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IRC:78-2014

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS AND


CODE OF PRACTICE
FOR ROAD BRIDGES
SECTION

VII

FOUNDATIONS AND SUBSTRUCTURE


(Revised Edition)
(Incorporating

all

Amendments and

INDIAN

Errata Published upto December, 2013)

ROADS CONGRESS
2014

Digitized by the Internet Archiive


in

2014

https://archive.org/details/govlawircy201478

IRC:78-2014

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS AND


CODE OF PRACTICE
FOR ROAD BRIDGES

SECTION

VII

FOUNDATIONS AND SUBSTRUCTURE


(Revised Edition)
(Incorporating

all

Amendments and Errata Published upto December,

2013)

Published by

INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS


Kama Koti Marg, R.K. Puram,
New Delhi- 10022
1

Price ? 700/-

(Plus packing

&

postage)

IRC:78-2014
1980 (as

First

Published

July,

First

Revision

December, 1983 (Incorporating Part


1,2

and 3

Part-I)

September, 1988

Reprinted

October, 1994

Reprinted

September, 1998

Reprinted

September, 2000

Second Revision

December, 2000
April,

and Amendment

to Parti)

Reprinted

Reprinted

II

2002

Reprinted

August, 2004 (Incorporates the Amendments)

Reprinted

August, 2005

Reprinted

August, 2007 (Incorporates the

Amendments

dated 30.11.2006)

Revised Edition

January, 2014 (Incorporating

all

Amendments and

Published upto December, 2013)

(All

Rights Reserved.

No

Part of this publication shall be reproduced,

translated or transmitted in

any form or by any means without the

permission of the Indian Roads Congress)

Printed

at:

Aravali Printers

&

Publishers Pvt.

(1000 Copies)

ii

Ltd.,

Errata

IRC:78-2014

CONTENTS
Page No.

Clause
No.
Personnel of Bridges Specifications and Standards Committee

vii

Background

700

Scope

701

Terminology

701.1

Abutment

701.2

Afflux

o
o

701.3

Balancer

701.4

Bearing Capacity

701.5

Bearing Stress

701.6

Cofferdam

701.7

Foundation

701.8

Pier

701.9

Piles

701.10

Retaining Wall

701

Substructure

Well Foundation

11

701.12

702

Notations

703

Discharge and Depth of Scour

704

705

706

7
for

Foundation Design

703.1

Design Discharge of Foundation

703.2

Mean Depth

703.3

Maximum Depth

of

Scour
of

9
10

Scour

for

Design of Foundations

Sub-surface Exploration

11

12

704.1

Objectives

12

704.2

Zone

13

704.3

Methods

of Influence

13

of Exploration

Depth of Foundation

13

705.1

General

13

705.2

Open Foundations

14

705.3

Well Foundations

14

705.4

Pile

15

Foundations

Loads, Forces, Stability and Stresses


706.1

Loads, Forces and their Combinations

iii

15
15

IRC:78-2014

707

708

709

706.2

Horizontal Forces at Bearing Level

16

706.3

Base Pressure

17

19

Open Foundations
707.1

General

19

707.2

Design

19

707.3

Open Foundations

707.4

Construction

at

Sloped Bed

21

Profile

22
23

Well Foundations
708.1

General

23

708.2

Well Steining

23

708.3

Design Considerations

25

708.4

Stability of

708.5

Tilts

708.6

Cutting

708.7

Well Curb

28

708.8

Bottom Plug

29

708.9

Filling

708.10

Plug over

708.11

Well

708.12

Floating Caissons'

708.13

Sinking of Wells

708. 1 4

Pneumatic Sinking of Wells

30

708. 1 5

Sinking of Wells by Resorting to Blasting

31

Pile

and

26

Well Foundations

27

Shifts

28

Edge

29

the Well

29

Filling

Cap

29
30

30

'

Foundation

31

709.1

General

709.2

Requirement and Steps

709.3

Geotechnical Capacity of Pile

36

709.4

Structural Design of Piles

40

709.5

Design of

709.6

31

Pile

for

Design and

Installation

Cap

34

40

Important Consideration, Inspection/Precautions for


Different

Types

41

of Piles

iv

IRC:78-2014
44

Substructure
710.1

General

44

710.2

Piers

45

710.3

Wall Piers

46

710.4

Abutments

46

710.5

Abutment Pier

47

710.6

Dirt Walls,

710.7

Retaining Walls

710.8

Pier

710.9

Cantilever

710.10

Pedestals below Bearing

Wing Walls and Return Walls

49

and Abutment Caps

Cap

48

of Abutment

49
and Pier

51

51

Appendixes
Factor for Bed Material Consisting of Clay

53

1.

Guidelines for Calculating

2.

Guidelines for Sub-surface Exploration

54

3.

Procedure

67

4.

Precautions to be taken during Sinking of Wells

71

5.

Capacity of Pile Based on Pile Soil Interaction

76

6.

Filling

7.

Part-1-Pile

Silt

for Stability Calculation

Behind Abutments, Wing and Return Walls

Load Capacity by Dynamic Test Using Wave Equation

Part-2-Standard Test Method for

Low

Strain Pile Integrity Testing

82

84
93

IRC:78-2014

PERSONNEL OF THE BRIDGES SPECIFICATIONS


AND STANDARDS COMMITTEE
(As on 6.1.2014)

1.

2.

3.

Kandasamy,

Director General (RD)

C.

&

Spl. Secy, to

Govt, of India, Ministry of Road

New

(Convenor

Transport and Highways, Transport Bhavan,

Patankar, V.L.

Addl. Director General, Ministry of Road Transport and Highways

(Co-Convenor)

Transport Bhavan,

Pathak, A.P.

Chief Engineer (B) S&R, (Ministry of RoadTransport

(Member-Secretary )

Transport Bhavan,

New

New

Delhi

Delhi

&

Highways,

Delhi

Members

CPWD

4.

Agrawal, K.N.

DG(W),

5.

Alimchandani, C.R.

Chairman

Ghaziabad

(Retd.)

& Managing

Director,

STUP Consultants

(P) Ltd.,

Mumbai

MORTH, New

6.

Arora, H.C.

Chief Engineer (Retd.)

7.

Bagish, Dr. B.P.

C-2/2013, Vasant Kunj,Opp. D.P.S.New Delhi

8.

Bandyopadhyay,

Dr.

9.

Bandyopadhyay,

Dr. T.K.

10.

Banerjee, A.K.

Chief Engineer (Retd.)

MORTH, New

Delhi

11.

Banerjee,T.B.

Chief Engineer (Retd.)

MORTH, New

Delhi

12.

Basa,

13.

Bhasin,

14.

Bhowmick, Alok

Ashok
P.C.

N.

New

Director, Stup Consultants (P) Ltd.

Joint Director General (Retd.)

ADG

(B), (Retd.),

Managing

MOST, New

Director, Bridge

&

Delhi

INSDAG, Kolkata

&

Director (Tech.) B. Engineers

Delhi

Builders Ltd.,

Bhubaneswar

Delhi
Structural Engg. Consultants (P) Ltd.,

Noida

Mumbai

15.

Bongirwar, PL.

Advisor, L&T,

16.

Dhodapkar, A.N.

Chief Engineer (Retd.)

17.

GhoshalA

Director and Vice President,

18.

Joglekar,S.G.

Vice President,

19.

Kand,, C.V.

Chief Engineer (Retd.), MP,

20.

Koshi,

21.

Kumar, Ashok

Chief Enginee (Retd.),

22.

Kumar, Prafulla

DG

23.

Kumar, Vijay

E-in-Chief (Retd.) UP,

Ninan

DG(RD)

(RD)

MORTH, New

STUP Consultants

STUP Consultants

& Addl.Secy.,

(Retd)

(P) Ltd.

PWD
MOST,

New

(Retd.)

PWD,

New

(P)

Mumbai

Bhopal

MORTH, New

& AS, MORT&H

vii

Delhi

Delhi

Delhi
Delhi

Ltd.

Kolkata

IRC:78-2014
24.

Manjure,

25.

Mukherjee, M.K.

Chief Engineer (Retd.)

26.

Nagpal, A.K.

Prof.

27.

Narain, A.D.

DG

28.

Ninan, R:S.

Chief Engineer (Retd.)

29.

Pandey, R.K.

Chief Engineer (Planning),

30.

Parameswaran,

Concrete Co.

Director, Freyssinet Prestressed

P.Y.

IIT,

(RD)

New

MOST, New

Mumbai

Delhi

Delhi

& AS, MORT&H

New

(Retd.)

MORTH New

Delhi
Delhi

MORTH, New

New

Dr.

Chief Scientist (BAS), CRRI,

S.

Vice President (Corporate Affairs).

Delhi

Delhi

Lakshmy
31.

Raizada, Pratap

32.

Rao,

33.

Roy, Dr. B.C.

Dr.

M.V.B.

Senior Consultant, Ms.

Gammon

SNC LAVALIN

India Ltd.

Mumbai

Infrastructure Pvt. Ltd.

Senior Executive Director, M/s. Consulting Engg. Services India


(Pvt.) Ltd.

Gurgaon

Executive Director Construma Consultancy (P) Ltd.

34.

Saha,

35.

Sharan, G.

DG(RD) & Spl.Secy

36.

Sharma,

Chief Engineer (Retd.)

37.

Sinha, N.K.

38.

Subbarao,

Dr. G.P.

R.S.

DG(RD)&SS,
Chairman

Dr.

(Retd.)

Mumbai

39.

Tandon, Mahesh

Managing

40.

Thandavan,

Chief Engineer (Retd.)

41.

Velayutham,,

V.

DG

42.

Viswanathan,

T.

7046, Sector

43.

The Executive Director

Director,

(RD) SS (Retd.)
B,

Dellhi

MORTH New

Delhi

MORT&H New

Delhi

& Managing

Harshavardhan

K.B.

MORTH, New

(Retd.)

Director,

Construma Consultancy

Tandon Consultants

MORH, New

MORTH, New

Pocket 10

Mumbai

(P) Ltd.,

New

(P) Ltd

Delhi

Delhi

Delhi

Vasant Kunj ,New Delhi

RDSO, Lucknow

(B&S)

The Director and Head,

44.

(Civil

Bureau of Indian Standards,

New

Delhi

Engg.),

r;

Corresponding Members

1.

Raina, Dr. V.K.

Consultant (W.B.)

2.

Singh, R.B.

Director, Projects Consulting India (P) Ltd.

Ex-off'icio
1

Kandasamy, C.

2.

Prasad, Vishnu

Delhi

Members

Director General (RD)


India,

New

MoRT&H

&

Special Secretary to Govt, of

and President, IRC,

New

Delhi

Secretary General, Indian Roads Congress,

Shankar
viii

New

Delhi

IRC:78-2014

FOUNDATIONS AND SUBSTRUCTURE

BACKGROUND
The "Standard

Specifications

and Code

Foundations and Substructure was

first

Features of Design. Later first revision


Part

II

of this

the

and Amendments

1,2

and 3

Road Bridges" Section VII July 1980 as Part - General

of Practice for

published

in

was published

to Part

in

December, 1983 incorporating

as Unified Code. The second revision

code was undertaken by the Foundation and Structure Committee (B-4) and

initial

draft

was

finalized

Sarma Subsequently,
.

by the Committee under the Convenorship of Shri R.H.

the draft

was reconsidered and discussed

in

various meetings

by the reconstituted Foundation, Substructure and Protective Works Committee (B-4)

under Convenorship of Shri S.A Reddi. The

as approved by Convenor

final draft

Committee was subsequently approved by the Executive Committee


held on 30.8.2000.

It

was

later

approved by the Council

Kolkata on 4.11.2000 for publishing the revised IRC

in its

in

meeting

160th meeting held at

Code Section

Since then numerous amendments and errata were published to

development

in its

BSS

VII:

this

IRC: 78:2000.

Code based on

design and construction technology.

The current Revised

Edition of IRC:78 includes

all

the

amendments and

errata

published from time to time upto December, 2013.

The Revised

Edition of IRC:78 "Standard Specifications

Bridges" Section VII


till

date

all

of Practice for

amendments and

Road

Errata published

was approved by Foundations and Substructure Foundation Substructure

Protective
1

- Foundation incorporating

and Code

Works and Masonry Structures Committee

6.1 0.201 3.

The Revised

Edition of IRC:78

and Standards Committee

in its

(B-3)

in

its

meeting held on

was approved by the Bridges Specifications

meeting held on 06.01 .2014 and Executive Committee

held on 09.01.2014 for publishing.

The composition

of the B-3

Committee

is

given below:

Bongirwar, P.L

Convenor

Joglekar, S.G.

Co-Convenor

Kanhere, D.K.

Member-Secretary

IRC:78-2014

Members
Bagish, BP.

Chonkar, Ravindra

Dhiman, R.K.

Deshmukh,

Elavarson R,

Ganpule,

Dr. V.V.

Dr. V.T.

(expired on 15.03.2013)

Gandhi, Prof. S.R

Jaigopal, R.K.

Kothyari, Prof. U.C. (expired on 30.12.2012)

Karandikar, D.V.

Kand,

Dr.

C.V

Mhaiskar, Dr.S.Y.

Marwah, M.P.

Nashikkar, Jayant

Nayak,

Ray, S.

Dr. N.V.

Saha, Smt. S.DNigade,.

Subbarao,

Saha,

Singh, M.N.

Dr. G.P.

Singh, Rajeev

Velyutham,

Dr. H.

V.

Corresponding Members
Basa, Ashok

Dey, Prof. S.

Heggade, V.N.

Mazumder,Prof. S.K.

Paul, Dipankar

Pitchumani, Dr. N.

Sarma, R.H.

Tarapore, Dr. Z.S.

Viswanathan,

t.

Ex-Officio

Members

C.Kandasamy

(Road Development) & Special


Secretary, MoRT&H and President, IRC

Vishnu Shankar Prasad

Secretary General, IRC

Director General

IRC:78-2014

SCOPE

700

This code deals with the design and construction of foundations and substructure

road bridges. The provisions of

code are meant to serve as a guide to both


the design and construction engineers, but mere compliance with the provisions
stipulated herein will not relieve them in any way of their responsibility for the stability
and soundness of the structure designed and erected.
for

701
The

this

TERMINOLOGY

following definitions shall be applicable for the purpose of this code.

Abutment

701.1

The end support

of the

approaches behind

Box

701.1.1

When

fully

deck (superstructure) of a bridge, which also retains

earth,

fill

of

or partly.

type abutment

and return

wall

the return walls on two sides are integrated with abutment and a back wall parallel to

abutment

is

provided at the end of returns with or without additional internal wall along or

across length,

701.1.2

this structure is called

box type abutment and return

end

wall, or

block.

Non-load bearing abutment

Abutment, which supports the end span of less than 5 m.


701.1.3

Non-spill through

An abutment
701.1.4

structure

Spill

abutment

where the

soil is

not allowed to

spill

through.

through abutment

An abutment where

soil is

allowed to

spill

through gaps, along the length of abutment, such

column structure where columns are placed below deck beams and gap

as,

free to

spill

earth. (Spilling of earth should not

be permitted above a

level of

in

500

between

is

mm below

the bottom of bearings).

701.2

The

Afflux

rise in the flood level of the river

immediately on the upstream of a bridge as a result of

obstruction to natural flow caused by the construction of the bridge and

its

approaches.

IRC:78-2014
Balancer

701.3

A bridge/culvert like structure


of the

embankment

provided on

to other side, for

embankment to

allow flow of water from one side

purpose of avoiding heading up of water on one side

or for avoiding blocking the entry to the other side.

Bearing Capacity

701.4

The supporting power

expressed as bearing stress

of soil/rock

is

referred to as

it

bearing

capacity.

Allowable bearing pressure

701.4.1

It

the

is

maximum

gross pressure intensity at which neither the

accounting for appropriate factor of safety) nor there


permissible

is

which

is

expected

to

be detrimental

shear, (after

excessive settlement beyond

to the structure.

Net safe bearing capacity

701 .4.2

it

limits,

is

soil fails in

the net ultimate bearing capacity divided by a factor of safety as per Clause

706.3.1.1.1.

701 .4.3

It

is

Net ultimate bearing capacity

minimum

the

701 .4.4

net pressure intensity causing shear failure of the

Safe bearing capacity

The maximum pressure, which the


is

is

the

fails in

can carry safely without

risk of

shear

failure

and

it

Ultimate gross bearing capacity

minimum gross pressure

Bearing Stress

701 .5. 1

Gross pressure

is

intensity at the

base of the foundation

which the

soil

intensity

the total pressure at the base of the foundation on

of load

at

shear.

701.5

It

soil

equal to the net safe bearing capacity plus original overburden pressure.

701 .4.5

It

soil.

and the weight

701.5.2

of the earth

Net pressure

fill.

intensity

soil

due

to the possible

combinations

IRC:78-2014
It

is

the difference

intensities of the

gross pressure and the original overburden pressure.

Cofferdam

701.6

in

structure temporary built for the purpose of excluding water or soil sufficiently to permit

construction or proceed without excessive

pumping and

to

support the surrounding

ground.

Foundation

701.7

The

part of a bridge

701.8

in

direct contact with

and transmitting load

to the

founding strata.

Pier

Intermediate supports of the deck (superstructure) of a bridge.

Abutment pier

701 .8.1

Generally use

even

if

in

multiple

span arch bridges. Abutment

one side arch span collapses

it

would be

pier

is

designed

for

These are provided

safe.

a condition that

after three or five

spans.

701.9

Piles

701.9.1

Bearing/friction piles

pile

driven or cast-in-situ for transmitting the weight of a structure to the founding strata

by the resistance developed at the

pile

base and by

the load mainly by the resistance developed at


pile,

and

701 .9.2

if

mainly by

Bored

A pile formed with


it

along

its

base,

it

surface, as a friction

is

along

its

If it

supports

referred to as an end-bearing

pile.

cast-in-situ pile

or without a casing by boring a hole

in

the ground and subsequently

filling

pile

Driven cast-in-situ pile

formed

in

the ground by driving a permanent or temporary casing, and

plain or reinforced concrete.

701.9.4

surface.

with plain or reinforced concrete.

701 .9.3

friction

its

friction

pile

Driven pile

driven into the ground by the blows of a

hammer by

a vibrator.

filling

if

with

IRC:78-2014
701.9.5

Precast pile

reinforced or prestressed concrete pile cast before driving, or installing

in

bore and

grouted.

701.9.6

A pile

installed at

701.9.7

One

Raker or batter pile


an

inclination to the vertical.

Sheet pile

or a row of piles driven or formed

continuous

wall,

in

the ground adjacent to one another

each generally provided with a connecting

to resist mainly lateral forces

and

to

reduce seepage;

it

joint or interlock,

may be

in

designed

vertical or at

an

inclination.

701 .9.8

pile

Tension pile

subjected to tension/uplift

701.9.9

a load

is

applied to determine and/or confirm the load characteristics (ultimate

load/working load) of the

One

pile

and the surrounding ground.

Working pile

of the piles forming the foundation of the structure.

701.10

A wall

Retaining Wall

designed

701.10.1

called tension pile.

Test pile

A pile to which

701 .9.1 0

is

to resist the

pressure of earth

filling

behind.

Return wall

wall adjacent to

abutment generally

parallel to

road or flared up to increased width and

raised upto the top of road.

701.10.2

A wall

Toe wall

built at

the end of the slope of earthen

or pitching on

embankment to prevent

embankment.

slipping of earth and/

IRC:78-2014

Wing

701.10.3

A wall

wall

adjacent to abutment with

upto ground level or a

little

its

above

of road or parallel to the river

top upto road top level near abutment and sloping

at the other end. This is generally at

and follows

The bridge

structure,

superstructure.

earthen banks.

A type

such as, pier and abutment above the foundation and supporting the

shall include returns

It

of foundation

where a

part of the structure

and sunk through ground or water


dredge

and wing walls but exclude bearings.

Well Foundation

701.12

hollow, which

is

to the prescribed

is

generally

built in

parts

depth by removing earth through

hole.

710.12.1

Tilt

of a well

inclination of the axis of the well

between the axis

701.12.2

The

45 to the alignment

Substructure

;{ t

The

profile or

down

of the well

and the

from the

vertical

expressed as the tangent of the angle

vertical.

Shift of a well

horizontal displacement of the centre of the well at

its

base

in its final

position from

its

designed position.

702 NOTATIONS
For the purpose of

this

code, the following notations have been adopted:

Dispersed concentric area


1

A2

Loaded area

Width between outer faces of

group

pile

in

plan

parallel

to the

direction

of

movement

The allowable bearing pressure

Cohesion

Co

The permissible

direct

with near uniform distribution on the founding strata

compressive stress

base

Diameter of

pile

in

concrete at the bearing area of the

IRC:78-2014

Db

Discharge

External diameter of circular well

dm

Weighted mean diameter

dsm

Mean depth
~

Fb

Longitudinal force

Centrifugal force

in

cubic metre/sec, (cumecs) per metre width

scour

of

in

due

in

in

metre

mm of bed

metre below flood

materiaj
level

to braking

...

cf

Fw

Deformation effects

Fh

Horizontal force

Fep

pressure
Earth r

Feq

Seismic force

Fer

Erection effects

Frictional force at bearings


f

Fjm

Impact due to floating bodies

Fs

Secondary

Water Current

Temperature effects [See Note

effects

(i)]

te

Fwp

Wave

pressure [See Note

Dead

load

Gb

Buoyancy

Gs

Snow

Minimum thickness

Kg

Co-efficient of active earth pressure

Kp

Co-efficient of passive earth pressure

sf

Silt

(ii)]

load
of steining

in

metre

factor

Length between outer faces of

pile

group

in

plan parallel to the direction of

movement
l
te

Movement

of

deck over bearings, other than due

to applied force

Depth of well

Depth of well

in

metre, up to

MSL.

Standard penetration test value

Pa

Total active pressure

Pp

Total passive pressure

Live load

IRC:78-2014

Rg

Dead

Rq

Live load reaction

Shear

Wind load

CL

Reduction factor

R
H

Ratio of lona side to the short side of the footina

su

Undrained shear strenath

Undrained
III W
chohesion
\/ w

Li

Co-efficient of friction

Angle of

Settlement of

pile

Settlement of

pile

load reaction

NOTES:

'w?

rating of elastomeric bearing

(4

*wfl

\_.

V/

internal friction

group

Temperature effects (FJ in this context is not the frictional force due
of bearing but that which is caused by rib shortening, etc.

i)

The wave forces

ii)

to the

movement

be determined by suitable analysis considering drawing and


on single structural members based on rational methods or
case of group of piles, piers, etc., proximity effects shall also be

shall

inertia forces, etc.,

model

studies. In

considered.

703

DISCHARGE AND DEPTH OF SCOUR FOR


FOUNDATION DESIGN

703.1

Design Discharge of Foundation

703.1.1

To provide

be designed

for

for

and adequate margin

of safety, the scour for foundation shall

a larger discharge over the design discharge determined as per IRC:5 as

given below:

Catchment area

in

km

Increase over design

Discharge
0,-3000

NOTES:

i)

For

percent

30

3000- 10000
10000-40000

Above

in

30-20
20-10

400Q0

intermediate

10
values

of

catchment

adopted.

area,

linear

interpolation

may be

IRC:78-2014
The minimum

ii)

vertical

clearance above the

need not be increased due

Mean Depth

703.2

to larger

HFL

already determined as per IRC:5

discharge calculated above.

of Scour

The mean scour depth below Highest Flood Level (HFL)

for natural

channels flowing over

scourable bed can be calculated theoretically from the following equation:

1
dsm = 1.34/-^) 3

\KsJ

Where

Db

The design discharge

for foundation

per metre width of effective

waterway.

Silt

sf

factor for a representative

sample

of

bed material obtained upto

the level of anticipated deepest scour.

The value

703.2.1

of

Db may

be determined by dividing the design discharge

foundation by lower of theoretical and actual effective linear waterway as given

703.2.2

'K

'

is

sf

in

given by the expression

in

for

IRC:5.

J6jd^ d m being the weighted mean diameter

millimetre.

703.2.2.1

The value

of

sf

for various

grades of sandy bed are given below forready

reference and adoption:

dm

Type of bed material


Coarse silt
sand
Medium sand
Coarse sand
Fine bajri and sand
Heavy sand

Silt/fine

703.2.2.2

No

scour depth

703.2.3

bend

is

0.081 to 0.158

0.5 to 0.7

0.223 to 0.505

0.85 to 1.25

0.725

1.5

0.988

1.75

1.29 to 2.00

2.0 to 2.42

there

of the stream

variation of type of

scour depth for bed material

and boulders (normally having weighted diameter more than 2.00

available. In

may be

If

0.35

rational formula or data for determining

consisting of gravels

and clayey bed

sf

0.04

absence

of

any data on scour

calculated following the guidelines given

is

in

any predominant concentration

of flow

immediate upstream or downstream or

bed materia! across the width


10

for

such material, the mean

in

Appendix-1.

in

any

for

part of

waterway due

any other reason,

of channel, then

mm)

like,

to

wide

mean scour depth may be

IRC:78-2014
calculated by dividing the waterway into compartments as per the concentration of flow.

703.2.4

In

case of bridge mainly adopted as balancer, the mean scour depth

be taken as (Highest Flood Level-Lowest Bed Level) divided by

'd
sm

'

may

1.27.

Scour depth may be determined by actual observations wherever possible.


This is particularly required for clayey and bouldery strata. Soundings, wherever possible,
shall be taken in the vicinity of the site for the proposed bridge and for any structures
nearby. Such soundings are best during or immediately after a flood before the scour
holes have had time to be silted up. The mean scour depth may be fixed based on such
observations and theoretical calculation.
703.2.5

Maximum Depth

703.3

of

Scour for Design of Foundation

The maximum depth of scour below the Highest Flood Level (HFL) for the design
and abutments having individual foundations without any floor protection may be

703.3.1
of piers

considered as follows.

703 .3.7.7

Flood without seismic combination


i)

For piers

2.0

dsm

ii)

For abutments

a)

.27

bed
b) 2.00
'

703 3
.

dsm

with approach retained or lowest

level

dsm

whichever

with scour

is

all

deeper.

around.

Flood with seismic combination

For considering load combination of flood and seismic loads (together with other appropriate

combinations given elsewhere) the

be reduced by multiplying
703.3.1.3

maximum

maximum depth

of scour given

in

Clause 703.3.1 .1 may

factor of 0.9.

For low water level (withoutflood conditions) combined with seismiccombination


level of

scour below high flood

level

can be assumed as 0.8 times scour given

in

Clause 703.3.1.

NOTE

In

respect of viaduct/ROB having no possibility of scour, resistance of

soil

considered below depth of excavation for services construction, or 2.0

ground
703.3.2

level

whichever

is

maximum

scour depth

i)

In

a straight reach

ii)

In

a bend

below

greater.

For the design of floor protection works for

following values of

may be

may be
1

.27

1.50
11

raft

or

open foundations, the

adopted:

dsm

dsm

or on the basis of concentration of flow

IRC:78-2014

The

length of apron on upstream

may be

0.7 times of the

same on downstream.

Special studies should be undertaken for determining the

703.4

depth for the design of foundations

in all

situations

where abnormal

maximum

scour

conditions, such as,

the following are encountered:

a bridge being located on a bend of the river involving a curvilinear flow, or

i)

excessive shoal formation, or


a bridge being located at a site where the deep channel

ii)

one

in

the river hugs to

side, or

iii)

a bridge having very thick piers inducing heavy local scours, or

iv)

where the

v)

where a bridge
river

obliquity of flow in the river

is

considerable, or

is

required to be constructed across a canal, or across a

downstream

of storage works, with the possibility of the relatively

clear water inducing greater scours, or

a bridge

vi)

in

the vicinity of a

where concentration
likely to affect

An

vii)

weir,

barrage or other

irrigation structures

of flow, aggradations/degradation of bed, etc. are

the behavior of the structures.

when

additional tow-lane bridge

major

NOTE:

dam,

located near to the existing bridge, on

rivers.

These studies

shall

be conducted

for the increase

discharge calculated vide Clause

703.1.1.

703.5

If

a river

is

of a flashy nature

and bed does not lend

itself

readily to the

dsm and maximum depth of scour as


maximum depth shall be assessed from

scouring effect of floods, the theoretical formula for

recommended

shall not apply. In

such cases, the

actual observations.

704

SUB-SURFACE EXPLORATION

Objectives

704.1

The
i)

objectives of the sub-surface exploration are:

During Preliminary Investigation Stage

As a

part of site selection process to study existing geological

information,

known data
and banks,

maps and

other

previously prepared and available site investigation reports,


of

nearby structures,

etc.,

which

will

help

in

if

any, surface examination about river

narrowing

12

down

bed

of sites under consideration

IRC:78-2014
for further studies for project preparation stage.

Detailed Investigation Stage

ii)

To determine the characteristics of the existing geo-materials,

bed material

in

bridge sites

such a way as

in

water courses,

etc. in

like, soil,

rock,

the zone of influence of the proposed

to establish the

design parameters which influence

the choice and design details of the various structural elements, especially the

foundation type.

During Construction Stage

iii)

To confirm the characteristics of geo-materials established

in

on which the design choices are made and

same

suit

Zone

(ii)

based

or modify to

the conditions met at specific foundation locations.

Zone

704.2

to re-confirm the

stage

of influence

of Influence

mentioned

Clause 704.1

in

(ii)

is

defined as the

full

length of the bridge

and part of approaches covering, (but not restricted to),


the full flood zone for water courses, and upto depth below proposed foundation levels where
influence of stresses due to foundation is likely to affect the behaviour of the structure, including
settlement, subsidence under ground flow of water, etc. The width of the land strip on either
side of the proposed structure should include zones in which the hydraulic characteristics of
river water are likely to be changed affecting flow patterns, scour, etc.
including portion of wing/return wall

Methods of Exploration

704.3

large variety of investigative

methods are

available.

A most

suitable

and appropriate

combination of these shall be chosen. Guidelines for choice of types of investigations,

need be established, the

properties of geo-materials that

laboratory testing are given

in

in-situ

testing,

sampling,

Appendix-2. This may be further supplemented by

specialized techniques depending on the need.

705
:

General

705.1

The foundation
evaluated

DEPTH OF FOUNDATION

in

shall

be designed

to

withstand the worst combination of loads and forces

accordance with the provisions of Clause 706. The foundations

taken to such depth that they are safe against scour or protected from

it.

shall

Apart from

be

this,

the depth should also be sufficient from consideration of bearing capacity, settlement,
liquefaction potential, stability

depth below

It.

In

case

and

of bridges

suitability of strata at the

founding level and sufficient

where the mean scour depth 'dsm'


13

is

calculated with

IRC:78-2014
Clause 703.2, the depth of foundation
in

the

shall not

be less than those of existing structures

vicinity.

705.2

Open Foundation

705.2.1

In soil

The embedment

of foundations

shail

in soil

be based on correct assessment of anticipated

scour considering the values given under Clause 703.

may be

Foundation

taken

down

provided good bearing stratum

to a

is

comparatively shallow depth below the bed surface

available,

The minimum depth

of

open foundations

but not less than 2.0

below the scour

705.2.2

In

and the foundation

shall

be upto stratum having safe bearing capacity

is

bed

level or the protected

level.

rocks

For open foundations resting on rock, the depth of rock, which


expert

protected against scour.

is

weathered or fissured,

the rock existing below.

shail

be excluded

Where foundations

in

in

the opinion of the geological

deciding the depth of

embedment

into

are to rest on credible rocks, caution shall be

exercised to establish the foundation level at sufficient depth, so as to ensure that they

do not get undermined, keeping


for conditions stipulated

below

shall

in

view the continued erosion of the bed. After allowing

above the minimum embedment

be as follows, which

in

case of sloping rock

of the foundations into the rock

profile

can be provided by properly

benching the foundations.

Embedment depth

Type of Rock
a)

For rocks of moderately strong and above


classification of rock (under clause 8.2 of

UCS

of

more than 12.5

core to get the

UCS

MPA or where

it

but extrapolated

is

in

table 2 of

0.6

1.5

appendix 2) having
not possible to take

SPT N

value

is

more

than 500
b)

For rock of moderately

weak and below

in

table 2 of classifi-

cation of rock (under clause 8.2 of appendix 2) having

UCS

<

2.5

MPA but

> 2.5

to take core to get the

more than 100 but

MPA or where

UCS

less than

705.3

Wei! Foundations

705.3.1

In soil

it

is

but extrapolated

500

14

not possible

SPT N

value

is

IRC:78-2014
Well foundations shall be taken

maximum depth
705.3.2

As

In

of scour

to

a depth which

below the design scour

will

provide a

level specified in

minimum

zone,

all

shall

be taken by

the

all

around the periphery on sound rock

likely

methods

to

in

each case

mentioned above

make

(i.e.,

sump

(shear key) of 300

Diameter of sump

minimum

.5m

rock and projected 1.5

mm

in

embedment. The extent

may be

above. These

mm

hard rock or 600

Six dowel bars of 25

shall

ensure overall and long-term safety of the structure.

to

chiseling/blasting.

size of

and

be decided by the Engineer-in-charge keeping

shall

.5 to

pneumatic

of sinking including

be evenly

devoid of fissures, cavities, weathered

extent of erosion, etc.) by providing adequate

and embedment
factors

the

Clause 703.3.

sinking (where considered necessary), dewatering, etc. to foundation level

seated

rd

grip of 1/3

rocks

as possible, the wells

far

down

in

It

of seating

in

is

view the

advisable

soft rock inside the well

by

less than inner dredge-hole subject to a

mm dia deformed

may be anchored

in

may be anchored

bars

minimum 65

.5

in

mm dia boreholes and

grouted with 1:172 cement mortar.

Foundations

705.4

Pile

705.4.1

In soil,

minimum
705.4.2

the

minimum depth

length required for developing

In

of foundations
full fixity

below the point of

as calculated by any

rocks, the pile should be taken

down

fixity

should be the

rational formula.

to rock strata

devoid of any

likely

extension of erosion and properly socketed as required by the design.

706 LOADS, FORCES, STABILITY


706.1

AND STRESSES

Loads, Forces and their Combinations

The loads and forces may be evaluated as per IRC:6 and


the purpose of this code will be as follows:

706.1.1
for

Combination

Combination

G + (Qor GJ + Fwc + F + F

I):

II): i)

G+ F

cf

F,
ep

W+ F

wp

or
wp

or
ii)

Combination

iii)

+F +Fwp
:

+ Fwc + Gb + Fep +

15

Fer

+ Ff +

their

(WorFe q)

combinations

IRC.78-2014

The permissible increase

706.1.2

stresses

in

the various

in

members

be 33V 3

will

percent for the combination of wind (W) and 50 percent for the combination with seismic
(Fe
for

The permissible increase

or (FJ.

all

allowable base pressure should be 25 percent

in

combinations except combination

secondary effects (FJ deformation effects

i)

(f

d)

then permissible increase

combination with

i)

bearing pressure

will

However, when temperature effects (FJ,


are also to be considered for any members in
in

stresses

Horizontal Forces at Bearing Level

706.2.1

Simply supported spans

706.2.1.1

For

supported

simply

type)

various

members and

on

span with

supports,

stiff

longitudinal direction shall

fixed

be as given below

and

forces

horizontal

Fixed Bearing

at

free

the

bearings
bearing

(other
level

Free Bearing

Non-Seismic Combinations
Greater of the two values given below

F h -fj(R+RJ

i)

Seismic Combinations
F,

where

Fh

- Applied horizontal force

R
R

- Reaction at the free end due to dead load


- Reaction at the free end due to

live

load

allowable

be 15 percent.

706.2

Elastomeric

in

- Co-efficient of

assumed

to

friction at

have the allowable values:

For steel

i)

For concrete

ii)

For sliding bearings:


a)

the movable bearing which shall be

roller

bearings

roller

bearings

Steel on cast iron or steel on steel

16

0.03
0.05

0.4

in

than
the

!RC:78-2014
Grey cast

b)

on grey cast

iron

iron

0.3

(Mechanites)
c)

Concrete over concrete

d)

Telflon

on stainless

0.5

steel

0.03 and 0.05

(whichever
706.2.1.2

In

case of simply supported small spans upto 10

provided, horizontal force

-Jj~

706.2. 1.3

in

orjj(Rg) whichever

resting

Shear

Movement

/
te

706.2.2

and where no bearings are

is

greater
sitting

on

identical eiectrometric bearings at

on unyielding supports.
+

Force of each end =

governing)

the longitudinal direction at the bearing level shall be

For a simply supported span

each end and

is

K4

rating of the eiectrometric bearings

of

deck above bearing, other than due

Simply supported and continuous span on

flexible

to applied forces

supports

The distribution of applied longitudinal horizontal force (e.g., braking, seismic,


wind, etc.) depends solely on shear rating of the supports and may be estimated in proportion
to the ratio of individual shear rating of a support to the sum of the shear ratings of all the
supports. Shear rating of a support is the horizontal force required to move the top of the
706.2.2.1

support through a unit distance taking into account horizontal deformation of the bridge,
flexing of the support

and

rotation of the foundation.

706.3

Base Pressure

706.3.1

The allowable bearing pressure and the settlement

different loads

and

testing.

and stresses may be determined on the basis

Though the help

of relevant Indian Standard

taken, the allowable bearing pressure

may be

pressure at the base without deducting the

soil

For open foundations and well foundation resting on


taken as 2.5 for

17

may be

displaced can be computed.

706.3.

may be

of Practice

calculated as gross so that the gross

Factor of safety

pressure on ultimate bearing capacity

under

of sub-soil exploration

Code

706. 3.1.1

1. 1. 1

characteristics

soil,

soil.

the allowable bearing

IRC:78-2014
706.3.

1.

1.2

For open foundations and well foundation resting on rock, the allowable bearing

pressure on rock

may be decided upon

not only on the strength of parent rock but also on

overall characteristics particularly deficiencies, like, joints,

zones,

absence

etc. In

to

shall

in

is

to

be further

restricted to not

Clause 706.1.1. For Factor of safety

of the parent rock

may be

taken

in

over 3

case of

pile

MPa

for load

combination

(i)

foundation the clause 709.3.2

be referred

The intermediate geo-materia!


as

weathered

8 unless otherwise indicated on the basis of local experience. The allowable bearing

pressure, thus, obtained

given

faults,

such details or analysis of overall characteristics, the value of

based on unconfined compressive strength

factor of safety

as 6

of

bedding planes,

like

disintegrated weathered or very soft rock

may be treated

soil.

706.3.2

Allowable settlement/differential settlement

706.3.2.1

The calculated

settlement between the foundations of simply

differential

supported spans shall not exceed

in

400

of the distance

between the two foundations from

the consideration of tolerable riding quality unless provision has

been made

for rectification

of this settlement.

706.3.2.2
to

be fixed

for

to differential settlement, the tolerable limit

has

each case separately.

Permissible tension at the base of foundation

706.3.3

706.3.3.

case of structures sensitive

In

706.3.3.2

No

In

tension shall be permitted under any combination of loads on

case of rock

if

tension

is

found

the base area should be reduced to a size

to

be developed

where no tension

at the

will

soils.

base of foundation,

occur and base pressure

The maximum pressure on such reduced area should not exceed allowable
bearing pressure. Such reduced area shall not be less than 67 percent of the total area
is

recalculated.

for load

combination including seismic, or impact of barge, and 80 percent for other load

combinations.

706. 3. 4

Factor of safety for stability

Factors of safety against overturning and sliding are given below. These are mainly relevant

18

IRC:78-2014
for

open foundations:

values

With Seismic

Seismic Case

Case

i)

Against overturning

1.5

ii)

Against sliding

1.5

1.25

iii)

Against deep-seated failure

1.25

1.15

Frictional co-efficient

Founding

Without

soil

in

may be

between concrete and

soil/rock will

be Tan 0,

being angle of

friction.

foundation of bridge being generally properly consolidated, following

adopted:

and concrete

Friction co-efficient

between

Friction co-efficient

between rock and concrete

soil

0.5
0.8 for

good rock and 0.7

for fissured rock

706.3.5

Pile foundations

The allowable

load, the allowable settlement/differential settlement

determine the

same

for pile

foundations are given

707

in

and the procedures

to

Clause 709.

OPEN FOUNDATIONS

707.1

Genera!

707.1.1

Provision of the Clause under 707 shall apply for design of isolated footings

and, where applicable, to combined footings, and

707.1.2

Open foundations may be

stratum which

is

inerodible or

provided where the foundations can be

where the extent

foundations are to be reliably protected by


walls or/and launching aprons as

rafts.

may be

of scour of the

means

bed

is

reliably

laid in

known. The

of suitably designed aprons, cut-off

necessary.

707.2

Design

707.2.1

The thickness

707.2.2

Bending moments

707.2.2.1

For solid wall type substructure with one-way reinforced footing, the bending

of the footings shall not

moments can be determined as one-way

be less than 300 mm.

slab for the unit width subjected to worst

combination of loads and forces.

For two-way

footing,

bending moment at any section of the footing

shall

determined by passing a

vertical

plane through the footing and computing the

moment

707.2.2.2

of the forces acting over the entire

area of footings one side of the

19

vertical plane.

be

The

IRC:78-2014
section of bending shall be at the face of the solid column.

critical

707.2.2.3

In

circular footings or polygonal footings, the

case of

bending moments

may be determined in accordance with any rational method. Methods


Timoshenko and Rowe for Plate Analysis are acceptable.

the footing

For combined footings supporting two or more columns, the

707.2.2.4

bending moments along the axis of the columns shall be


Further, for determination of critical sections for
walls,

any

method

The shear

707.2.3
is

rational

of analysis

'd' is

'd'

given by

sections for

at the face of the columns/walls.

bending moments between the column/

be adopted.

strength of the footing

the vertical section at a distance

critical

in

may be checked

at the critical section

which

from the face of the wall for one-way action where

the effective depth of the section at the face of the wall.

For two-way action for slab or footing, the

707.2.3.1

perpendicular to plan of slab and so located that

approach closer than

half the effective

perimeter

its

section

critical
is

should be

minimum, but need not

depth from the perimeter of concentrated load or

reaction area.

To ensure proper load

707.2.4

width of footing equal to 1:3

is

transfer, a limiting value of ratio of

specified.

effective at the critical section shall

this, for

be the minimum depth

between the extreme edge of the footing


all

Based on

at the

depth to length/

sloped footings the depth

end plus

to the critical section for

1/3

rd

of the distance

design of the footing for

purposes.

The

707.2.5

critical

section for checking development length of reinforcement bars

should be taken to be the


vertical

section as given

planes where abrupt changes

707.2.6

Tensile

reii

in

in

Clause 707.2.3 and also

all

other

section occur.

iforcei lent
i

The tensile reinforcement shall provide a moment of resistance at least equal


bending moment on the section calculated in accordance with Clause 707.2.2.

707.2.6.
to the

same

707.2.6.2

The

resisiting section

a)

tensile reinforcement shall

as below:

In

one-way reinforced

calculated for
b)

be distributed across the corresponding

in

footing,

critical unit

reinforcement shall be

width as mentioned

two-way reinforced square

direction shall

the

in

Clause 707.2.2.1.

footing, the reinforcement extending in

be distributed uniformly across the

20

same as

full

each

section of the footing.

!RC:78-2014
c)

two-way reinforced rectangular

in

footing, the reinforcement in the long

be distributed uniformly across the

direction shall

For reinforcement

full

width of the footing.

the short direction, a central band equal to the short

in

marked along the length

side of the footing shall be

portion of the reinforcement determined

of the footing

and

accordance with the equation

in

given below shall be uniformly distributed across the central band:

Reinforcement
Total

Reinforcement

Where

/3

= the

in

ratio of

The remainder

band

centra!

in

2
'

short direction

the long side to the short side of the footing

of the reinforcement shall be uniformly distributed

in

the

outer portions of the footing.


d)

In

the case of a circular shaped footing, the reinforcement shall be provided

on the basis of the

moments

in

critical

values of radial and circumferential bending

the form of radial and circumferential steel. Alternatively,

equivalent orthogonal grid can be provided.

The area

707.2.7

of tension reinforcement should as per IRC: 112,

Clause number

16.5.1.1

707.2.8

metre

in

faces of the footing shall be provided with a minimum steel of 250

All

each

direction for

more than 300 mm. This


that face,

if

707.2.9
pier or

all

grades of reinforcement. Spacing of these bars

steel

may be

mm

shall not

2
/

be

considered to be acting as tensile reinforcement on

required from the design considerations.

In

column

case of
shall

piain concrete, brick or stone

masonry

be taken as dispersed through the footing

at

footings, the load from the

an angle not exceeding 45

to vertical.

707.3

Open Foundations

707.3.1

Open

slope

is

foundations

at

may

Sloped Bed
rest

Profile

on sloped bed

profile

provided the

stability of

the

ensured. The footings shall be located on a horizontal base.

707.3.2

For the foundations adjacent to each other, the pressure coming from the

foundations

laid

on the higher

level

should be duly considered on the foundations at the

lower level due to the dispersions of the pressure from the foundation at the higher

The distance between the two foundations


to

minimize

this effect taking into

at different levels

account the nature of


21

soil.

may be decided

in

level.

such a way

IRC:78-2014
707.4

Construction

707.4. 1

The

protective

works

shall

be completed before the floods so that the foundation

does not get undermined.

Excavation on open foundations shall be done after taking necessary safety

707.4.2

precautions for which guidance

Where

707.4.3
to

blasting

is

may be

taken from IS 3764.

required to be

endanger adjoining foundations or other

controlled blasting, providing suitable

done

structures,

mat cover

excavation

for

in

and

rock,

is

likely

necessary precautions, such as,

to prevent flying of debris, etc. shall

be

taken to prevent any damage.

Condition for laying of foundations

7 07 .4 .4

707.4.4.

of dewatering by
levelling

pumping or depression

course of 100

707.4.4.2
the situation

method

Normally, the open foundations should be laid dry and every available

If

it

is

of water by well point, etc.

mm thickness in M

may be

resorted

such that the percolation

foundation concrete

may be

laid

10 (1:3:6) shall be provided below foundation.

determined before-hand that the foundations connot be

is

to.

is

laid

dry or

too heavy for keeping the foundation dry, the

under water only by tremie pipe.

In

case of flowing water

or artesian springs, the flow shall be stopped or reduced as far as possible at the time of
placing of concrete.

No pumping

of

water shall be permitted from the time of placing of

concrete upto 24 hours after placement.

707.4.5
All spaces excavated and not occupied by abutments, pier or other permanent
works shall be refilled with earth upto the surface of the surrounding ground, with sufficient
allowance for settlement. All backfill shall be thoroughly compacted and in general, its top
surface shall be neatly graded.

707.4.6

In

case of excavation

with concrete of

707.4.6.1

If

the depth of

above may be

707.4.6.2

around the footing

rock, the trenches

be

shall

filled-up

15 grade upto top of the rock.

above the foundation


portion

in

level,
filled

fill

required

is

then concrete

more than

1.5

may be filled

in

soft rock or 0.6

upto this level by

in

hard rock

15 concrete and

by concrete or by boulders grouted with cement.

For design of foundation on rock

in river

22

bridges, the design loads

and forces

IRC:78-2014
shall

be considered upto the bottom of

footing.

The

load of

need not be considered

filling

in

stability calculations

708

WELL FOUNDATIONS

General

708.1

deep water cannels


shall comprise of properly dimensioned caissons preferably having a single dredge hole.
While selecting the shape, size and type of well, the size of abutment and pier to be
accommodated, need for effecting streamline flow, the possibility of the use of pneumatic
sinking, the anticipated depth of foundation and the nature of data to be penetrated should
be kept in view. The minimum dimensions of dredge-hole shall not be less than 3 m. In
case there is deep standing water, properly designed floating caissons may be used as per
Clause 708.12.
Foundations supporting the superstructure located

708.1.1

However,

in

tidal rivers,

the

number

708.1.2
in-charge

case of larger bridges across

rivers in

channels with inland waterway

traffic

of intermediate foundations shall be

If

in

wide flood plains prone

and bridges
reduced as

coastal/marine locations,

in

far

as practicable.

the external diameter of single circular well exceeds 12

may

to scour, delta/

then Engineer-

take recourse to any of the following:


Stress

a)

in

steining shall be evaluated using 3-Dimensional Finite

Method (3D FEM) or any other


Stiffening by

b)

suitable analytical method.

compartments may be done

Design of such stiffened wells

Element

for the single circular well.

shall call for

supplemental design and

construction specifications,

Twin D-shaped well

c)

The
considered when
708.1.3

may be adopted

conditions arising out of sand blow,


circular well

is

if

anticipated,

should be duly

analysed using 3D FEM/suitable analytical method or

stiffened circular wells are used.

708.1.4

Bottom plug of well should be suitably designed

force acting on

it

to resist

maximum upward

during construction following plugging as well as during

life

span of the

structure.

708.2

Well Steining

708.2.1

Thickness of the steining should be such so that

well without excessive kentledge

and without

23

getting

damaged

it

is

possible to sink the

during sinking or during

IRC:78-2014
excessive

rectifying the

tilts

and

shifts.

The

steining should also

be able

earth pressure developed during sand blow or other conditions,

like,

to resist differential

sudden drop.

Stresses at various levels of the steining should be within permissible


conditions for loads that

Use

may be

all

transferred to the well.

of cellular steining with

well steining shall not

under

limits

two or more shells or use of composite material


12

for wells upto

be permitted

in

diameter.

Steining thickness
708.2.3.1

The minimum thickness

of the well steining shall not

mm

be less than 500

and

satisfy the following relationship:

KdVT

minimum thickness

= external diameter of circular well of


twin

D wells

(for floating

bed

in

smaller dimension

= depth of wells

of steining

in

in

dumb

plan

in

bell

shaped

'

in

case of

metres

LWL whichever

metre below top of well cap or

caisson 7

well or

may- be taken as depth

of well

in

is

more

metres below

level).

K - a constant
Value of

708.2.3.2

K shall

follows:

K = 0.03
K = 0.05
K = 0.039

cement concrete
brick masonry

i)

Well

in

ii)

Well

in

iii)

Twin

D wells

The minimum

be as

steining thickness

may be

varied from

above

in

following

conditions:

Strata

a)

Very

b)

Hard clay

c)

Boulder strata or well resting on

soft clay strata

strata

Variation from

be

Recommended

minimum

variation upto

Reduced

10%

Increased

10%

Increased

10%

rock involving blasting

24

SRC:78-2014
However, following aspects may also be considered depending on the

708.2.3.3

Very soft clay strata: Main

a)

criteria for

to prevent the well penetrating

so reduced, the steining

shall

by

its

reduction

own

in

weight.

strata:

steining thickness

When

be adequately reinforced,

the thickness

is
is

to get sufficient

strength.

Hard clay

b)

in

Depending on the previous experience, the increase


steining thickness may be more than 10 percent.
strata:

Bouldery strata or well resting on rock involving blasting: higher

c)

grade of concrete, higher reinforcement, use of


portions, etc., may be adopted.

The recommended values given

708.2.3.4

based on

local

708.2.3.5

If

experience and
specialised

in

Clause 708.2.3.2 can be further varied

accordance with decision of Engineer-in-charge.

methods

then the steining thickness

in

steel plates in the lower

of sinking,

may be

such

down method,

as, jack

are adopted

adjusted according to design and construction

requirements.

Any

708.2.3.6

variation from

dimensions as proposed

in

Clause 708.2.3.1 should be

decided before framing the proposal.

When

708.2.3.7

the depth of well below well cap

is

equal to or more than 30 m, the

thickness of the steining of the well calculated as per Clause 708.2.3

above scour

a slope of

level in

may be reduced

horizontal to 3 vertical such, that the reduced thickness of

the steining should not be less than required as per Clause 708.2.3 for the depth of well

upto scour level with the reduced diameter.

The reduction

in

thickness shall be done

the outer surface of the well

in

The diameter

of

inner dredge hole shall be kept uniform.

The minimum
steining

steel

and the concrete grade

below scour

in

the slope portion shall be

for the

level.

Minimum development length of all the vertical steel bars


minimum section as shown in the Appendix-3 (Fig. 1).
The stress

same as

shall

be provided beyond the

the reduced section of steining shall also be checked.

in

708.3

Design Considerations

708.3.1

The

external diameter of the brick

25

masonry wells

shall not

exceed 6 m. Brick

IRC:78-2014
masonry wells

for

shall not

be permitted.

For brick masonry wells, brick not less than Grade-A having strength not less than

708.3.2

7MPa- conforming

to IS

1077

be used

shall

cement mortar not leaner than

in

1:3.

For plain concrete wells, vertical reinforcements (whether mild steel or deformed

708.3.3
bars)

depth greater than 20

the steining shall not be less than 0.12 percent of gross sectional area of the actual

in

The

thickness provided. This shall be equally distributed on both faces of the steining.

vertical

reinforcements shall be tied up with hoop steel not less than 0.04 percent of the volume per

as shown

unit length of the steining,

in

the

Appendix-3

(Fig. 2).

case where the well steining is designed as a reinforced concrete element,


it shall be considered as a column section subjected to combined axial load and bending.
However, the amount of vertical reinforcement provided in the steining shall not be less
than 0.2 percent (for either mild steel or deformed bars) of the actual gross sectional area
708.3.4

In

of the steining.

On

minimum

the inner face, a

be provided. The transverse reinforcement

column but

with the provisions for a

in

no case

in

of 0.06 percent (of gross area) steel shall

the steining shall be provided


shall

in

accordance

be less than 0.04 percent of the volume

per unit length of the steining.

The

horizontal annular section of well steining shall also

be checked

for ovalisation

moments

by any rational method taking account of side earth pressures evaluated as per Clause
708.4.

The

708.3.5

vertical

bond rods

of the cross-sectional area


1

50

mm x

and

50 mm. These rods

of the steining

and

shall

be

unit length of the steining.

in

brick

be encased

shall

shall

masonry

into

cement concrete

15 mix of size

The hoop

steel shall

mm wide and

in

be provided

the middle

volume per

in

a concrete band at spacing of 4

is

less.

The

horizontal

RCC

bands

mm high, reinforced with bars of diameter not less


10 mm placed at the corners and tied with 6 mm diameter stirrups at 300 mm centres, as

shall not

shown

in

708.3.6
tensile
in

steel not less than 0.04 percent of the

times of the thickness of the steining or 3 metres, whichever

than

of

be equally distributed along the circumference

up with hoop

tied

steining shall not be less than 0.1 percent

be less than 300

the Appendix-3 (Fig.

The stresses

in

50

3).

well steining shall

and compressive stresses are

the area of reinforcement or

708.4

Stability of Well

708.4.1

The

stability

in

likely to

be checked

at

such

critical

sections where

be maximum and also where there

is

change

the concrete mix.

Foundations

and design

of well foundations shall be

26

done under the most critical

IRC:78-2014
combination of loads and forces as per Clause 706. The pressure on foundations shall satisfy
the provisions of Clause 706.

Side earth resistance

708.4.2

The side earth resistance may be calculated as per guidelines given


Appendix-3. The use of provisions IRC:45 may be used for pier well foundations
708.4.2.1

cohesionless

on

rock.

If

in

soil.

The

708.4.2.2

in

side earth resistance shall be ignored

rock strata

is

in

case of well foundations resting

such that the allowable bearing pressure

the side earth resistance

may be

taken

into

708.4.3

Earth pressure on abutments

708.4.3.1

If

is

less than

then

IVIPa,

account.

the abutments are designed to retain earth and not spilling

in front,

the

foundations of such abutments shall be designed to withstand the earth pressure and
horizontal forces for the condition of scour depth

and 2 d sm with scour

all

around.

case of scour

In

However, where earth

708.4.3.2
front, relief

due

in

all

front of 1.27 d

around,

live

sm

load

may

from the approaches

spilling

to the spilling earth in front

may be

with approach retained

is

not

be considered.

reliably protected in

considered from bottom of well cap

downwards.
708.4.4
708.4.4.
is

Construction stage
Stability of the well shall also

no superstructure and the well

current and/or

full

is

be checked

subjected to design scour,

design earth pressure as

in

During the construction of wells

708.4.4.2
or has not

been plugged, the wells are

current upto

scour. This

full

may

for the construction

when

there

pressure due to water

the case of abutment wells.

when

likely to

result in

full

stage

tilting,

it

has not reached the founding

be subjected
sliding

and

to

full

shifting.

level

pressure due to water

As a

part of the safety

during construction, this should be considered and safety of well must be ensured by
suitable methods,

708.5

Tilts

708.5.1

As

However, a
which

will

tilt

where

and

far

of

required.

Shifts

as possible, the wells


in

80 and a

cause most severe

shift of

50

effect shall

shall

be sunk plumb without any

tilts

and

shifts.

mm due to translation (both additive) in a direction


be considered

27

in

the design of well foundations.

IRC:78-2014
708.5.2

If

the actual

have to be resorted

and

tiits

shifts

exceed the above

to bring the weli within that limit.

If it

is

limits,

then the remedial measures

not possible then

its

effect

on bearing

pressure, steining stress and other structural elements shall be examined, and controlled

if

span length. The Engineer-in-charge may


like to specify the maximum tilts and shifts upto which the well may be accepted subject to the
bearing pressure and steining stress being within limits, by changing the span length if needed,
necessary and feasible, by resorting

and beyond which the


Cutting

708.6

weli will

change

to

in

be rejected irrespective of the

result of

any modification.

Edge

be strong enough and not less than 40 kg/m to


facilitate sinking of the well through the types of strata expected to be encountered without
suffering any damage. It shall be properly anchored to the well curb. For sinking through
708.6.1

The

rock, cutting

edge should be

708.6.2

When
edge

cutting

of the outer

of the middle

stems

to

more compartments

stems of such wells

prevent rocking, as shown

Well Curb

708.7.1

The

is

shall

suitably designed.

there are two or

708 J

well

edge

mild steel cutting

well curb should

be such that

it

shall
in

the

in

a well, the lover end of the

be kept about 300

Appendix-3

will offer

the

mm

above

that

(Fig. 2).

minimum

resistance while the

being sunk but should be strong enough to be able to transmit superimposed loads

from the steining to the bottom plug.

The shape and the

708.7.2
2)

may be

(Fig. 2)

dimension of the curb as given

outline

taken for guidance. The internal angle of the curb

should be kept at about 30 to 37 and

may be

'as'

in

Appendix-3

as shown

in

(Fig,

Appendix-3

increased or decreased based on

past experience and geotechnica! data.

The

708.7.3

well curb shall invariably

than

shall

be suitably arranged

and

in

be

in

reinforced concrete of mix not leaner

25 with minimum reinforcement of 72 kg/cum excluding bond rods. The


to

prevent spreading and

splitting of

In

case blasting

is

anticipated, the inner faces of the well curb shall

protected with steel plates of thickness not less than 10


If

it

dia

mild

upto the top of the well

to

mm

for that

increased height.

In

any case,

more than 3 metres unless there

this extra height of the

a specific requirement.

The

such a case should be provided with additional hoop reinforcement of 10

mm

steel should
in

mm

be

desired to increase the steel lining above the well curb then the thickness

is

can be reduced

curb

the curb during sinking

service.

708.7.4

curb.

steel

not be

steel

height of 3

or deformed

bars at

into the well steining

150

mm

above the
28

is

centres which shall also extend


curb. Additional reinforcement

upto a

above

this

iRC:78-2014
height upto two times the thickness of steining should be provided to avoid cracking
arising out of

sudden change

708.8

Bottom Plug

708.8.1

The bottom plug

lower than 300

bottom plug,

shall

it

be ensured that

fill-up all cavities.

still

wells

and the top

50

shall

shown

shall

be kept not

the

Appendix-3

in

edge. Before concerting the

inside faces

have been cleaned thoroughly.

bottom plug

shall

its

in

level of the cutting

have a minimum cement content

mm to permit easy flow of concrete through termie to


be

laid in

one continuous operation

it

shall

colcrete, e.g., concrete

ail

any dewatering

is

if

is

till

dredge hole

is

used, the grout mix shall not be

be ensured by suitable means, such

that the grout filis-up

708. 8.4

as, controlling the rate of

interstices upto the top of the plug.

required

it

shall

be carried out

after 7

days have elapsed

bottom plugging.

708.9
708.9.1
with

in al!

to curtailment of plate.

For under water concreting, the concrete shall be placed by tremie

case grouted

in

leaner than 1:2 and

after

due

water condition and the cement content of mix be increased by 10 percent.

708.8.3

pumping

of about

Concrete

to required height.

under

be below the

shall

330 kg/m and a slump

filled

be provided

shall

The concrete mix used

708.8.2

place

the effective section

the centre above the top of the curb as

in

A suitable sump

(Fig. 2).

of

mm

in

Filling

The

the Well

of the well,

filling

if

considered necessary, above the bottom plug shall be done

sand or excavated material free from organic matter.

708.10

Plug over

708.10.1

A 300

708.11

Weil

708.11.1
the active

Filling

mm thick plug of M

15 cement concrete shall be provided over the

filling.

Cap

The bottom of well cap shall be laid as low as possible but above the LWL in
channel. Where the bed level is higher than LWL the bottom of well cap may be

suitably raised.

708.11.2

As many

longitudinal bars

anchored

into the well cap.

708.11.3

The design

of the well

cap

as possible coming from the well steining

shall

be based on; any accepted

considering the worst combination of loads and forces as per Clause 706.

29

rational

shall

be

method,

IRC:78-2014
708.12

Floating Caissons

708.12.1

Floating caissons

They should have

at least 1.5

considered necessary,

very soft strata,

708.12.2

of steel, reinforced concrete or

metres free board above the water

any suitable

level

material.

and increased,

if

is

a possibility of caissons sinking suddenly owing to

likely to result

from lowering of caissons, effect of waves, sinking

in

reasons, such as, scour


in

may be

case there

etc.

Well caissons should be checked for

stability

against overturning and

capsizing while being towed, and during sinking, due to the action of water current,

wave

pressure, wind, etc.

708.12.3

The

proper shear transfer at the interface

708.13

be considered as part of foundation unless

floating caisson shall not


is

ensured.

Sinking of Weils

The

be sunk true and vertical. Sinking should


not be started till the steining has been cured for at least 48 hours. A complete record
of sinking operating including tilt and shifts, kentledge, dewatering, blasting, etc. done
during sinking shall be maintained.
708.13.1

well shall as far as possible

may be

For safe sinking of wells, necessary guidance


in

taken from the precautions as given

Appendix-4,

708.14

Pneumatic Sinking of Wells

708.14.1

Where sub-surface data

necessary

to

indicate the

need

for

pneumatic sinking,

decide the method and location of pneumatic equipment and

its

it

will

be

supporting

adapter.

708.14.2

In

case

if

concrete steining

restricting the tension in

concrete which

For the circular wells, the tension

in

provided,

is

will

steining

it

shall

be rendered

air tight

by

not exceed 3/8 th of the modulus of rupture.

may be

evaluated by assuming

it

to

be a

thick

walled cylinder.

708.14.3
against the

708.14.4

The
uplift

steining shall

force and,

Compressed

shall

Air".

It

at different sections for

of the

pneumatic equipment, safety of personnel

comply with the provisions of


is

any possible rupture

necessary, shall be adequately strengthened.

The design requirements

and the structure


in

if

be checked

IS

4138 "Safety Code

desirable that the height of the working

chamber

caissons should not be less than 3 metres to provide sufficient head room

30

in

for

Working

a pneumatic

when

the cutting

IRC:78-2014

embedded a short distance below the excavated level and in particular to allow
blowing down. The limiting depth for pneumatic sinking should be such that the depth

edge
for

is

below normal water

of water

sinking

is

proposed should not exceed 30

level upto

which pneumatic

Sinking of Wells by Resorting to Blasting

708.1 5
Blasting
for

proposed foundation

level to the

may be employed

with prior approval of competent authority to help sinking of well

breaking obstacles, such as, boulders or for levelling the rock layer for square seating of

wells. Blasting

may be

resorted to only

when

other methods are found ineffective.

FOUNDATION

709 PILE
709.1

General

709.1.1

Piles transmit the load of a structure to

competent sub-surface

by the

strata

resistance developed from bearing at the toe or skin friction along the surface or both.
piles

may be

709.1.2

required to carry

The construction

uplift

and

The

loads besides direct vertical load.

lateral

of pile foundation requires a careful choice of piling

system

depending upon subsoil conditions and load characteristics of structures. The permissible
limits of total

and

differential settlement,

unsupported length of

pile

under scour and any

other special requirements of project are also equally important criteria for adoption.

709.1.3

Design and construction

be taken from

IS

2911 subject

For design and construction of piles guidance

to limitations/stipulations given in this code.

may

Appendix-5

gives the design formulae and their applicability.

709.1.4

For piles

streams,

in

creeks,

rivers,

etc.,

the following criteria

may be

followed:

i)

Scour conditions are properly established.

ii)

Permanent
level. In

strata.

be provided

a)

soft soil or soil having

The minimum thickness

in

in

cases given below. The

While constructing the

pile

maximum

be 6

for the

full

depth of

mm

minimum thickness

liner shall

scour

aggressive material,

be used

of liner should

land, steel liners of

which following situations

sandy

at least upto

steel liner of sufficient strength shall

For bridges located

to

be provided

case of marine clay or

permanent
such

steel liner should

of 6

be provided up

to

mm

shall

depth up

prevail.

foundation through very soft clay (N < 3) ,very loose

strata (N < 8), bouldery formation

31

and artesian conditions, wherein the

IRC:78-2014
wails of boreholes cannot be stabilized by bentoniie circulation.

Where sewage leakage

b)

common phenomenon

is

as well as sites with

aggressive soil/water environment

709.1 .5

Spacing of piles and tolerances

709.1.5.1

Spacing of piles

Where

a)

pier

is

supported on multiple

solid pile cap, the

connected by frame structure or by

piles,

spacing of piles should be considered

of the ground, their behavior

in

relation to the nature

in

groups and the execution convenience. The

spacing should be chosen with regard to the resulting heave or compaction and

should be wide enough to enable the desired number of piles to be installed


to the correct penetration without

damage

to

any adjacent construction or

to

the piles themselves.

For land bridges, pier may be supported on single


large to

accommodate

to location of piers
pile
in

as weil as having strength as required by the design. The

such case. Alternatively,


to pier

having diameter sufficiently

construction tolerances of pile installation with reference

should be designed to cater for the

connected

pile

pile shaft

cap which

is

maximum

eccentricity of vertical ioad

can be continued

designed

to

to act

accommodate

as a pier and get

the eccentricities due

to construction tolerances.

The

size of a

cap carrying the load from the structure

effective length of a

The spacing

ground beam,

of piles

will

friction piies,

heads, or the size and

influence type, size and spacing of piles.

be determined by many aspects mentioned above. The working

rules which are generally,

For

may

to the pile

though not always, suitable, are as follows:

the spacing centre should not be less than the perimeter of the pile or

for circular pile, three

times the diameter. The spacing of piles deriving their resistance

mainly from end bearing

may be reduced

but the distance between the surfaces of the

shafts of adjacent piies should be not less than the least width of the piles.
709. 1.5.2

Permissible tolerances for piles shall he as under:


i)

For vertical piles 75

mm

at piling platform level

and

tilt

not exceeding

150;
ii)

709.1.6

For raker piles tolerance of

The maximum rake

to

in

be permitted

bored

i)

in

6 for

ii)

in

6 for driven cast-in-situ

all

25.

in piie

piles;

piies;

32

and

shall not

exceed the

following:

in

IRC:78-2014
1

iii)

in

for

The minimum diameter

709.1.7

beyond the water zone and

709.1 .8

The

in

estimated from the

superimposed loads,

load,

piles.

for bridges

it

for river/marine bridges.

maximum

and pile capacity

at pile

cap

level,

settlement expected at two foundations for the dead

load and scour effect.

live

For bridges

on land, the diameter may be reduced upto 750 mm.

between two successive foundations taken

clayey soils shall be accounted

of preliminary design,

be 1.0

shall

Settlement, differential settlement

Differential settlement

may be

Precast driven

absence

for. In

The increase

in

settlement with time

of detailed calculations, for the

purpose

can be taken as not more than the maximum settlement of any of

the two foundations.

The

differential

settlement shall be limited depending upon the following functional and

structural considerations:

a)

Functionally, acceptable differential settlement


piers shall not

as specified
b)

be greater than

in

in

400

of the

between two neighboring

span

to

ensure

riding comfort,

Clause 706.3.2.1.

The allowable settlement

of a single pile considered for estimating the pile

capacity shall be arrived from correlation of the settlement of pile group to


that of single pile, as per
c)

It

is

Clause 709.3.4.

further provided that the working load capacity of pile

based on the

sub-clause b) shall not exceed 40 percent of the load corresponding to


the settlement of 10 percent of pile diameter
ultimate load capacity

709.1

is

water cement

ratio,

slump

shall

safety factor of 2.5 on

ensured).

For both Precast and cast-in-situ

.9

(i.e.

piles,

the values regarding grade of concrete,

be as follows:

Concrete Cast-in-situ by

Precast Concrete

Tremie
Grade
Min.

of concrete

cement contents

Max. W.C.

ratio

Slump (mm)

NOTE

i)

35

M35

400 kg/m 3

400 kg/m 3

0.4

0.4

150-200

50-75

For improving resistance to penetration of harmful elements from

33

soil

use of mineral

IRC78-2014
admixtures (flyash,

fume,

silica

standards) and as per IRC:112


ii)

is

GGBS

conforming to respective B!S/lnternational

recommended.

marine conditions and areas exposed

In

to action of harmful chemicals, protection

of pile caps with suitable coating such as bituminous based, coal-tar epoxy based

coating

may be

not be used

in

considered. High alumina cements,

709.2

Requirement and Steps

709.2.1

The

initial

for

not

is

and

and load

testing:

final

i)

recommended.

Design and

design of an individual

load test or by re-confirmation of actual

required,

quick setting cement) shall

marine conditions. Also when both chlorides and sulphates are present,

use of sulphate-resistant cement

initial

(i.e.

confirmation of

pile,

soil

Installation

capacity by either

its

parameters, modification of design,

adoption should pass through following steps of investigations, design

Comprehensive and detailed sub-surface

investigation

determine the design parameters of end bearing capacity,

and
ii)

if

lateral

Design of

capacity of
pile

and

surrounding the

soil

pile

group based on

for

piles

to

friction

capacity

for specified

bearing

pile.

i)

above

strata.

iii)

Initial

Initial

load testing:
load test on pile of same diameter as design pile for direct confirmation

of design.

The

initial

load test

is

a part of the design process confirming the expected

properties of bearing strata


iv)

709.2.2

Steps

The steps

ii)

and

for

iii)

and the

pile capacity.

should be repeated for different types of strata met at

design and confirmation by tests are given below:

parameters assumed

i)

Sub-soil exploration to reconfirm

ii)

Provide for the required design capacity of

number and diameter


iii)

site.

of piles

in

soil

pile

in

the design.

group based on tentative

a group.

The allowable total/differential settlement of single

pile

should be based on

the considerations as per Clauses 709.1 .8 and 709.3.4. Capacity of single


pile is to

be based on

static

This step along with step


iv)

Structural design of piles.

v)

Initial

ii)

load test as mentioned

formula considering ground characteristics.

may be

in

34

iterative.

Clause 709.2.1

iii)

is

for axial load capacity,

IRC:78-2014
including uplift capacity,

the design

pile.

The

required,

if

testing shall

on

trial

same diameter as
procedure laid down in

piles of the

be done as per the

IS:2911, Part-IV. This load test shall be conducted for not less than

times the design load. The


deriving strength from
test

can be performed

for the

vi)

If

the

socketed

initial

end bearing

capacity, another

two load tests

minimum

The number

of

if it

of the three shall

initial

tests shall

For abutment,
piles

it

is

is

shall

on

friction,

and

desired to take benefit of the higher

be carried out

to confirm the earlier

be considered as

initial

load test value.

be determined by the Engineer-in-charge

taking into consideration the bore log

and abutment. The

piles without relying

load

piles in rock.

calculated by static formula, and

709.2.3

The maintained

friction.

load test gives a capacity greater than 25 percent of the capacity

initial

value and

load test shall be cyclic load test for piles

end bearing and side


for

27 2

and

soil profile.

important to consider overall stability of the structure

should also be designed to sustain surcharge effect of

embankment.

709.2.4

Routine load test

i)

Routine load test should be done at locations of alternate foundations of


bridges to reconfirm or modify the allowable loads. Vertical and horizontal
load tests should be properly designed to cover particular pile group.
lateral load test

may be conducted on two

of routine load tests shall not


of piles.

be used

The minimum number

for

of tests to

adjacent

upward

piles.

The

However, results

revision of design capacity

be conducted

is

as given below

for

confirming pile capacity.

Total

number

of Piles for the Bridge

Minimum No.

of Test Piles

Upto 50

Upto150

Beyond 150

2 percent of

rounded

NOTE:

The number

of tests

may be

to

total

next

judiciously increased

piles

(fractional

number

higher integer number).

depending upon the

variability of

foundations strata.

ii)

Permissible Over Load

While conducting routine test on one of the

35

pile

belonging to a

pile

group, if

IRC:78-2014
the pile

is

found to be deficient (based on the settlement

times the design load) an overload upto

may be

0 percent of the reduced capacity

allowed.

For a quick assessment of

iii)

criteria at 1.5

conducted

piie capacity, high-strain

dynamic

strain

dynamic

be used

tests shall not

revision of design capacity of pile. Detailed guidelines are at

These methods can be

1.

To have a

iv)

defects

good idea about the

like

voids,

Appendix-7 Part

Resistance

pile

Appendix-5 should be

for load

combination

For purpose of these Clauses the following definitions

b)

Granular

soil (clay
soil

c)

or plastic

silt

will

integrity

are

tests

references are at

of

Clause 706.1.1,

criteria

as per Clause 709.1 .8.

apply.

S u < 0.25 MPa);

with

(sand, gravel or non-plastic

< 50 blows/0.3

and construction

followed. For calculating capacity of pile group,

Clauses 709.3.3 and 709.3.4 and the allowable settlement

Cohesive

Appendix-7

loads

For calculating designed capacity of

a)

upward

2.

709.3.1

refer

pile

etc.,

guidelines and

Detailed

Geotechnical Capacity of Pile

of

quality of concrete

discontinuities,

709.3

to vertical

for

followed.

fairly

extensively conducted.

recommendation

may be

after establishing co-relations using the results of load tests.

However, results of the


Part

tests

silt

with

N (average

within layer)

(50 blows/30 cms);

Intermediate Geomaterial
Cohesive: e.g. clay shales or mudstones with 0.25

Cohesion

less: e.g. granular

tills,

MPa

(2.5 tsf) <

granular residual soils

Su <

N>50

2.5

MPa.

blows/0.3

(50 blows/30 cm);


d)

Rock: Cohesive, Cemented Geomaterial with Su > 2.5MPa (25

qu>
709.3.2

computed on the basis

of

MPa.

factor of safety

on ultimate

axial capacity

formula shall be 2.5 for load combination

piles in rock, factor of safety shall

of

as stipulated

in

Clause 706.1 .1

for piles in soil.

For

be 3 on end bearing component and 6 on socket

side resistance component, for load combination


limits

or

Factor of Safety

The minimum
static

5.0

tsf)

Appendix-5.

36

of clause 706.1.1 subject to further

IRC:78-2014
Capacity of piles/group action

709.3.3

The

axial capacity of a

group of

the capacity of individual piles multiplied by the

Factor

i)

may be

be determined by a factor

piles should

taken as

in

number

of

minimum 3 times diameter

For

ii)

pile

groups

in

clays, the

pile

be applied

to

of piles of the group.

case of purely end bearing

spacing of 2.0 times the diameter of

to

and

piles having

minimum

having spacing

for frictional piles

of pile.

group capacity

shall

be lesser of the

following:

a)

Sum

b)

The capacity of the group based on block failure concept, where the ultimate

of the capacities of the individual piles

in

the group.

load carrying capacity of the block enclosing the piles

in

estimated.

Settlement of pile group

709. 3. 4

of a pile

The capacity of a pile group is aiso governed by settlement criterion. Settlement


group may be computed on the basis of following recommendations or by any other

rational

method.

709.3.4.

709. 3. 4. 2

Settlement of pile group

The settlement

of a pile

group

method

of installation of piles.

may be

used.

The settlement

is

one

third of the pile length

sands

Methods given
of

shape and size

affected by the

group of

the load carried by the pile group


at

in

is

piles in

upwards from the

Settlement of pile group

The settlement

of pile

group

in

Peck Approach which assumes


soil

The

2 (vertical)

in

method

raft

that

located

toe for friction piles. For end bearing piles


raft

placed at the toe of the

pile

group.

clays shall be evaluated using Terzaghi and

homogeneous

that the load carried by the pile

is

group

is

third of the pile length

assumed

to

spread

transferred to the

upwards from the

into soil at

a slope of

(horizontal).

The settlement

for equivalent footing shall

be evaluated

(Part-ll).

709. 3.4.4

rational

and

clays

load under the equivalent footing


1

any other

sands can be calculated by assuming

pile

through an equivalent footing located at one

pile toe.

(Part-ll) of

transferred to the soil through an equivalent

the settlement can be calculated by assuming the

709. 3. 4. 3

8009

IS

in

of group, length, spacing

Settlement of pile group

in

rock

37

in

accordance with

IS

8009

IRC:78-2014
Settlement of piles founded
value of

modulus

in-situ

709.3.5.

The

may be computed as

rock

of rock

Resistance

709.3.5

in

per IS 8009 (Part

considering the

II)

mass.

to lateral

loads

ultimate lateral resistance of a group of vertical piles

passive pressure acting on the enclosed area of the


calculated over an equivalent wall of depth equal to

taken as the

Such passive pressure may be

piles.

6D and

may be

width equal to L + 2B.

where

Diameter of

L =

Length between outer faces of


direction of

B=

lateral

resistance of individual piles.

modulus

combination
percent of

For single

pile

on ultimate

The safe

pile

piles,

point of

709.3.6

in

of lateral

depends on the

as well as the structural

modulus as recommended

lateral load resistance in load

is

not required.

confirmation of capacity of group by load testing

is

not required.

head condition

fixity

may be performed

for piles

directly, or

method given

Piles

in

accordance with IS:291 1 Testing

in

having free standing shaft above scour level upto the

pile

may be

pile

in

it

will

above

be necessary
is

to drive

free to deflect.

The

calculated from deflection

a larger diameter
deflection at scour

measured

at higher

acts as structural cantilever from the point of

can be taken from the analysis performed

Uplift

soil

sum

other load combinations

the horizontal load test

may be measured

simplified

used

resistance of individual pile

same. For safe

diameter. Checking of deflections

pile

for free

709.3.6.

resistance shali be 2.5.

lateral load

to calculate the

(ground) level assuming that the

The

plan parallel to the direction

resistance of pile-group must not exceed the

casing upto scour level so that the test

like,

lateral

cap. For conduction test at scour level,

level

in

of Clause 706.1.1, the deflection at scour level shall not be greater than 1.0

For a group of vertical

be

group

Appropriate rational method of analysis using

may be used

by IS:2911

shall

pile

of horizontal sub-grade reaction of the foundation material

rigidity of pile.

plan perpendicular to

in

movement.

factor of safety

The safe

709.3.5.2

group

pile

movement.

Width between outer faces of


of

The minimum

pile

for the

fixity.

design or calculated by

IS:2911.

load carrying capacity

may be required to

resist uplift forces of

foundations subjected to large overturning

underpasses subjected

permanent or temporary nature when

moments

to hydrostatic uplift pressure.

38

or as anchorages

in

structures,

IRC:78-2014

The

709.3.6.2

ultimate

uplift

may be

capacity

calculated with the expression of shaft

and applying a

resistance/skin friction only, of the static formulae for compression loads

reduction factor of 0.70 on the same.

from 0.3

case of

In

rock, the socket length shall

depth to actual depth of socket. The weight of the

as acting against

also be taken

pile shall

out test shall be conducted for verification of

uplift. Pull

be measured

uplift

capacity.

Factor of (2.5/0.7) = 3.5 on the ultimate strength shall be used.


709.3.6.3

The

uplift

the

the

capacity of pile group

is

lesser of the two following values:

sum of the uplift resistance of the individual piles in the group, and
sum of shear resistance mobilised on the surface perimeter of

group plus the effective weight of the

soil

and the

piles

enclosed

the

in this

surface perimeter.
709.3.6.4

Piles should

be checked

with other co-existent forces,

709.3.6.5

adequacy against

for structural

uplift

forces together

any.

if

The minimum factor of safety on

ultimate

uplift

load calculated on the aforesaid

basis shall be 2.5.


Piles subjected to

709.3.7

When

soil

stratum through which

compresses due
load

is

downward drag

to

its

own

generated along the

may be assessed on
i)

pile shaft

has penetrated

into

an underlying hard stratum

weight, or remoulding, or surface load etc., additional vertical

such stratum. Such additional load coming on

pile shaft in

the following basis:

In

the case of pile deriving

of

downward drag

its

capacity mainly from

may be

force

compressible

case of

of

downward drag

force

may be

piles,

compressible

than the number of piles


forces, the
iv)

same

This reduction

in

considered as 0.5 times undrained


pile shaft

embedded

in

the drag forces shall also be calculated considering

the surface area of the block


in

embedded

soil.

For a group of

embedded

pile shaft

capacity mainly from end bearing, the value

pile deriving its

shear strength multiplied by the surface area of

iii)

the value

soil.

In

compressible

friction,

taken as 0.2 to 0.3 times undrained

shear strength multiplied by the surface area of

ii)

pile

in

shall

in

(i.e.,

perimeter of the group times depth)

In

the event of this value being higher

soil.

the group times the individual

be cosidered

capacity of

pile is in

39

in

the design.

the ultimate capacity

downward drag

IRC:78-2014
709.4

Structural Design of Piles

709.4.1

A pile

from structure
to

which

it

as a structural

to soil.

may be

The

member

pile shall

subjected

to,

shall

have

sufficient strength to transmit the load

also be designed to withstand temporary stresses,

if

any,

such as, handling and driving stresses. The permissible

stresses should be as per IRC:112.

The

test pile shall

709.4.2

The

be separately designed

piles

may be designed

their structural capacity

potential liquefaction level,

in

if

piles

on land,

if

is

due

to

upto scour level and upto


for.

shaft can be calculated as described

in pile

the pile group

may be considered as having fixed head


force may be distributed equally in all piles
709.4.4

pile

applicable, should be duly accounted

moments

the load effects and

all

self load of pile or lateral load

on the portion of free

etc.

For the horizontal loads the

Clause 709.3.5.2. For

taking into consideration

examined as a column. The

earthquake, water current force,

709.4.3

to carry test load safely to the foundation.

provided with

rigid

cap, then the piles

in

appropriate direction for this purpose. Horizontal

in

a group with a

rigid pile

cap.

Reinforcements for cast-in-situ piles

The reinforcements

in pile

should be provided complying with the requirements of IRC:112,

as per the design requirements. The area of longitudinal reinforcement shall not be less
than 0.4 percent nor greater than 2.5 percent of the actual area of cross-section

in all

cast-

The clear spacing between vertical bars shall not be less than 100
mm. Grouping of not more than two bars together can be made for achieving the same.
Lateral reinforcement shall be provided in the form of spirals with minimum 8 mm diameter
steel, spacing not more than 150 mm. For inner layer of reinforcement, separate links tying
them to each other and to outer layers shall be provided.
in-situ

concrete

709.4.5

piles.

For pre-cast driven

of IRC: 11 2, for resisting stresses

piles,

due

the reinforcement should comply with the provision

to lifting, stacking

transmitted from the superstructure and bending


longitudinal reinforcement shall not

due

to

and

transport,

any

any secondary

uplift

effects.

or bending

The area

of

be less than the following percentages of the cross-

sectional area of the piles:


a)

For piles with a length less than 30 times the least width

b)

For piles with a length 30 to 40 times the least width

c)

For piles with a length greater than 40 times the least width -2 percent.

709.5

Design of

Pile

709.5.1

The

caps

pile

- 1

- 1

.5

.25 percent;

percent; and

Cap
shall

be of reinforced concrete of size fixed taking

40

into

IRC:78-2014
consideration the allowable tolerance as
shall

cap

in

A minimum

Clause 709.1.5.2.

be provided beyond the outer faces of the outer-most

is in

piles in the group.

minimum 80

contact with earth at the bottom, a levelling course of

cement concrete

709.5.2

be

pile shall

709.5.3

shall

top of the pile shall project 50

fully

anchored

mm

into the pile

cap and reinforcements of

cap.

in pile

Marine conditions or

in

quick setting cement shall not be used

Such a

pile

by using

areas exposed

to the action of harmful

cap can be considered as

rigid.

&

tie'

method.
which

at

cap designed by

'strut

All

it

&

The

pile

in pile

no longer required.

tie'

cement

cap should be 1.5 times the diameter of

reinforcement

is

chemicals,
i.e.

marine constructions.

of pile

beyond the point


pile

in

The minimum thickness


'strut

the pile

mm thick plain

the pile cap shall be protected with a suitable anti-corrosive paint. High alumina

709.5.4

If

mm

150

be provided.

The

In

offset of

cap may be designed as


cap
It

have

shall

full

pile.

thick slab or,

anchorage capacity

should be specially ascertained for

method. Where large diameter bars are used as main

reinforcement, the corners of pile caps have large local cover due to large radius of bending
of

main bars. Such corners

709.5.5

Casting of

functionally

it

is

shall

pile

be protected by

cap should be

at

locally placing small

level

higher than water level unless

required to be below water level at which time sufficient precautions

should be taken to dewater, the forms to allow concreting

709.6

diameter bars.

dry conditions.

Important Consideration, Inspection/Precautions for Different Types


of Piles

709.6.1

Driven cast-in-situ piles

709.6.1.1

Except otherwise stated

(Part 1/Section

709.6.1.2

in this

code, guidance

is

to

be obtained from

IS

2911

I).

The

pile

shoes which may be

either of cast iron conical type or of mild steel

flat

type should have double reams for proper seating of the removable casing tube inside the

space between the reams.

709.6. 1.3
is

Before

commencement of pouring

no ingress of water

in

it

should be ensured that there

the casing tube from the bottom. Further adequate control during

withdrawal of the casing tube


inside the casing tube at

of concrete,

all

is

essential so as to maintain sufficient

stages of withdrawal.

41

head of concrete

IRC:78-2014
Concrete

709.6.7.4

designed top

level of pile,

final set

or after 3 days.

709.6.2

Bored

709.6.2.

sufficiently

which

is

The

be cast upto a minimum height of 600

piles shall

in

which

shall

be stripped

off to

obtain

sound concrete

above the

either before

cast-in-situ piles

mud, such

drilling

as, bentonite

above the surrounding ground water

suspension
level to

being penetrated throughout the boring process

709.6.2.2

mm

The bores must be washed by

shall

be maintained

ensure the

until

stability of

at a level

the strata

the pile has been concreted.

fresh bentonite solution flushing to ensure

clean bottom at two stages prior to concreting and after placing reinforcement.
709. 6. 2. 3

Concreting of piles

Concreting shall be done by tremie method.

In

tremie method the following requirements are

particularly applicable.

a)

When
be

concreting

is

carried out for a pile, a temporary casing should

installed to sufficient depth,

drop from the sides of the hole

temporary casing

under

drilling

is

so that fragments of ground cannot


into the

concrete as

not required except near the top

it

is

placed.

when

The

concreting

mud.

b)

The hopper and tremie should be a

c)

Tremie diameter of minimum 200

leak proof system.

mm

shall

be used with 20

mm

diameter

down aggregate.
d)

The

first

charge of concrete should be placed with a

down the tube ahead

of

it

sliding plug

pushed

or with a steel plate of adequate charge to prevent

mixing of concrete and water. However, the plug should not be

the

left in

concrete as a lump.
e)

The tremie pipe should always penetrate

well into the concrete with

adequate margin of safety against accidental withdrawal of the


tremie should be always
f)

The

pile

full

being entrapped within the

All

The

of concrete.

should be concreted wholly by tremie and the method of deposition

should not be changed part

g)

pipe.

an

way up

the

pile, to

prevent the laitance from

pile.

tremie tubes should be scrupulously cleaned after use.

42

IRC:78-2014
h)

As tremie method
need

i)

to

of concreting

is

not under water concreting, these

is

no

add 10 percent extra cement.

Normally concreting of the piles should be uninterrupted.

In

the exceptional

case of interruption of concreting; but which can be resumed within


2 hours, the tremie shall not be taken out of the concrete. Instead

be raised and lowered

or

shall

it

from time to time to prevent the concrete

slowly,

form setting. Concreting should be resumed by introducing a


concrete with a slump of about 200

mm

for

richer

little

easy displacement of the

partly set concrete.


If

the concreting cannot be

placed, the pile so cast


j)

resumed before

may be

set of concrete already

rejected or accepted with modifications.

In

case of withdrawal of tremie out of the concrete, either accidentally or

to

remove a choke

following

in

the tremie, the tremie

manner to prevent impregnation

top of the concrete already deposited


k)

final

The tremie

penetration

little

introduced

mm

shall

should be

pushed
in its

filled in

to the old

scum

lying

in

When

vermiculite plug/surface retarders should be

the tremie which

will

is

mm to

175

push the plug forward and

steps making fresh concrete


tremie

on the

concrete with very

of the tremie displacing the laitance/scum.

further

way.

of laitance or

the

in

the bore.

be gently lowered on
initially.

reintroduced

the tremie. Fresh concrete of slump between 150

in

emerge out

in

may be

The tremie

will

will

be

sweep away laitance/scum

may

buried by about 60 to 100 cm, concreting

be resumed.
I)

The

'L'

bends

in

the reinforcements at the bottom of the piles should not be

provided to avoid the formation of soft toe.

Removal of concrete above

709. 6. 2. 4

It

is

desirable that the concrete above cut-off level

The concrete may be removed manually


removal of concrete helps
level

in

is

removed before the concrete

or by specially

preventing the

damages

made

of the

is

bailer or other device.

good concrete below the

set.

Such

cut-off

which results from chipping by percussion method.

The removal
on the

(-)

rammer
In

cut-off level

of concrete

side.

On

can be within 25

mm from the specified

cut-off level preferably

removal of the such concrete, the concrete should be compacted with

with spikes or

case the concrete

it

shall

is

not

be vibrated.

removed before

setting, a

groove

shall

perimeter by rotary equipment before chipping by percussion method.

43

be made on outer

IRC:78-2014
Driven precast concrete piles

709.6.3

709.6.3.

Except otherwise stated

code, guidance

in this

is

to

be obtained from

IS 2911

(Part I/Section 3).

709.6.3.2

design requirement

may be

is

known

cast to avoid lengthening of piles as far as possible.

and approved

may be used

concrete at top of original

to permit concreting

only after the method of splicing

pile shall

be cut down

is

between the

in

to sufficient length to avoid spelling

tested

bars.

During installation of

piles,

the

final

General

710.1.1

In

case of

100 blows.

last

plain concrete substructure, surface reinforcement at the rate of

2.5 kg/m shall be provided


shall not

set or penetration of piles per blow of

SUBSTRUCTURE

710
710.1

by heat

neighboring reinforcement shall be such as

should be checked taking an average of

such bars

unavoidable, the

be joined by welding or by mechanical couplers. The

of welding. Location of mechanical couplers

hammer

When

earlier.

longitudinal reinforcement shall

709.6.3.3

length of pile as per

with reasonable degree of accuracy. Extra length of pile

splicing for lengthening of steel

The

may be adopted when

This type of piles for bridges

in

each

direction,

exceed 200 mm.

In

i.e.,

both horizontally and

case of substructure

in

vertically.

Spacing of

severe environment (as per

Clause14.3.1 of 112 or as per clause 302.6 table 5 of IRC:21) the surface reinforcement

can be dispensed

with,

be so proportioned
710.1

.2

to

if

specifically allowed but the

keep the stresses only up

to

dimension of the substructure should

90 percent of the allowable stress.

For the design of substructure below the level of the top of bed block, the

live

load impact shall be modified by the factors given below:

i)

For calculating the pressure at the bottom


surface of the pier/abutment cap

ii)

For calculating pressure on the top 3

0.5

substructure below pier/abutment cap

44

of

Decreasing uniformly from


0.5 to zero

IRC:78-2014
For calculating the pressure on the portion

iii)

of the substructure, at

more than 3

Zero

below

the pier/abutment cap.

Structures designed to retain

710.1.3

pressure calculated

in

accordance with any

earthfill

shall

rational theory.

be proportioned

No

structure shall, however, be

designed to withstand a horizontal pressure less than that exerted by a

kg/m

3
,

in

addition to the live load surcharge,

The

71 0.1 .4
in

Appendix-6

backfill

Piers

710.2.1

Piers

weighing 480

any.

behind the wing and return walls shall conform to the specifications

in

stream and channel should be located

clearance requirements and give a

in

fluid

with provision for proper drainage.

710.2

piers should

if

to withstand

be placed

other locations,

like,

minimum

to

meet navigational

interference to flood flow.

parallel with the direction of

stream current

In

general,

at flood stage. Piers

viaducts or land spans should be according to the requirement

of the obstacles to cross over.

Where necessary,

710.2.2

waters as given

in

adopted

Pier
for

be provided

at both

ends with

suitably

shaped cut

IRC:6. However, cut and ease water where provided shall extend upto

affluxed H.F.L. or higher,

710.2.3

piers shall

if

may be

masonry

stresses as provided

necessary, from consideration of local conditions,


in

piers.
in

like,

waves,

PSC, RCC, PCC or masonry. Only solid section should be


The design of masonry piers should be based on permissible

IRC:40.

71 0.2.4

The thickness

710.2.5

The multi-column

of the walls of hollow concrete piers should not be less than

mm

thickness.

Unbraced

multiple

performance of similar structures


of

such bracing, when adopted,

710.2.6

in

column

piers

may be

shall

minimum

allowed depending upon the

similar conditions of river.

However, type and spacing

be predetermined.

Piers shall be designed to withstand the load and forces transferred from

the superstructure and the load and forces on the pier


self-weight. In general, pier

710.2.7

300 mm.

piers of bridges across rivers carrying floating debris, trees

or timber should be braced throughout the height of the piers by diaphragm wall of

200

etc.

In

case of

may be

solid,

pier consisting of

itself,

apart from the effect of

its

hollow or framed structures.

two or more columns, the horizontal forces

at

the bearing be distributed on columns as required by appropriate analysis.

71 0.2.8

If

the piers consist of either multiple piles or trestle columns spaced closer

45

IRC:78-2014
than three times the width of piles/columns across the direction of flow, the group
shall
1

be treated as a

solid pier of the

.25 for working out pressure

IRC:6.

If

due

to

same

overall width

and the value

water current according

to relevant

K taken as

of

Clause 213.7 of

such piles/columns are braced then the group should be considered a

solid pier

irrespective of the spacing of the columns.

Hollow piers

710.2.9

shall

be provided with suitably located weep-holes of 100

mm

diameter for enabling free flow of water to equalise the water levels on inside and outside;
of flood/tide water.

The

considering rate of

rise/fall

expected

water-head/wave pressure and

differential

calculations, a

minimum

The

71 0.2.1 0

difference of 1.5

in

silt

pressure.

reinforcement of the walls of hollow circular

lateral

In

be checked

absence

for

of detailed

water levels on two sides shall be assumed.

than 0.3 percent of the sectional area of the walls of the


distributed

pier walls should

pier.

RCC

pier shall not

be less

This lateral reinforcement shall be

60 percent on outer face and 40 percent on inner face.

710.3

Wall Piers

710.3.1

When

be checked as a

The

710.3.2

the length of solid pier

is

more than

four times

its

thickness,

it

shall also

wall.

reinforced wall should have

minimum

vertical reinforcement

equal to 0.3

percent of sectional area.

For eccentric axial load, the wall should be designed for axial load with

710.3.3

moment. The moments and the horizontal forces should be


account the dispersal by any rational method.

The

710.3.4
vertical

vertical

reinforcement

is

distributed taking into

reinforcement need not be enclosed by closed stirrups, where


not required for compression. However, horizontal reinforcement

should not be less than 0.25 percent of the gross area and open links (or S-loops) with hook
placed around the vertical bar should be placed at the rate of 4 links

When

710.3.5

walls are fixed with superstructure, the design

in

one running metre.

moment and

axial load

should be worked out by elastic analysis of the whole structure.

710.4

Abutments

710.4.1

The abutments

dimensioned

carry superstructure from

in

addition to load

one

side.

It

should be designed/

from the approach embankment.

The abutments should be designed

710.4.2
condition

to retain earth

will

to withstand earth

pressure

and forces transferred from superstructure.

46

In

in

normal

addition,

any

IRC:78-2014
load acting on the abutment

710.4.3

case of

In

spill

including self-weight,

itself,

to

is

be considered.

through type abutment, the active pressure calculated on the

width of the column shall be increased by 50 percent where two columns have been provided

and by 100 percent where more than two columns have been provided.
710.4.4

abutments and abutment columns

All

surcharge equivalent to 1.2


not be increased as

height of earth

Clause 710.4.3

in

for

The

fill.

shall

be designed

for a

effective width of the

surcharge effect when

spill

load

live

columns need

through abutment

is

adopted.

Abutment should also be designed

710.4.5

for

water current forces during 'scour

all

round' condition.

The abutment may be

710.4.6

abutment may be either


through type. For

spill

of plain or reinforced concrete or of masonry.

The

box type or

spill

solid type, buttressed type, counterfort type,

out as for piers. Counterfort type abutment

be and the slab


710.4.7

may be designed as

Fully earth

retaining

may be

treated as

submerged

unit

weight of

The weight

710.4.8
the weight

710.4.9

may be
In

front of the

soil

of earth

considered

case of

abutment

spill

is

if

carried

may

or L type as the case

continuous over counterforts.

abutments should be designed considering submerged/

saturated unit weight of earth as appropriate during H.F.L. or L.W.L. condition.


the

may be

through abutment, column type or wall type, analysis

where considered

filling

shall not

material on heel

the bed

is

case of footings,

be less than 1000 kg/m 3

may be

considered.

In

case of

toe,

protected.

through type abutment,

well protected by

In

means

it

should be ensured that the slope

of suitably

in

designed stone pitching and

launching aprons.

710.4.10

In

wall should not

than 250

710.4.11

case of abutments having counterfort, the minimum thickness of the


be less than 200

front

mm and the thickness of the counterfort should not be less

mm.

In

case

of

box type abutments, weep holes

shall

be provided similar

to

hollow piers as per Clause 710.2.9.

710.5

Abutment

710.5.1

Abutment

Pier

piers

may have

to

be provided

47

at locations

where there may be a

IRC:78-2014
need of increasing waterway subsequently. The design
such that

of

such abutment piers

should be possible to convert them to the similar shape as piers

it

in

shall

be

the active

channel.

For multiple span arch bridges, abutment piers shall be provided after every

710.5.2
fifth

span or

closer.

It

designed

is

the pier and arches on other side

710.6

Dirt Walls,

710.6.1

Wing

for condition that


will

even

if

arch on one side of

it

collapses,

remain safe.

Wing Walls and Return Walls

walls shall be of sufficient length to retain the

roadway

to the required

extent and to provide protection against erosion.

A dirt wall shall be provided to prevent the earth from approaches spilling on
bearings. A screen wail of sufficient depth (extended for at least 500 mm depth into the

710.6.2
the

to

fill)

prevent slipping of the

backfill in

case the abutment

is

of the

spill

through type, shall

be provided.

counterfort type.

710.6.4
of

may be of solid type. The return walls may be of solid


The material used may be plain or reinforced concrete or masonry.

The wing

710.6.3

walls

Dirt wall/ballast wall

and screen

wall shall

or

be provided with minimum thickness

200 mm.

The wing

710.6.5

walls should be designed primarily to withstand the earth pressure

in

addition to self-weight.

The top

710.6.6

by

at least

top.

100

A drainage

mm

of the wing/return walls shall be carried


to

prevent any

arrangement

abutment specified
710.6.7

The

710.6.8

In

in

at right

embankment

from being blown or washed away by

for return wall/wing wall

cantilever returns

may be

rain

over

its

provided similar to that for the

where adopted should not be more than 4 metres

long.

case of open foundations, wing and return walls should be provided with

Wing

river bridges,

of

Appendix-6.

separate foundations with a

710.6.9

soil

above the top

walls

joint at their junction with the

may be

abutment.

any suitable angle

laid at

these are normally splayed

in

plan at 45.

The

to the

abutment.

return walls

In

may be

case of
provided

angles to the abutment. Return walls shall be designed to withstand a live-load

surcharge equivalent to

.2

height of

earthfill.

48

IRC:78-2014

The box type return wall at right angles at both ends of the abutments connected
type diaphragm may be adopted where found suitable. However, in such cases, no

710.6.10

by wall

reduction

the earth pressure for the design of the abutment should be considered.

in

The

top of diaphragm should slope inwards to the centre of carriageway for facilitating proper
rolling of

the

embankment behind

the abutment.

on independent foundations can be suitably

Solid type of wing/return walls

710.6.11

stepped up towards the approaches depending upon the pattern of scour,


conditions and

its

710.6.12

case of wing walls or return

In

profile,

local

ground

safe bearing capacity, etc.


walls, the foundation shall

be taken adequately

into the firm soil.

710.7

Retaining Walls

710.7.1

The minimum thickness

710.7.2

The

any

live

of reinforced concrete retaining wall shall be

retaining walls shall

be designed

load surcharge and other loads acting on

with the general principles specified for abutments.


shall

be of

solid type.

Reinforced concrete walls

pressure including

to withstand earth
it,

including self-weight,

Stone masonry and

may be

200 mm.

in

accordance

plain concrete walls

of solid, counterfort, buttressed or

cellular type.

The vertical stems of cantilever walls shall be designed as cantilevers fixed


at the base. The vertical or face walls of counterfort type and buttressed type shall be
designed as continuous slabs supported by counterforts or buttresses. The face walls shall
be securely anchored to the supporting counterforts or buttresses by means of adequate
710.7.3

reinforcements.

710.7.4

Counterforts shall be designed as

designed as rectangular beams.


counterforts, there shall

In

T-beams

or L-beams. Buttresses shall be

connection with the main tension reinforcement of

be a system of horizontal and

vertical bars or stirrups to

anchor the

face walls and base slab to the counterfort. These stirrups shall be anchored as near to the
outside faces of the face walls and as near to the bottom of the base slab as practicable.

and Abutment Caps

710.8

Pier

710.8. 1

The width

of the

abutment and

pier

caps

shall

i)

the bearings leaving an offset of 150

ii)

The

iii)

The space

be

mm

sufficient to

accommodate

beyond them,

ballast wall.
for jacks to

lift

the superstructure for repair/replacement of

bearings, etc.

49

IRC:78-2014

The equipment for prestressing operations where necessary, over and


above space for end block in cast in-situ cases.

iv)

v)

The drainage arrangement

vi)

Seismic arrestor,

vii)

To accommodate inspection ladders

The thickness

710.8.2

not be less than

250

of

for the

water on the cap.

provided

if

cap over the hollow

pier or

column type

of

abutment should

mm but in case of solid plain or reinforced concrete pier and abutment,

the thickness can be reduced to 200

mm.

Pier/Abutment caps should be suitably designed and reinforced to take care

710.8.3

of concentrated point loads dispersing

in

pier/abutment.

Caps

cantilevering out from the

supports or resting on two or more columns shall be designed to cater for the
superstructure on jacks for repair/replacement of bearings.

The

lifting

of

locations of jacks shall be

predetermined and permanently marked on the caps.

710.8.4

In

case bearings are placed centrally over the columns and the width of

bearings/pedestals

located within half the depth of cap from any external face of the

is

columns, the load from bearings

will

be considered

columns and the cap beam need not be designed

to

have been

directly transferred to

for flexure.

The thickness of the cap over masonry piers or abutment


than 500 mm. The minimum width at the top of such piers and abutments
710.8.5

shall not

of slab

be less

and girder

bridges just below the caps shall be as given below:

Span
Top

in

metres

width

of

3
pier

supported spans

in

carrying

simply

12m

24m

0.50

1.0

1.2

1.6

piers

0.40

0.75

1.0

1.3

Exceptthe portion under bearings, the top surface of caps should have suitable

710.8.6
in

Top width of abutment and of


carrying continuous spans in m

slope

order to allow drainage of water.

710.8.7

Reinforcement

square-root formula stated


with a total
steel shall

minimum

of

in
in

Pier

and Abutment Caps where the bearing

Clause 307.1 of IRC:21, the pier caps

shall

percent steel, assuming a cap thickness of 225

be distributed equally and provided both at top and bottom

The reinforcement

in

in

satisfied the

be reinforced

mm. The

total

two directions.

the direction of the length of the pier shall extend from end to end

50

IRC:78-2014
of the pier
piers

one

cap while the reinforcement

cap and be
20

at

mm

in

the form of stirrups.

from top and the other

consisting of 8

mm

bars at 100

mm

angles shall extend for the

at right
In

addition,

100

at

centres

mm

full

width of the

two layers of mesh reinforcement

from top of pedestal or pier cap each

both directions shall be provided directly

in

under the bearings.

71 0.9

Cantilever

710.9.1

When

support

is

Cap

of Abutment

and

Pier

the distance between the load/centre line of bearing from the face of the

equal to or less than the depth of the cap (measured at the support) the cap shall

be designed as a corbel.

The equivalent square area may be worked out

710.9.2

the face of support for calculating bending

710.9.3

In

measurement

case of wall
of distance for

of reinforcement should

be

nearest supporting face of

Where a

710.9.4

pier

in

determine

moments.

and the

pier

cap cantilevering out

all

around, the

purpose of the design as bracket and the direction of provision


parallel to the line joining the centre of load/bearing with the

Pier.

part of the bearing lies directly over the pier, calculation of such

reinforcement should be restricted only for the portion which

Moreover,

for circular pier to

such cases the area of closed horizontal

is

stirrups

outside the face of the

may be

limited to

pier.

25 percent

of the area of primary reinforcement.

710.10

Pedestals below Bearing

710.10.1

The pedestals should be so proportioned

the edges of bearings

710.10.2

is

The height

that a clear offset of

of the pedestal should

require use of pedestals of

diaphragm

50

mm beyond

available.

be between 150

the depths of superstructures from two adjacent spans on a

or the

more height below one

of superstructure shall

500 mm. For pedestals whose height is

be modified

less than

its

mm

and 500 mm. Where

common

of the spans, the

pier differ

shape

of pier

and
cap

to restrict the height of pedestals to

width, the requirement of the longitudinal

reinforcement as specified for short column need not be insisted upon.

710.10.3

The allowable bearing pressure

with near uniform distribution on the loaded

51

IRC:78-2014
area of a footing or base under a bearing or coiumn shall be given by the following
equation.

C xv A
0

>

where

Co

the permissible direct compressive stress

in

concrete at the

bearing area of the base

dispersed concentric area which

is

geometrically similar to the

A 2 and also the largest area that can be contained in


of A (maximum width of dispersion beyond the loaded

loaded area
the plane

area face shall be limited to twice the height)

A2

loaded area and the projection of the bases or footing beyond the
face of the bearing or column supported on

150
710.10.4
at

100

The two

mm

layers of

mm from top of pedestal

directions, shall

be provided

in

any

directly

shall not

be less than

direction.

mesh reinforcement
or pier

it

one

at

20

cap each consisting of 8

under the bearings.


*****

52

mm from top and the other


mm bars at 100 mm in both

IRC:78-2014

Appendix-1
(Clause 703.2.2.2)

GUIDELINES FOR CALCULATING SILT FACTOR FOR BED


MATERIAL CONSISTING OF CLAY
any formula 'KJ may be determined as per Clause 703.2.2 and may be
adopted based on site information and behaviour history of any existing structure. The
In

absence

of

clayey bed having weighted diameter normally less than

scour than sand though


indicates

more

scour. In

mean depth
absence

rational formula or

the site of the proposed bridge; the following theoretical calculation

i)

In

case of

having

soil

offers

of scour as per the formula given

any accepted

of

0.04mm

more resistance
in

Clause 703.2

any data of scour

at

may be adopted:

<15 and c (cohesion of

> 0.2

soil)

kg/cm 2

'KsfI calculated as follows:

sf

F(1 +

Vcj

where c

in

kg/cm 2

where

ii)

= 1.50 for

0>

= 1.75 for

0>5

= 2.00

0<

for

10 and < 15

and < 10

Soils having 0 >15

2N/mm and
2

silt

will

factor

will

be treated as sandy

soil

even

if

is

more than

be as per provisions of Clause 703.2.2.

53

!RC:78-2014

Appendix-2
(Clause 704.3)

GUIDELINES FOR SUB-SURFACE EXPLORATION

GENERAL

The

objective of sub-surface exploration

for the foundation of bridges.

is

determine the

to

The sub-surface

stages, namely preliminary and detailed.

It

exploration for bridges

may

the

suitability of
is

soil

or rock,

carried out

in

two

require additional/confirmatory exploration

during construction stage.

Guidance may be taken from the


IS

i)

1892

Code

of Practice for Site Investigation for Foundations

Test on soils shall be conducted

2720

may be

guidance regarding investigation and collection of data.

utilised for

ii)

following:

Methods

conducted as

far

in

of Test for Soils.

accordance with relevant part of

The

tests

as possible at simulated

IS

on undisturbed samples be

field

conditions to get realistic

values.
iii)

IS 1498-Classification

and

Identification of Soils for general engineering

purposes.
For preliminary and detailed sub-surface investigation, only rotary

drills shall

casing shall also be, invariably provided with diameters not less than 150
rock,

if

any. However, use of percussion or

wash

mm

be used. The

upto the level of

boring equipment shall be permitted only to

penetrate through bouldery or gravelly strata for progressing the boring but not for collection
of samples. While conducting detailed borings, the resistance to the
rate of penetration, core loss, etc. shall

and data sheet"

be carefully recorded and presented

to evaluate the different

sandstone, clay from shale,

speed
in

of drilling,

"Borelog chart

types of strata and distinguish specially sand from

etc.

For preliminary and detailed sub-surface investigation, only double tube diamond

method

shall

drilling shall

be used.

In soft

information,

and weak rocks such

tuffs, soft

shales

etc., triple

drilling

tube diamond

be used.

2
2.1

i.e.,

Preliminary

previous

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION

investigation
site

reports,

shall

include

geological

54

the

maps,

of

existing

geological

and

surface

geological

study
etc.,

IRC:78-2014
examination. These

and also

to locate the

most desirable

number

the

of sites under consideration

location for detailed sub-surface investigation.

DETAILED INVESTIGATION

Based on data obtained

3=1

down

help to narrow

will

after preliminary investigations,

the type of structure with span arrangement and the location


the

programme

the bridge

and type

site,

of foundations,

of detailed investigations, etc. shall be tentatively decided. Thereafter

the scope of detailed investigation including the extent of exploration,


holes, type of tests,

number

of tests, etc. shall

be decided

in

number

of bore

close liaison with the design

engineer and the exploration team, so that adequate data considered necessary
detailed design

end a distance
last

and execution are obtained.

The

3.2

for

exploration shall cover the entire length of the bridge and also at either
of

zone

main foundation

to

of influence,

assess the

i.e.,

about twice the depth below bed of the

approach embankment on the end

effect of the

foundations. Generally, the sub-surface investigations should extend to a depth below


the anticipated foundation level equal to about

where such

foundation. However,

one and a

investigations

end

in

half times the width of the

any unsuitable or questionable

foundation material, the exploration shall be extended to a sufficient depth into firm

and stable

soils or to rock.

Additional

3.2.1

drill

holes:

Where

indicate appreciable variation specially

necessary
strata.

to resort to additional

in

local

in

The scope

made

available by detailed exploration

case of foundations resting on

in

rock,

it

will

be

holes to establish a complete profile of the underlying

Location and depth of additional

the extent of variation

3.3

drill

the data

holes

drill

geology and

in

will

have

to

be decided depending upon

consultation with design engineer.

of the detailed sub-surface exploration shall

para 3.1 and 3.2. However, as a general guide

it

shall

be fixed as mentioned

be comprehensive enough

to

enable the designer to estimate or determine the following:

i)

engineering properties of the soil/rock;

ii)

location

and extent of weak layers and

cavities,

if

any,

below hard founding

strata;
iii)

the sub-surface geological condition, such as, type of rock, structure of


rock,

i.e.,

folds, faults, fissures, shears, fractures, joints,

subsidence due

to mining or

55

presence of

cavities;

dykes and

IRC:78-2014
iv)

ground water

v)

artesian conditions,

level;

water

if

any;

contact with the foundation;

vi)

quality of

vii)

depth and extent of scour;

viii)

suitable foundation level;

ix)

safe bearing capacity of foundation stratum;

x)

probable settlement and probable

xi)

likely

sinking or driving effort;

xii)

likely

construction

in

differential

settlement of the foundations;

and

difficulties.

CONSTRUCTION STAGE EXPLORATION

Such exploration may become necessary


investigation stage or

when a change

during construction.

such

In

situations,

to verify the actually

in
it

met

strata vis-a-vis detailed

the sub-soil strata/rock profile

may be

is

encountered

essential to resort to further explorations

to establish the correct data, for further decisions.

5
The

METHOD OF TAKING SOIL SAMPLES

size of the bores shall be predetermined so that undisturbed

various types of tests are obtained.

and

IS 2132.

The

on

samples

soil

groups keeping

method

of taking

samples

shall

be as given

in

for the

IS1892

be conducted as per relevant part of IS 2720.

shall

DETAILS OF EXPLORATION FOR FOUNDATIONS


RESTING ON SOIL (ERODIBLE STRATA)

The type and extent

6.1

in

of

exploration

shall

be divided

into

the

following

view the different requirements of foundation design and the

likely

of data collection:

i)

Foundations requiring shallow depth of exploration;

ii)

Foundations requiring large depth of exploration; and

iii)

Fills

behind abutments and protective works.

Foundations Requiring Shallow Depth of Exploration (Open Foundation)

6.2

These

tests

The method

samples as required

shall

cover cases where the depth of exploration

samples from shallow

pits or

conduct direct

cover generally the foundation

soil for

is

not large

and

it

is

possible to take

tests, like, plate load tests, etc. This will also

approach embankments, protective works,

56

etc.

IRC:78-2014

The primary requirements are

6.2.1

stability

and settlement,

which shearing

for

strength characteristics, load settlement characteristics, etc. need determination.

Tests shall

6.2.2

may be

be conducted on undisturbed representative samples, which

obtained from open

Test on Soils)

of plate load test (IS

888-Method

few exploratory bore holes or soundings

shall

made

be

safeguard against presence of weak strata underlying the foundation. This shall extend

to a

depth of about

NOTE:

V 2 times the proposed width of foundation.

For better interpretation,


in-situ tests, like, plate

The

6.2.3

cohesionless

tests to be

soils.

it

will

to correlate the laboratory results with the

load tests, penetration test results.

conducted

These are

be desirable

for properties of soil are different for

indicated below. While selecting the tests

cohesive and

and

interpreting

the results, limitations of applicability of chosen tests shall be taken into account.
suitable

and appropriate combination of these

needed

for

I)

most

be chosen, depending on the properties

Cohesionless Soil
Laboratory Tests
Classification tests, index tests, density determination, etc.

i)

ii)

b)

NOTE:

shall

design and constructional aspects.

a)

Shear Strengths by

Load

Test, (as per IS 1888).

i)

Plate

ii)

Standard Penetration Tests (as per IS 2131)

iii)

Dynamic Cone Pentration

iv)

Static

Where

Cone

2720 Part

Test, (as per IS

Penetration Test, (as per IS

dewatering

Cohesive
a)

triaxial/direct shear, .etc.

Field Tests

(as per IS
II)

Load

of

considered desirable for ascertaining the safe bearing pressure and

is

settlement characteristics.
to

The use

pits.

is

expected,

permeability

4968 Part or Part


I

4968 Part
tests

III).

may

be

XVII).

Soil

Laboratory Tests
i)

Classification tests, index tests, density determination etc.

ii)

Shear strengths by

iii)

Unconfined compression test

iv)

Consolidation test (IS 2720 Part V)

triaxial/direct shear, etc.

57

(IS

2720 Part X)

II).

conducted

IRC:78-2014
b)

Field Tests

Load

Test, (as per IS: 1888).

i)

Plate

ii)

Vane Shear

iii)

Static

iv)

Standard Penetration Test, (as per IS:21 31

v)

Dynamic Cone Penetration

Cone

Where dewatering

NOTE:

Test, (as per IS:4434).

Penetration Test, (as per IS:4968 Part

Test, (as per IS:4968 Part

expected,

is

III).

permeability

tests

or Part

II).

may be conducted

(as per IS:2720 Part XVII).


S

Foundations Requiring Large Depth of Exploration

6.3.1 In this

group are covered cases of deep wells,

pile

foundations,

boring equipment, special techniques of sampling, in-situ testing, etc.


addition to the problems of soil

the

soil

soils,

and foundation

interaction

where the use

etc.,

become

of

essential. In

an important consideration can be

data required from construction considerations. Often

in

the case of cohesionless

made

undisturbed samples cannot be taken and recourse has to be

to in-situ

field tests.

Boring and sampling tends to cause remoulding of sensitive clays. Also for fissured

sample may not truly represent the in-situ properties, due to


disturbance and stress changes caused by boring and sampling activity. In such cases,

or layered clays, the

in-situ tests shall

be performed.

The sub-surface

6.3.2

exploration can be divided into three zones:

between bed

i)

level

and upto anticipated maximum scour depth (below

H.F.L.)

maximum scour depth

ii)

from the

iii)

from foundation

Sampling and testing

6.3.3

case and hence are required


soil

level to

water

shall

to foundations.

be tested

for

to

to the foundation level,

and

about 1V2 times the width of foundation below

(in-situ

and laboratory) requirement

will

vary

in

it.

each

be assessed and decided from case-to-case. The sub-

chemical properties to evaluate the hazard of deterioration

Where dewatering

is

expected

to

be required, permeability characteristics

should be determined.
For the different zones categorised

6.3.4

sampling, testing, etc. are given


at

every

to

V 2 metre or

at

in

change

Table

in

para 6.3.2., the data required, method of

Samples

1.

of strata.

58

of soils

in all

cases

shall

be collected

IRC:78-2014

Table
Zones
Bed

Sub-Soil Data Required for Deep Foundations


Data/Characteristics Required

level to anticipated

Soil Classification

Sampling

ii)

Particles size distribution

Disturbed samples

iii)

Permeability,

i)

maximum scour depth

Sampling and Testing

dewatering

may be
Laboratory Tests -

where

collected.

Classification Tests, including particle size distribution.

expected.

is

In-situ Tests :Permeability tests.

Maximum

anticipated

Sampling

for Laboratory Tests Undisturbed samples shall be collected for these tests.
As an exception, for (i) and (ii), disturbed samples may

Soil Classification.

i)

scour level to the

ii)

Particles size distribution

foundation level

iii)

Moisture content, density,

be permitted.

void ratio.

Shear

iv)

Laboratory Tests

strength.
a) Classification Tests including particle size

v) Compressibility.

distribution.

Permeability where

vi)

dewatering
vii)

is

expected.

Chemical analysis of
ground water
elements

b) Moisture content, density, void ratio

(for

soil

c)

Shear strength

Triaxial tests to

be done on

undisturbed samples. Unconfined

and

compression tests

aggressive

to

be done on undisturbed

and/or remoulded samples


).

d) Consolidation tests.

Tests for Cohesioniess soilsDynamic Cone Penetration Test.

In-situ
a)
b)

Standard Penetration Test.

c)

Down

hole/Cross hole seismic surveys.

d) Permeability tests.

In-situ Tests for

Cohesive Soils

a)

Dynamic Cone Penetration

b)

Static

Cone

Test.

Penetration Test

cone and skin

resistance

Foundation
1

.5

level to

about

times of the width of

foundation and below

it.

i)

iii)

Field

Permeability tests.

e)

Down

Same

Soil Classification

ii)

Vane Shear

c)

d)

Test.

hole/Cross hole seismic surveys.

as above

Shear Strength
Compressibility

Notes:
1

2)

Laboratory tests to be conducted according to the relevant parts of IS 2720,

Use

of sophisticated

equipment

like,

pressure meter

may be made,

if

suitable co-relations for interpretation of data collected are

available.

ASTM

3)

Down

4)

Seismic Methods and/or Electrical Resistivity Method can be used

hole/Cross hole seismic surveys shall be as per

4428/D 4428

for soil/rock profiling.

Down

hole/Cross hole seismic surveys

could be used for establishing elastic moduli and rock profiling at greater depths.
5)

Down

hole/Cross hole seismic surveys are useful

of bores taken

methods

shall

in

for long

bridges

(i.e.

of the order of

km and above) and

for

reducing the number

the portions that are permanently under water. For these applications, geotechnical profiles obtained by seismic

be calibrated/confirmed with actual

profiles

taken by bores at intermediate locations.

59

IRC:78-2014
6.4

Materials

Fill

Representative disturbed samples shall be collected from the borrowpit areas. Laboratory
tests shall

be conducted

and

particle size

classification

i)

moisture content

ii)

density vs. moisture content relationship

v)

shearing strength
permeability

v)

NOTE:

determining the following:

for

The shearing

strength shall be obtained for the density corresponding to the

proposed density

for the

fill.

DETAILS OF EXPLORATION FOR FOUNDATION

RESTING ON ROCK
Basic Information Required from Explorations

7.1

Geological system;

ii)

Depth of rock and

iii)

Whether

iv)

Extent and character of weathered zone;

v)

The

vi)

Properties of rock material,

vii)

Quality

viii)

Erodibility of rock to the extent possible,

variation over the site;

its

massive rock formation;

isolated boulder or

structure of rock-including bedding planes, faults, etc.;

and quantity

Exploration

7.2
If

i)

like,

of returning

strength, geological formation, etc.;


drill

water; and

where relevant

Programme

preliminary investigations have revealed presence of rock within levels

foundation

is

to rest,

it

is

information mentioned

7.2.1

essential to take up detailed investigation to collect necessary

in

The extent

the preceding para.

of exploration shall

picture of the rock profile, both

constructional difficulties

where the

in

in

be adequate enough

to give a

complete

depth and across the channel width, for assessing the

reaching the foundation levels. Keeping this

in

view,

it

shall

be

possible to decide the type of foundations, the construction method to be adopted for a
particular bridge, the extent of
It

is

desirable to take atleast

even seating and embedment

one

drill

into rock of the foundations.

hole per pier and abutment and one on each side

beyond abutments.

60

IRC:78-2014

The depth

7.2.2

of boring

in

rock depends primarily on local geology, erodibility of

the rock, the extent of structural loads to be transferred to foundation, etc. Normally,

pass through the upper weathered or otherwise weak zone, well

minimum depth

case of rock

at shallow

rock.

shall

The

be as per para 3.2 above.

Detailed Investigations for

7.3

In

of drilling shall

sound

into the

it

Rock

at

Surface or at Shallow Depths

depths which can be conveniently reached, test

pits or

trenches are the most dependable and valuable methods, since they permit a direct

examination of the surface, the weathered zone and presence of any discontinuities.
For guidance, IS 4453

may be

referred

to. In

accordance with
flat

IS

Code

of Practive for exploration by pits, trenches, drafts

case of

structurally disturbed rocks, in-situ tests

7292 - Code

and shafts

may be made

in

of Practice for in-situ determination of rock properties by

7317 - Code of Practice for Uni-axial Jacking Test for Deformation Modulus
7746 - Code of Practice for in-situ Shear Test on Rock.

jack, IS

and

IS

Rock

7.4

Detailed Investigation for

7.4.1

This covers cases where recourse

drilling.

An adequate

investigation

to

is

of exploration will

be

made

at the preliminary investigation

The

7.4.2

and

its

tests

on overburden

shall

in soil.

cover the whole

to

variation over the foundation area.

depend on the type and depth

may be

stage

However,

in

The

of overburden,

geophysical methods

this,

helpful.

investigation of the overburden soil layers shall

given for the foundations resting

sounding, boring and

be planned

to

the size and importance of the structure, etc. To decide

adopted

to

particular the foundation location, for obtaining

in

definite information regarding rock-depth

programme

Large Depths

programme has

area for general characteristics and

detailed

at

be done as per

details

case of foundations resting on rock,

be carried out only when necessary,

e.g.,

foundation level lower

than scour levels.

7.4.3
for Indexing

The core

and Storage

most transparent

7.4.4

shall

be stored properly
of

Drill

in

Cores. Wherever

plastic tube shall

be stored

The rock cores obtained

shall

be subjected

Visual identification for


a)

triple

Texture

61

Code

tube core barrel

directly in core

design as follows:

i)

accordance with IS:4078

in

of Practice

used, inner

box with sample.

to tests to get

necessary data

for

IRC:78-2014
Structure

c)

Composition

d)

Colour

e)

Grain size

f)

Petrography

Laboratory tests

ii)

NOTE:

b)

may be done

a)

Specific gravity

b)

Porosity

c)

Water absorption

d)

Compressive strength

Generally, shear strength tests


to

be done

special case.

in

compression,

Use

7.4.5

triaxial

suffice for design purposes.

The shear

compression or

of bore hole photography

will

faults, fissures or cavities, etc. Particularly in

tube core barrel

triple

is

used

strength tests can be


direct

shear

Other tests

may need

done as unconfined

test.

measuring strength and deformation characteristics

of in-situ tests for

may be made. Use

will

for

be desirable

weak and/or

to evaluate the

highly

weathered

presence of
rock,

where

such as Standard Penetration Test

for drilling, in-situ tests

and/or pressure meter test shall be conducted at every

.5

interval in the influence

zone

of footing or pile.

These

in-situ tests

However
drilling

in

zones where water loss

selections of these tests have to be

done

is

judiciously

recorded during

drilling.

and planned along with

operation.

Special Cases

7.5
7.5.

are also useful

investigation for conglomerate

drill

hole shall be

suitable tests

made same as

for rock.

The samples

depending upon the material. Special care

collected shall be subjected to


shall

be taken

to ascertain the

credibility of the matrix.

7.5.2

The
hard

investigation for iaterites

investigation shall generally be similar to that required for cohesive soils. In


iaterite,

recourse

may have

to

be

made

to

62

core

drilling

as for soft rocks.

case of

IRC:78-2014

CLASSIFICATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF ROCKS

Identification

8.1
in

and

classification of rock types for engineering

general, be limited to broad, basic physical condition

practice. Strength of parent rock alone

depend considerably on

is

of limited value

character, spacing

and

in

purposes may,

accordance with accepted

because

overall characteristics

distributions of discontinuities of the

rock mass, such as, the joints, bedding, faults and weathered seams.
8.2

Classification of

Rocks may be

classified

Rocks

based on

their physical condition

and Unconfined Compressive

Strength as per Table-2.

Presentation of Data

The Presentation

be as done as

of Data collected shall

Table

Rock Type

illustrated in

Sheet No

and 2

2 Classification of Rocks

Unconfined

Description

Compressive
Strength (UCS)
in

Extremely

Cannot be scratched with

Strong

specimen could be done by sledge hammer

Very Strong

Cannot be scratched with


of

knife or

sharp

knife or

pick.

sharp

Breaking of >200

only.

pick.

specimens requires several hard blows

MPa

Breaking

100

to

200

of geologists'

pick.

Strong

Can be scratched with knife or pick with difficulty. Hard 50


blow of hammer required to detach hand specimen.

Moderately

Can be scratched

with knife or pick, 6

Strong

or grooves can be

made

mm

deep gouges 12.5

by hand blow of geologists'

Hand specimen can be detached by moderate

mm deep

or

Weak

on

Can be broken into pieces or chips


maximum size by hard blows of the points

.5

knife or pick point.

of about 2.5

mm

of geologists' pick.

63

to

50

blow.

Can be grooved

100

pick.

Moderately

gouged

to

by firm pressure 5 to 12.5

IRC:78-2014

Weak

Can be grooved or gouged easily with knife or pick point.


Can be break down in chips to pieces several em's in size
by moderate blows of pick

point.

.25 to 5

Small thin pieces can be

broken by finger pressure.


Very weak

Can be carved

with knife.

of pick. Pieces

25

Can be broken

easily with point

mm or more in thickness can

< 1.25

be broken

by finger pressure. Can be scratched easily by finger

nail

Note:
1)

The Unconfined Compressive Strength values are as

2)

Table-2 should not be used to infer the Unconfined Compressive Strength of rock. Actual
laboratory test value of rock core should be used.

64

in British

Standard BS-5930

(CI. 44.2.6).

IRC:78-2014

RL.

(NOTE:

OF GROUND BORE 75.00 (REF. LEVEL)

SHEET No.!

FEU) TKT RESULTS

U)

D-

a.

4^

STATIC PENETRATION

RESISTANCE kg/cm

30cm

"Bt
Ss

i-

o
M
u. LJ o

VISUAL DESCRIPTION

-J

0"

K El

SKIN

POINT
Q.

RESISTANCE RESISTANCE

St

hu<i

CHARACTERISTIC

"

Hi

I!

RoS5u

if

13

wO

ZSy

N u
in

REMARKS

2$

ill B 8
S-

OF SOIL

3*

u O

28$

o 5

PERCENTAGE
SOLUBLE SALTS

STRENGTH

||i|iSi

I SCi

SHEARING

SLOWS PER

fs

SEPARATE SHEET TO BE GIVEN FOR EACH BORE HOLE/PIT)


LABORATORY TEST RESULTS

S.P.T

BORE HOLE No.2

DATE COMPLETED

KdK

75

ASSUMED NORMAL

J-t-68
3.0

SCOUR LEVEL 73.00

POORLY GRADED SAN0

15.6 10.8

17.6

S-2

9-1-W

15

ANTICIPATED MAXIMUM

s=s

19.5

17.6

SCOUR LEVEL 57.30


12-1-69

21.0

J8.9 43.6

STEPS TO BE
TAKEN
TO
RECONCILE THE

7.7

SOME KANKAR

13.0

12-1-69

3.6

PLASTICITY WITH

ti

15

1
jll-1-69

CLAY OF MEDIUM

10.1

FIELD

PLASTICITY WITH

LABORATORY

5.7

19.7 52.3 1.66

20.0 0.9

TEST DATA,

SOME KANKAR

S=5

AND

CLAY OF HIGH

WHEREVER

POSSIBLE

CLAY OF MEDIUM
24.2

PLASTICITY WITH

5-6
15-1-W

27.0

I1-1-S9

30.1

0.59

mi

NIL

0.85

no?

NIL

29

NIL

SOME KANKAR

W
31.0

PROPOSED FOUNDATION
LEVEL

11.1134.2 49.2 1.96b.670.7tfr).69l 1.6

CLAY OF HIGH

42.70

PLASTICITY WITH

S-8

11-1-

2"

38.1

7.3

34.9 48.7 1.702.64D.5522.89 2.85|l.9

SOME KANKAR

33.1

41.2

S4-1-9

44.9

24-1-69

pAo
46.2

-25-1-M

Sj1
50.5
2

UME STONE HEAVILY


SHEAREO WEATHERING

56.0

Classification

2.

AbbreviotiL n

of

60.5

soil

shall

IS:1 4

used

= Disturbed sample

98

4.

Type

5.

Size of

Somple No.

at

Bore Hole No.2

of

LIME

157mm

SHEARED
SAND STONE
STREAKS Of SILT
STONE DENSE WELL
CEMENTED

212mm

7.

Shearing Strength Characteristics bosed on Triaxiol/Box Shear

57.0

ONE

gm/cm

PROJECT

108.72

JOB NO.
Density

BORE LOG CHART AND SHEET


Trioxial

Type of Machine used

Si

31.21

2
3.

iSANO

8H

Ground water table shown thus.

Undisturbed/Disturbed Sample At

1.662 640.3914.8S

STONE

Sample

Position

Test on

5.6

posi rioN cr bore hole with reference to reference point

Core Barrel Used

of

13.9 0.5

POORLY CRADED SAND

125mm

SAND STONE CHAINED


POORLY CEMENTED

6.

UD = Undisturbed somple
S-1

WW

be as per

'"PL
t>NTS

CAVATtS

SjJ

2I-H9

1.

WEATHEftNC SHEWED

SjJ2

27-1-49

NOTES:-

UME STONE MODERATE

25mm

in

Test Quick Shear/Cosolidated Quick/ Slow, etc:

Boring

BORE HOLE N0.2

65

IRC:78-2014

R4..WMITHI8
LEFT BAND

SHEET NOJ

OTtClPMIO MAI

KOW LtVIl 9 JO

PtcHMO nvtmo

1.

tUtSOCFOf*E

41-70

Crota McttoM of nivarttAA' looking

down rMn

2.

Nwnpf m |H ctrd fcroMwt ffctd 6.P.T.

9.

Tn*dMaMufcf>vvnorMOMmponly

vHuW

IRC:78-2014

Appendix-3
(Clauses 708.2, 708.3 and 708.4)

PROCEDURE FOR
1

The

active

FORMULA FOR ACTIVE OR PASSIVE PRESSURE

and passive pressure

co-efficient

according to Coulomb's formula taking


'c'

Kp

(Ka &

IN

SOIL

respectively) shall be calculated

account the wall

into

may be added to the same as


rd
friction may be taken as 2/3
of 0

effect of

of wall

STABILITY CALCULATION

friction.

per procedure given by


the angle of repose

is

For cohesive

Bell.

soils,

The value

subject to a

degrees. Both the vertical and horizontal components shall be considered

limit

in

the

of angle

of

22

the stability

calculations.

2 SKIN
The

relief

due

to skin friction shall

in-charge. However,

FRICTION

be ignored unless

case of highly compressive

in

specifically permitted
soils, skin friction,

by the Engineer-

if

any,

may cause

increased bearing pressure on the foundation and shall be dully considered.

3
The

FACTOR OF SAFETY OVER ULTIMATE PRESSURES

factor of safety

in

assessing the allowable passive resistance shall be 2

combinations without wind or seismic forces and 1.6

for load

for load

combinations with wind or

seismic forces. The manner of applying factor of safety shall be as indicated below:
i)

Pier wells founded

The

factor of safety

the net ultimate

soil

in

cohesive

soils

as stipulated
resistance,

viz.,

(P

passive and active pressure respectively

scour
ii)

for

Pg where Pp and Pa are total


mobilised beJow the maximum
)

level.

Abutment wells
In

be applied

for the type of soil shall

in

both cohesive and non-cohesive soils

the case of abutment wells, the active pressure on

maximum scour

soil

level (triangular variation of pressure) shall

above the

be separately

evaluated and considered as load combined with the other loads acting

on the abutment and no factor of safety shall be taken for the above
components of active pressure. Effects of surcharge due to live load should
be restricted only upto the abutment portion.
67

IRC:78-2014
iii)

However, the

laterai resistance of soil

below the scour

value shall be divided by the appropriate factor of safety,


stated
iv)

in

level at ultimate
viz.,

the case of pier wells.

(p

pj

as

~FOS

Point of rotation

For the purpose of applying the above formulae,


the point of rotation

lies at

it

may be assumed

the bottom of the well.

INNER DREDGE HOLE

OUTER
SURFACE

rr

Kd

Kd1

hi

WHERE

m OUTER

d1

DIA

OF WELL

AFTER REDUCTION IN
STONING THICKNESS

IS

Id

* DEPTH OF WELL
UPTO MSL
^ 3 (h-h1)

WE

THE
DEVELOPMENT LENGTHS
FOR THE STEEL. BEYOND
THE MINIMUM SECTION
tl

Fig.

Sketch

for

t2

Reduction of Steining Thickness

68

that

IRC:78-2014

69

sr

IRC:78-2014

IRC:78-2014

Appendix-4
(Clause 708.13)

PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN DURING SINKING OF WELLS


1

CONSTRUCTION OF WELL CURB AND STEINSNG

Cutting

1 .1

1.2

conditions,

edge and the top

the curb atleast partially for

The

1.4

always be

built in

lifts

and the

in

one

In

soft strata

shall

lift

depend on the

be

laid after

site

sinking

the well

prone

bottom to top and

straight line from

at right angle to the plane of the curb. In

when

first

shall

truly horizontal.

stability.

steining shall be built

intermediate stages

1.5

be placed

The methods adopted for placing of the well curb


and the cutting edge shall be placed on dry bed.
Well steining shall be

1.3

of the well curb shall

no case,

shall

it

be

shall

plumb

built

in

is tilted.

abutment

to settlement/creep, the construction of the

wells shall be taken up after the approach

embankment

for a sufficient distance

near

the abutment has been completed.

2
2.1

A sinking

2.2

Efforts shall

2.3

Sumps made

history record

be made

SINKING

be maintained

at site.

to sink wells true to position

by dredging below cutting edge

and

in

plumb.

shall preferably not

be more

than half the internal diameter.


2.4

Boring chart shall be referred to constantly during sinking for taking adequate

care while piercing different types of strata by keeping the boring chart at the
plotting the soil

to take

as obtained

for the well steining

and comparing

it

site

and

with earlier bore data

prompt decisions.

When the wells have to

each other and the clear distance


is less than the diameter of the wells, they shall normally be sunk in such a manner
that the difference in the levels of the sump and the cutting edge in the two wells do
not exceed half the clear gap between them.
2.5

be sunk close

71

to

IRC:78-2014

When

2.6

they do not
sunk.

fail in

group of wells are near each

The minimum clearance between


in

level

needed

to

ensure that

the wells shall be half the external diameter.

dredging shall be carried out

the group and plugging of

During construction

2.7

is

the course of sinking and also do not cause disturbance to wells already

Simultaneous and
wells

other, special care

all

the wells be

partially

done

sunk wells

in

the dredging holes of

the

all

together.

shall

be taken

to

a safe depth below

the anticipated scour levels to ensure their safety during ensuing floods.

Dredged material

2.8

shall not

Where

such load

shall

the middle to

is

loaded with Kentledge

remove excavated

of the load shall

to provide additional sinking effort,

be placed evenly on the loading platform, leaving

Where

3.2

a well

be regulated

sufficient

space

in

material.

are present or there

tilts

well.

USE OF KENTLEDGE

3
3.1

be deposited unevenly around the

in

is

a danger of well developing

such a manner as

tilt,

the position

to provide greater sinking effort

on

the higher side of the well.

SAND BLOWS

4
Dewatering

4.1

be avoided

shall

and men working inside the

well shall

IN

WELLS

sand blows are expected. Any equipment

if

be brought out of the well as soon as there are

any indications of a sand-blow.

Sand blowing

4.2

in

wells can often be minimized by keeping the level of water

inside the well higher than the water table

5 SINKING
Use

5.1

of divers

OF WELLS WITH USE OF DIVERS

may be made

removal of obstructions, rock blasting,


shall

shall

in

etc.

well sinking both for sinking purposes,

as also

be taken as per any acceptable safety code

regulations

5.2

and also by adding heavy kentledge.

in

like,

for inspection. All safety precautions

for sinking with divers or

any statutory

force.

Only persons trained

for the

diving

operation shall be employed.

work under expert supervision. The diving and other equipments

acceptable standard.

It

shall

be well maintained

72

for safe use.

shall

They

be of an

IRC:78-2014
Arrangement

5.3

ample supply

for

ensured through an armored


to

be provided

hose

flexible

of low pressure

made.

be

shall

air

Standby compressor plant

pipe.

will

have

case of breakdown.

in

Separate high pressure connection

5.4

clean cool

Electric lights,

where provided,

be

shall

use of pneumatic tools

for

at

50

volts

(maximum). The

be

shall

raising of

the diver from the bottom of wells shall be controlled so that the decompression rate

conforms

for divers

5.5

All

to the appropriate rate

men employed

for diving

as

laid

down

purpose

in

shall

the regulation.

be

be

certified to

fit

by

for diving

an approved doctor.

6
Only

6.1

be

fired

light

charges

shall

BLASTING

be used under ordinary circumstances and should

under water well below the cutting edge so that there

is

no chance of the curb

being damaged.

There

6.2

shall

be no equipment inside the well nor

shall there

by any labour

in

the close vicinity of the well at the time of exploding the charges.

6.3

All

Blasting
is

safety precautions shall

and Related

resorted

to.

Use

be taken as per

4081

IS

"Safety

whenever

Operations", to the extent applicable,

Drilling

of large charges,

may

0.7 kg. or above,

Code

for

blasting

not be allowed except

under expert direction and with permission from Engineer-in-charge. Suitable pattern
of charges
fired at

holes

may be arranged

with delay detonators to reduce the

may be

a time. The burden of the charge

may

6.4

limited to

number

of charges

and the spacing of

normally be kept 0.5 to 0.6 m.

If

rock blasting

is

to

be done

for seating of the well, the

damage caused by

the flying debris should be minimised by provisions of rubber mats covered over the
blasting holes before blasting.

6.5

measures

After blasting, the steining shall be


*shall

for

any cracks and corrective

be taken immediately.

7
7.1

examined

The pneumatic

of proper design

PNEUMATIC SINKING

sinking plant

and make, but also

and other

shall

personnel. Every part of the machinery and

allied

machinery

shall not only

be

be worked by competent and well trained

its

73

fixtures shall

be minutely examined before

IRC:78-2014
installation

and use. Appropriate spares, standbys, safety

4188

working

compressed

must be kept

in

the IS

in

and other labour laws and practices prevalent

efficient

for

in

and expeditious sinking

air

at site. Safety

code

working

for

the country, as specified to provide safe,

in

be followed.

shall

Inflammable materials shall not be taken

7.2

recommended

of personnel as

into air locks

and smoking

shall

be

prohibited.

Whenever gases

7.3
shall

be analysed by trained personnel and necessary precautions adopted

hazard

to

life

avoid

to

and equipment.

Where

7.4

same

are suspected to be oozing out of dredge hole, the

blasting

resorted

is

to,

shall

it

be carefully controlled and

ail

precautions

regarding blasting shall be observed. Workers shall be allowed inside after blasting only

a competent and qualified person has examined the

The weight

7.5
shall

be

of

chamber and

steining thoroughly.

pneumatic platform and that of steining and kentledge,

sufficient to resist the uplift

from

when

air inside, skin friction

being neglected

if

any,

in this

case.
7.6

If

pressure of

7.7

at

any section the

air inside, additional

If it

is

total

weight acting downwards

is

less than the uplift

kentledge shall be placed on the well.

make the well heavy enough during excavation;


The men should be withdrawn and the air pressure
begin to move with a small reduction in air pressure.

possible to

Down" may be used.


The well should then

Down" should only be used where the ground is such that will not heave up
chamber when the pressure is reduced. When the well does not move with a
it

in

air

pressure, kentledge should be added. Blowing

and the drop should not exceed, 0.5

of

down should be

any stage. To

in

"Blowing
reduced.
"Blowing
inside the

reduction

short stages

control sinking during blowing

down, use of packs or packagings may be made.

8 TILTS
8.1

Tilts

and

shifts

shall

AND SHIFTS OF WELLS


be carefully checked and recorded regularly during

sinking operations. For the purpose of measuring the

tilts

along and perpendicular to

the axis of the bridge, level marks at regular intervals shall be painted on the surface
of the steining of the well.

8.2

Whenever any

tilt

is

noticed,

adequate preventive measures,

like,

putting

eccentric Kentledge, pulling, strutting, anchoring or dredging unevenly and depositing

74

IRC:78-2014
dredge material unequally, putting obstacles below cutting edge,

after jetting etc., shall

be adopted before any further sinking. After correction, the dredged material placed
unevenly shall be spread evenly.

8.3
sinking.

prevent

pair of wells close to

Timber

struts

may be

each other have a tendency

introduced

in

to

between the steining

come

closer while

of these wells to

tilting.

8.4

Tilts

occurring

in

a well during sinking

in

dipping

rocky strata can

be

safeguarded by suitably supporting the kerb.

Sand

9.1

be

level

shall

wave

action.

9.2

dimension

island

where provided

sufficiently

above the

The dimension
in

SAND ISLAND

of the

shall

be protected against scour and the top

prevailing water level so that

sand island

plan of the well or caisson.

75

shall

it

is

safe against

not be less then three times the

IRC:78-2014

Appendix-5
(Clause 709.3.1)

CAPACITY OF PILE BASED ON PILE SOSL INTERACTION


1

AXIAL CAPACITY OF PILES

Axial load carrying capacity of the pile

end bearing
soil

is initially

Qu

Ru +R

SOIL

determined by calculating resistance from


along

at toe/tip or wall friction/skin friction

data, the ultimate load carrying capacity

IN

(QJ

is

pile

surface or both. Based on the

given by:

where

R
R

= Ultimate base resistance

= Ultimate shaft resistance


f

Ru

Ru,

i.e.,

may be calculating from the following:


A P Nc CP

Ultimate base resistance

Ru =AP (V2

DYNy + PdNq

where

= Cross-sectional area of base of

- Pile diameter

= Effective unit weight of

N & Ny
N

= Bearing capacity factors based on angle of internal

- Bearing capacity factor usually taken as 9

= Average cohesion at

Pd

Effective
pile

i.e.,

in

pile

cm
soil at pile tip in

kg/cm 3
friction at pile tip

(from unconsolidated untrained test)

pile tip

overburden pressure at pile tip limited to 20 times diameter of

for piles

having length equal to more than 20 times diameter

Ultimate side resistance

may be

calculated from the following:

R=t KP tanSA
dj

si

ocCA

where

= Coefficient of earth pressure

= Effective overburden pressure

dj

pile for

the layer

- Angle of wall

ith

friction

= Surface area of

/'

between

pile shaft in

pile

= Surface area of

cm 2

pile shaft in

76

and

to

soil in

n
degrees.

It

may be taken

friction of soil
in

the

sj

As

kg/cm 2 along the embedment of

where varies from

equal to angle of internal

in

cm 2

ith

layer,

where varies from


/'

to

IRC:78-2014

- Reduction factor

= Average cohesion

in

kg/cm 2 throughout the embedded length of pile

(from unconsolidated untrained test)

While evaluating effective overburden pressure,

3
of soil shall

up

to

The

value of

initial

.8 in particular

and submerged weight

be considered above and below water table respectively.

The

total

K may

be taken as 1.5 which can be further increased

cases as specified

following value of x

in

(v).

may be adopted depending upon

N Value Bored

Consistency

Clause 709.2.2

consistency of

Driven

piies

Cast-in-situ

case-in-situ piles

Soft to very soft clay

<4

0.7

Medium

4-8

0.5

0.7

Stiff

8-15

0.4

0.4

>15

0.30

0.3

Very

stiff

For piles

When

in

full

over consolidated

static penetration

A +f .A
Q u =q"bp
h

qb =

soils,

data

is

may be

evaluated.

available for the entire depth, then

Point resistance at base to be taken as average of the value over a depth

below the
=

the drained capacity

equal to 3 times the diameter of

soil:

above and one time the diameter of

pile

pile

tip.

Cross-sectional area of base of pile

Average side

friction

Type of Soil

and following
Side

co-relation

may be used as

a guide:

Friction, f
s

Clay
Soft

q c/25

Stiff

q)l5

Mixture of

qc 8

silts

and sand with traces

Loose

q c/50

Dense

q c/100

of clay

Static point resistance.

Where

soft

compressible clay layer

capacity of pile from such

downward drag on

pile

due

soil

shall

is

encountered, any contribution towards

be ignored and additional load

to consolidation of soft soil shall

77

pile

be considered.

on account of

IRC:78-2014

NOTE:

For factors of safety of piles

CAPACITY OF PILES

Axial

9.1

Piles

IN

in soil,

Clause 709.3.2.

refer

INTERMEDIATE GEO-MATERIAL AND ROCK

Load Carrying Capacity

rocks and weathered rocks of varying degree of weathering derive their capacity

in

by end bearing and socket side resistance. The ultimate load carrying capacity

may

be calculated from one of the two approaches given below:

Where cores

can be taken and unconfined compressive strength

of the rock

established using standard method of testing, the approach described


shall

be used.

In

situations

(CR+RQD)/2

is

clayey

when

soil,

or

less than

where

strata

is

highly fragmented,

30 percent, or where

the crushing strength

is

strata

less than

is
1

where

in

directly

method

RQD

is nil

or

not classified as a granular or

0 MPa, the approach described

method 2 shall be used. Also, for weak rock like chalk, mud stone, clay stone, shale
and other intermediate rocks, method 2 is applicable.
in

MEHTOD1:

=
u

re

Q allow=

af

= k .q cL
sp ~c
f

Ab

A C us
s

(Re/3) + (R a/6)

Where,
=
Qu
Q allow =
=
Re
=
R
=
Kp
,

af

Ultimate capacity of pile socketed into rock

in

Newtons

Allowable capacity of Pile


Ultimate end bearing
Ultimate side socket shear

An

empiricalco-efficient

whose value ranges from

0.3 to 1.2 as

per the table below for the rocks where core recovery

and cores tested

(CR +

for uniaxial

RQD K

is

reported,

compressive strength.

sp

30%
100%

0.3
1.2

CR

Core Recovery

RQD

Rock Quality Designation

For Intermediate values,

qc

in

Kp shall

percent

be

in

percent

linearly interpolated

Average unconfined compressive strength

of rock core

of pile for the depth twice the diameter/least lateral


in

MPa
78

below base

dimension of

pile

IRC:78-2014

Ab

Cross-sectional area of base of

Depth factor =

pile

Length of Socket

+ 0.4 x

Diameter of Socket

However, value of d should not be taken more


f

than

1.2.

As

Surface area of socket

c us

Ultimate shear strength of rock along socket length,

0.225 Vq c but restricted


,

be taken as 3.0

MPa

for other strength of

METHOD

for

to

shear capacity of concrete of the

35 concrete

in

pile, to

confined coudition, which

concrete can be modified by a factor V(fck/35)

2:

when cores and/or core

This method

is

applicable

geo-material

is

highly fragmented.

correlation with extrapolated

SPT

The shear

in

MPa

aiiow

h
u.b

af

obtained from

Weak

in

Very

Weak

100-60

3.3-1.9

1.9-0.7

0.7-0.4

u.s

its

table below:

200-100

c.

Weak

when

300-200

Q=R+R=C NA+C
u

is

mm of penetration as given

Moderately

Approx. N Value

Shear Strength/Cohesion

strength of geo-material

values for 300

Shear Strength/Consistency

testing result are not available, or

= (Re/3) + (R /6)
a

where

C ub

Average shear strength below base of

pile, for

twice the diameter/least lateral dimension of


'N'

C us

pile,

the depth equal to

based on average

value of this region

Ultimate shear strength along socket length, to be obtained from table,

value of socket portion. This shall be restricted


to shear capacity of concrete of the pile, to be taken as 3.0 MPa
for M 35 concrete in confined condition, which for other strengths of
concrete can be modified by a factor V(fck/35) Intermediate values

based on average

'N'

c ub and c us can be interpolated linearly.

L =

Length of socket.

N =9.
Q aiiow = Allowable
c

The extrapolated values

capacity of

pile.

of 'N' greater than

300

shall

be

limited to

300 while using

this

method.

General notes
1 )

common

to

Method

and Method

2:

For the hinged piles resting on rock proper seating has to be ensured. The minimum
in hard rock, and 0.5 times the diameter of the pile
socket length should be 300

mm

79

IRC:78-2014
weathered

in

rock.

The allowable end bearing component

2)

restricted to 5

neglected.

be

shall

M Pa.

For calculation of socket

3)

by factor of safety

after dividing

The

friction

mm depth of rock shall be

the top rock 300

friction capacity,

capacity shall be further limited to depth of six times diameter

of pile.

For the termination of working piles

4)

the rocky strata methodology given

in

clause 10 can be used as a quality control

Moment

9.2

For the socketed

Carrying Capacity of Socketed Piles

pile,

the socket length

in

in

sub-

tool.

the rock

may be

calculated from following

equation:

L =

2H

4H

QM

where
=

Socket length

Horizontal force at top of the socket

Moment

Diameter of the

/_

o =

at the top of the

socket

pile.

Permissible compressive strength

in

rock which

leaser of 30 kg/sq

is

cm

or

0.33q c
In

case of socketed

piles, for

the satisfactory performance of the socket as fixed

rotation at the top of the socket for the fixed condition (9) should

tip,

the

be less than or equal to

5 percent of the rotation for the pinned condition at the top of the socket (9)

10 PILE

TERMINATION CRITERIA AS A QUALITY

CONTROL TOOL
For establishing the similarity of

IN

soil strata actually

ROCKS

met while advancing the

the strata selected for terminating the pile on the basis of

N values

pile-bore with

equivalent energy method

can be used.

The concept

The

pile

of Pile Penetration Ratio

(PPR)

is

used

penetration ratio (PPR) reflects the energy

the pile bore of

one

sq.

in this

in

meter cross-sectional area by

80

method.

ton-meter required to advance


1

cm.

!RC:78-2014
1

case of

In

SPT test

PPR

its

can be worked out as follows:

Energy E spent for N blows = 63.5 kg x 75 cm x N blows (in kg - cm units) = E x 1


2
meter. Area of samples is 0.758 x (5.2) sq. cm = 21 .24 sq.cm, penetrating 30 cm.

Hence PPR = 63.5

PPR
and

for

x 75 x

x 10

(21. 24x1

0^x30) =0.747 N

N = 50 = 37.35 tm/m 2 /cm

N = 200 =149.4 tm/m 2 /cm

for

where
tm = energy

cm
2)

3)

= area
= penetration

PPR

(P), (for

percussion piles) =

= Weight of chisel

Fall of chisel in 'm'

Number

= Area of

= Penetration

PPR

in

in

'm 2

Whn

MT

or blows of
pile in

hammer

'

'cm'

(R), (for rotary piles)

2n nXt

^p

where

= Revolution per minute

= Torque

in 'tm' for

= time

minutes

- Area of piles

= Penetration

in

in

in

corresponding

'm 2

'

'cm'

81

'n'

ton

IRC:78-2014

Appendix-6
(Clause 710.1.4)

ABUTMENTS, WING AND RETURN WALLS

FILLING BEHIND

The type

of materials to

A general

guide to the selection of soils

is

given

in

General Guide to the Selection of Soils on Basis of


Anticipated Embankment Performance

group according to Visual

SoiS

behind abutments and other earth retaining

for filling

Table

IS

be used

be selected with care.

structures, should

Table

FILLING MATERIALS

1498-1970

Most probable

description
Possible

Max. dry

Optimum

Anticipated

density

moisture

embankment

range kg/

content range performance

m
GW, GP, GM,

Granular

SW, HP

materials

SM, GM,
GC, SM, SC

Granular

SB,

3 *

percent

1850-2280

Good

7-15

to

Excellent

1760-2160

9-18

Fair to

materials

Excellent

with soil

SP
ML, MH, DL

CL, SM, Sandy

SB,

SC

19-25

Fair to

Good

Laying of

2.1
filter

& 1760-2080

10-20

Fair to

Good

Filter

LAYING AND COMPACTION


Media for Drainage

material shall be well

size towards the soil

Silts

Silts

The

1760-1850

Sand

packed

to a thickness of not less than

and bigger size towards the

behind abutment, wings or return walls to the


Filter

materials need not be provided

mm

and provided over the

with smaller

entire surface

height.

case the abutment

is

of

spill

through type.

Density of Compaction

2.2

Densities to be aimed at

the

in

full

wall

600

soil type,

and type

height of

in

compaction

shall

be chosen with due regard

embankment, drainage

to factors,

such as,

conditions, position of the individual layers

of plant available for compaction.

Each compacted

layer shall

be tested

in

the

operations for next layer are begun.

82

field for

density and accepted before the

IRC:78-2014
3
The extent

EXTENT OF BACKFILL

of backfill to be provided behind the

abutment should be as

DIRT WALL -

illustrated in Fig.

FACE OF DIRT WALL


EXTENT OF

FILL-

-MAIN BRIDGE

REQUIREMENT OF 100mm
NOMINAL DIAMETER
PIPES SPACED AT 1.0 mc/c
HORIZONTALLY AND 1.0 m
VERTICALLY, PLACED
IN ONE OR TWO LAYERS
SEJDJLEVEL

LWL

Notes
Active wedge of soil mobilized

2. In

in

developing active pressure has to be

case, projection of footing towards earth-fill is less than

600 mm, the

filled

by selected

filter shall

earth.

be supported near the

top of the footing.

PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN DURING CONSTRUCTION

The sequence

4.1

of filling behind abutments, wing walls

be so controlled that the assumptions made


clearly

be indicated

front of the

in

abutment

in

the design are

the relevant drawings. For example,


is

assumed

simultaneously along with the

filling

the design, the front

in

behind abutment, layer

behind abutment before placing the superstructure


filling

behind abutment should also be deferred

to

is

and

return walls shall

fulfilled
if

the earth pressure

filling

by,

and they should

shall also

and

in

in

be done

case the

filling

considered not desirable, the

a later date.

In

case of

tie

beams

and friction slabs, special care shall be taken in compacting the layer underneath and
above them so that no damage is done to them by mechanical equipment.
Special precautions should be taken to prevent any wedging action against

4.2
structures,

or strutted

4.3

and the slopes bounding the excavation


to prevent such wedging action.

Adequate number

of

weep

low water

be stepped

holes not exceeding one metre spacing

in

both

any accumulation of water and building up of


The weep holes should be provided above the

directions should be provided to prevent

hydrostatic pressure behind the walls.

for the structure shall

level.

83

IRC:78-2014

Appendix-7
(Clause

709.2.4)

PART-1

METHOD-1: PILE LOAD CAPACITY BY DYNAMIC TEST USING

WAVE EQUATION
This method
soil

based on solving wave equation by using idealized model using

is

parameters

to arrive at pile 'set' for given pile load.

pile to

an impact force applied

(of the

order of magnitude of ultimate capacity of

capacity of

axially

by drop of

The

hammer
pile)

strata

wise

force and velocity response of

causing large strain at top of

pile

are measured to arrive at the ultimate

pile.

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
For piles considering

resistance from

surrounding

soil,

the

displacements produced on segment of prismatic bar subjected


the

internal

to

force

and

impact at one end,

wave equation can be derived as

where

longitudinal displacement of a point of the bar from

modulus

direction of longitudinal axis

of elasticity of bar

original position

p = density of bar material +

&R=

The above equation may be solved

for appropriate

among displacement, time,

in

position

its

= time

soil-resistance term

boundary conditions and the relationship

the pile and stress are determined usually by numerical

methods. Solution requires idealization of model considering load deformation diagram

each segment, the 'quake'


ultimate soil resistance
factor

i.e.

maximum

and the damping

deformation that can occur


factor.

The

elastically, 'Ru'

empirical value of 'quake',

in

Table

1.

84

the

damping

and percent side adhesion as reported by Forehand and Reese are reproduced

reference

for

for

IRC:78-2014

Table

Empirical Values of Q,J, and Percent Side Adhesion

Q (in.)

Soil

J(P) (Sec/ft.

Side Adhesion

(% ofR
Coarse sand
odllU y idvcl

Fine

0.10
1

Sand

Sand and
and

35

0.15

mu

U.

o-

uu

0.15

0.15

TOO

0.20

0.20

25

sand underlain by

0.20

0.20

40

gravel underlain by

0.15

0.15

25

clay or loam, at least

50 percent of
Silt

n
U.

HacU

fine

sand

pile in

hard strata

Sand and
hard strata
2

PILE AND TEST

1)

The

testing should

be conducted by fixing instrumentation that should include strain


sensors and accelerometers to the sides of the pile at a depth of 1 .5 x pile diameters
from top of pile and then connecting them to the measuring equipment.

2)

For

this

it

is

PREPARATION

desirable that the pile

extended

is

to suitable length after chipping top

loose concrete. This can be done either using formwork or permanent casing.

two openings/windows approximately 300 mm x 300


mm and diametrically opposite to each other shall be made into the liner at 1 .5 x pile
diameter from top.

Alternatively

3)

if it

is

liner pile,

and have same strength as pile


concrete. The pile head may even be one grade higher so as to attain early strength.
The rebars and helical reinforcement shall also be extended to avoid cracking of
In

case

pile

head

concrete under
Refer to

Fig.

is

extended,

hammer

for

shall

be

axial, flat

impact.

a sketch of reinforcement

bars shall generally be the

sensor

it

level shall

same as

pile

Fig.

Details of

the extended pile and the diameter of

reinforcement. Further, the concrete at the

be smooth hard and uniform.

Plan of Test Pile

in

All dimensions are in

mm

mesh reinforcement

20

2.

Clear cover to

3.

Diameter of mesh reinforcement bars

4.

Spacing of mesh reinforcement bars

is

is

is

mm.
8

mm.

100

mm.

Elevation of Test Pile

Rebar cage

for

extended portion of

85

pile for

dynamic

test

IRC:78-2014
4)

pile

top cushion consisting of sheets of plywood with total thickness between

mm to

25

100

mm or as determined by the Test Engineer shall be placed on the top

of the pile before testing.

5)

Steel helmet 25

mm-50

mm

determined by the Test Engineer shall be

thick or as

kept ready at the time of testing.


6)

A hammer of suitable weight (1-2 percent of test load or 5-7 percent of the dead weight of
the pile whichever

is

higher) shall be used for testing the pile unless specified otherwise

by the Test Engineer. The


7)

Wherever

fall

height generally varies from 0.5

essential, a suitable guide shall

be provided

m to
to

3 m.

ensure a concentric

fall.

8)

suitable crane or equivalent

hammer
Fig.

shall

be arranged on

mechanism capable

of freely falling the required

site in consultation with the test

engineer. Refer to

2 showing the setup arrangements.


TYPICAL SKETCH SHOWING SETUP DETAILS
FOR HIGH STRAIN DYNAMIC PILE TESTING
Single Hoc ol crane or winch or
any other free (ell rnechanrsm

Drop Hemrner

Fa*H

Height

Steel helmet

Plywood Sheet
-

Sensors fbcsd bsetaw


epprox 1 Sfcmas
pe aim
f

Diameter same

pile

ooncnaa* and grade


> pile concrete

Steel Liner

_ Steel

kner provided to extend


the pile Can use (brmwortc
Instead Liner fa optional

Re-built portion from sound


concrete level or sound &
smooth concrete

Sensor* Axed onto

Fig. 2: Typical

pile

concrete

sketch showing setup details for high strain dynamic

86

pile testing

IRC:78-2014

A suitable power

source supply shall be provided

sensors and

for fixing

for the test

equipment.

PILE

MONITORING

The

testing

may be conducted

and the concrete

atleast

days

15

as well as extended portion

pile

the

after

pile

installed

is

any has achieved the

if

required strength.

Dynamic

pile

attaching

strain

(based

testing

transducers

approximately 1.5 times

needs

to

the pile

if

pile

on wave equation) should

and accelerometers

diameter below the

be fixed onto opposite sides of the

the

to

pile top.

pile,

so as

be conducted
sides

the

of

by
pile,

pair of transducers

bending

to detect

in/

any, during testing.

These transducers should be then connected through the cable


equipment

to record strain

to

measuring

and acceleration measurements and display them on an

oscilloscope or screen.

The

testing should

be conducted by impacting the

pile with

blows of the hammer,

hammer

generally starting with a smaller drop of 0.5 m. For each

blow, the strain

transducers should measure strains whereas accelerations are measured by

accelerometers connected on either sides of the


converted to

digital

pile.

These signals are then

form by the equipment and then converted

to force

and

velocity

respectively by integration.

For each
in

hammer

blow, the test

system should display immediate

the form of the mobilized capacity of the

stresses etc.

The

force

and

pile, pile

velocity curve shall

field results

top compression,

be generally as defined

integrity,
in

ASTM

D4945.
Testing should be continued by increasing height
0.5

increment

till

fall

of the

the time either the pile set or the pile capacity reaches the

required limiting values. Atypical force velocity response

The

pile

due

to

capacity shall be generally considered to be

hammer

hammer by approximately

fully

is

also described

mobilized

if

the energy levels

impact are sufficient so as to cause a measurable net displacement

mm per blow for a minimum three successive impacts. the


less than 3-4 mm per blow and the pile achieves required capacity, then

of atleast 3-4
is

in Fig. 3.

it

that not

some

If

all

the static pile resistance has been mobilized and that the pile

capacity that could not be measured or

the time of testing.

87

was

not required to be

pile set

implies
still

has

measured

at

IRC:78-2014

Fig.

8)

Typical force-velocity trace generated by measuring equipment

Analysis and Interpretation

Using strain and acceleration data

model, based on local parameters of

and

pile

The

load bearing capacity shall be calculated.

and

soil

strata,

considered and the safe capacity arrived.

soil

Atypical blow

then selected for Signal Matching Analysis.

is

4)

TEST LIMITATIONS

1)

Evaluation

of

variety

analytical

of

static

the

result

the

into

dynamic evaluation

calibrate

and

methods and

judgment. The input


the

strata

resistance

soil

of the

it's

the

is

analytical

matching

the equivalent static

report should specffy the

final

parameters of

pile

a suitable

in

can be based on a

distribution

subject

of

individual

engineering

methods may or may not


load

static

data.

test

dynamic analysis with those

It

of a

is

result

in

necessary

to

static

pile

load

test carried out according to IS 2911.

Based on above,

it

can be said that

and actual end bearing

for

it

is

difficult to

rock socketed

piles

predict rock socket friction

that

do not show substantial

net displacement under the impacts.


Unlike

static

testing,

evaluation

experienced engineer trained

in

of

dynamic

pile

test

interpretations of the results.

88

results

requires

an

IRC:78-2014

METHOD-2: PILE DYNAMIC TEST METHOD BASED ON

FORMULAE

HILEY'S

OPERATED EQUIPMENT)

(BY LASER/INFRARED
1

INTRODUCTION

Since the early days of driven

piles,

the termination criteria based on "Sets observed", are

The

followed. Various formulae are available.

IS

Code 2911

provides one such formula. The principle followed


of the

hammer, and on

of standard

numbers

- 1

of blows of

hammer, the

strength

after curing)

(i.e.

the founding strata

in

i.e.

average penetration

ultimate capacity for the pile

factor of safety the safe capacity

in-situ piles after attaining

covering driven piles

recording the penetration per blow

is

that basis having obtained the desired set

and then with suitable


be advanced further

Part

(i.e.

is

arrived

is

worked out

The bored

at.

can be treated as precast

cast-

pile to

on which terminated) by dynamic

strata

impact energy. The load carrying capacity of bored cast-in-situ

pile

subjected to impact

energy can then be estimated on measuring consequent displacement by sophisticated


optoelectronic instruments on resorting to IS 2911 procedure.
ascertaining the quality of

workmanship on a

wasting and avoiding delays

in

a construction

number

large

of

The procedure will help in


piles without much of time

activity with relatively less cost.

METHODOLOGY
The methodology
the elastic body.

of test

is

based on a large

weight giving the dynamic impact to

hammer blow

equates the energy of

It

falling

to

work done

in

overcoming the

resistance of the founding strata to the penetration of the ordinary cast-in-situ piles as
well as grouted micro piles.

compression of the

pile,

Allowance

and subsoil as

Modified Hiley's formulae given

in

the ultimate driving resistance

in

code, the safe load on

pile

IS

Code 2911

for losses of

energy due

caused by the impact

the code IS 2911 Part

-1,

Section

to the elastic

of the

are used

in

pile.

The

estimating

tonnes. Applying the factor of safety as outlined

in

the

out.

including rebounds of the pile are precisely recorded

automatic data acquisition system. This


in

made

well as losses

can be worked

The instantaneous displacements


as accepted

is

is

done

for several cycles

the safe loading capacity

is

in

and then using formulae

The

calculated.

opto-electronic

measurement by non contact continuous


measurement, using instrument placed away from the vibrations due to impact load. The
instrument

system
detector

is

is

for

position

based on combined

The

reference

used

transmitter

line

sensitive

light

emitting diode transmitters

and receiver are

installed

so that the infrared

from transmitter, receiver to the prism group

89

and a

reflectors.

position sensitive

beam forms

reflected light

is

light

The

IRC:78-2014
received and recorded 100 times per second. Using the energy transmitted to the

accounting for temporary compression of


loading, the ultimate driving resistance

load for the pile

The modified

is

pile,

ground and

pile

and

dolly occurring during the impact

calculated. Applying the factor of safety the safe

is

calculated.

Hiley formula

is

Whq

R
S+C/2
where

ultimate driving resistance


dividing

it

in

tonnes.

The safe load

shall

be worked out by

with a factor of safety of 2.5.

mass

height of the free

ram

of the

in

tonnes;
of the

fall

trigger-operated drop

ram

or

hammer

cm, taken

in

at

hammers. When using the McKiernanTerry type

of the maker's rated energy

be substituted

for the

operated at

maximum speed

its

product {Wh)

in

in

for single-acting

of double acting

hammers,

tonne-centimeter per blow should

the formula.

while the set

is

The hammer should be

being taken;

efficiency of the blow, representing the ratio of


striking

value for

hammers, 80 percent of the fall of normally proportioned

winch operated drop hammers, and 90 percent of the stroke

90 percent

its full

energy

after

impact to the

energy of ram;

final

set or penetration per blow

sum

of the

cm;

in

temporary elastic compressions

in

cm

of the pile, dolly, packings

and ground

Mass

Where Wis

of pile

in

tonnes

greater than

Pe and

the pile

n =
'

Where Wis

less than

Pe and the

90

is

driven into penetrable ground,

W + Pe

W+ P
pile is

driven into penetrable ground.

IRC:78-2014

The

following are the values of

n.

relation to e

in

and

to the ration of

P/W

e = 0.5

e = 0.4

E = 0.32

e = 0.25

e = 0

1/2

0.75

0.72

0.70

0.69

0.67

0.63

0,58

0.55

0.53

0.50

0.55

0.50

0.47

0.44

0.40

0.50

0.44

0.40

0.37

0.33

2%

0.45

0.40

0.36

0.33

0.28

0.42

0.36

0.33

0.30

0.25

0.39

0.33

0.30

0.27

0.22

0.36

0.31

0.28

0.25

0.20

0.31

0.27

0.24

0.21

0.16

0.27

0.24

0.21

0.19

0.14

0.24

0.21

0.19

0.17

0.12

0.22

0.20

0.17

0.15

0.11

Ratio of

P/W

3V,
2.

P is the weight of the


Where the

pile, anvil,

helmet and follower

(if

any)

in

tonnes.

Pshould be substituted for Pin the above expression

pile finds refusal in rock, 0.5

for n-

a)

is

the coefficient of restitution of the materials under impact as tabulated below.

For steel ram of double-acting


pile,

b)

striking

For cast-iron ram of single-acting or drop


pile,

with hard

Numbers

anvil

and

driving reinforced

hammer

striking

on head of reinforced

e = 0.4.

Single-acting or drop

pile,

on steel

e = 0.5

concrete
c)

hammer

wood

hammer

striking a well-conditioned driving

dolly in driving reinforced concrete piles or directly

cap and helmet

on head of timber

e = 0.25.

of

models

of Laser/infrared operated instruments

measuring accurately the

deformation are available these days. The required sensitivity of the equipment shall

be such as

to

read the angular deformation to the accuracy of 10-3 radians and the

instrument should be capable of recording about 100 readings per second. From the

angular deformation, on knowing the distance of the reflector from the instrument,
91

!RC:78-2014
Typical Displacement Record

400

600

-0.4

5 -0.5

%
5

500

-- 6

--

-0.7
-0.8
-0.9

Reading Serial Number.

vertical

movement

of the shaft under the given impact energy, (both elastic

and

permanent) can be measured accurately. These measurements of the displacement


can then be substituted

in

modified Hiley's formulae stated

in

IS 2911.

The

ultimate

load carrying capacity of the pile can be worked out, resorting to the modified Hiley's

formulae outlined

in

the code and from that the safe load carrying capacity of pile can

be estimated.

92

IRC:78-2014

Appendix-7
PART-2

STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR LOW STRAIN


1

Pile Integrity Testing (PIT)

is

PILE INTEGRITY TESTING

SIGNIFICANCE AND USE

a Non-Destructive

method

integrity test

for foundation piles.

The method evaluates continuity of the pile shaft and provides information on any potential
defects due to honeycombs, necking, cross-section reduction, potential bulbs, sudden
changes in soil stratum, concrete quality in terms of wave speed etc. It is known as "Low
requires the impact of only a small hand-held hammer and the
Strain" Method since
resultant strains are of extremely low magnitude. The test procedure is standardized as per
ASTM D5882 and also forms part of various specifications and code provisions worldwide as
indicated in Table-3. The number of tests shall be decided by the engineer to the project.
it

Table 3 Major Standards or

Sr no

Method

LST,

CSL

Codes

for Integrity Testing

Country

Reference

Title

Australia

Australian Standard

Pile

As

Designing and

installation

21 59-1 995

Technical

code

Chapter

Piles foundations

2)

LST,

CSL

China

JG J 94-94

Building

for

9:

Inspection and Acceptance of

pile

Foundation

9.1

Quality Inspection of Pile

Engineering.

installation.

3)

LST.CSL

China

Specification

JGJ 93-95

Dynamic Testing

4)

LST

France

Norms Francaiso

LST.CSL

Germany

DGGT

investigation

testing

ascnliation

LST.CSL

UK

and
of buried

by

reflection

Empfohlung
Integritataprufungen

6)

Strain

of Piles.

Soil

work method
impedance
5)

Low

for

Institution

of

Civil

Specification of Piling.

Engineers. (ICE)
7)

LST

USA

ASTM D5882

Standard specification
Strain
Piles.

93

Imaginary

for

Low

Testing

of

IRC:78-2014

TYPICAL METHODS

Various methods used to evaluate the integrity of the

The evaluation

are briefly described below.

pile

can be described as follows.

of PIT records

Pulse-Echo Method

(or

Sonic Echo

a time domain analysis)

Force Velocity Approach

The Force

maybe

Response Procedure (Frequency Domain Analysis)

Transient

Cross Hole Sonic Logging


Velocity approach

difficult to

evaluate

used method and

is

in

sometimes used

is

Pulse Echo Method. The Pulse Echo

test

Tester or any equivalent that meets

digital

ASTM D5882

must be displayed

in

and a

should be possible.

the

be conducted

engineer/technician.
sufficient

space

for

like

at least 7

The equipment must also


non-instrumented hammer etc. The data

days

after pile concreting

at the pile top surface

an accelerometer onto the

candle wax, vaseline

with a hand-held device (a hand-held

at least 3 locations,

smaller diameter piles.

The

wp*c T

ASTM

top (not near

smooth

with

impact area. The


its

attachment, the

edge) with the

pile is

piles of

testing. All

600

whereas minimum one

typical data sets for


in

relatively

hammer

blows during the stage of

may be conducted on

also defined

pile

etc. After

blows are averaged before display. For larger diameter

impacted

good or damaged

mm

such similar

and above testing

location

pile shall

is

enough

DEPTH

IN

D5882.

pice

PIT Velocity versus Depth

plot for

normal

94

pile

OCPTH

for

generally be as

roe RESPONSE

PILE

Fig. 1:

must be

by an experienced

hammer).

test involves collection of several

is

a Pile Integrity

like

requirements.

attachment of the motion sensing device and

help of bonding material

per Fig.1 and

commonly

TEST PROCEDURE

The concrete

testing involves attachment of

The

top that

evaluations of preliminary data quality and interpretation

field for

4
testing shall

the most

data acquisition equipment

include a sensitive accelerometer, instrumented or

The

is

pile

TEST EQUIPMENT

should be performed using

field printout

near the

described below.

The

to evaluate defects

IN

(Top) and defective pile (bottom)

IRC:78-2014

The

final

REPORT SUBMISSION

report shall include the following:

1 )

Project Identification

2)

Test

&

Location

and Concrete Mix as per


3)

Type

4)

Description

of Pile

of special installation procedures

components

the

all

area

Cross-Sectional

installation record

and description
of

Nominal

Length,

including

Identification

Pile

of

measurements and recording/displaying

apparatus

the

used

for

if

any.

obtaining

integrity

data.

5)

Graphical representation of Velocity measurements

6)

Comments on

7)

Comments on any

8)

Comments on

in

time domain.

the quality of the Pile Concrete.


potential

defects/damage and

Integrity of Pile

its

location.

based on above.

6 LIMITATIONS
Certain limitations are inherent

in

the low strain test

treated only as an indicator of quality of work

method and hence

and not as a conclusive

mentioned below must be understood and taken

test.

into consideration in

it

The

should be
limitations

making the

final

integrity evaluation.

1)

Integrity

evaluation of a

pile

cross-sectional

not

possible

since

pile

area
the

or

section

impact

below a crack

manufactured

wave

likely

that

mechanical
will

reflect

crosses the entire


joint

is

completely

normally
at

the

discontinuity.

2)

Piles

with

difficult to

3)

highly

variable

cross-sections

or

multiple

discontinuities

maybe

evaluate.

The method

is

intended to detect major anomalies and minor defects

may

not be detected by this method.


4)

The

test

is

not applicable to jointed

pre-cast piles or hollow steel pipes or

H-sections.
5)

The method cannot be used

to derive the pile capacity.

95

(The Official
the IRC

amendments

to this

in its periodical,

document would be published by

Indian Highways' which shall be

considered as effective and as part of the code/guidelines/manual,


etc.

from the date specified threin)