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 Melody is a succession of notes heard as some sort of unit. It is a single line of tones that moves
up, down, or stays the same using steps, skips and repeated tones.
 (armony is the relationship between two or more simultaneous pitches or pitch simultaneities.
 Vhythm is the variation of the accentuation of sounds over time.
 mone color is timbre.
 „orm is the structure of a particular piece, how its parts are put together to make the whole.
 ›itch is the perception of the frequency of the sound experienced, and is perceived as how ͚low͟
or ͞high͟ ma sound is, and maybe further described as definite pitch or indefinite pitch. It
includes: melody, harmony, tonality, tessitura, and tuning or temperature (Ibid).
 mimbre is the quality of a sound, determined by the fundamental and its spectra: overtones or
harmonics and envelope, and varies between voices and types and kinds of musical instruments,
which are tools used to produce sound. It includes: tone color and articulation (Ibid).
 Intensity, or dynamics, is how loud or quiet a sound is and includes how stressed a sound is or
 juration is the temporal aspect of music; time. It includes: pulse, beat, rhythm, rhythmic
density, meter, tempo (Ibid).


Voice classification is the process by which human voices are evaluated and are thereby
designated into voice types. mhese qualities include but are not limited to: vocal range, vocal
weight, vocal tessitura, vocal timbre, and vocal transition points such as breaks and lifts within
the voice. Voice classification is a tool for singers, composers, venues, and listeners to
categorize vocal properties, and to associate possible roles with potential voices.


An instrumental is a musical composition or recording without lyrics or any other sort of vocal
music; all of the music is produced by musical instruments. An instrumental version of a song
which otherwise features vocals, is also known as a -1 (pronounced minus one).


mhe most commonly used system in use in the west today divides instruments into string
instruments, wind instruments and percussion instruments.


 is a travelling wave which is an oscillation of pressure transmitted through a solid, liquid,
or gas, composed of frequencies within the range of hearing and of level sufficiently strong to be
heard, or the sensation stimulated in organs of hearing by such vibrations.

  is the property of a sound that allows the construction of melodies; pitches are compared
as ͞higher͟ and ͞lower͟, and are qualified as frequencies (cycles per second, or hertz),
corresponding very nearly to the repetition of sound waves.

jurations, and their beginnings and endings, maybe described as long, short, or taking a specific
amount of time. Often duration is described according to terms borrowed from descriptions of


   (originally spelled Cundiman) is a genre of traditional „ilipino love songs. mhe lyrics of
the Kundiman are written in magalog. mhe melody is characterized by a smooth, flowing and
gentle rhythm with dramatic intervals. Kundiman was the traditional means of serenade in the

mhe  or Kundiman is a lyrical song made popular in the ›hilippine Islands, which dates
back to the Spanish period. Composed in the Mexican-Spanish tradition, the music is
characterized by a minor key at the beginning and shifts to a major key in the second half. Its
lyrics depict romantic theme, usually portraying love, passion, or sadness.

 (meaning loving or affectionate one), is a ›hilippine national dance from the Maria
Clara suite of the ›hilippine folk dances, where the fan, and handkerchief plays an instrument
role s its places the couple in romance scenario. mhe dance is similar to the Jarabe mapatio. mhe
cariñosa is accompanied with (ispanic music, and language.

mhe V
 is performed on ensembles comprising mandolin instruments of various sizes
bandurria composed on the Iberian tradition. Other instruments including guitars, is also

Since the year 2000, the quality and diversity of ›hilippine music video has greatly improved.


  is the art of written works. Literally translated, the word means ͞ acquaintance with
letters͟ (from Latin littera letter), and therefore the academic study of literature is known as
letters (as in the phrase ͞Arts and letters͟). In Western culture the most basic written literary
types include fiction and nonfiction



Classification is a figure of speech linking a proper noun to a common noun using the or other
articles. magalong is an Austronesian language spoken in the ›hilippines by about 22 million


Most of the notable literature of the ›hilippines was written during the Spanish period.
›hilippine literature is written in Spanish, „ilipino, English, and other native ›hilippine languages.

Compared to other Asian nations, the ›hilippine Islands has very few artifacts that show
evidence of Asian writing. (owever, a script called Baybayin, was used in Luzon when the
Spaniards settled the Islands in 1521.

mhe Spaniards recorded that Indigenous people in Manila, and among other native groups in the
›hilippines, wrote on bamboo, and specially prepared Arecaceae plm leaves, using knives, and
styli. mhey were using the primitive magalog script which had basic symbols. mhese were the
vowels a/e, I, and o/u. Each basic consonantal symbol had the inherent  sound: ka, ga, nga, ta,
da, na, pa, ba, ma, ya, la, wa, sa, and ha.
A diacritical mark, called ͞kudlit͟, modified the sound of the symbol. mhe kudlit could be a dot, a
line, or even an arrowhead. When placed above the symbol, it changed the inherent sound of
the symbol from   to , placed below, the sound became  . mhus a   with a kudlit
placed above became a , if the kudlit was placed below, the symbol became a  

In 1863, the Spanish government introduced public education. mhis had an important role in the
rise of an educated class called the ͞Ilustrado͟ (meaning, well-informed). Members of this
group included the ›hilippine national hero, Jose Vizal, who wrote literary novels in Spanish. (is
novels included ͞Noli Me mangere͟ (mouch Me Not), and El „ilibusterismo͟ (mhe Veign of Greed),
considered a ›hilippine classical literature. Other popular writers include „rancisco Balagtas
who is recognized for this novel called ͞„lorante at Laura͟ („lorante and Laura).

mhe ›hilippine historical documents such as the national anthem, the Malolos Constitution or
Constitucion ›olitica de Malolos, and the revolutionary propaganda is also considered a classical
literature. ›hilippine literature propagated in the Spanish language, especially in the writings of
Marcelo (. jel ›ilar who produced the La Solidaridad ( mhe Solidarity). In Cebu City, the first
Spanish newspaper, ͞El Boletín de Cebú͟ (mhe bulletin of Cebu), was published in 1890.

mhe greatest portion of Spanish literature made by ›hilippine scholars was written during the
American period. One of the ›hilippines͛ famous writers, Claro M. Vecto, continued writing in
Spanish. Other well-known Spanish language writers were Isidro Marfori, Cecilio Apostol,
„ernando Guerrero, „lavio Zaragoza Cano, Jesus Balmori, Enrique „ernandez Lumba, and
„rancisco Zaragoza.

›ropaganda, moralizing, psychological continuum of the individual therapeutic value.



A literary element (or element of literature) is an individual aspect or characteristic of a whole

work of literature.


Literary elements are not ͞used͟ by authors; rather, they exist inherently in forms of literature
and are derived by the readers of a work in question. mheme, characterization, conflict, setting,
protagonist, antagonist, and point of view are among the many literary elements that exist.
mhey can be about the setting, plot, or even the characters. An example of this is

Literary elements are most frequently used to aid discussion on a work or better understand a
work of literature. „or instance, the New York State English/ Language Arts Vegents Exam
requires that students utilized and discuss literary elements relating to specific works in two of
their four essays, much like many other high school exams statewide.



A poem is a composition written in verse (although verse has been equally used for epic and
dramatic fiction). ›oems rely heavily on imagery, precise word choice, and metaphor; they may
take the form of measures consisting of patterns of stresses (metric feet) or of patterns of
different-length syllables (as in classical prosody); and they may or may not utilized rhyme. One
cannot readily characterize poetry precisely. mypically though, poetry as a form of literature
makes some significant use of the ›
 properties of the words it uses ʹ the properties of the
written or spoken form of the words, independent of their meaning. Meter depends on
syllables and on rhythms of speech; rhyme and alliteration depend on the sounds of words.