectively distribute the injected fluids and proppants across the perf interval. However, if
breakdown effectiveness is poor, perforation friction may be excessive. In other cases, it may be desirable to minimize
perforation friction because it plays no useful role.
Near-wellbore friction is also known as near-wellbore fracture tortuosity, and is related to fracture initiation complexity.
Most unplanned screen-outs are caused by proppant bridging in the near-wellbore region. Sources of near-wellbore
fracture complexity include:

Multiple fracture initiation at pre-existing micro cracks (natural, drilling-induced, or perforationinduced), and

Sharp transitions from the fracture initiation plane to the preferred orientation.

Either mechanism may result in inadequate near-wellbore fracture width, which is likely to lead to proppant bridging.
Perforation friction can be analytically separated from near-wellbore friction because of their different functional
dependence on injection rate. As orifice flow, perforation friction varies with the square of the injection rate. In contrast,
near-wellbore friction varies approximately with the square root of injection rate. This fact is the basis of flow rate stepdown tests.

Entry Friction May Mask True Net Pressure


Many premature treatment screen-outs result from high near-wellbore friction due to tortuosity. Quite often, these
treatment screen-outs are erroneously assumed to be due to insufficient pad volume or fracture width (that is, width in the
main body of the fracture).
Determining the level and time dependence of near-wellbore friction using flow rate changes, which include ISIP
measurements, and rate step-down tests not only allows accurate determination of Observed Net Pressure, but it also
provides a valuable diagnostic for determining near-wellbore screen-out risk and the appropriate proppant schedule.
Minifrac Analysis - Shift + F8

Minifrac Analysis Input [Shift+F8]


The Fracture Closure Stress Analysis tool simplifies and partially automates the process of estimating fracture closure
stress from a selection of well-known pressure analysis plots. You can use this tool in the office with database data or in
the field with real-time data.
This Input tab enables you to quickly select or define up to 3 different injection-decline periods for analysis, either by
using the (optional) Stage Types that you select on the TREATMENT SCHEDULE [F6] screen, or by manually entering
the start and stop times of stages here. Once you have selected the injection-decline period(s), you simply select the
Create Plots function. The plots are viewed by switching to the
Closure Stress and Reservoir Pressure tabs of this
screen and then double clicking on the desire Plot Name. Automation features available on the plots help you to easily
complete the analyses. The Options tab gives you the capability to select how the various plots are configured and how
the data are analyzed.
Note:
This tool always uses the FracproPT channel called Measd Btm Press to determine closure stress. For this reason,
you must always run the model before doing this analysis. If you are running the model from measured surface
pressure (as specified on the Channel Inputs for Model [Shft+F6] screen), wellbore friction and hydrostatic
pressures will be used to calculate Measd Btm Pressure.

Minifrac Analysis Procedure Input Tab

304

Run the fracture model with a relatively small time step (for example, 0.017 to 0.1 minutes). At this point, it
does not yet matter if the model run predicts a good net pressure match.

Define up to three injection-decline sequences by entering the 3 times that define each one. This can be
done manually, or it can also be done automatically with the Auto Time checkbox, which uses the
treatment schedule Stage Types.

Select the Create Plots function for each defined injection-decline sequence to automatically set up the
analysis plots.

Press View Summary Plot to determine if all start and end times are appropriately set. If the Start and
End times are not correct, drag the vertical lines to the correct position, and all Start and End times will be
updated.

FracproPT 2007

Switch to the Closure Stress and the Reservoir Pressure tab to view the plots and conduct the closure
stress analysis and reservoir pressure analysis.
Additional and more detailed information on this procedure can be found below and on the Help screen for the
Closure
Stress tab.

The Input tab of the Minifrac Analysis screen.

Minifrac Analysis Input Data


Three lines of information are shown here, one for each of the three possible injection-decline sequences that can be
analyzed (Injection #1, Injection #2, and Injection #3).
Pumping
If the Auto option is checked, you select the pumping stage of the injection-decline sequence that you would like to
analyze in this drop-down list. Once the selection is made, the Decline, Start Pumping, End Pumping, and End Decline
fields will be filled in automatically.
If the Auto option is not checked so that you plan to enter Start Pumping, End Pumping, and End Decline times
manually, you are not required to make a selection in this field.
Decline
This field is not editable and will display "Shut-in" if the stage selected in the Pumping field is in fact followed by a shut-in
period.
Auto Time
If you check this option, the program picks the time entries for Start Pumping, End Pumping, and End Decline based on
the stage you select in the Pumping field. Obviously, you must have set up and correctly identified the stages in the
TREATMENT SCHEDULE [F6] screen, Actual Treatment Schedule tab (via your Stage Type selection) before you can
correctly use this feature.
When analyzing multiple injection-decline sequences, if the stage type selection in the Pumping field is the same for
Injection #2 or Injection #3 (for example when two subsequent water injections are pumped), then the Start Pumping,
End Pumping, and End Decline times of the next stage with this same name will be selected.
If you do not check this option, you must enter the Start Pumping, End Pumping, and End Decline times manually.
Start Pumping
This is the time when pumping starts for the injection-decline sequence you wish to analyze. If you select the Auto
function and make a Pumping selection (as explained above), a time is automatically entered in this field. You may also
enter a time manually (for example, after viewing a plot of measured data and visually picking the time).

305

FracproPT 2007

End Pumping
This is the time when pumping end for the injection-decline sequence you wish to analyze. If you select the Auto function
and make a Pumping selection (as explained above), a time is automatically entered in this field. You may also enter a
time manually (for example, after viewing a plot of measured data and visually picking the time).
End Decline
This is the time when the pressure decline ends for the injection-decline sequence you wish to analyze. If you select the
Auto function and make a Pumping selection (as explained above), a time is automatically entered in this field. You may
also enter a time manually (for example, after viewing a plot of measured data and visually picking the time).
Create Plots
Once the correct times for the injection-decline sequences are selected (either automatically or manually) and the fracture
model has run past the End Decline time, select this function to automatically configure all the standard analysis plots.
The plots are selected for viewing and analysis from the
Results tab of this screen.
Reset Plot Time Axes
This function is useful when running in the field from real-time data. It is used to update the analysis plots to include a
larger decline interval by automatically changing the time scale while leaving the y-axis scales as they are. In other words,
this function increases the End Decline time for last injection-decline sequence being analyzed.
View Summary Plot
This plot provides an overview of the entire fluid injection and pressure decline period.
Additional Information: Injection Summary Plot

Injection Summary Plot


This plot provides an overview of the entire fluid injection and pressure decline period. The plot Legend Box (shown
below) provides useful information about the injection-decline sequence. Corresponding to the values shown in the
Legend Box, as well as the Start Pumping, End Pumping, and End Decline fields on the Input Tab of the MINIFRAC
Analysis [Shift+F8] screen, the first vertical line indicates the start of pumping, the second vertical line indicates the
conclusion of pumping, and the third vertical line indicates the end of the pressure decline period.
If the vertical lines are not in the correct positions, move the mouse cursor to the vertical line in question and drag the line
to the correct position by holding down the left mouse button.

306

FracproPT 2007

Minifrac Analysis Closure Stress [Shift+F8]


The Fracture Closure Stress Analysis tool simplifies and partially automates the process of estimating fracture closure
stress and other pertinent treatment variables from a selection of well-known pressure analysis plots. You can use this
tool in the office with database data or in the field with real-time data. This Closure Stress tab is where you select the plots
for viewing and analyses. Results from the analyses are also tabulated here and various options for using the results are
available.

Minifrac Analysis Procedure


1) The plots must first be set up or defined on the
Input tab of this screen (detailed instructions are provided there).
2) Typically, you would first view the ISIP Plot since an Instantaneous Shut-In Pressure (ISIP) is necessary in order to
calculate many of the parameters shown in the Closure Stress Table.
3) To view any plot for a particular injection-decline sequence, simply double-click on the corresponding Plot Name. Most
of the plots are displayed with a legend box that provides relevant information about the injection or analysis.
4) Detailed instructions on how to perform the analyses for each plot may be displayed while the plot is visible by pressing
[F1] or selecting HelpContext menu item.
5) Once you complete the analyses on the plots, return to this screen to view and compare the closure stress estimates
(and other parameters) that were automatically transferred here from all the different plot analyses. Those results can be
automatically combined and averaged, or you can enter you own interpretation of BH Closure Stress. Finally, the pay
zone closure stress used by the fracture model (as shown on the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS [F9] screen) can then be
automatically updated by selecting the Update Closure Stress in Pay Zone Only function or the Shift Closure Stress in
All Zones function.

307

FracproPT 2007

The Closure Stress tab of the Minifrac Analysis screen.

Minifrac Analysis Results Table


Three tables of information are shown here, one for each of the three possible injection-decline sequences that can be
analyzed (Injection #1, Injection #2, and Injection #3). These injection-decline sequences are specified on the
Inputs tab of this screen.
Plot Name
Double click on the corresponding Plot Name field to display any plot. The plots can be viewed in any order, but you
should analyze the ISIP Plot first before proceeding with the analyses of the remaining plots.
All the plots available are shown below (click on the buttons to view Help for the plots):

ISIP Plot

SQRT Plot

G-Function Plot

Log-Log Plot

Rate-Normalized Plot

BH ISIP
This is the ISIP (instantaneous shut-in pressure) in terms of bottomhole pressure. This number may be entered
automatically using ISIP diagnostic plot, or you may enter it manually.
ISIP Gradient
The value for BH ISIP is divided by Depth to Middle of Perfs (displayed near the bottom of this screen) to calculate this
number.
Surf ISIP
This is the ISIP (instantaneous shut-in pressure) in terms of surface pressure.
BH Closure
This is the closure stress in the pay zone. This number may be entered automatically using several of the diagnostic plots
or you may enter it manually.
Closure Gradient

308

FracproPT 2007

The value for BH Closure is divided by Depth to Middle of Perfs (displayed near the bottom of this screen) to calculate
this number.
Surf Closure
This is equivalent surface pressure for which fracture closure occurs in the pay zone. It is calculated using the hydrostatic
head at the end of the injection.
Closure Time
Based on your selection/calculation of BH ISIP, the time to closure from the End of Pumping is displayed here.
Dimensionless Closure Time
This is the ratio of the difference between End of Pumping time and Closure Time to the difference between Start of
Pumping time and End of Pumping time. In other words, the ratio of the time-to-close to the total-pump-time.
Implied Slurry Efficiency
Based on you choice for BH Closure and BH ISIP, this value is calculated to show the slurry efficiency implied by those
choices. The implied efficiency indicates what the efficiency would be at the end of the job, if fracture closure occurred at
that moment. The following equation provides the implied slurry efficiency (ISE):

Estimated Net Pressure


This number is automatically calculated by subtracting BH Closure from BH ISIP.

CLOSURE STRESS SUMMARY


Use Average of Closure Stress Estimates
If you select this option, all non-zero closure stress entries in the tables are averaged and the result is displayed in the
Estimated BH Closure Stress field.
Estimated BH Closure Stress
If the Use Average of Closure Stress Estimates option is checked, this field displays the average of all non-zero closure
stress entries in the tables. Otherwise, you can enter your own estimate.
Estimated Closure Stress Gradient
The Estimated BH Closure Stress is divided by the Depth to Middle of Perfs to calculate this number.
Depth to Middle of Perfs
This display-only number is read directly from the Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen.
Current Pay Zone Closure Stress
This display-only number is read directly from the Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen. This number will be updated if you
select the Update Pay Zone Closure Stress function, as will same number on the Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen,
which is actually used by the fracture model,
Update Closure Stress in Pay Zone Only
Select this function update the pay zone stress entry on the Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen with the value shown in
the Estimated BH Closure Stress field on this screen. Generally, this function would be used if you have confidence in
your current stress inputs for the zones above and below the pay zone.
Shift Closure Stress in All Zones
Select this function to shift the stress in all zones by the difference between the current pay zone closure stress (as shown
on the Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen) and the Estimated BH Closure Stress field on this screen. Generally, this
function would be used to keep the current stress contrast between the pay and surrounding zones the same (for
example, when you wish to honor the contrast obtained from a dipole sonic log).

Minifrac Analysis - Reservoir Pressure [Shift+F8]

309

FracproPT 2007

The Reservoir Pressure tab of the Minifrac Analysis screen.


Plot Name
Double click on the corresponding Plot Name field to display any plot. All the plots available are shown below (click on the
buttons to view Help for the plots):

Flow Identification Plot

Pseudo-Linear Flow Plot

Pseudo-Radial Flow Plot

Horner Plot

see also Step-Rate Plot (not yet implemented)

Reservoir Pressure
This is the Pore Pressure estimate in the reservoir, obtained from the intersection of the user-defined tangent line and the
vertical line corresponding to a Horner time of 1.
Reservoir Pressure Gradient
The value for Reservoir Pressure is divided by Depth to Middle of Perfs (displayed near the bottom of this screen) to
calculate this number.

PORE PRESSURE SUMMARY


Use Average of Pore Pressure Estimates
If you select this option, all non-zero reservoir pressure entries in the tables are averaged and the result is displayed in the
Estimated BH Pore Pressure field.
Estimated BH Pore Pressure
If the Use Average of Pore Pressure Estimates option is checked, this field displays the average of all non-zero closure
stress entries in the tables. Otherwise, you can enter your own estimate.
Estimated Pore Pressure Gradient
The Estimated BH Pore Pressure is divided by the Depth to Middle of Perfs to calculate this number.
Depth to Middle of Perfs
This display-only number is read directly from the Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen.

310

FracproPT 2007

Current Pay Zone Pore Pressure


This display-only number is read directly from the Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen. This number will be updated if you
select the Update Pay Zone Pore Pressure function, as will same number on the Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen,
which is actually used by the fracture model,
Update Pore Pressure in Pay Zone Only
Select this function update the pay zone pore pressure entry on the Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen with the value
shown in the Estimated BH Pore Pressure field on this screen.
Shift Pore Pressure in All Zones
This function is only available when you have selected a Multi-Layer Reservoir Type on the RESERVOIR PARAMETERS
[F9] screen Additional Properties tab. You can shift the pore pressure in all layers by the difference between the Current
Pay Zone Pore Pressure and the Estimated BH Pore Pressure.

Step-Rate Plot
This plot is not yet implemented. When implemented, this plot can provide an upper-bound estimate for fracture closure
stress. The data is plotted with the log of Injection Rate on the x-axis and the log of difference between BH Pressure and
Reservoir Pressure (Delta Pressure) on the y-axis.
When there is radial flow from the wellbore into the formation, Delta Pressure is a linear function of Injection Rate and
plots with a unit slope on a log-log scale. When pumping into an open fracture, the Delta Pressure is a function of the
Injection Rate to the power and plots with -slope on a log-log scale. An upper estimate of fracture closure is obtained
by selecting the intersection point of these two lines.

Minifrac Analysis - Reservoir Permeability [Shift+F8]

The Reservoir Permeability tab of the Minifrac Analysis screen.


Analysis of
This field displays Injection that is used for this analysis. Up to three different injections can be analyzed. These only
appear in the combo box if fracture closure stress analysis has been conducted first.
Manual Permeability Analysis
If you have checked Manual Permeability Analysis, all these fields under Input Data for Permeability Analysis will
become editable. If this box is not checked, all the fields will be automatically populated based on other screens in
FracproPT.

311

FracproPT 2007

Matching Parameters
Pay Zone Permeability
This field displays the estimated formation permeability using the Mayerhofer method.
Fracture Half-Length
This field displays the estimated fracture half-length estimated from matching the pressure decline behavior.
Fracture Face Resistance
This field displays the estimated fracture face resistance estimated from matching the pressure decline behavior.

ITERATION SETTINGS
Maximum # of Iterations
Enter the maximum number of auto match iterations that you would like the program to execute. A good number to start
with is 10 iterations. If no match can be obtained, an error message will display some suggestions about what you might
change in order to get a good match.
Current Iteration
The number of the current iteration is displayed in this field.
Maximum Error
Enter the maximum error in the auto match process that you will tolerate in this field. A small number may require much
iteration or may not be achievable. A good number to start with is 25 percent, but this number may be reduced once you
get a preliminary match. If no match can be obtained, an error message will display some suggestions about what you
might change in order to get a good match.
Current Error
The error for the current iteration is displayed in this field.
Duration of Water Hammer
A waterhammer can seriously decrease the quality of a match and needs to be excluded from the analysis.

Input Data For Permeability Analysis


If you have checked Manual Permeability Analysis, all these fields will be editable. If this box is not checked, all the
fields will be automatically populated based on other screens in FracproPT.

PERFORM ANALYSIS
Run Analysis for Current Matching Parameters
Will run the analysis and build a plot based on the current parameters listed in the Matching Parameters and Input Data
for Permeability Analysis.
Iterate on Matching Parameters to Find Best Match
Will run iteration until a best match is found that fits the iteration settings.
Display Plot
Shows automatically set log-log plot with match of Modeled Delta Pressure and Measured Delta Pressure (Perm Analysis
Plot).
Reset Plot
This button is to be used in case you go back to the closure stress analysis and change your mind about the ISIP, then
this forces the recalculation and re-display of the delta-p curves.
Stop
Stops iteration.

FORMATION PERMEABILITY SUMMARY


Estimated Formation Permeability
This field displays the estimated formation permeability using the Mayerhofer method.
Current Pay Zone Permeability
This display-only number is read directly from the Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen. This number will be updated if you
select the Update Pay Zone Permeability function, as will same number on the Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen,
which is actually used by the fracture model,

312

FracproPT 2007

Update Permeability in Pay Zones


Select this function update the pay zone Permeability entry on the Reservoir Parameters [F9] screen with the value
shown in the Estimated Formation Permeability field on this screen.

Background Information
1

In 1994, Pinnacles Dr. Mike Mayerhofer introduced a method to estimate reservoir permeability and reservoir pressure
2
using pressure decline data from diagnostic injection tests. Mikes work was modified by Valko and Economides and
3
Halliburtons David Craig and is commonly known as the "Modified Mayerhofer Method" - which separates the
calculations of reservoir permeability and reservoir pressure (simplifying the analysis). The strength of these techniques is
the ability to determine reservoir permeability and reservoir pressure from fracture pressure decline data before the
fracture closes, which is essential in low permeability reservoirs where the application of "after closure" analysis methods
is not practical. In recent years, operators and service companies have started to apply this technique to improve fracture
treatment designs and aid in infill drilling programs. This technology is especially useful in multi-zone completions to
identify variations in reservoir permeability modifying treatment designs accordingly, to determine which zones are
fracturing targets eliminating uneconomic zones, and for gathering reservoir pressure data to optimize well spacing &
placement.
The basis of the Mayerhofer method of estimating reservoir permeability is rooted in pressure transient analysis,
integrating pressure transient solutions for an infinite conductivity vertical fracture with a varying filter cake skin effect to
describe the filtration phenomena of leakoff during a diagnostic injection test. The Mayerhofer approach couples
unsteady-state linear flow from a fracture with a varying skin effect at the fracture face and superposes the leakoff history
on the pressure decline. This guarantees a correct rate-convolution to account for pressure dependent leakoff in the
subsequent permeability analysis.

Analysis Methodology
The first step in the analysis is to determine fracture closure pressure, typically using a combination of G-function and
Log-Log analyses. Figure 1 illustrates a typical G-function closure analysis.

Figure 1 - G-function analysis for fracture closure


Using the reservoir pressure to constrain the analysis, permeability can be determined by history matching the pressure
decline data, before fracture closure, using the Mayerhofer solutions. Figure 2 illustrates a typical permeability analysis
using the Mayerhofer Method.

313

FracproPT 2007

Figure 2 - Permeability using the Mayerhofer Method


These simple, but powerful, pressure decline analysis tools can provide essential data to optimize fracture treatments and
field development, at little additional cost, while also providing more pieces-to-the-puzzle of understanding fracture
growth.
1.

Mayerhofer, M.J., et al: "Pressure-Transient Analysis of Fracture Calibration Tests", JPT (March 1995)
229-34.

2.

Valko, P.P., and Economides, M.J.: "Fluid Leakoff Delineation in High-Permeability Fracturing", SPE
Production & Facilities (May 1999) 117-30.

3.

Craig, D.P., and Brown, T.D.: "Estimating Pore Pressure and Permeability in Massively Stacked Lenticular
Reservoirs Using Diagnostic Fracture-Injection Tests," SPE 56600 presented at 1999 ATC in Houston.
Additional Information: Procedures for Diagnostic Fracture Injection Tests

Additional Information: Procedures for Diagnostic Fracture Injection Tests


What is it?
Diagnostic fracture injection tests are a simple, cost-effective alternative method for estimating reservoir pressure and
permeability for low permeability reservoirs that would otherwise not flow prior to a hydraulic fracture treatment. In
addition, the test also provides an estimate of fracture closure pressure (minimum rock stress). Both reservoir properties
and closure pressure are critical inputs for proper fracture design and optimization, reservoir characterization and infill
drilling strategies. The basic procedure is to create a small hydraulic fracture by pumping a small volume (20 to 80 bbls) of
KCl-water at 5 to 7 bbls/min and to monitor the pressure falloff for at least 12 hours.

How are Test Performed and Data Collected?

314

1.

Perforate the well as usual. The hole must be loaded with 2% KCl-water (or substitute) and surfactants to
prevent clay swelling and capillary retention. The test should be performed several days prior to the
hydraulic fracture treatment to allow for changes to the actual fracture design (if data indicates that
changes are necessary).

2.

Install high-resolution surface electronic memory gauges on wellhead. The gauges should have at least 1psi resolution and data should be recorded in 1 to 2 second intervals. Start recording before pumping
starts and end recording after the falloff is complete. It must be possible to isolate the electronic gauges
from the injection pump so that they are not affected by the rig down of the pump and will record surface
pressures continuously without interruption.

FracproPT 2007

3.

The test can be performed with one high-pressure pump (e.g. acid pump truck or frac pump).

4.

The pump must also have the capability of recording injection rate and pressures versus time (preferably
1-second) since its injection rate data will later be merged with high-resolution surface gauge data.

5.

The injection rate should be high enough to breakdown the perforations and create a small fracture.
Typical rates are about 5 to 7 bbls/min. A basic pumping procedure is to first breakdown the formation,
followed by a constant rate injection (5 to 7 bbls/min). The total volume should be about 20 bbls to 80 bbls
depending on zone thickness, using 2% KCl-water and surfactants.

6.

Shut-down the pump, and record pressure data with the pumping equipment for about 30 minutes. Then
rig down the pumping equipment without disturbing the isolated electronic gauges, which are continuously
recording the pressure falloff data. Ensure that the well stays shut-in without any disturbances for the
entire falloff period.

7.

After falloff is complete, bleed off tubing pressure and download pressure data from the gauges. If surface
pressure falls to zero in less than the planned falloff time the test can be terminated earlier.

8.

Provide Ascii files of pressure and rate data versus time (Two files: one is from pump truck, the other from
isolated electronic gauges). In addition client should provide well logs, estimates of petrophysical
properties (porosity, water saturation, net pay) and PVT information to injection test analyst. Also provide a
report of any unusual problems during the injection and falloff.

What are Basic Analysis Steps and What Does the Analysis Provide?
1.

Estimate fracture closure pressure and leakoff type from G-function diagnostic plot (after Barree et al.Figure 1).

2.

Identify after-closure pseudo-linear flow and after-closure pseudo- radial flow (if present, usually only in
higher permeability reservoirs) and estimate reservoir pressure (after Nolte et al.- Figure 2 & Figure 3).

3.

Estimate reservoir permeability from before-closure analysis using Mayerhofer method (previously
estimated pore pressure is now an input for the permeability analysis - Figure 4).

4.

Crosscheck before-closure permeability estimate with predicted time period for after-closure linear flow
based on permeability value. If predicted time period is not correct, repeat before-closure analysis with
different fracture height assumption until after-closure linear flow predictions are consistent with actual data
(after Craig et al. - Figure 2).

5.

If after-closure pseudo-radial flow is present in late-time, it may be possible to obtain an independent


estimate of reservoir pressure and reservoir permeability with this technique (after Nolte et al.) and
compare results with "linear flow" techniques.

6.

Provide client with results of fracture gradient, fracture closure pressure, reservoir pressure, reservoir
permeability (flow capacity kh) and description of fracturing leakoff complexities, if present (example:
fissure-opening during injection).

7.

Provide recommendations for fracture design changes if indicated by analysis results (for example: pump a
foam fracture if low pore pressure was measured or skip zone if too tight).

315

FracproPT 2007

Figure 1 DFIT Fracture Closure Analysis

316

FracproPT 2007

Figure 2 After-Closure Diagnostic Plot (After Nolte et al.)

317

FracproPT 2007

Figure 3 Estimate of Pore Pressure from Pseudo-Linear Flow (After Nolte et al.)

318

FracproPT 2007

Figure 4 Reservoir Permeability Estimate (Mayerhofer Method)

Fracture Extension Pressure


The Fracture Extension Pressure tab is only displayed when:

Steprate test is selected as a Stage Type in the Treatment Schedule - F6 screen, and

Steprate test is selected as Pumping for one of the Injections in the Input tab of the Minifrac
Analysis - Shift + F8 screen.

319

FracproPT 2007

MiniFrac Analysis - Shift + F8 screen, Fracture Extension Pressure tab


The Fracture Extension Pressure tab is the fifth tab of the Minifrac Analysis - Shift + F8 screen.

Columns

Database Time: This column displays the time from the database file.

BH Slurry Rate: This column displays the bottomhole (BH) slurry rate.

Measured Database Pressure: This column displays the measured pressure from the database file.

Measured Btm Pressure: This column displays the measured bottom pressure.

Measured Frac Pressure: This column displays the measured fracturing pressure.

Display Steprate vs Time Plot: Press this button to display the Steprate versus Time Plot.

Display Linear Pressure-Rate Plot: Press this button to display the Linear Pressure-Rate Plot.

Display Log-Log Pressure Rate Plot: Press this button to display the Log-Log Pressure Rate Plot.

Buttons

Fracture Extension Pressure Summary

320

Estimated BH Extension Pressure: This field displays the estimated bottomhole (BH) extension
pressure.

Estimated BH Extension Pressure Gradient: This field displays the estimated gradient of the
bottomhole (BH) extension pressure.

Estimated Fracture Extension Rate: This field displays the estimated fracture extension rate.

Depth to Middle of Perfs: This field displays the depth to the middle of the perforations.

Current BH Closure Pressure: This field displays the current bottomhole (BH) closure pressure.

FracproPT 2007

Current BH Closure Pressure Gradient: This field displays the current gradient of the bottomhole
(BH) closure pressure.

Minifrac Analysis Options [Shift+F8]


This screen contains various options to control to look of the various analysis plots, as well as the graphical method used
to interpret the data shown on them.

Options tab of the Minifrac Analysis screen

General Curves to Display


For the five curves shown, these options allow you to select how the curves are scaled.

Y-Axis Auto Scaling: Choose Max to have the upper plot limit scale automatically, or choose
MinMax to have both the upper and lower plot limits scale automatically.

Y-Axis Plot Range: The best way to describe this option is with an example. Consider the Implied
Slurry Efficiency channel, which goes from 0 to 1. If you choose Full, the plot limits are 0 and 1. If you
choose 1/2, the plot limits are 0 to 2. If you choose 1/4, the plot limits are 0 to 4.

Common Plot Features

Information Text Box: This option controls whether or not a text box containing various information
regarding a plot is automatically shown.

Stage Markers: This option controls whether or not the three Stage Markers, associated with the
Begin Injection, End Injection and End Decline, should be automatically shown.

Closure Stress Marker: This option controls whether or not the Closure Stress Marker, the vertical
line that is drawn after you have picked closure, should be automatically shown.

Tangent Line Marker: This option controls whether or not the Tangent Line Marker, the tangent line
that is drawn after you have picked closure, should be automatically shown.

Calculate Derivatives From

321

FracproPT 2007

Database Pressure Channel: Even though the Measured BH Pressure channel (which is actually
calculated by FracproPT if you are running the simulator from a measured surface pressure) is used
to pick fracture closure stress, the actual Database Pressure Channel is used to calculate the
derivative. This is the default option.

Measured BH Pressure: As described above, the actual Database Pressure Channel is normally
used to calculate the derivative of pressure. However, in high temperature deep wells, the Measured
BH Pressure channel may change relative to the Database Pressure Channel due to fluid heating.
In such cases, you may choose this option to calculate the pressure derivative more realistically.

Derivative Calculation in Real-Time

Use Single-Sided Derivative for Most Recent Data: For the most recent real-time data, calculate
the derivates using a single-sided (backwards-looking) approach.

Do Not Calculate Derivative for Most Recent Data: For the most recent real-time data, do not
calculate any derivates.

Closure Stress Picking Using


The Minifrac Analysis utility allows you to use tangent lines and the right mouse button to pick points on the plots that
define closure stress. These options control how those points are selected.

Intersection of 2 Straight Lines: Choose this option if you want to add two tangent lines to a plot,
and then select the intersection of those lines.

Deviation from Single Line: This is the default option. Choose this option if you want to be able to
select a point (that is, a closure stress) where a suitably positioned tangent line deviates from a curve.
If you select this option, the Intersection of 2 Straight Lines method described above still works.
Even if you select this option, the ISIP Plot always uses the intersection of a tangent line and the End
Pumping line.

Use Automated Pick: Select this option to use FracproPTs automated pick.

Derivative Options

Spread Equals ... % of Plot Window X-Axis: Initial setting for all derivative calculations for plots
associated with Minifrac Analysis. The Derivative Spread can be set for each individual plot by
clicking the Plot Preferences icon, selecting the Frame Style tab and selecting Derivative Options.

Use ISIP Pick for Step-Down Test


Enable this checkbox to use the pick for the instantaneous shut-in pressure (ISIP) for the step-down test.
This automatically sets the last marker in the Step-Down Test Analysis Plot to the End Pumping time from the Input tab
of the Minifrac Analysis - Shift + F8 screen.
When selecting this option, ensure that the staging is set correctly, such that the End Pumping time has a meaningful
value.

Closure Stress Plots


ISIP Plot
This plot should be used to pick the ISIP (Instantaneous Shut-In Pressure). A pre-set End Pumping line is drawn
vertically to indicate when pumping stopped; this time corresponds to the value shown in the End Pumping field (which
can be manually changed) on the Input Tab of the MINIFRAC Analysis [Shift+F8] screen. For the quickest analysis,
make sure that you check the Use Automated Pick checkbox on the MINIFRAC Analysis [Shift+F8] screen, Options tab
or have clicked the

322

icon from the plot icon bar. Follow these steps below to complete the analysis:

1.

A tangent line will already be placed on the Measured Bottomhole Pressure channel. You can manually
add this line by right-clicking on this channel and selecting Add Tangent Line from the dialog.

2.

Position the tangent line using the mouse so that it is properly aligned with the Measured Bottomhole
Pressure channel. Near-wellbore effect and any "water hammer" could potentially make it difficult to pick
the true ISIP, which should be a reflection of the pressure in the main body of the fracture. The best way to
determine ISIP in such cases is to align the tangent line to the pressure curve at a point after near-wellbore
effects have dissipated. Typically, you would place the tangent line about half a minute to a minute after
shut-in to pick a stabilized ISIP.

FracproPT 2007

3.

Once you are happy about the alignment of the tangent line, click Yes in the dialog in the top right of the
window to add the results to the table on the Closure Stress tab of the MINIFRAC Analysis [Shift+F8]
screen. Close the plot.

4.

Back on the Closure Stress tab of the MINIFRAC Analysis [Shift+F8] screen, verify that the pick for ISIP
is updated in the appropriate table.

SQRT Plot
This plot shows the pressure decline versus the square root of closure time. The plot Legend Box (shown below)
provides useful information about the injection-decline sequence.
For the quickest analysis, make sure that you check the Use Automated Pick checkbox on the MINIFRAC Analysis
[Shift+F8] screen, Options tab or have clicked the
the analysis:

icon from the plot icon bar. Follow these steps below to complete

1.

A tangent line is automatically added to the Measured Bottomhole Pressure channel. You add it
manually by right clicking on this channel by right-clicking on this channel and selecting Add Tangent Line
from the dialog.

2.

Position the tangent line using the mouse so that they are properly aligned with the Measured
Bottomhole Pressure channel. This can be done by moving the cursor over the vertical tangent helper
line and dragging it to the desired location by holding down the left mouse button. The circle indicates the
position where the program has determined that the channel data starts deviation significantly from the
slope of the tangent line.

3.

If the closure stress pick is not to your liking, you can move the mouse over the vertical closure stress line
and move this line to a different time by holding down the left mouse button.

4.

Click Yes in the dialog at the top right of the graph to add it to the table on the Closure Stress tab of the
MINIFRAC Analysis [Shift+F8] screen. Of course, you may decline to accept the data and simply use the
plot to pick a BH Closure Stress on your own.
Additional Information: What is "Implied Slurry Efficiency?"

323

FracproPT 2007

G-Function Plot
This plot shows the pressure decline, its derivative, and its superposition derivative, all plotted versus G-function time. The
plot Legend Box (shown below) provides useful information about the injection-decline sequence. Click the button below
to read additional information on the interpretation of G-Function plots.
Additional Information: Interpretation of G-Function Plot
For the quickest analysis, make sure that you check the Use Automated Pick checkbox on the MINIFRAC Analysis
[Shift+F8] screen, Options tab or have clicked the
the analysis:

icon from the plot icon bar. Follow these steps below to complete

1.

A tangent line is automatically added to the Measured Bottomhole Pressure superposition derivative
(G dP/dG) channel. You add it manually by right clicking on this channel by right-clicking on this channel
and selecting Add Tangent Line from the dialog.

2.

Position the tangent line using the mouse so that they are properly aligned with the Measured
Bottomhole Pressure superposition derivative (G dP/dG) channel. This can be done by moving the
cursor over the vertical tangent helper line and dragging it to the desired location by holding down the left
mouse button. The circle indicates the position where the program has determined that the channel data
starts deviation significantly from the slope of the tangent line.

3.

If the closure stress pick is not to your liking, you can move the mouse over the vertical closure stress line
and move this line to a different time by holding down the left mouse button.

4.

Click Yes in the dialog at the top right of the graph to add it to the table on the Closure Stress tab of the
MINIFRAC Analysis [Shift+F8] screen. Of course, you may decline to accept the data and simply use the
plot to pick a BH Closure Stress on your own.
Additional Information: What is "Implied Slurry Efficiency?"

Common G-Function Plot Interpretations


The following is excerpted with permission from SPE 60291 (David Craig, et. al.).

324

FracproPT 2007

Recently Barree and Mukherjee [SPE 36424] presented G-function derivative analysis for identifying the leakoff
mechanism following a diagnostic fracture injection test. G-function derivative analysis