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CHAPTER 7: LIGHT, COLOUR AND SIGHT

7.1 FORMATION OF IMAGES

A. Formation of Images by Plane Mirrors


• Image formed by a plane mirror are caused by reflection of light from the mirror surface.
• The characteristics of an image formed by a plane mirror are:
1. Virtual
2. Inversed laterally
3. Upright
4. Same size as the object
5. Image distance and object distance from the plane mirror are the same

B. Formation of Images by Lenses


Convex lens Concave lens
Type of lens Biconvex lens Biconcave lens

Role Converges light rays that Diverges light rays that passes
passes through it through it
Characteristics of images - For a distant object: The - Image formed is virtual,
image formed is real, inverted upright and diminished
and smaller than the object.
- For a near object: The image
formed is virtual, upright and
bigger than the object.

C. Ray Diagrams
• Ray diagram: A diagram which shows the paths of light rays passing through a lens.
• Object distance (u): The distance between object and optical centre.
• Image distance (v): The distance between image and optical centre.
• For convex lens: Light rays that are parallel with the principle axis will converge at the
focal point behind the lens.
• For concave lens: Light rays that are parallel to the principle axis will diverge after
passing through the lens causing the focal point to be placed in front of the lens.

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D. Construction of Ray Diagrams
• All rays from the object should be drawn with solid lines with the directions marked.
• Virtual rays should be drawn using broken lines.
• Real images should be drawn with solid lines and virtual images should be drawn using
broken lines.

7.2 FORMATION OF IMAGE BY OPTICAL INSTRUMENT

A. Optical Instrument

Optical Instrument Explanation


Periscope - Used in submarines to look at objects on the water surface.
- Consist of two plane mirrors arranged parallel to one another at an angle of 45°.
- Light rays from a distance object are incident to the surface of the first mirror at an
angle of 45°. Then the rays are reflected to the second mirror at the same angle.
- The second mirror reflects the light rays to the eyes of the observer.
- The image formed by a periscope is
a. Virtual
b. Upright
c. Same size as the object
d. At the same distance from the object
Magnifying glass - Used to observe small objects. The image formed is larger than the size of the
object.
- Made of a biconvex lens.
- The image formed is
a. Virtual
b. Upright
c. Larger than the size of the object
Microscope - Used to observe tiny objects.
- Consist of two convex lenses (objective lens and eyepiece with a short focal
length)
- The objective lens forms an image which is
a. Real
b. Inverted
c. Larger than the size of the object
- The eyepiece acts as magnifying glass to enlarge the image formed by the
objective lens. Final image formed is
a. Virtual
b. Inverted
c. Enlarge

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Telescope - Used to look at distant objects.
- Consist of two convex lenses (objective lens and eyepiece)
- The objective lens has a long focal point
- The eyepiece has a short focal point
- A distant object is focused by the objective lens and forms an image at the focal
point. The image is
a. Real
b. Inverted
c. Smaller than the size of object
- The eyepiece acts as magnifying glass to enlarge the image formed by the
objective lens. Final image formed is
a. Virtual
b. Inverted
c. Larger than the size of object
Camera - Consist of three main parts: Lens, Shutter and Film
- The lens focuses the image of an object onto the film. The lens is adjusted by the
focus adjuster either towards or away from the film to obtain a sharp image of an
object.
- Light rays that enter will pass through the diaphragm (changes the size of the
aperture to control the amount of light entering the lens.
- When the shutter opened, light falls onto the film. The length of time the shutter is
opened determines the amount of light reaching the film.
- The film which contains photosensitive chemicals will capture the image of the
object.
- The image on the film is real, inverted and smaller than the size of the object.

Part of camera Function


Lens (convex) Focuses the image of a distant object on the film
Aperture Allows light to enter the camera
Diaphragm Control the camera aperture that allows light to enter the
camera
Focus adjuster Adjust the lens by moving the lens inwards or outwards of
camera to enable a sharp image formed on film
Shutter Control the time of light that entering camera. The aperture in
front of film opened and then closed when the camera button
is pressed
Film Acts as a screen to receive an object image that is captured on
it

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B. Comparison between Eye and Camera

Eye Function Camera


Eye lens Focuses light to form an image Camera lens
Iris Control the size of aperture and Diaphragm
amount of light that enters
Pupil Allows light to enter Aperture
Ciliary body Changes the size of lens to obtain a Focus adjuster
sharp image
Retina Acts as a photosensitive layer to Film
capture image

EXERCISE 7.1 – 7.2

1. State three characteristics of an image formed on a plane mirror.


_______________________________________________________________________
_
2. State three characteristics of an image formed by a convex lens and a concave lens of a
distant object.
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
__
3. Name the labels A-F on the convex lens shown.
A: ____________ D: _____________
B: ____________ E: _____________
C: ____________ F: _____________

2F F F 2F

4. State the parts of the camera which have the same function as each of the following parts
of the human eye.
a) Eye lens:____________ d) Pupil: _____________
b) Iris: ____________ e) Ciliary body: ______________
c) Retina: ___________

5. State three characteristics of an image formed by a magnifying glass.


_______________________________________________________________________
_

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7.3 LIGHT DISPERSION

A. Light Dispersion
• A process in which white light is split into its colour constituents called spectrum when it
passes through a prism.
• A spectrum consist seven colour in this order: RED, ORANGE, YELLOW, GREEN,
BLUE, INDIGO and VIOLET.
• Light dispersion occurs because each colour constituents travels at different speed
through a prism.
• Therefore the coloured lights are refracted at different angles.
• Violet light is refracted more by a glass prism compared to red light which has a longer
wavelength. This is because violet light travels at the lowest speed.

B. Formation of Rainbow
• A raindrop acts as prism.
• A rainbow is formed when sunlight passes through raindrops. The sunlight is refracted
and dispersed into its colour constituent.

7.4 LIGHT SCATTERING

• The earth’s atmosphere contains particles like gas molecules, vapour and dust.
• When white light incidents these particles, light rays are obstructed and reflected. These
light rays scatter in all direction. This occurrence is called light scattering.
• Light scattering is related to light colours. Blue light is scattered more compared to red
light. This is because blue light has a shorter wavelength.
• Lights with shorter wavelengths are refracted more.
• Example:
i. The blue sky during the day
ii. The red sky during sunset

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7.5 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF COLOURED LIGHTS

A. Addition of coloured lights


• Primary colours
- Colours which cannot be obtained from mixing other colours.
- Red, Blue and Green.
• Secondary colours
- Colours produced by adding primary colours.
- Yellow, Magenta and Cyan.
• Primary colours + Secondary colours → White light
• Example: Yellow light + Blue light → White light

B. Subtraction of coloured lights


• Is the absorbtion of coloured lights by coloured filter
• Coloured filter consist of primary and secondary filter.
• Primary filter
- consist of red, green and blue filters.
- only allow lights of the same colour to pass through them.
- example: A green filter only allows green light to pass through it. Other coloured
lights are absorbed.
• Secondary filter
- consist of yellow, magenta and cyan filter.
- allow lights of the same colours and primary colours that form them to pass
through them.
- example: A yellow filter allows yellow light and primary colours that form it,
namely red and green light, to pass through it.

EXERCISE 7.3 – 7.4

1. What is meant by light dispersion?


_______________________________________________________________________
_
2. Put a tick (√) for a correct statement and cross (X) for the wrong statement.
a) Gas molecules and water vapour can scatter light ( )
b) Blue light is the least scattered. ( )
c) Light with longer wavelengths are least scattered. ( )

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d) Light scattering is a decomposition process of white light into its colour
constituent. ( )

3. Complete the table below.


a)
Addition of primary colour Secondary colour on screen
Red + blue
Red + green
Green + blue
Red + green + blue

b)
Filter P Filter Q Colour formed on the white screen
Red Green
Blue Cyan
Yellow Green
Magenta Yellow
Cyan Magenta

7.6 PRINCIPLE OF SUBSTRACTION OF COLOURED LIGHTS TO EXPLAIN THE


APPEARANCE OF COLOURED OBJECTS

• An object of a primary colour (red, blue, green) only reflects light of the same colour.
→ Example: A blue object only reflects blue light.
• An object of a secondary colour (yellow, magenta, cyan) reflects light of the same
colour and the primary colours that form it.
→ Example: A magenta object reflects magenta, red and blue lights.
• A white object appears white in white light because a white object reflects all colours.
No coloured lights are absorbed.
• A black object appears black because all coloured light are absorbed by it. No coloured
light is reflected.
• Absorption of light by coloured object is based on the principle of substraction of
coloured light.

Function of Rod Cells and Cone Cells in The Eye


• The retina contains two types of cell that are sensitive to light stimulus:

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a) Rod cells
- Sensitive to light of low intensity
- Not sensitive to colour
- Only a black and white image is produced

b) Cone cells
- Sensitive to light of high intensity to detect colour
- Three types: Each is sensitive to red, green and blue light

7.7 EFFECTS OF MIXING PIGMENTS

A. Pigment and Their Uses


• PIGMENT: Materials that absorb some colours of light and reflect other colours.

Field Use
Construction In making paint
Industry In making colour dye for cloth and textile
Art In making water colour and oil paint
Food technology In making food colouring
Transportation In making spray paints for vehicles

B. Effects of Mixing Pigment


• The primary colour of pigments are red, blue and yellow.
• Mixing pigments is based on the principle of substraction of coloured lights.

blue
green violet

black

orange
yellow red

• Pigments are not pure as coloured lights. Pigments have the property of absorbing and
reflecting certain colours when shone on by white light.
• Example: Blue pigment reflects violet, blue and green light.

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• When two pigments are mixed, the colour produced is the colour reflected by both
pigments.

Colour of pigment Colour obtained


Red + yellow Orange
Cyan + yellow Green
Magenta + yellow Red
Blue + yellow Green
Magenta + yellow + cyan Black

EXERCISE
1. Put a tick (√) for a correct statement and cross (X) for the wrong statement.
a) The colour of an opaque object depends on the colour of the light reflected.( )
b) A primary coloured object only reflects the light of the same colour. ( )

c) A white object absorbs all colour all colours in the white light. ( )
d) A black object reflects all colours in the white light. ( )

2. Where are the rod cell and cone cell situated in the eye?
_______________________________________________________________________
_
3. Pigment is a material that ______________ and _____________ certain coloured light.
4. Paint and colouring contain __________________.
5. The primary colours of pigment are ____________, _____________ and ____________.
6. Mixing pigment is based on the principle of ________________________________.