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The Scientific

Chapter 4 The Exchange of Ideas

The Exchange of Ideas and Worldview

How do you think

Knowledge affected
both the Society and
Beliefs of
Renaissance Europe?

Roots in Humanism
Remember: Humanism focused on the idea that an
individual had the power to find truth for themselves.
Scholars should have an open, questioning mind.
Humanism sparked an interest in the world around us.
Coupled with knowledge from the Classical Civilizations and
contact with the more advanced Muslim world, Europe
began to catch up with the rest of the world.

The Scientific Method

The process of making
observations, experimenting,
and drawing conclusions based
on evidence is known as the
Scientific Method
This lead to massive advances
in astronomy, medicine and
Once a hypothesis has been
rigorously tested, it becomes a
law or theory!
Are there any scientific laws or
theories that you know of?

Why would people have a problem with
Copernicus model?
Religious Concept of the

Ptolemy Concept of the


Copernicus Concept of the


Renaissance Profile: Nicolaus Copernicus

Polish Astronomer
Got ideas from ancient Greeks whose
ideas were not accepted in their day
Discovered that the Earth is a planet
which moves around a stationary sun
Heliocentrism Sun is the center
Wrote On the Revolutions of the
Celestial Spheres

Renaissance Profile: Johannes Kepler

German mathematician and astronomer
Tried to combine Ptolemys and
Copernicuss systems. Spent 20 years
using mathematics to test and prove
his ideas
Concluded that planets travelled in an
elliptical (oval) orbit, not perfect circles
as Copernicus believed
These works also provided one of the
foundations forIsaac Newton's theory
ofuniversal gravitation

Renaissance Profile: Galileo Galilei

Italian astronomer, mathematician, physicist
Built telescopes and studied objects in the sky
Through observation confirmed Copernicuss
idea of a Sun-centered universe. Saw sun spots,
craters and mountains on the moon, the stars of
the Milky Way, and Jupiters moons
He was tried by the Inquisition, found
"vehemently suspect of heresy", forced to
recant, and spent the rest of his life under
house arrest

Other Scientific Advances




During the Renaissance,

knowledge of anatomy and
surgery grew.
Scientific Method began
being applied to the human
body and how it worked.
People with knowledge of
herbal remedies took on an
important role treating the

Renaissance Profile: Andreas Vesalius

A professor at
University of Padua
Dissected bodies in a
lecture hall
Wrote On the fabric of
the human body

Renaissance Profile: Francois Rabelais

French humanist and

Published translated
works on medicine by
Greek thinkers
Hippocrates and Galen

Renaissance Profile: Leonardo da Vinci

anItalianpolymathwhose areas of
interest included invention, painting,
sculpting, architecture, science, music,
mathematics, engineering, literature,
anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany,
writing, history, and cartography
He has been variously called the
father of paleontology, ichnology, and
architecture, and is widely considered
one of the greatest painters of all time
revered for his technological ingenuity
Today, Leonardo is widely recognised
as one of the most diversely talented
individuals ever to have lived in the

The works of ancient mathematical scientists like Euclid
(geometry) and al-Khwarizmi (algebra) were studied with
new vigor during the Renaissance.
Thinkers like Leonardo da Vinci thought mathematics was
the basic tool for understanding the universe.
Mathematics was also essential for merchants and the new
economy of Europe. Growth of trade and commerce.
The concept of zero from ancient India and the decimal
system refined by Muslim civilizations became crucial.

Renaissance Profile: Filippo Brunelleschi

Rediscovered the mathematical
theory of perspective drawings.
Developed a technique through
1. Began painting over a reflection
of a building called the Baptistry
on the surface of a mirror.
2. Then he drilled a hole in the
painting and peered through it to
look at a mirror of the building.
3. By moving the mirror in and out
of his way, he could tell if the
building was drawn accurately.