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Vivekananda Kendra

Vidyalaya, Itanagar
BIOLOGY
INVESTIGATORY
PROJECT REPORT
Topic: Eye Disorders in Children
and Adolescents.

Submitted by:
Diya Choudhury
Class: XII-Science
Roll no. : 09

BON
AFID
E This is to certify that Diya Choudhury, a
student of class XII (sci.) has successfully
completed the research on the project titled
CERT
Eye Disorders in Children and Adolescents
under the guidance of Mr. Prasanta Puzari
(Subject Teacher) during the year 2015-16 in
IFICA
partial fulfillment of physics practical
examination conducted by AISSCE.
TE

Signature of
External Examiner

Prasanta Puzari
(Biology Teacher)

S.C Dixit
(Principal)

Acknowledgement
In the accomplishment of this project successfully, many
people have best owned upon me their blessings and the
heart pledged support, this time I am utilizing to thank all
the people who have been concerned with project.
Primarily I would thank god for being able to complete
this project with success.
Then I would like to thank my Biology teacher Mr.
Prasanta Puzari, whose valuable guidance has been the
ones that helped me patch this project and make it full
proof success his suggestions and his instructions has
served as the major contributor towards the completion
of the project.
Then I would like to thank my parents who have helped
me with their valuable suggestions and guidance has
been helpful in various phases of the completion of the
project. Last but not the least I would like to thank my
classmates who have helped me a lot.

SL.
No.

Table of Content
PAGE No.

1.

Abstract

2.

Introduction

3.

Methodology

4.

Data Collection

5.

Data analysis

6.

Treatment

7.

Conclusion

8.

Bibliography

INDEX

ABSTRACT
Visual perception is the ability to interpret the
surrounding environment by processing information that
is contained in visible light. The resulting perception is
also known as eyesight, sight, or vision.
Eyes are the organs of vision. They detect light and
convert it into electro-chemical impulses in neurons.
Eyes can be prone to many diseases and disorders.
This project is focused on eye disorders: how it is caused,
why it is caused, how to prevent/treat it are inscribed
here.
In addition, a survey was taken among 50 students, each
having an eye disorder. The data and other features are
attached to the report as well.

INTRODUCTION
EYE

The human eye is a spheroid structure that rests in a bony cavity


(socket, or orbit) on the frontal surface of the skull.
The thick wall of the eyeball contains three covering layers: the
sclera, the choroid, and the retina.
The sclera is the outermost layer of eye tissue; part of it is visible
as the "white" of the eye. In the center of the visible sclera and
projecting slightly, in the manner of a crystal raised above the

surface of a watch, is the cornea, a transparent membrane that acts


as the window of the eye.
A delicate membrane, the conjunctiva, covers the visible portion of
the sclera.
Underneath the sclera is the second layer of tissue, the choroid,
composed of a dense pigment and blood vessels that nourish the
tissues.
Near the center of the visible portion of the eye, the choroid layer
forms the ciliary body, which contains the muscles used to change
the shape of the lens (that is, to focus).
The ciliary body in turn merges with the iris, a diaphragm that
regulates the size of the pupil.
The iris is the area of the eye where the pigmentation of the
choroid layer, usually brown or blue, is visible because it is not
covered by the sclera.
The pupil is the round opening in the center of the iris; it is dilated
and contracted by muscular action of the iris, thus regulating the
amount of light that enters the eye.
Behind the iris is the lens, a transparent, elastic, but solid ellipsoid
body that focuses the light on the retina, the third and innermost
layer of tissue.
The retina is a network of nerve cells, notably the rods and cones,
and nerve fibers that fan out over the choroid from the optic nerve
as it enters the rear of the eyeball from the brain. Unlike the two
outer layers of the eye, the retina does not extend to the front of the
eyeball.

Between the cornea and iris and between the iris and lens are small
spaces filled with aqueous humor, a thin, watery fluid.
The large spheroid space in back of the lens (the center of the
eyeball) is filled with vitreous humor, a jellylike substance.

SOME COMMON EYE DISORDERS


Myopia (Nearsightedness)
Nearsighted
individuals typically
have problems seeing
well at a distance and
are forced to wear
glasses or contact
lenses.
The
nearsighted eye is
usually longer than a
normal eye, and its
cornea may also be
steeper. Therefore, when light passes through the cornea and lens, it is
focused in front of the retina. This will make distant images appear
blurred.

Hypermetropia (Farsightedness)

Farsighted individuals typically


develop problems reading up
close. The farsighted eye is
usually slightly shorter than a
normal eye and may have a
flatter cornea. Thus, the light of
distant objects focuses behind
the retina unless the natural lens
can
compensate
fully.
Near
objects require even greater
focusing power to be seen clearly and therefore, blur
more easily.

Conjunctivitis
Conjunctivitis is a condition in
which the tissue that lines the
eyelids and covers the cornea
becomes
inflamed.
It
is
sometimes called "pink eye" or
"red eye." It can cause redness,
itching,
burning,
tearing,
discharge, or a feeling of
something in the eye. Conjunctivitis occurs in people of all ages
and can be caused by infection, exposure to chemicals and irritants,
or allergies.

Amblyopia

Amblyopia is the medical term used


when the vision of one eye is reduced
because it fails to work properly with
the brain. The eye itself looks normal,
but for various reasons the brain
favors the other eye. This condition is
also sometimes called lazy eye.
Amblyopia can occur when one eye is
more nearsighted, more farsighted, or
has more astigmatism

Asthenopia

Asthenopia or eye strain manifests


itself through nonspecific symptoms
such as fatigue, pain in or around the
eyes, blurred vision, headache and
occasional double vision. Symptoms
often occur after reading, computer
work, or other close activities that
involve tedious visual tasks.

Photokeratitis
Photokeretitis or ultraviolet keratitis is a painful eye condition
caused by exposure of insufficiently protected eyes to the
ultraviolet (UV) rays from either natural (e.g. intense sunlight at
high altitudes) or artificial sources. Photokeratitis is akin to a
sunburn of the cornea and conjunctiva, and is not usually noticed
until several hours after exposure. Symptoms include increased
tears and a feeling of pain, likened to having sand in the eyes.

Methodology
The survey was taken on Feb, 2015 at Itanagar, Arunachal
Pradesh particularly at VKV Itanagar, Chimpu.
Total students were 50 each having an eye disorder. The age
range is 6 to 18.

Questions that were asked:


1) Name and age of the person
2) Information on their eye disorder
3) Age when the disorder was diagnosed
No specific tool was used. A friend to assist proved to be
helpful.

DATA COLLECTION
Data is in the order of increasing age.
SL
.
N
o.

Name

Eye disorder

1.

Tagru Pame

Amblyopia

Age when
eye
disorder
was
detected
<06

Gender
(male
M
Female
F)
F

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10
.
11
.
12
.
13
.
14
.
15
.
16
.
17
.
18
.
19
.
20
.
21
.
22
.
23
.
24

Sangata Nath
Binter
Priyam Sen
Taba Ompu
Rindo pertin
Pradipta k.
Mazumdar
Kushboo Basar
Millo tomo
Jarmin Sangha

Amblyopia
Amblyopia
Hypermetropia
Myopia
Myopia
Myopia

<06
<06
05
06
07
08

F
F
M
F
F
M

Myopia
conjunctivitis
Myopia

08
08
09

F
M
F

P. Hanna

Myopia

09

Abhishek Mog

Hypermetropia

10

Khuru c. Tok

Myopia

10

Minam

Myopia

10

Bakin Naso

Myopia

10

Ampi Nabam

Amblyopia

10

Rajni Thakur

Myopia

11

Toyang

Asthenopia

11

Kipa

Myopia

11

Rohan Deb

Myopia

11

Michi Sophia

Myopia

11

Sange

Myopia

11

Preti Tagru

Myopia

11

Allapan

Myopia

11

.
25
.
26
.
27
.
28
.
29
.
30
.
31
.
32
.
33
.
34
.
35
.
36
.
37
.
38
.
39
.
40
.
41
.
42
.

Joel S. Wancsu

Hypermetropia

12

Jiencha

Myopia

12

Mitu

Myopia

12

Hage Tunya

Myopia

12

Kajum

Myopia

12

Gimar

Myopia

12

Rimpi

Myopia

12

Atul Kumar

Hypermetropia

12

Kampoan
Tangjang
Hage Minia

Myopia

12

Myopia

12

R. S. Akhil

Hypermetropia

12

Rigbi

Myopia

13

Jumngam

Photo keratitis

13

Kampu

Myopia

13

Yaya

Photo keratitis

13

Meyo

Myopia

13

Jessica Rijiju

Myopia

13

Riya Choudhury

Amblyopia

13

43
.
44
.
45
.
46
.
47
.
48
.
49
.
50
.

Sikha Sadani

Myopia

14

Chaitanya v.

Asthenopia

14

Rhonya

Myopia

14

Tage Welly

Myopia

14

Dimini

Myopia

15

Saksham

Myopia

15

Puja Solanki

Myopia

15

Raghubir Singh

Myopia

16

DATA ANALYSIS
Pie Chart:

Eye Disorder %
Amblyopia

Asthenopia

Conjunctivitis

Hypermetropia

Myopia

Photo keratitis

4%

10%
4%
2%
10%

70%

The pie chart shows relative percentage of people having


certain disorders.
Myopia stands as the most common refractive disorder in
children and teens with a big 70%.
7 out of 10 people having a disorder are diagnosed with
Myopia
1 out of 10 people have Hypermetropia.
1 out of 10 people have Amblyopia
1 out of 25 people have Asthenopia.
1 out of 25 people have the problem of eye pain.

Column Chart:

Age vs. Frequency


12

11

10
8

Frequency

6
4

5
4
3

3
2

2
0

>6

1
8

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

Age

The Chart is used here to compare the age (when eye


disorder was detected) to number of people.
It highlights that children below or at the age of twelve are
more prone to acquire an eye disorder.
35 persons are diagnosed with a disorder at/below the age of
12 and 15 above the age of 12
The average age is 11.

TREATMENT

Myopia
If a person is nearsighted, the first number ("sphere") on the
eyeglasses prescription or contact lens prescription will be
preceded by a minus sign (). The higher the number, the
more nearsighted one is.
Nearsightedness can be corrected with glasses, contact
lenses or refractive surgery.
Refractive surgery can reduce or even eliminate the
need for glasses or contacts. The most common
procedures are performed with an excimer laser.
1. In PRK the laser removes a layer of corneal tissue,
which flattens the cornea and allows light rays to
focus more accurately on the retina.
2. In LASIK the most common refractive procedure
a thin flap is created on the surface of the
cornea, a laser removes some corneal tissue, and
then the flap is returned to its original position.

Hyperopia
If a glasses or contact lens prescription begins with plus
numbers, like +2.50, then the person is farsighted.
Farsightedness can be corrected with glasses or contact
lenses to change the way light rays bend into the eyes.
Refractive surgery, such as LASIK or CK, is another
option for correcting hyperopia. Surgery may reduce or
eliminate your need to wear glasses or contact lenses.

Amblyopia
The most common treatment for amblyopia is to force
the brain to start using the "bad" eye. This is done by
putting a patch over the "good" eye. It can take weeks or
months for an eye patch to improve vision.
In cases of mild amblyopia, the doctor might recommend
using an eye drop called atropine in the "good" eye
instead of a patch. Atropine dilates the pupil and blurs
the vision in the "good eye, forcing the "bad" eye to do
most of the work.
Most children with amblyopia will also need glasses to
help focus.
Amblyopia becomes much more difficult to treat after about
7-9 years of age

Asthenopia
Preventative measures, such as taking breaks from
activities that cause eye strain are suggested.
The most effective way to ease the pain or discomfort
that the affliction causes is to remove all light sources
from a room, and allow the eyes to relax in darkness.
Cool compresses also help to some degree, though care
should be taken to not use anything cool enough (such
as ice) to damage the eyes themselves.

Photokeretitis

Photokeratitis can be prevented by using sunglasses or


eye protection that transmits 510% of visible light and
absorbs almost all UV rays.

Conjunctivitis
1. Bacterial Conjunctivitis
Antibiotic eyedrop
2. Viral Conjunctivitis
There is no treatment for most cases of viral
conjunctivitis. Instead, the virus needs time to run its
course up to two or three weeks.
3. Allergic Conjunctivitis
different types of eyedrops for different allergies

CONCLUSION
7 out of 10 people were diagnosed with myopia according
to the survey taken. Although Myopia is not a very
harmful disorder for the eye and can be treated easily but
the numbers are alerting and we should take preventive
measures to avoid it.
A complete eye checkup once every one to three years is
very beneficial. Many sight-threatening diseases, if
detected early, can be cured or treated to prevent, or
slow, the progression of any vision loss.
Eating green veggies, carrots, fish, etc. are essential for
our eyes for functioning well.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Puzari, Prasanta. Biology teacher, VKV ITA
www.google.co.in
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/