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‘Terry Ramsaye. 4 Million and One Nights A History of Motion Pictures Through 1925, New York: Simoa and Schuster, 1926, | THE PREHISTORY OF THE SCREEN x to public mind and in he coneiaeen of many of is stud the oton pure cena «mae ng bore yoerdey tnd of fall growth his moring. Bat agi and mieles a fry fade he Bight of infornton Nis he stesso Tilt ve dome hme hich rence prea! etontient Tote iver who will urs ef hough 4 maze cf cuttin, ne of he os Ineesing ane ween ise ued ara. Tin moti pte woo et el overdo many many cnn ag Trish wey ft ofthe adn of te rial of he ren which nerd in ie pperai miwclon gro Hovering in tho maga hich eles ie Sie poe ten anog. the lending nduns ofthe "ordre ‘Ereopmet haw des fof clap HShdy me han eee deadal, To many tas some eet re, as nef ‘tel be rena deny nk of he mein pee tstavng begun fevers moment of th fda di covery. Tf from the dark depths of the forest yu traneplant a stunted, struggling litle tee, dwarfed and lightstarved, out into # far- orable sil and a place in the sun, its yent energies and deep primeval powers will shoot it into'an amazingly rapid growth, ‘fevered redemption of tho lost years. It ao with the mol picture. He who will have the patience t fll this grow of the 1otionpitare will ind too, ike the tes, cess i picture will be found following that law with the unrelenting persit- ON AND ONE NiGHTS {ence that marks th growth Aon ofall living things, from yout mal ‘te contnuslly commiting themselves tse ‘exposures of those erzor hen screen as one ofthe sen Inhind nd shead, ‘The motion iad i to se the I ofthe yarn of life, with an iaiity The motion piste moy cla th aso fring of th paren imple al hea of exten thie ee Ingo transition er ad oul eae a Pino Bing cao, Te main pte he elon oft ageold Wi of the world. Serre ‘suthorty for the assertion that in the betionings of te human race withes preceded comnrete tion and language—probably by sme millions of oars —aeevit— ‘THE PREHISTORY OF THE SCREEN ‘Man is the most wishful thing on the fave uf the van Simpler organisms await pure propinquty, chance, andthe anual opportnitis of naturel supply to gratify theie Wishes ‘As we ascend the biologie sele of intelligence wo ees increas ing provision forthe gratfeaton ofthe Wish: from plane de pendent onthe happenings ofa single spot and oysters feeding ‘on wt the tides may bring, to eoaming beasts of prey snd om to bees inthe hive «community gone fneste vith communis snd th business of foresight sid provision. Up atthe top of the leis man, the supreme go eter of them i. Out of the power and experience of the Wish man carly found hat some things were highly pleasurable, ‘They detvered sisfaction to his astored senses OF those ings sud enens hhe wanted snore and ever mote. He observed, prenmably, that everytime these things cccurred he put the came pears sensations the eame emotional ur venary kik. "Then, am Patient of waiting for these pleasant things lo happen of hele ‘wn eccord, came the impulse to puch ahead in me thems eppen Man sought to repeat the pleasant event, That impulse to seek sated ital, This probably begun long befor he become anything that we woold ell Man. Bat tht wer the desperate Dreginning of everything. That was the coming of the serpent Sto the garden, call it sino intelligence as you vill 11 ook memory to know that dhe repetition ofthe event would ring repetition of dhe pleasure. Memory this eame to eck the repetition of the pleasute by the eeeaton of the event ‘That dawning ability to eeenjoy by reereatie af the evet of pleasurable memory was the bogiming of knowledge. Per haps iti trite tothe antiquity of the strongest Wish ofall ‘that the Biblical phrase “to have Knowledge of” peguated ith the came duality of meaning that as come into the word iss" in some of the pungent fiction of the rurent peiod, A MILLION AND ONE NiGHTS 1s is «rather fair presumption that it rlates atleast w dat of hs the ras had its fst knowles The serpent, you ean 4s quite ax autentcaly an emblem of Wisdom us of ee Bay Out lof the Wish, his blazing and gnaving deine, coon crelved expression, communication, and all of his ar, Re, ‘earch has raed the stops ofthat evolution; it ahovs that hy 60 of man makes him wart to kiow hime [That ego isthe very soul of both the até and the sciences, Man in his ow profession and his own recreation, Tha ehege of hie desires the keenest of his Wishes, the greta of he ‘Thin exis deligly the Tacs ponte and bmn of tn lve sry the fon of ne sal pine work Ti ove te wick Aen hee le ing in i allt atten ea atl, I vu the aophone ay "Benya a "hemp iepae fae abel of do nd the ean of Helly ae ‘undoribiedlly fruit of the same tree ala The ends ga the serving an etn fin wih gn ep 'thogine with drama in its simplest form When man se auto recreate eves nad se ‘cumoniate, his own body wae the fit medi te fall te bie comet. “His bands and arma were hin fist instrument By gesture be eauld contrive to make another recgniee aoe, thing of the character of the iden impelling the teiatieg ny uezeing postures and movements. A Chippewa Indie hoy lay ca ths make you ea beat or 4 moos, very dear The simulative“dhicken dance” of the Rlackfeet, a pesuniegs ‘presentation of the earthip of the praise eicken per aa ‘THE PREHISTORY OF THE SCREEN {ormed by the braves before the admiring eqrawe, ion cabana tion of the same ide passed into ital ‘This isthe simplest form of teling Simple ee iT wil be ewan ams ten natal re ert creca y e W toe and graces, Durston sla nent The ing Smee Sahm } | A MILLION AND ONE NiGHTS A rt cy ty ae wi sw abd of wing ‘hs ov mtd f rere of th le fea a tere end drawing we ne ‘tan pane hae olay i forge Bet itn of Fakes dered at tg sod tine i ttn. Wea acy at taza in wert an hing thie ag nyt at her wre a ae ome te dinaed, td many ing Lo Coming cnkrtn a Tg end Pe wed ac ing rcpition f Tine and Spec ag ey {atom sn iin “Mad igs tl wall pe ea ee p with wa thn a iit ee inte ma tcme'n tater ae ey Yee ta hati” be tte Yo nc Joe ny cal wh pts a ae PO Men tolls boned rer eer tak grates aity nl by Hoan dere is the pring nd ethane cl, ech beac af eatin th na fea the miles. The pleat he wen tects ta oe relive it, and that i or fe Sere le die aero the wil i Hei heheh ao te harven at par ies THE PREHISTORY OF THE SCREEN id procees of abridgmeot eylved ito Fe cation by symbolic ats, briefer cues to memory. Memory sand imagination were growing. This meliod of recreation by symbolic acts isin common survival todey: witness the rites ofthe Eucharist, the pantomime dances, atd pageantry. ‘The progresion from re-creation of the event by the com plete act wo recreation hy symbole st i by a sig aifiant reversion. In Mexicn a zealous eet, the Pagel hss been given t a complete reenactment the Chiat legend Inde the actual cracifcin of the honored ‘actor. The Passion Play of Oberammergou is itself only fomewhat less sanguinary recreation ly the complete act ‘The pacts of the church, we ae, has eval em the literal Ito the symbolic drama ofthe shar of to-day. ‘When the reereation of the event las distinct prpone of ity, a» for instnoe in the rain dance af the Hop! the eannitalitie hope involved inthe doctrine af ‘substantiation, we call t ritual. When the re-creation besomes ‘more remotely symbolial and atthe same tine loses is dint Drpose of readily recognisable utility, we eal tat ‘The Dionysia of the ancient Grecks began Anco in farhorence of the erop. They set of Aihenian theatrical tuts, Then they beeame the Ro. ran Bacchanalia, and today survive as te cute Title May ole danee, merely somethieg prety for the omamentaton of ‘he Sunday school plenie. Also the juice of the com is stl ‘considerable factor ia modem dancing, great de ofthe ‘motion and emotion come out of the stme ble forthe itign tion of the Wish. We all serve the old gd Dionysin with Sidlity. Ths nme is with ws ye, administe-ed ax “Dees” at ‘he chstening font. The roots of art are in vtsel and the oot of vital are inthe tll geass. The ennfeld waves fore Sesh is grass” quoth Ten When the xsentle i ‘A MILLION AND ONE NionTS [Nebuchadnezas bok hinvelf tothe pasture on all Fore after vitamin B, no doubt-he wa not so oxtzy as ie ints B20 dab was, pep, 7 These rituals and thelr evolutions are, shannels of exgremion in reereative efor, {0 us here ony becsuse of thie very definite pictorial hernces Retuming to our primitive pituremaking man, we fed hin {16 reaching for more facile media for his swelling Noa of ‘des, his pitureerowded mind, For agen he rugged on with his pstre makiog, hie panto ‘mimo and situ, and an evolving wort I words while sound and the action marched side hy side, Tine was expression but not record. The service of memory re Out fis ge the profeon of remembering, he enn fh neds an intl Here wath eps a tongs f Hos.” Scand ad bean ned ea sevcaton ih evn and Fortine and tua.” New he ne th nearest prfeien rene ne tio int send. The macmoneael brag tle Iter and syn te al. Hymes for renenbene geet We a the same devise today Thy epee le, Apri in and Niven, = ya the on of tis meer wave a hep he meee th jut asthe yeti ape i qe by ig ‘ede ry td mince nt fo wenbeciog and tellingsalvae the reeatng tka of th crt They conte matin se ee Al of thee poesia emerge depend for ‘ery sev apon fling note meal wae een ef song nd char, “The pret pio ane eh ede bn sn le a he as THE PREHISTORY OF THE SOREN Sf he Brts Pend nd Dvir al ee my ae ‘he family bout guew i an enveloped of Ina wer doce meal read a et wal 100,00 dacs couple ea i tes aig Hind ed he pet tgs The ge kt pie The pres wrcr Sneins se to + op, te Fo nel momar Swear sos, posers nt tne Shotng wile p's refs spiel ep and ere on by his ther stg Freer We mast seo sie ety nthe tyne qt fy ft anes volved ital and he yn lea of tong. shan an ere sng tse Wish Peay nae OF cing wor nent ta may beige by ier tet or tngoe The bang ya fort» ve ate ede jt cmd pcre of te tan, pit pn a precily 1 the hacaaly priate lnguge The ‘mie movement of dance ang ate teal for the Heat purpoos of mmr, an sporty the menery Ss ene andthe sme function wheter to gown the fet ot ie tongue Memory sys ctl bold dal f the mill, And memory Ine a ton, “Aebuply dete stalin of he mov contol of mem ary alot ns paler menry rope‘ Jer tru. The memory ufone ensped open rap ue {ion te name pure om ey aide ith pre oder in which hy were sad to Th vas ely scons by th xpd af meal dng 1 poral aon seco mater ny urna te fds a hey wee nud oh Tha i th en began “ingle store ci” the nine jumps io toe sve sneha ses tc" When ele punta rps it eprom ly ce sta of ts to serosa peop te tle nsec ae ‘THE PREMISTORY OF THE SCREEN A MILLION AND ONE NiGHTS ‘Thas it appear thet memory lives in mental maton pits, ‘This motion pictorial element is even more astonishingly ‘reveled in the memory fats which are incidental to the work of Gay MacLacen, dramatic recital artist. Her unique perfor ‘mans cove in giving ete plays, inthe voices and setions ofall of the members of the cats, staining « high degre of sage illusion. Her repetoize includes rome eighteen play, and she sometines al wo a season. ‘The process of acquis tion requives merely that she se five perfraunces of tho play ss 4 member ofthe audiance, No conscious memory eflort ‘mrs into the proven, The esence of the feat appents tobe 4 secoring ofthe stage picture, a function of what is termed he “enmere mind.” With only a seting of «table and two ‘or thiee chal, she reproduces thi enti stage picture down 'o the most inmnsderable detail of action, by the sheer per. fection of pantomime reproduction ofthat ation. Any of thie eighteen plays, many of the full thee hours in length ond including perhaps fcen or ten characters, is available in Miss MacLaren's memory at an insac’s notice, ‘The cate play with its infinity of pantomime details and api fie of spoken parts, so essential to the multiple character delin- cations, flows on through single personality with all the eibbon Tike cot 1 motion pistre, ‘This clement of motion is eternally of the vasts importance, tin the life. Oly the motion, the aetittion, persist. Trees dic, the forest Lves forever. Men and nations perish, but the ace jvelf gots on. It is only the on-and-on movement thet iakes langnago an instrument of all that purport to rll living mast cipste inthis motion. Thore are a intersting beats oftheir remoteness. tin deeply siniticant that practically all modern psycholo- fists agree tht man cannot even think witha some mosclar ‘man All Livig and ‘motion. They agre that motion san negl par of hiking nd nots mere sid tit. Some crestive workers ate notorious forthe motion by play which atlends ther Torts. ‘They stale and slorm and geticulate, You cannot think without movement, be it ever 97 some muscle someniere in your throat, eye, ear nck er mast not be taken from this that eat lapping. is an index of Iutligene. The moves tend, in some wa, eat Mh thing you have in mind. When you think "julep” yur mosth waters tnd you swallow. Walter B. Pitkin of Coinsin University Jina Tecturo before « group of weitere remarked that if it were 1e us tobe able to wee interpreively every motion that ‘men made we ehould be able to tll wha: he was sinking bout. The poker fae ie defensive rcogriton of this pe tiple. Four of « kind tends to generate tlisle motions, and the royal fac often spread to the face. ‘This motion quality of Tanguage recreton of events ‘exemplified in the evtution of headline English in the daily newspapers. When the dynamic jouralin commonly buted to Heart came into eing it evolved otacple of head veiing which i beely: “Do not write Tals, pt it in the active vice, present or future tense if pose, "Geta verb in the ead. “Make it slam, Always get the tolay angle” "The erent which occurred in the vicinity of midhight end hich hat been covered by the morning pares is mentioned in the becticafterncon edi ” The vent may have occurred yesterday or & wel ag, bat the head: Ting of its fist presentation is active, present progesive; “Famous Beauty Shoots Neat Husband,” or “Aiship Rams Submarine.” The efor is contnaally to pictre the event #8 ‘ing on atthe instant before the readers eye, This kinetic, motion pictorial journalism consist ousted ingly of the endeavor always to say a thing the mos effective whit of A MILLION AND ONE NIGHTS ‘THE PREHISTORY OF THE SCREEN tnd immedine way. Its only we for yesterday is w give way f sharper tase and tomorrow a koener anticipation. Ite the ‘writing of the people, by the people, and for the peopl, Cite cations are :he indicators. It essence is this sume principle 4 picture of movement, always on and on ‘The hunger for movement isthe rot ofall manner of sepecte of cur civilization, any more tangible than the secogized ait of expresson—the onostep and fox tot, the merry-go-round, the swing, the rocking chair shootshechutes all the pa rides, the motor ca, Leta man lavent a new movement, and the world wil revard him ax thas Ford, Wrigley, Rockefeller and Eastman. A'goed movement is priceless. This motor aceompaniment of thought enters conypicusly Into the chewing gum habit, which eueceeds so wel in Gling hat would be otherwise total yacue. Tho jew etion of chew ing gum in clove kin to he lito movements which eek to realize the wishladenthought. Being sack close associate of thought an by easy transfer be made to take ite served a its bast in an East Side dancehall where ja and foot ‘operate in ater syneheoniam wih the orgistic pulsations of the music. Chowing gum at e peasy aati got aboard the geet human principle of motional emotion and won milions for its purveyors. The Ligget & Myers Tobreco Company tied to ride the sane prinsple wih ity alteupt of some years past, to popularite edible tobacco withthe slogan evlved hy the Ine Richard A. Feley, reading: "The Men who Chew ate the Mes, who Do.” Ie failed beenase tbscon contri ta ltl chow movement and oo much marksmnship for urban populations, ‘We are gong and going, where or nowhere makes no matter it we but Al this mevement may seem no more than the dance of the midges where the sunbeem shafts through the bitches over ‘the tout pol, but it seems that much—lie, ivi ‘The sate philosopher under the Do tice seeks te perfec ‘ence of AllKnowledge and find it Oblivion There ate only the Qui and then the Dead. That is artval Motion i thee alland end all. The ping is the life. Tt. was, and yet i the business of the stg to preserve the ‘ontinety of the race, reminding it that it came and that 3s 0ing—on and on and on, Down in the Society Ishnds the profesor of remenbesing survives with tribal reverence and honors forthe ald woman caused with tho chanted annals oftheir people. Investige tore have related instances i) which thee Hbraviens af the ace have rele ines of royal genenlogy purring to trace thousand generations. For the identical purpose simile Fane Wonaries, usally old aquaws exist in most of the North Ame ‘an Indian tribes and among the Eaquimaus So sound, by virtue of is pictorial meaning in words, be ame the memory cue, the light forthe sever of reallenton, More and more the burden of the recreation ofthe event was shifted from the clumsy proces of reenactnnt to wilt proe ‘soe of visual jmagination. ‘The arti becime euthoe and ‘sidestepped through language, making the Intenct- mentally raw his ow pita, Sound by words became the mediusn of pctre transmission inthis wise, by translation frst of the att int the significant ‘sauodsor words and then again by translation back ata the at inthe mind of the steer. ‘The proves sggess the analogy of ‘the translation of voice into the elereal wave and back to he Yoice agin, as in the telephone and radio. Both are conver. sonsof basically petrial conceptions into teansmsible media, Sound and word made the bra, in an Sndiot sense, pot ‘hia busines of expresion was and is remendously dial an complex. Picture making weston and te in suction ss | A MILLION AND ONE NIGHTS ‘THE PREHISTORY OF THE SCREEN With sound, jst as pantomime did. Kes in wordavanda ad companions in idenpictures. By a gradual, tedious mctamor phosis, by gemralzation, degeneration and formalization the Pictures became eymbols for the esociated sounds, When the Pictures were divorced from theie pure plcorial meaning and ‘wedded othe sound they, by that tp, became an alpha ‘The alphabet gave a tremendous impetus tothe business of communication. “twas shortened the process of recreation of evens, but aided complication to complication by puting yet another pair of transformers in the circuit. ‘The process was ‘ow from att sound to elphabty a then back down the Roe ‘gnin through eye and mind from alphabetical word tothe re cteaton of tho at onthe sereen of the mind, atthe anit communicator, at 4 writer of words, had no longer to toubie about secaraterepesclatons of his bear ot woman. He wuld indiene everything willy with » few Formal strokes, signs forthe sounds which were sign forthe piewres, ‘This pictorial ancesuy ofthe alphabet is most readily atab- lished by examination into the writings of the ancient And fact, nearly te whole history ofthe human arts of expression is preserved for our examination in the ere human islands that remain here and there i the tea of madern civilization “Among ie liveg remnants ofthe ages in remote tribes and an tvared peoples we can study the tend af the et of expression ith just as mush asueanen ax we may study the ce age where iv Kingers ell tho islands of prebistorie time frozen on te ‘mountain glaciers. In some of the simpler forms of the sign language of the American Tnllin we ean see how intensely pictorial were the Deginnings. Two figers straddling the edge ofthe othe hand spnifes man ana hort To haminer on an open end with the clenched it means stone. "The right arm bent aad lighly ‘aed forward with the hand closed and knvcile upward sig, niles old man. The derivation of the sign comes apparent ‘the moment thatthe hand clutches « supposing tal and crm lets tho picture, tis, of course, the most common knowledge tht the writen language of the Chinewe to-lay resi nova all an alphabet Ft system of just such sg, pictare, sip and fore Tiron paper with a brash. ‘he Chinese ‘ng ae the Dersitence ofa pictorial language in a sate of arrested devel opment, Jn the most ancient of Chinese inscriptions the stvily pie- torial origins of thee weten language is eviderced, By com prison with modern forms of the teme characters we ean bverve the tens of formaliations in behalf of speed snd the limitations of the writer wool, lreshy ink aul paper. The Sat writings were with a firm siylus, move readily controlled Jn detail han he brush, Ancient Modern 4 ~- Dz — mw ah + cnild AMILLION AND ONE NIGHTS "fr Fh k Fis any ‘The next ny tp showing the origin of deve compounds andthe beeing ofthe wort ef chimeon Tit far oe Fi the lingtoge of th cols of ll rss fat fen the Brimtve cole image, i incl in sch career thee: Ancient Moda oO) 4 tin Ra BA Bast (Sun seen through a tee) ‘Bright (sun and moon) THE PREHISTORY OF THE SCREEN ‘The Chinaman es tuck to the pictorial side ofthe ioograph to the biter end, an interesting fact in view f the more eceat snthropologial notion thet he ie perhaps the purest ad sinplest survival of original men. Out of the dusty yellow lore of anciext China comes a significant proverb: “One hundred tellings ate not 30 00d as one selng.” Tt isthe axiomatic stement of the pr ote of telling, to enable—by recreation af the event—the seeing. ‘One hundred tellings are nots good ase ee the lament ofan eyeninded work ‘Agnin inthe ancient Persian, the tongue «€ the Rubiyat of Omas’s pleasant despair, we find the sane famed. proves “When wil henge ike seeing?” ‘We have it inthe English, "Seeing is heli” and in the Americanese of “I'm from Misiouri, show me’ ‘The next sep in the eontinity of development st be found fa the transition of the Egyptian hieroglyphs or picture wet fags oto the anbitrary forms of alphabet a8 we know alphabets fn our common use of today. A most eflrtive example af dow pictures came to e leer in writen word i allordl in the hieroglyphic representation of the ate of Cleopatra. ‘This comes tous from a period when the hierelypiclangeage ‘nad reached its highest development, with eae four thousand years of recorded Egyptian cute hind it Here is the name of Cleopatra, as it appested Within the cartouche or eieuniserbing Hine which denoted the royal Shield, The chetncters read feort Fight to lett. "Now antlyxing the mame we discover the conver: sion of pctographs into. phonogtphe or sound symbols. A MILLION AND ONE NiGHTS In Egyptian, or Coptic, Kne supplies bo ange or knee 4 the sound of K An . esses Ha gra ih dh Ave Beenie He lis tha nd of A oe B Anes OF enmen ime, Supplies the sound of O A mat Pa supplies ie % © esas ~ aekaioaee i - XL A band = Tot supptics A mouth : = Aho mp plies the sound of Baal broad A ‘Agni, as wo examine the Hebrew alphabet, one of the several scezors to the hieroglyphic, we discover the eontimsing pros secs of cvolufon. Tn the Egyptian the picture became a sound, and inthe Hebrew th pictce signs for the sound are implied into nearly arbitrary forms, still with a tinge of the picture in thom, The fret eter of the Hebrew alphabet, in is older forms, is plainly the head of the os, convention: lization fom the same source as the great sculptares of the “li An cagle ‘THE PRENISTORY OF THE 5 Winged bulls on the places of Babylon. ‘The axial concerned, logical history now ators, was realy ientcal ith the Wise, lingering yet in porte of Germany snd Russian, end 1 close relative of the American Bison. This wild oe was abundant in westem Asia In Sumerinn days and’ appears on rmany cylinder seals and Sumerian inctptions, "The Iter Tabylonians and Assyrians adopted the figure although the animal Tikely had disappesved from the negion. ‘The Assyrian charactor for “bull” wat the triangle tepreceting the bread fe of the wild os, with » pair of hom prowcting. I was lmoet exadly our own Iter "A drawn upsile down The early Hebrew term for bull was alphy, exoesed by the Ayr sign, In turn evolved the Hebrew-Pveisianeleph denoted by the same character inverted, then eame the Credk tlpha and wow the Reman “A” Ifyou chance ever to have seen big bison bull lading his Ind and heading into stor on tho Albeit prvi, ot thu. ering om the charge at @ foo, itis eany to viverstand how be imeelf up a the front ofall the alphabets no matter how nage begins with snp, pare bull. The wild bull wes the frst ct alike inthe lies ofthe Sumerian hunters and the American I ‘So it comes that inthe Hebrew te alae bine withthe Picture of Aleph, the ox, the nil sand of which itconeeys hil the socnd eter repreaente a hoate ot ey Bean gives ‘tintin sound “B” tothe leer. And so onwnh Ghmnel ep reteted by the neck of the eamel and carrying te sound of Is inital to the character, and Delt, reprecening # door and sounding like "D, ‘The Hebrew alphabet, sting Aleph, Hoth, hime, Delt, ‘or A,B,C, D, is veally a wieesson of pictares, O, Tent, Camel, Door. Our very word Alphabet, combined ofthe fat two let A MILLION AND ONE NIGHTS tery of the Grecs, pha and Beta, is am abridgment or partial pictorial re