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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENT
1

Abstract / Summary

Introduction

Aims / Objectives

Theory

Apparatus and Material

Experimental procedure

Result

Sample calculation

Discussion

PAGE

10 Conclusion
11 Recommendation
12 References / Appendix

ABSTRACT
This experiment used Flow Meter Measurement Apparatus which used concept of basic
hydraulic bench by using flow of water. Any incompressible fluid can be measured with different

types of method. This apparatus have three parts of measurements which is orifice, venturimeter
and rotameter. Fluids that enter this apparatus will flow in different types of flow path which is
different in pressure, velocity and types of flow (laminar or turbulent). By using this apparatus,
the data of properties of fluid flow in motion is accurate eventhough there is pressure drop in
each types of path.

INTRODUCTION
There are a lot of applications of measurement of fluid flow in daily life such as measurement of
blood flow rates in human artery, measurement of liquid oxygen in a rocket, measurement of
fluid flow in industrial machines and so on. Output of the instrument can be calculated by
having accurate pressure and temperature. Flow meter principles that widely used in daily life is
by placing a fixed area flow restriction at the certain part of pipe or duct that carrying the fluid.
At the point that has flow restriction, there is pressure drop that relate with the flow rate. Each
type of the flow measurement devices has its own advantages and disadvantage. Devices that
used in the flow measurement devices are venture meter and orifice.

Venture Meter

Venturi meter is a device that can decrease pressure and increase velocity by using its tube which
is constricted. It can measure compressible and incompressible fluid. When any fluids flow
through the constricted part, the velocity measured after passing the constricted part is higher

than velocity measured before entering the constricted part. The diameter constricted part is
smaller than the diameter of the pipeline. Thats why there is difference velocity reading.
Discharge of the fluid can be calculated by measuring the pressure drop. This venturi meter used
Bernoulli principles which state that an inviscid flow of a nonconducting fluid, an increase in
the speed of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the
fluid's potential energy. Venturi tube is suitable for viscous, clean and dirty liquid. Pressure loss
is low and its viscocity is high.

Orifice Meter

Figure (2) shown above is an orifice meter which made of thin and flat orifice plate which has a
circular hole at the centre of the plate. There is two pressure tap which is tap upstream and tap
downstream. The taps can be place at three places which each of the place have different value of
coefficient.
The first one known as flange location which is the position of the tap is 1 inch for both upstream
and downstream from the face of orifice. Next, vena contracta which is located 1 inch pipe
diameter (actual inside) upstream and 0.3-0.8 inch pipe diameter from face of the orifice. The
last one tap location is 2.5 times nominal pipe diameter upstream and 8 times nominal pipe
diameter from face of orifice. This tap location is known as pipe location.
Discharge coefficient is denoted with symbol , Co which varies with changes in area ratio and
Reynolds number. Usually, the standard value of discharge coefficient is 0.6 but when the value
of Reynolds number is low, it varies. The pressure loss is medium and the viscocity effect is
high.

OBJECTIVES

To investigate and contrast the operation and characteristics of three different basics types
of flow meter which venture, variable, and orifice including accuracy and energy losses.
To measure a pressure drop at different segment of device
To determine a flow rate through a pipe.

THEORY
Venturi meter and orifice meter use principle of Bernoulli equation to yield the result:
P1 v 12
P2 v 22
+ +z = + +z
g 2 g 1 g 2 g 2
z 1=z 2
2

P 1 v 1 P2 v 2
+ = +
g 2 g g 2 g
P1 P 2 v 22v 12
=
g
2g
Q1=Q2
A 1 v 1= A2 v 2

v 1=

A2 v 2
A1
2

A 2 v2 / A 1

v 22
P1P2
=
g
So,

A2/ A1

1
v 22

1
v 2=

Q=Cd A 2 V 2
(3) in (4)
1

Cd A
Q= 2

Flow rate,

2 P=

2 gh
P

Where;
h : head difference in meter (m) from the manometer readings for the appropriate meter
g : acceleration due to gravity (m/s2)
Cd : discharge coefficient for meter
A1 : area of the test pipe upstream of the meter (m2)
A2 : throat area of the meter (m2)
Use of discharge coefficient, Cd is necessary because of the simplifying assumptions made when
applying the Bernoulli equations. Values of this coefficient are determined by experiment; the
assumed values used in the software are:
Venturi meter Cd= 0.98
Orifice plate Cd =0.63

APPARATUS

Staddle
Valve

Manomete
r Tubes
Rotamet
er
Discharg
e Valve
Water
Outlet

900 Elbow

Water
Supply
Orifice
Venturi

PROCEDURE
General start-up
1. The flow control valve of hydraulic bench were fully closed while the discharge discharged
valve were fully opened.

2. The pump supply from hydraulic bench were started up and the bench valve were opened
slowly.
3. When the flow in the pipe was steady and there were no trapped bubble, the bench valve was
closed to reduce the flow to the maximum measurable flow rate.
4. If the water level of manometer was too high, the water level can be adjusted by using staddle
valve.
5. The discharge valve were fully closed and the flow were slowly reduced by controlled the
flow discharge valve.
6. The water in the manometer was level into a straight level.

A. Operation and characteristic of three different basic type of


flowmeter.
1. The rotameter were set at 5 m/min by adjusted the bench valve.
2. The reading of the manometer from A to J were recorded.
3. The time taken in minutes for every 3 L volume were recorded to calculated the flowrate.
4. Step 1 was repeated by different level such as 10 m/min,15m/min and 20m/min.
5. The flowrate for the venturi and orifice were calculated by using Bernoullis equation.

B. Loss coefficient of fluid through a 90 degree elbow.


1. The rotameter were set at 5 m/min by adjusted the bench valve.
2. The reading of the manometer from I and J were recorded.
3. The time taken in minutes for every 3 L volume was recorded to calculated the flowrate.
4. Step 1 was repeated by different level such as 10 m/min,15 m/min and 20m/min.
5. The graph H against
losses.

v2
2 g for 90 degree elbow were plotted to determine the coefficient of

General shut-down procedures


1. The water supply valve and the venturi discharge valve were closed.
2. The water supply pump was turned off.
3. The water was drained off from the unit when not in use.

RESULTS
Operation and Characteristics of Three Different Basic Types of
Flowmeter
Manometer reading (mm)

Rotameter
( l/min)

Volume
( l)

Time
(min)

259

25
8

24
8

25
5

25
6

25
8

25
8

23
2

24
3

24
2

0.5138

285

28
0

24
0

26
6

27
1

27
6

27
7

19
3

22
5

22
3

10

330

31
8

24
2

29
0

30
3

31
3

31
3

12
2

19
9

19
5

15

365

34
5

22
5

30
3

32
1

33
8

33
8

29

14
9

14
2

20

Flowrat
e
( l/min)

Bernoullis
Equation
(l/min)
Venturi

Orifice

5.8388

5.45

5.87

0.2622

11.4416

12.01

10.54

0.1875

16.0000

16.79

15.90

0.1625

18.4615

21.18

20.22

Determination of The Loss Coefficient When Fluid Flows Through a 90


Degree Elbow
Volume (L)

Time (s)

Flowrate
(l/min)

3
3
3
3

30.83
15.73
11.25
9.75

5.8388
11.4416
16.0000
18.4615

Piezometer
Height
Elbow(hi-hj)
1
2
4
7

V (m/s)

V2/2g
(mm)

0.1833
0.3592
0.5023
0.5795

1.7124
6.5762
12.8600
17.1200

p
i
e
z
o
m
e
t
r
i
c
h
e
a
d
(
m
m
)
(

H
)

H against V2/2g
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0

Velocity Head (mm)(V2/2g)

CALCULATION
Demonstration of the operation and characteristic of three different basic
types of flowmeter
For rotameter flowrate = 20 l/min

Venturi Meter
2 1/ 2

[ ( )]

At
Qv =Cd At 1
A

[ 2 g ( h A hC ) ]

[ (

1/2

2.011 104 m2
Qv =0.98 2.011 10 m 1
5.309 104 m2
4

Qv =21.18 l/min

Orifice Meter

2 1/ 2

)]

[ 2 9.81 m/s ( 0.365 m0.225m ) ]

1 /2

1000 l
1 min/60 s

2 1/ 2

( )]

At
Q o=Cd At 1
A

[ 2 g ( h gh h) ]

1/ 2

[ (

1/ 2
2 2

2.011 10 m
Qo=0.98 2.011 10 m 1
4 2
5.309 10 m
4

)]

[ 2 9.81 m/s ( 0.365 m0.225m ) ]

Qo=20.22 l/min

( Qv Q r )

Venturi meter Flow Rate Error=

Qr

100

( 21.1820 )
100
20

Venturi meter Flow Rate Error=

Venturi meter Flow Rate Error=5.9 %


Orifice Meter Flow Rate Error=

Orifice meter Flow Rate Error=

( QoQr )
Qr

100

( 20.2220 )
100
20

Orifice meter Flow Rate Error=1.1

Determination of the loss coefficient when fluid flows through a 90 degree elbow
For Flow Rate, Q = 5.388 l/min = 9.7313 x 10-5 m3/s

V=

Q
A
3

V=

9.7313 10 m / s
2

( 26 103 )
4

()

V =0.1833 m/s
2

V 2 ( 0.1833 m/s )
=
=1.7124 103 m=1.7124 mm
2 g 2 9.81 m/ s

1 /2

1000 l
1 min/60 s

K=

K=

hih j
V 2 /2 g
1
1.7124

K=0.5840

DISCUSSION
From these experiments, we can see the three operations and characteristic of three different
types of flow meter which is venturi meter, orifice meter and variable area meter. We also record
all the readings during these experiments and we can see which one of the flow meter give the
accurate value. Besides that, we also determine the energy losses that occur in the three different
flow meters. After conduct these experiments, we are able to determine the value of flow rate of
three flow meters, the value of flow rate error and the value of head loss.
Besides that, we also determine the value of flow rate error for the three flow meters. From the
results, percentage flow rate error for venturi meter is 5.9% while for the orifice meter is 1.1%.
From the theory, the more efficiency of flow meter has a less flow rate % error. So, from these
results, the orifice has a less flow rate % error. The accuracy of flow meter is depends on the
flow rate % error. From the experiment, we also obtain the value of head loss for the three
flow meters. From the theory, the venturi meter has a low head loss, continued by variable are a
meter and then orifice meter. So, from the results, the value of head loss for venturi meter is
0.0227m, orifice meter is 0.0315m and variable area meter is 0.0556m. We can say that this
result is agreed with the theory.
After calculate the flow rate % error, we noticed that there must be some errors. It is because
from the theory, venturi meter is a more accurate than orifice and variable area meter. From the
calculation, we determine that orifice meter is more accurate than others. Actually, it should be
the venturi meter. We found that one of the major factors that affect the readings is the bubble in
pipeline. Besides that, the position of eyes also gives effect to the manometer reading.

CONCLUSION
As a conclusion, we can say that the most accurate flow meter is a venturi meter. From this
experiment, we determine that the flow rate % error for venturi meter is higher than the orifice
meter. From the theory, the more efficiency of flow meter has a less flow rate % error.

RECOMMENDATION
After conduct this experiment, we can say that value of flow rate and the flow rate %error are
not follow the theoritical results. From the theory, the most accurate flow meter is a venturi
meter. So, it means that the most efficiency flow meter has a less value of flow rate %error. In
this experiment, the value of flow rate % error for venturi meter is higher than the orifice meter.
For the first recommendation for this experiment is make sure that there is no bubble in the
pipeline. The existence of bubble may cause the less accuracy of flow meter. The second is make
sure there is no small particles in the fluid because some of the devices are very sensitive to these
particles. Besides that, during record the manometer reading, make sure the position of eyes is
parallel to the level of reading

REFERENCES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernoulli%27s_principle
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venturi_effect
http://www.slideshare.net/NofalUmair/fluid-mechanics-applications
http://fluidmechanics-megan.blogspot.my/
http://www.scienceclarified.com/everyday/Real-Life-Chemistry-Vol-3-Physics-Vol1/Fluid-Mechanics-Real-life-applications.html
6. https://www.scribd.com/doc/39317662/Flow-Measurement
7. https://www.scribd.com/doc/47666485/Experiment-No-4-Flow-Measurements
8. https://www.scribd.com/doc/47475587/Lab-1-Fluid-flowmeters-me-final

APPENDICES