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CHAPTER- 4

THE ELECTRICAL MEASURING INSTRUMENTS MAY BE CLASSIFIED


ACCORDING TO PHYSICAL EFFECTS ASMAGNETIC
ELECTRODYNAMIC
ELECTROMAGNETIC
THERMAL
ELECTROSTATIC
INDUCTION
ANOTHER WAY OF CLASSIFICATION IS
INDICATING TYPE
RECORDING TYPE
INTEGRATING TYPE.
THE DEFLECTING TORQUE IS PODUCED BY ANY OF THE EFFECTS
MENTIONED ABOVE.THE CONTROLLING TORQUE OR RESTORING
TORQUE OPPOSES THE DEFLECTING TORQUE AND BRINGS THE
POINTER TO REST AT BALANCE. THE CONTROLLING TORQUE
OBTAINED

EITHER

BY A

IS

SPRING CONTROL OR BY GRAVITY

CONTROL(FIGS.a,b).
A PHOSPHER BRONZE HAIR SPRING IS USED TO PROVIDE RESTORING
TORQUE PROPORTIONAL TO THE ANGLE OF DEFLECTION OF THE
MOVING SYSTEM. THE POINTER COMES TO REST WHEN THE
DEFLECTING TORQUE Td AND THE

CONTROLLING TORQUE Tc ARE

EQUAL. THE CONTROLLING TORQUE IS ALSO PROVIDED BY GRAVITY


CONTROL.

HERE

SMALL

ADJUSTABLE

BALANCING

AND

CONTROLLING WEIGHTS ARE ATTACHED TO THE MOVING SYSTEM SO


THAT THE TWO EXERT TORQUES IN OPPOSITE DIRECTIONS AND COME
TO REST AT BALANCE.

THE DAMPING FORCE OR TORQUE IS ONE WHICH ACTS ON THE


MOVING SYSTEM ONLY WHEN IT IS MOVING AND ALWAYS OPPOSES
ITS MOTION. THIS FORCE/TORQUE IS NECESSARY TO BRING THE
POINTER TO REST QUICKLY WITHOUT OSCILLATION.
THE DAMPING FORCE CAN BE PRODUCED BY AIR FRICTION, FLUID
FRICTION AND EDDY CURRENTS. IN THE AIR FRICTION TYPE
DAMPING(Fig.c), THE MOVING SYSTEM IS CONNECTED TO A PISTON
INSIDE AN AIR CHAMBER FOR PROVIDING DAMPING.
THE EDDY CURRENT FORM OF DAMPING IS THE MOST EFFICIENT. A
THIN DISC OF CONDUCTING BUT NON-MAGNETIC MATERIAL LIKE
ALUMINIUM IS MOUNTED ON THE SPINDLE WHICH CARRIES THE
MOVING SYSTEM AND THE POINTER. THE DISC ON ROTATION CUTS
THE MAGNETIC FLUX OF PERMANENT

MAGNET. HENCE EDDY

CURRENTS ARE PRODUCED IN THE DISC WHICH PROVIDES DAMPING


FORCE IN SUCH A DIRECTION AS TO OPPOSE THE VERY CAUSE WHICH
PRODUCED THEM(Fig.d,e). THE COIL IN A PMMC METER IS WOUND ON
A LIGHT METAL FRAME

AND

ROTATE FREELY WITHIN THE

PERMANENT MAGNET. IT DEVELOPS EDDY CURRENTS IN THE METAL


AND PROVDES DAMPING.
TO

SUMMARIZE, THE

MEASURING INSTRUMENTS MUST

PRIMARILY HAVE DEFLECTING FORCE OR TORQUE ,CONTROLLING


FORCE OR TORQUE AND DAMPING FORCE OR TORQUE.
THE INSTRUMENTS UNDER STUDY ARE INDICATING TYPES,SUCH AS
MOVING IRON ATTRACTION AND REPULSION TYPE ,PMMC TYPE
,DYNAMOMETER TYPE AND INDUCTION TYPE.
OTHER AVAILABLE TYPES ARE RECORDING AND DISPLAY TYPES.
RECORDING INSTRUMENTS GIVE CONTINUOUS RECORD OF DATA.
INTEGRATING INSTRUMENTS GIVE TOTAL AMOUNT OF VALUE
THAT IS PRODUCT OF TIME AND QUANTITY.AMPERE-HOUR AND
WATT-HOUR

METERS

BELONG

TO

THIS

INDUCTION TYPE WATT-HOUR METER ONLY.

CLASS.WE

STUDY

MI

TYPE

AMMETERS

AND

VOLTMETERS(DC

/AC)

ARE

(1)

ATTRACTION TYPE AND (2) REPULSION TYPE. MOVING- COIL(MC)


TYPES

ARE

PERMANENT

MAGNET

TYPE

(DC

ONLY)

AND

ELECTRODYNAMIC TYPE (DC/AC).HOT WIRE TYPE IS BOTH DC AND


AC .THE INDUCTION TYPE IS ONLY AC. ELECTROSTATIC TYPE IS FOR
VOLTMETER ONLY (DC/AC). WATTMETERS ARE DYNAMOMETER
TYPE(DC/AC) AND INDUCTION TYPE (AC ONLY). ENERGY METERS
ARE USUALLY INDUCTION (AC).
MI AMMETER AND VOLTMETER
THERE

ARE

TWO

BASIC FORMS- ATTRACTION TYPE AND

REPULSION TYPE. IN THE FIRST CASE , THE OPERATION DEPENDS


ON THE ATTRACTION OF A SINGLE PIECE OF SOFT IRON INTO A
MAGNETIC FIELD CAUSED BY CURRENT FLOWING IN THE COIL. IN
THE REPULSION TYPE THE OPERATION DEPENDS ON REPULSION
OF TWO ADJACENT PIECES OF IRON MAGNETIZED BY THE SAME
FIELD. FOR

BOTH TYPES, NECESSARY MAGNETIC FIELD

IS

PRODUCED BY THE NI OF A CURRENT CARRYING COIL.


WORKING PRINCIPLE
ATTRACTION TYPE (FIG 1a,b)
IF A PIECE OF AN UNMAGNETIZED SOFT IRON IS BROUGHT NEAR
CURRENT CARRYING COIL , IT WOULD BE ATTRACTED INTO THE
COIL.IF A POINTER IS FIXED ON THE SOFT IRON PIECE , THEN
DEFLECTION DUE TO CURRENT CARRYING COIL GIVES INDICATION
OF READING.HERE THE DEFLECTION IS PROPORTIONAL TO SQUARE
OF CURRENT.IF IT IS AC THEN PROPORTIONAL TO SQUARE OF RMS
CURRENT. IN A VOLTMETER, THE CURRENT IS PROPORTIONAL TO
VOLTAGE.
REPULSION TYPE(Fig 2a,b)
IT CONSISTS OF A FIXED COIL INSIDE WHICH ARE PLACED TWO
SOFT IRON RODS OR VANES PARALLEL TO ONE ANOTHER AND
ALONG THE AXIS OF THE COIL. ONE OF THEM IS FIXED AND THE

OTHER , WHICH IS MOVABLE , CARRIES THE POINTER THAT MOVES


OVER A CALIBRATED SCALE. WHEN THE CURRENT TO BE
MEASURED IS PASSED THROUGH THE FIXED COIL , IT SETS- UP ITS
OWN MAGNETIC FIELD. IT MAGNETISES THE TWO RODS/VANES
SIMILARLY ie, ADJACENT POINTS ON THE LENGTH OF THE RODS
WILL HAVE THE SAME MAGNETIC POLARITY. HENCE THEY REPEL
EACH

OTHER

WITH

THE

RESULT

THAT

THE POINTER

IS

DEFLECTED AGAINST THE CONTROLLING TORQUE OF A SPRING


OR GRAVITY. THE FORCE OF REPULSION
PROPORTIONAL

TO

IS APPROXIMATELY

THE SQUARE OF THE CURRENT PASSING

THROUGH THE COIL. WHATEVER BE THE DIRECTION OF CURRENT


THROUGH THE COIL ,THE TWO RODS WILL BE MAGNETIZED
SIMILARLY AND HENCE REPEL EACH OTHER. INSTANTANEOUS
TORQUE IS PROPORTIONAL TO SQUARE OF CURRENT. IN CASE OF A
VOLTMETER,THE CURRENT IS PROPORTIONAL TO VOLTAGE.
SOURCES OF ERRORS
(A)

DUE TO

HISTERESIS

SYSTEM,READINGS ARE

OF

IRON PARTS

OF MOVING

DIFFERENT DURING ASCENDING AND

DESCENDING VALUES. USING MUMETAL OR

PERMALLOY, THIS

EFFECT CAN BE ELIMINATED.


(B)

DUE TO STRAY FIELDS.


CHANGE OF FREQUENCY PRODUCE

CHANGE IN IMPEDANCE OF

THE COIL AND CHANGE IN MAGNITUDE OF EDDY CURRENT.


THESE ARE CHEAP AND ROBUST, GIVE RELIABLE SERVICE AND
USED FOR BOTH ON AC AND DC CIRCUITS.

HOWEVER, THEY

CANNOT

DEGREE OF PRECISION.

BE CALIBRATED

WITH A HIGH

MOVING COIL INSTRUMENTS


THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF SUCH INSTRUMENTS Viz., PM TYPE
AND DYNAMOMETER TYPE. THE FORMER IS USED FOR DC WORK
AND LATER FOR AC AND DC WORK.
PM TYPE INSTRUMENTS(Fig.3a,b).
IT CONSISTS OF A U SHAPED
RECTANGULAR

COIL

PERMANENT MAGNET

AND

OF MANY TURNS WOUND ON A LIGHT

ALUMINIUM OR COPPER FORMER INSIDE WHICH IS AN IRON CORE.


BETWEEN

THE

MAGNETIC

CYLINDER TO MAKE THE

POLES

IS

FIXED A SOFT IRON

FIELD RADIAL AND UNIFORM AND

INCREASE THE MAGNETIC FLUX. THE COIL IS FREE TO ROTATE IN


THE AIR GAP. THE
OVER

POINTER ATTACHED TO THE COIL MOVES

A GRADUATED SCALE AND INDICATES CURRENT. TWO

PHOSPER BRONZE HAIR CONDUCTIVE SPRINGS, ONE ABOVE AND


THE OTHER BELOW, PROVIDE THE OPPOSING TORQUE. THE TWO
SPRINGS ALSO SERVE THE PURPOSE OF LEADING THE CURRENT IN
AND OUT OF THE COIL. THE COIL IS SUPPORTED BY DELICATE
BEARINGS.
WHEN CURRENT IS PASSED THROUGH THE COIL, FORCE ACTS ON
ITS BOTH SIDES PRODUCING A DEFLECTING TORQUE.
THE FORCE EXPERIENCED BY EACH SIDE OF THE COIL IS GIVEN BY
B.I.L Newton
FOR

N TURNS, THE FORCE WILL BE

B.I.L.N

Newton . THE

DEFLECTING TORQUE IS B.I.L.N.W Nw-m, WHERE B IS FLUX


DENSITY, I IS CURRENT, L IS LENGTH OR DEPTH OF COIL, N IS
NUMBER

OF TURNS AND

W IS

BREADTH OF THE COIL. THE

PRODUCT OF W.L IS THE FACE AREA OF THE COIL. SO, DEFLECTING


TORQUE IS NBIA. SINCE N,B AND A ARE FIXED FOR A METER,
TORQUE IS PROPORTIONAL TO CURRENT. THE CONTROLLING
TORQUE DUE TO THE SPRINGS IS PROPORTIONAL TO ANGULAR

DEFLECTION. HENCE DEFLECTION IS PROPORTIONAL TO CURRENT


I.
THE SCALE MARKINGS OF PMMC METERS ARE LINEARLY SPACED.
THE APPLICATION OF LOW FREQUENCY AC DOES NOT GIVE
ANY READING BECAUSE THE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE HALF
CYCLES

CONTRIBUTE OPPOSITE INSTANTANEOUS DEFLECTION

UP AND DOWN SCALES. PMMC IS THEREFORE NOT SUITABLE FOR


AC

WORK.

HOWEVER,

A.C.

CAN

BE

RECTIFIED

BEFORE

CONNECTING TO THE COIL.


ELECTRODYNAMOMETER (ED) Fig.4a,b,c
IT IS THE MOST IMPORTANT A.C. MOVEMENT AND IS USED IN
ACCURATE

A.C. AMMETERS AND

A.C. VOLTMETERS. WITH

SOME SLIGHT MODIFICATIONS, THE

ED CAN BE USED AS A

WATTMETER, A POWERFACTOR METER OR A FREQUENCY METER.


THE

ED USES CURRENT

UNDER MEASUREMENT TO PRODUCE

FIELD FLUX .SUCH INSTRUMENTS HAVE TWO FIXED COILS SPLIT


INTO TWO EQUAL HALVES PROVIDING MAGNETIC FIELD.THE TWO
COIL HALVES ARE CONNECTED IN SERIES WITH THE MOVING COIL
AND CARRIES CURRENT. THE
MOVABLE COIL CARRIES A POINTER WHICH

IS BALANCED BY

COUNTERWEIGHTS. ITS ROTATION IS CONTROLLED BY SPRINGS


SIMILAR TO D-ARSONVAL MOVEMENT. DAMPING IS PROVIDED BY
ALUMINIUM AIR VANES. SINCE TORQUE IS EQUAL TO BAIN
AND B IS PROPORTIONAL TO I, THEN Td IS PROPORTIONAL
TO CURRENT SQUARED. IF ED IS USED FOR D.C., ITS SQUARE LAW
SCALE IS EASILY NOTICED WITH CROWDING AT VERY LOW
CURRENT

AND PROGRESSIVELY SPREADING OUT AT HIGHER

CURRENT VALUES. FOR A.C. USE, THE DEVELOPED TORQUE AT ANY


INSTANT IS

PROPORTIONAL TO INSTANTANEOUS

CURRENT

SQUARED. AS THIS SQUARE VALUE IS ALWAYS POSITIVE , TORQUE

PULSATIONS ARE THERFORE PRODUCED. THE NEEDLE COMES TO


REST AT BALANCE OF AVERAGE
TORQUE AND TORQUE OF THE CONTROL SPRINGS.
SCALE IS USUALLY CALIBRATED IN RMS A.C..
THE ADDITION OF A SERIES RESISTANCE CONVERTS AMMETER
INTO A VOLTMETER. IF ED IS CALIBRATED WITH A DIRECT
CURRENT OF 1A AND A MARK IS PLACED ON THE SCALE, THEN A.C.
CURRENT WHICH CAUSES THE POINTER TO DEFLECT TO THE SAME
MARK ON THE SCALE MUST HAVE AN RMS VALUE OF 1A. IT IS THUS
POSSIBLE TO TRANSFER A D.C. READING TO ITS CORRESPONDING
A.C. VALUE ESTABLISHING DIRECT CONNECTION BETWEEN A.C.
AND D.C..THE ELECTRODYNAMOMETER THEN BECOMES VERY
USEFUL AS A CALIBRATION INSTRUMENT.THE ED

METERS

REQUIRE HIGH POWER AS CURRENT UNDER MEASUREMENT


MUST NOT ONLY PASS THROUGH MOVABLE COIL BUT ALSO
PROVIDE THE FIELD FLUX . THIS REQUIRES STRONG MAGNETIC
FIELD (MMF). COMPARED TO MI INSTRUMENT, THE FIELD FLUX IS
MUCH WEAKER AS THERE IS NO IRON IN THE CIRCUIT AND THE
ENTIRE FLUX PATH IS AIR. THE SENSITIVITY OF ED IS USUALLY
VERY LOW AS COMPARED TO D-ARSONVAL MOVEMENT METERS.
TO UTILIZE THE HIGHER SENSITIVITY OF D.C. MOVEMENT , A.C. IS
RECTIFIED AND THEN USED.
FOR A FULL WAVE

RECTIFIER,

VALUES ARE RELATED AS


2IM/

THE

Irms =IM/

RMS
2

AND AVERAGE

AND

IAV =

AND

VDC = 2EM/ . IT CAN BE SEEN THAT THE RATIO OF RMS AND AV.
CURRENTS FOR A SINE WAVE IS 1.11. SO, THE AVERAGE D.C.
READING OF THE INSTRUMENT SHOULD BE MULTIPLIED WITH
1.11 TO OBTAIN EQUIVALENT RMS SCALE MARKINGS.

ELECTRODYNAMOMETER
WATTMETER (FIG 4D)
THE

ED

MOVEMENT

IS

USED

EXTENSIVELY

IN

POWER

MEASUREMENT. IT MAY BE USED TO INDICATE BOTH A.C. AND D.C.


POWER FOR ANY WAVEFORM OF VOLTAGE AND CURRENT. AS
DISCUSSED EARLIER, THE ED HAS TW0 FIXED COILS AND ONE
MOVABLE COIL CONNECTED IN SERIES THEREBY REACTING TO THE
CURRENT SQUARED. WHEN USED AS A SINGLE PHASE POWER
METER, THE COILS ARE CONNECTED AS FOLLOWSTHE TWO FIXED COILS ARE CONNECTED IN SERIES AND CARRY THE
TOTAL LINE CURRENT IC THE MOVABLE COIL LOCATED IN THE
MAGNETIC FIELD OF THE FIXED COILS, IS CONNECTED IN SERIES
WITH A CURRENT LIMITING RESISTOR ACROSS THE POWER LINE
AND CARRIES A SMALL CURRENT IP THE INSTANTANEOUS VALUE
OF THE CURRENT IN THE MOVABLE COIL IS I P = E/RP WHERE E IS
THE INSTANTANEOUS VOLTAGE ACROSS POWER LINE AND RP IS
THE TOTAL RESISTANCE OF

THE MOVABLE COIL AND ITS

SERIES RESISTOR. THE DEFLECTION OF THE

MOVABLE COIL IS

PROPORTIONAL TO THE PRODUCT OF IC AND IP. THE AVERAGE


DEFLECTION OVER ONE TIME PERIOD IS

e.idt = AVERAGE POWER.


WHEN

THE WATTMETER

IS CONNECTED TO LINE, IT USUALLY

READS POSITIVE. IF FOR ANY REASON , IT READS NEGATIVE , THEN


THE CURRENT COIL CONNECTION SHOULD BE REVERSED.
INDUCTION TYPE WATTMETER-FIG.5
IT IS USED ONLY ON AC SUPPLY IN CONTRAST TO DYNAMOMETER,
WHICH CAN BE USED BOTH ON AC AND DC. TWO SEPARATE
ELECTROMAGNETS ARE USED

TO PRODUCE TWO FLUXES. ONE

ELECTROMAGNET IS EXCITED BY MAIN CURRENT IN SERIES AND


THE OTHER IS EXCITED BY CURRENT, WHICH IS PROPORTIONAL TO

THE VOLTAGE OF THE CIRCUIT. THE FORMER IS TERMED SERIES


MAGNET AND THE LATTER SHUNT MAGNET.
A THIN ALUMINIUM DISC IS MOUNTED SO THAT IT CUTS THE
FLUXES OF BOTH MAGNETS- ONE ABOVE THE DISC AND THE
OTHER BELOW. HENCE TWO EDDY CURRENTS ARE PRODUCED IN
THE DISC. THE DEFLECTING TORQUE IS PRODUCED DUE TO THE
INTERACTION OF THESE EDDY CURRENTS AND THE INDUCING
FLUXES. TWO OR THREE COPPER RINGS ARE FITTED ON THE
CENTRAL LIMB OF THE SHUNT MAGNET AND CAN BE SO ADJUSTED
AS TO MAKE THE RESULTANT FLUX IN SHUNT MAGNET LAG THE
APPLIED VOLTAGE BY 90 DEGREES. THE UPPER ELECTROMAGNET
IS E- TYPE HAVING A CENTRAL LIMB AND TWO SIDE LIMBS.
TWO PRESSURE COILS ARE JOINED IN SERIES AND ARE SO WOUND
THAT BOTH SEND THE FLUXES THROUGH THE CENTRAL LIMB IN
THE SAME DIRECTION. THE SERIES MAGNET CARRIES TWO COILS
JOINED IN SERIES AND MAGNETIZE THEIR RESPECTIVE CORES IN
THE SAME DIRECTION.THE INTERACTION OF THE TWO FLUXES AND
THE RESULTING EDDY CURRENTS IN THE DISC DEVELOP TORQUE.
INDUCTION WATTMETERS ARE SPRING CONTROLLED. THE MOVING
SYSTEM CARRIES THE POINTER. THE SCALE IS UNIFORMLY EVEN.
SUCH WATTMETERS CAN HANDLE UPTO MODERATE CURRENT. FOR
HIGHER CURRENTS, CURRENT TRANSFORMER MAY BE USED TO
EXTEND RANGE OF METERING. THE PRESSURE COIL IS PURPOSELY
MADE INDUCTIVE SO THAT FLUX LAGS VOLTAGE BY 90 DEGREES.
THEORY
TORQUE = K. 1. 2 = KVI. SIN WHERE

IS ANGLE BETWEEN

TWO FLUXES. THIS ANGLE IS ALSO EQUAL TO (90 ) WHERE IS


POWER FACTOR ANGLE.

WATTHOUR METER ( INDUCTION )FIG6


THIS IS USED FOR MEASUREMENT OF ENERGY. HERE THE CURRENT
COIL ( CC) IS CONNECTED IN SERIES WITH THE LINE AND THE
POTENTIAL COIL (PC) ACROSS THE LINE. BOTH COILS ARE WOUND
ON A METAL FRAME PROVIDING TWO MAGNETIC CIRCUITS VIZ.
SERIES AND SHUNT MAGNETS.
A LIGHT ALUMINIUM DISC IS SUSPENDED IN THE AIR GAP OF THE
CURRENT COIL FIELD, WHICH CAUSES EDDY CURRENTS TO FLOW
IN THE DISC. THE REACTION OF THE EDDY CURRENTS AND THE
FIELD OF THE PC CREATS A TORQUE (MOTOR ACTION) ON THE DISC,
CAUSING IT TO ROTATE.
THE NUMBER OF ROTATIONS OF THE DISC IS PROPORTIONAL TO
THE ENERGY CONSUMRD BY THE LOAD IN A CERTAIN TIME
INTERVAL AND IS MEASURED IN TERMS OF KWH. THE AL DISC IS
CONNECTED

BY A

GEAR WHEEL ARRANGEMENT AND CLOCK

MECHANISM TO PROVIDE A DECIMAL READ OUT. DAMPING OF THE


DISC IS PROVIDED BY TWO SMALL PERMANENT MAGNETS
LOCATED OPPOSITE EACH OTHER IN THE RIM OF THE DISC.
WHENEVER THE DISC ROTATES, THE PERMANENT MAGNETS
INDUCE EDDY CURRENTS IN IT. THESE EDDY CURRENTS REACT
WITH THE MAGNETIC FIELDS OF THE SMALL PMS AROUND THE
RIM, DAMPING THE MOTION OF THE DISC. MEASUREMENT OF
ENERGY IN 3- PHASE SYSTEM IS PERFORMED WITH POLYPHASE
WATT-HOUR METERS.EACH PHASE OF WH METER HAS ITS OWN
MAGNETIC CIRCUIT AND ITS OWN DISC, BUT ALL THE DISCS ARE
MOUNTED ON A COMMON SHAFT. THE DEVELOPED TORQUE IN
EACH DISC IS MECHANICALLY SUMMED AND THE TOTAL NUMBER
OF REVOLUTION/MINUTE

IS

PROPORTIONAL TO THE TOTAL 3-

PHASE ENERGY CONSUMED.


DISADVANTAGES :

HIGH

POWER CONSUMPTION DUE TO

CURRENT UNDER MEASUREMENT MUST NOT ONLY PASS THROUGH

MC BUT IT MUST ALSO PROVIDE FIELD FLUX AND SECONDLY


SENSITIVITY IS VERY LOW AND LIMITED TO LOW FREQUENCY
USE.

POWER FACTOR METER (FIG.7)


IT

MEASURES PHASE

CURRENT.

THE

ANGLE

BETWEEN VOLTAGE AND

INSTRUMENT

ELECTRODYNAMOMETER

MOVEMENT:

IS

BASICALLY

WHERE

THE

AN

MOVING

ELEMENT CONSISTS OF TWO COILS, MOUNTED ON THE SAME


SHAFT BUT AT RIGHT ANGLES TO EACH OTHER. THE MOVING COILS
ROTATE IN THE MAGNETIC FIELD

PROVIDED BY THE FIELD COIL

THAT CARRIES THE LINE CURRENT.A 1-PHASE METER IS SHOWN IN


FIG.----. THE FIELD COIL IS CONNECTED AS USUAL IN SERIES WITH
THE LINE AND CARRIES THE LINE CURRENT. ONE COIL OF THE
MOVABLE COIL ELEMENT IS CONNECTED IN SERIES WITH A
RESISTOR ACROSS THE LINES AND RECEIVES A CURRENT FROM
THE APPLIED POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE .THE 2 ND COIL OF THE
MOVABLE ELEMENT IS CONNECTED IN SERIES WITH AN INDUCTOR
ACROSS THE LINES. SINCE NO CONTROL SPRINGS ARE USED, THE
BALANCE POSITION OF THE MOVABLE ELEMENT DEPENDS ON THE
RESULTING TORQUE DEVELOPED BY THE TWO CROSSED COILS.
WHEN THE MOVABLE ELEMENT IS IN A BALANCED POSITION, THE
CONTRIBUTION TO THE TOTAL TORQUE BY EACH ELEMENT MUST
BE EQUAL BUT OF OPPOSITE SIGN. THE DEVELOPED TORQUE IN
EACH COIL IS A FUNCTION OF THE CURRENT THROUGH THE COIL
AND THEREFORE DEPENDS ON THE IMPEDENCE OF THAT COIL
CIRCUIT. THE TORQUE IS ALSO PROPORTIONAL TO THE MUTUAL

INDUCTANCE BETWEEN CROSSED COIL AND THE STATIONARY


FIELD COIL. THIS INDUCTANCE DEPENDS ON THE ANGULAR
POSITION OF THE CROSSED COIL ELEMENTS WITH RESPECT TO THE
POSITION OF THE STATIONARY FIELD COIL. WHEN THE MOVABLE
ELEMENT IS AT BALANCE, IT CAN BE SHOWN THAT ITS ANGULAR
DISPLACEMENT IS A FUNCTION OF THE PHASE ANGLE BETWEEN
THE CURRENT(FC) AND THE LINE VOLTAGE (CROSSED COILS). THE
INDICATION OF THE METER IS CALIBRATED DIRECTLY IN TERMS
OF PHASE ANGLE OR POWER FACTOR.