You are on page 1of 13

Chapter 9: Launching a

Republic (1789-1800)

Washingtons
Presidency
George Washington lived in Mount
Vernon, Virginia.
In 1789, George Washington
received the most votes in the
electoral college (House of
Representatives) to become
President.
U.S. Presidents are addressed as
Mr. President.
John Adams from Massachusetts
received the second most votes,
and became the Vice President.

Washingtons
Cabinet
Constitution did not mention a cabinet, but
Washington had people to advise him.
Henry Knox (Massachusetts) was Secretary
of War

Oversee nations defense


Thomas Jefferson (Virginia) was Secretary of
State

Oversaw relations between the U.S. and


other countries
Alexander Hamilton (New York) was
Secretary of Treasury

Manage the governments money


Edmund Randolph (Virginia) was Attorney
General

Advise government on legal matters

Hamiltons Financial
Plan

By 1789, the national debt was more


than $52 million.
Hamilton's 3 steps to improve nations
finances:
1)
Paying off all war debts
2)
Raising government revenues
(tariffs)
3)
Creating a national bank
To get support for Hamiltons plan from
Southern states the Northern states
agreed to have the nations new capital
in the South on the Potomac River
between Virginia and Maryland
(Washington D.C.).

Setting Up the
Courts

In 1789, Congress passed the Federal


Judiciary Act creating the Supreme
Court.
The Federal Judiciary Act gave the
Supreme Court 6 members (a chief
justice and 5 associate justices). Over
time the number of members has
increased to 9.
George Washington appointed John Jay
as the first Chief Justice of the Supreme
Court.

Challenges to the New


Government
Native Americans

In the Battle of Fallen Timbers at Fort


Miami 2,000 Native Americans were
defeated by troops sent by George
Washington.

After the Battle of Fallen Timbers, 12 Native


America tribes were forced to sign the
Treaty of Greenville giving up lands in
present-day Ohio and Indiana to the U.S.
government.

Backcountry

In the summer of 1794, upset at Hamiltons


tax on whiskey a group of backcountry
farmers in Western Pennsylvania started the
Whiskey Rebellion.
Why was whiskey so important to backcountry
famers???
1)
2)
3)

Challenges to the New


Government (Continued)

French Revolution

In 1789, a financial crisis led to


French people to rebel against the
government in what is known as the
French Revolution.

During the French Revolution


thousands of French citizens were
massacred, including King Louis XVI
and his wife Marie Antoinette.

France declared war on Britain,


Holland, and Spain. Britain led the
fight against France.

Challenges to the New Government


(Continued)

Thomas Jefferson supported French citizens in


their fight for liberty and equality.
Alexander Hamilton argued that Britain was the
United States most important trading partner.
In 1793, Washington declared the United States
would remain neutral.

Jays and Pinckneys Treaties

In Jays Treaty the British agreed to stop


seizing American cargo ships carrying goods
from the French West Indies, but was not
popular because it was not profitable for the
U.S.

Pinckneys Treaty was a 1795 treaty with


Spain that:
Allowed Americans to travel freely along the
Mississippi River,
Allowed Americans to store goods in New
Orleans without having to pay custom
duties/tariffs, and
Made the 31st parallel the southern U.S.
border.

The Federalists in
Charge

George Washington served as the


President of the United States of
America for 8 years (1789-1797).

In 1796, Federalists and Democratic


Republicans were the first political
parties to compete in the U.S.
Presidential Election.

John Adams (Federalists) received


71 votes and Thomas Jefferson
(Democratic-Republican) received
68 votes.

FEDERALISTS
LedbyAlexander HamiltonandJohn
Adams
Wantedstrongnational government
Favorednational bank
Wantedaneconomybasedon
manufacturing,trade,andshipping
SupportedBritain inforeignpolicy
Wantedlooseinterpretation of the
Constitution
SupportersintheUnitedStateswere
lawyers,merchants,manufacturers,
clergy

DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICANS
LedbyThomasJefferson andJames
Madison
Wantedlimitednational government,
but strongstategovernments
Opposednational bank
Wantedaneconomybasedon farming
SupportedFrancein foreign policy
Wantedstrict constructionof the
Constitution
Supportersin theUnitedStateswere
farmersandtradespeople

XYZ Affair
After John Adams became President Charles
Pinckney, Elbridge Gerry, and John Marshall were
sent to Paris to discuss the looting of more than 300
U.S. cargo ships by the French.
After requesting a meeting with the French minister
of foreign affairs the U.S. were ignored for weeks.

The Americans were told the French minister


would only talk with them if the Americans
agreed to loan France $10 million and pay the
minister a bribe of $250,000, this became known
as the XYZ Affair.

Outraged Congress voted to:


Cancel treaties with France,
Allowed U.S. ships to seize French vessels, and
Set aside money to expand the navy and army.

Millions
fordefense, not one
cent for tribute!

Alien and Sedition


Acts

Many immigrants were DemocraticRepublicans.

In 1798 before the Election of 1800,


Federalists that controlled Congress
passed the Alien and Sedition
Acts.

Alien and Sedition Acts


Increased the waiting period to
become a U.S. citizen from 5 to 14
years.
Gave the President the power to
arrest disloyal aliens
President could order disloyal
aliens out of the country.
Outlawed saying or writing
anything false or harmful about
the government.

Election of 1800

John Adams signed the Convention


of 1800 to stop all naval attacks
between France and the United
States.

The Convention of 1800 was


unpopular, and John Adams lost the
Election of 1800 to DemocraticRepublicans Thomas Jefferson and
Aaron Burr.

Alexander Hamilton used his


influence among Federalists in the
House of Representatives to get
Thomas Jefferson elected as
President.