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# Subject/Course:

IGCSE Physics

## Stage 1 Desired Results

Established Goals:
IGCSE Physics 1. General Physics 1.7.1 Energy
Identify changes in kinetic, gravitational potential, chemical, elastic (strain), nuclear and internal energy that have occurred as a result of an
event or process.
Recall and use the expressions kinetic energy = mv2 and change in gravitational potential energy = mgh.
Recognise that energy is transferred during events and processes, including examples of transfer by forces (mechanical working), by
electrical currents (electrical working), by heating and by waves.
Apply the principle of conservation of energy to simple examples.
Apply the principal of conservation of energy to examples involving multiples stages.
Explain that in any event or process the energy tends to become more spread out among the objects and surroundings (dissipated).
Understandings:
Essential Questions:
Energy can be active or stored in a variety of forms.
How does energy flow within a system?
Energy can be converted from one form to another.
How can energy be dissipated?
Energy can be transferred into or out of a system by work done.
How does the Law of Conservation of Energy relate to biology,
chemistry, geology, and astronomy?
Energy in a system is constant; it cannot be created or destroyed.
What resources provide humanity with useful forms of energy?
Kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy can both be
calculated using formulae.
Students will know
Students will be able to

## The different forms of energy.

The Law of Conservation of Energy.
That gravitational potential energy = mgh.
That kinetic energy = mv2.

## Trace the movement of energy through an example involving

multiples stages.
Identify where and when energy is dissipated.
Make calculations involving gravitational potential energy.
Make calculations involving kinetic energy.

Stage 2 - Evidence

Other Evidence:

## 1. Students will answer questions in real time during an energy

conservation demonstration.
2. Students will work individually, or in groups, to develop energy
charts based on situations described with words and images.
The students will use whiteboards and markers to organize their
ideas and present to the class.
3. Students will apply knowledge of the conservation of energy, as
well as the formulae for gravitational and kinetic energy, to real-
life situations. (A pole-vaulter reaching a record-breaking height
and a motorcycle stuntman jumping to the top of a 96-foot tall
building).
4. Conservation of Energy Lab Students will apply knowledge of
the conservation of energy, as well as the formulae for
gravitational and kinetic energy, to determine the energy lost
internally.

## 1. There will be informal assessment happening continuously

throughout class. Lessons allow for lengthy or short review for
each topic.
2. Additional practice assignments to be given as needed.
3. The students will begin each class with a Question of the Day,
reviewing previous lessons.
4. There is a quiz at the end of the first lesson.
5. There will be a unit examination three weeks after these lessons
(including energy, work, power, and energy resources).

## Stage 3 Learning Plan

Learning Activities:
The time allotted for these concepts was one week, consisting of five 45-minute periods.
Period 1 Forms of Energy:
1. IGCSE Physics Question of the Day (Slides 1 & 2) The IGCSE Question of the Day is a short activity for the beginning of class. I usually
review previous lessons and familiarizes students with the Paper 1 of the IGCSE exam.
2. Energy Word Web (Slide 4) This is a five-minute activity to organize prior learning. Students are put into groups and given a whiteboard
and marker. They should create a word web for everything that they already know about physics. Afterward, a member from each group
can discuss the word webs. Optional: the teacher, or a student representative, can construct a large word web on the board, compiling all of
the groups thoughts.

3. Forms of Energy Notes and Discussion (slides 5 34) The first slide introduces energy as the ability to do work or cause change. A
further definition of the ability to cause pain is added for discussions in this class. Tell the students that although scientists categorize
energy into different forms, it is important to realize that many categories overlap. Most forms of energy will have a short video to prompt
discussion before the teacher gives the name and meaning. Three forms of energy have an additional demonstration/discussion to
introduce the students to the factors than affect the quantity of each form (in preparation for Period 4).
4. Gravitational Potential Energy Demonstration/Discussion (Slide 8) Take out two balls (one heavier than the other). Place the lighter
one on the floor in front of a student. Ask if it could hurt them. (No.) Ask if it has energy. (No.) Pick it up and hold it above their head. Ask
if it could hurt them. (Yes.) Ask if it has energy now. (Yes.) Why does it have energy now? (Did work to the ball when lifted it.) Hold it
higher above their head and ask if it would hurt more now? (Yes.) Why? (It is higher; height affects gravitational potential energy.) Show
the student the other ball and hold it at the same height of the first. Ask if the heavier one would hurt more. (Yes.) Ask why. (It has more
mass/weight; mass/weight affects gravitational potential energy).
5. Elastic Energy Demonstration/Discussion (Slide 10) Take out two rubber bands (one thicker than the other) or two springs (one with a
larger spring constant). Place the small one on a desk in front of a student. Ask if it could hurt them. (No.) Ask if it has energy. (No.) Pick it
up, stretch it, and point it at them. Ask if it could hurt them. (Yes.) Ask if it has energy now. (Yes.) Why does it have energy now? (Did
work to the band/string when it was stretched.) Stretch it more and ask if it would hurt more now? (Yes.) Why? (It is stretched more;,
distance stretched affects elastic energy.) Show the student the other band/spring and stretch it the same length as the first. Ask if the
second one would hurt more. (Yes.) Ask why. (It is thicker or has a larger spring constant, spring constant affects elastic energy).
6. Kinetic Energy Demonstration/Discussion (Slide 18) Take out two balls (one heavier than the other). Place the lighter one on a desk in
front of a student. Ask if it could hurt them. (No.) Ask if it has energy. (No.) Pick it up and pretend to throw it at them. Ask if the throw ball
could hurt them. (Yes.) Ask if it has energy now. (Yes.) Why does it have energy now? (Did work to the ball when pushing/throwing it.)
Pretend to throw it harder and ask if it would hurt more now? (Yes.) Why? (It is moving faster, speed affects kinetic energy.) Show the
student the other ball and pretend to throw it again. Ask if the heavier one would hurt more. (Yes.) Ask why. (It has more mass/weight,
emphasize that mass, not weight, affects kinetic energy).
7. Forms of Energy Quiz (Slides 35 41) This is a quick review to see if students can identify various forms of energy. It include four pictures
and two videos.
8. Additional Practice (Slide 42) This is the section of the book that relates to this lesson (pages 80 82 and questions 6.1 6.7). Depending
on the progress of the class, this can be assigned to all students, some students, or given as optional practice.

## Period 2 Conservation of Energy Demonstration:

1. IGCSE Physics Question of the Day (Slides 1 & 2) The IGCSE Question of the Day is a short activity for the beginning of class. I usually
review previous lessons and familiarizes students with the Paper 1 of the IGCSE exam.
2. Law of Conservation of Energy Introduced (Slides 4 6) The Law of the Conservation of Energy is introduced. Students discuss the
energy conversions that take place within a cell phone when the battery is fully charged (chemical electrical sound / light / kinetic
(vibrations) / Heat (hopefully not too much)). Students then discuss the energy conversions that happen when the battery is dead (none)
and identify that electrical energy needs to be transferred into the phone to continue to use it.
3. Conservation of Energy Demonstration (Slides 7) This demonstration can be accomplished with a ball bearing hanging from some fishing
line. However, it is more exciting with a bowling ball hanging from the ceiling by a rope. The setup should be thoroughly checked before
students arrive to make sure that it is safe. At the end of the demonstration and questioning, students can try to drop it. Make sure that their
heads are resting against an unchanging surface so that they do not accidentally move their heads forward. (When the ball is hanging, before
it is dropped.) What type of energy does the ball have? How do you know that? (Gravitational, it is above the ground.) If we image that the
rope is unbreakable, can the ball go any lower? Lets define the bottom of the ball as the bottom of the system, what type of energy does it
have now? (No, none.) If I pick the ball up, what is happening to the energy? How can it increase if energy is conserved? (It increases; you
do work to transfer energy into the system.) What type of energy does it have now? What percentage is gravitational energy?
(Gravitational, 100%) Watch the very bottom point as I release it. What time of energy does it have when it reaches that point? (Kinetic,
100%) What type of energy does it have on the other side? (Gravitational) How does that height on the far side compare to the height on
the initial side? How does the gravitational potential energy at the far side compare to the initial side? (Same, same) As it is halfway down,
what type of energy does it have? How much of each type? (Gravitational & kinetic energy, about 50% of each) If it doesnt rise to the exact
same starting position, does that mean that the Law of Conservation of Energy is false? Why not? (No, some energy to transferred to the air
due to air resistance.) If I drop it from in front of my face and no additional energy is added, what do you expect will happen? (It shouldnt
rise up any higher or hit you.) If I push it initially, transferring in energy as work, what will happen? (It will rise higher in the end and hit
you make sure to move out of the way.)
4. Conservation of Energy Demonstration Continued Discussion (Slide 8) This video shows a similar demonstration going wrong. Ask the
students to identify if the conservation of energy was broken. (It was not, the woman in the video leaned forward).
5. Additional Practice (Slide 9) This is the section of the book that relates to this lesson (pages 83 84 and question 6.8). Depending on the
progress of the class, this can be assigned to all students, some students, or given as optional practice.

## Period 3 Conservation of Energy Practice:

1. IGCSE Physics Question of the Day (Slides 1 & 2) The IGCSE Question of the Day is a short activity for the beginning of class. I usually
review previous lessons and familiarizes students with the Paper 1 of the IGCSE exam.
2. Review Law of Conservation of Energy (Slide 4)
3. Introduce Energy Pie Charts (Slides 2 11) These slides introduce Energy Pie Charts which are used to do comparative analysis of the
energy moving through a system. Slides 5 & 6 being with elastic energy. Slide 7 & 8 introduce kinetic energy. Slides 8 & 9 introduce internal
energy. Slides 10 & 11 introduce gravitational energy.
4. Student Practice of Energy Pie Charts (Slides 12 33) The following slides are meant as individual/group practice for the students. The
students should be given whiteboards and markers to draw their energy pie charts. After each example, students can stand and share their
ideas with the class. There is not enough time to do all of the practice problems; the teacher can decide the pace based on the students
progress. Some specific slides worth considering are: Slides 20 & 21 and 28 & 29 because they relate to Period 5s lab. Slides 32 & 33
because they introduce chemical energy.
5. Introduce Energy Bar Charts (Slides 34 35) These slides introduce Energy Bar Charts which are used to make comparative analysis of the
energy moving through a system, including defining the system and work done to and by the system.
6. Student Practice of Energy Bar Charts (Slides 36 41) The following slides are meant as individual/group practice for the students. The
students should be given whiteboards and markers to draw their energy bar charts. After each example, students can stand and share their
ideas with the class. There is not enough time to do all of the practice problems; the teacher can decide the pace based on the students
progress.
7. Additional Practice (Slide 42) This is the section of the book that relates to this lesson (pages 83 84 and questions 6.9 6.14). Depending
on the progress of the class, this can be assigned to all students, some students, or given as optional practice.
Period 4 GPS & KE Equations:
1. IGCSE Physics Question of the Day (Slides 1 & 2) The IGCSE Question of the Day is a short activity for the beginning of class. I usually
review previous lessons and familiarizes students with the Paper 1 of the IGCSE exam.
2. Gravitational Energy Equation and Practice (Slides 4 6) Refer to the Gravitational Potential Energy Demonstration/Discussion during
Period 1 and remind the students of the factors that affect the quantity of gravitational energy. Discuss the affect of changing (i.e. doubling
or halving) mass or height on gravitational energy. Discuss how to find mass or height based on the other quantities. Apply the equation to a
real life example (including a video).

3. Kinetic Energy Equation and Practice (Slides 7 9) Refer to the Kinetic Energy Demonstration/Discussion during Period 1 and remind the
students of the factors that affect the quantity of kinetic energy. Discuss the affect of changing (i.e. doubling or halving) mass or velocity on
kinetic energy. Discuss how to find mass or velocity based on the other quantities. Apply the equation to a real life example (including a
video).
4. Elastic Energy Equation and Practice (Slides 10 12) Refer to the Elastic Energy Demonstration/Discussion during Period 1 and remind
the students of the factors that affect the quantity of elastic energy. Discuss the affect of changing (i.e. doubling or halving) spring constant
or extension on kinetic energy. Discuss how to find spring constant or extension based on the other quantities. Apply the equation to a real
life example (including a video).
5. Application of Energy Equations to Conservation of Energy and Real-Life Situations (Slides 13 16) These slides involve two
interesting real-life applications introduced through videos. In each case, the teacher can provide the students with additional information,
if requested.
6. Additional Practice (Slide 17) This is the section of the book that relates to this lesson (pages 87 90 and questions 6.15 6.21).
Depending on the progress of the class, this can be assigned to all students, some students, or given as optional practice.
Period 5 Conservation of Energy Lab:
1. IGCSE Physics Question of the Day (Slides 1 & 2) The IGCSE Question of the Day is a short activity for the beginning of class. I usually
review previous lessons and familiarizes students with the Paper 1 of the IGCSE exam.
2. Conservation of Energy, No Friction vs. Friction (4 & 5) These slides are used to make comparative analysis of energy pie charts where
friction is ignore and where friction is included. The class discusses the value of including or excluding friction and internal energy. The
laboratory experiment is introduced to identify the effect of friction and internal energy within a system.
3. Conservation of Energy Lab (6 & 7) This portion of the task depends on the available resources and the students familiarity with
technology. Two versions of the lab are included. In the first version, the students will use a motion detector (connected to a computer
running Vernier Logger Pro) to measure the position and velocity of a ball that has been thrown upward. They will use the data to analyze
the gravitational, kinetic, total, and internal energy at several stages and identify the effect of energy lost within the system. In the second
version, students will roll a ball bearing down a quarter pipe and identify its gravitational, kinetic, and internal energy at several points.
4. Additional Practice (Slide 8) This is the section of the workbook that provides additional practice for all of the weeks lessons (pages 45
51). Depending on the progress of the class, part or all of this can be assigned to all students, some students, or given as optional practice.