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ABSTRACT

The experiment is performed to determine the concentration of acetic acid,


CH3COOH in vinegar. The objective of the experiment is to determine the morality of a
solution and the percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar by titration with the standardized
sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution. Prior to measuring the concentration of CH3COOH, the
concentration of NaOH is measured to standardize the solution. In standardization of NaOH
solution, the mass of an acid that is potassium hydrogen phthalate, KHP is calculated by
difference of mass of beaker and KHP to the mass of beaker by using electronic balance. The
KHP solution is prepared by adding distilled water and the solution is titrated with NaOH
solution with 1 mL additions of NaOH solution for every pH reading. The procedures are
repeated to determine the average value of concentration of NaOH solution. In order to
investigate the molarity and percent by mass of CH3COOH in vinegar, the procedures are
similar to the procedures of standardizing NaOH solution by changing the acid of KHP to
CH3COOH which is in the volume of 10.0 mL. It was found that the molarity of standardized
NaOH solution is 0.7043 M, the molarity of CH3COOH in vinegar is 0.5987 M and its
percent by mass is 3.596%. In a conclusion, CH3COOH has low concentration and percent by
mass in vinegar despite being the main component of vinegar as it is diluted. The volume of
base solution required for complete neutralization rises when the pH of the acid is higher.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
ABSTRACT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0

INTRODUCTION

2.0

AIMS/OBJECTIVES

3.0

THEORY

4.0

APPARATUS

5.0

6.0

7.0

4.1

Apparatus

4.2

Chemicals and materials

PROCEDURES
5.1

Standardization of sodium hydroxide solution

5.2

Molarity of acetic acid and percent in vinegar

RESULT
6.1

Standardization of sodium hydroxide solution

6.2

Molarity of acetic acid and percent in vinegar

11

CALCULATIONS
7.1

Standardization of sodium hydroxide solution

12

7.2

Molarity of acetic acid and percent in vinegar

13

8.0

DISCUSSIONS

14

9.0

CONCLUSION

16

10.0

RECOMMENDATIONS

16

11.0

REFERENCES

17

12.0

APPENDICES

17

1.0

Introduction

Concentration is a general term used to refer to the quantity of solute in a standard quantity of
solvent or solution. Quantitatively, a solution is diluted when the solute concentration is low
and concentrated when the solute concentration is high. Concentration of solutions are
expressed in terms of either the amount of solute dissolved in a given mass or volume of
solvent, or the amount of solute present in a given mass or volume of solution.
Molarity (M), or molar concentration, is a common unit for expressing the
concentrations of solutions. Molarity is defined as the amount of solute, in moles, per liter of
solution.
=

(Equation 1.1)

Concentration of solution in terms of percent by mass of solute gives the mass of solute per
100 mass units of solution. The gram is the usual mass unit.

" !

" !

100%

(Equation 1.2)

Acids are divided into two classes which are strong acids and weak acids. Strong
acids ionize completely in dilute aqueous solution, for example, hydrochloric acid, HCl, nitric
acid, HNO3 and sulfuric acid, H2SO4. Weak acids ionize only partly in dilute aqueous
solution. Some common weak acids are hydrocyanic acid, HCN, hydrofluoric acid, HF and
acetic acid, CH3COOH.
Titration is the process in which a solution of one reactant, the titrant, is carefully
added to a solution of another reactant, and the volume of titrant required for complete
reaction is measured. Titration is a reaction carried out by the carefully controlled addition of
one solution to another. The titration is stopped at the point where both reactants have reacted
completely, a condition called the equivalence point of the titration which is assessed with the
aid of an indicator. At the equivalence point, the two reactants have combined in
stoichiometric proportions as both have been consumed and neither remains in excess.
Vinegar is a common household item containing acetic acid, CH3COOH as well as
some other chemicals. Household vinegar is 4-5% by mass solution (Beran, 2011). Acetic
acid is the major acid that is found in vinegar. Acetic acid is also known as ethanoic acid. It is
found in many other substances other than vinegar, such as explosives, sugars and starch.
3

Acetic acid can be formed in the atmosphere and it can also be produced when biological
waste decomposes. Humans are regularly exposed to acetic acid through foods and also from
the air and are not in any danger from this exposure. Acetic acid by itself is clear and
colourless. It gives vinegar its distinct odour.
Titration method can be used to measure both molarity and percent by mass of acetic
acid in a vinegar solution by reacting it with a base such as sodium hydroxide through
titration method. Acetic acid in vinegar has low molarity and low percent by mass in vinegar
despite being the major acid in vinegar.

2.0

Aims/Objectives

The objective of this experiment is:


i.

To determine the morality of a solution and the percent by mass of acetic acid in
vinegar by titration with the standardized sodium hydroxide solution.

3.0

Theory

A titration is an analytical procedure in which a reaction is run under carefully controlled


conditions. The stoichiometric volume of one reactant of known concentration, the titrant,
that is required to react with another reactant of unknown concentration, the analyte, is
measured. The concentration of the analyte is determined from the concentration and volume
of titrant and the stoichiometry of the reaction between them.
The experimental setup is shown in Figure1.1. A burette, which contains the titrant, is
calibrated so the volume of solution that it delivers can be determined with high accuracy and
precision. Titrant is added to the analyte until the stoichiometric volume of titrant has been
added. This is called the equivalence point, at which the volume of titrant delivered by the
burette is read. Usually, the volume readings are estimated to the nearest 0.01 mL. The
delivery of the titrant is adjusted with the stopcock on the burette.

Figure 3.1: Titration setup

Often, the equivalence point is determined visually as a colour change of an indicator.


However, there are times when an appropriate indicator does not exist, or where the colour of
the solution would obscure any colour change associated with the endpoint. In such cases, a
pH meter can be used to monitor the acidity of the solution throughout the titration. The
definition of pH can be represented as Equation 1.3.
pH = -log[H3O+]

(Equation 3.1)

Ph in an aqueous solution is related to its hydrogen ion, H+ concentration. A solution is acidic


or basic can be determined from the pH scale. Solutions with pH<7 are acidic, pH=7 are
neutral and pH>7 are basic. For instance, a solution with [H3O+] = 1.810-5 M would have a
pH of 4.745 and is acidic.
Many weak acids react with strong bases to form soluble salts and water. This process is
called neutralisation. For example, CH3COOH reacts with NaOH to produce sodium acetate,
NaCH3COO.
CH3COOH(aq) + NaOH(aq)

NaCH3COO + H2O

(Equation 3.2)

An acid-base titration is a procedure for determining the amount of acid or base in a solution
by determining the volume of base or acid of known concentration that will completely react
with it (Ebbing & Gammon, 2009). A titration curve is a plot versus the amount, usually
5

volume, of acid or base added. It displays graphically the change in pH as acid or base is
added to a solution and shows how pH changes near the equivalence point (Whitten, Davis,
Peck, & Stanley, 2007). Figure 3.2 is a titration curve of weak acid and strong base.
Neutralization of H3O+ in acid solution happens as base is incrementally added. The ion
concentration that decreases makes the pH of the solution gradually increases. With sufficient
base to neutralize the acid completely, as in most of H3O+ ions are removed from the solution,
a sudden sharp increase in pH when the next drop of base is added will happen. The
equivalence point of titration can be used to determine the volume of base required to
completely neutralize the acid.

Figure 3.2: Titration curve of weak acid and strong base

Solutions of accurately known concentrations are called standard solutions. Often the
solutions of such substances are prepared and then their concentrations are determined by
titration with a standard solution. Standardization is the process by which one determines the
concentration of a solution by measuring accurately the volume of the solution required to
react with an exactly known amount of primary standard such as potassium hydrogen
phthalate, KHP and oxalic acid, (COOH)2. The standardized solution is then known as a
secondary standard and is used in the analysis of unknowns. The properties of an ideal
standard include the following.

1. It must not react with or absorb the components of the atmosphere, such as water
vapour, oxygen, and carbon dioxide.
2. It must react according to one invariable reaction.
3. It must have high percentage purity.
4. It should have a high formula weight to minimize the effect of error in weighing.
5. It must be soluble in the solvent of interest.

4.0

Apparatus

Burette

Retort stand

Base solution
pH electrode from pH meter
Beaker
Acid solution
Magnetic stir bar
Magnetic stir plate
Figure 4.1: Titration set-up
4.1

Apparatus

250 mL beaker

50 mL measuring cylinder

100 mL volumetric burette

10 mL volumetric pipette

Electronic balance

Magnetic stir bar

Magnetic stir plate

Retort stand

pH meter

4.2

Chemicals and materials

Potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP)

0.6 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH)

Vinegar

Distilled water

5.0

Procedures

5.1

Standardization of sodium hydroxide solution


1. 250 mL of approximately 0.6 M sodium hydroxide solution from NaOH solid was
prepared.
2. A 250 mL beaker was weighted and the mass was recorded to the neares 0.001 g. 1.5
g of KHP was added to the beaker. The mass of the beaker and KHP was recorded to
the nearest 0.001 g. the mass of KHP was calculated by difference and the data was
recorded. 30 mL of distilled water was added to the beaker. The solution was stirred
until the KHP had dissolved completely.
3. The solution was titrated with NaOH and the pH was recorded with 1 mL additions of
NaOH solution. When a sudden change in pH occurred, the NaOH was added by 1
mL until the pH became stable.
4. Steps 2 to 3 were repeated to perform a second trial to standardize the NaOH solution.
5. The graphs of pH versus NaOH were plotted. From the plots, the volume of NaOH
required neutralizing the KHP solution in each titration was determined.
6. The molarity of NaOH titration was calculated for titration 1 and 2.
7. The average molarity of NaOH solution was calculated for titration 1 and 2. The
resulting NaOH concentration would be used in part B of the experiment.

5.2

Molarity of acetic acid and percent of vinegar


1. 10 mL of vinegar was transferred to a clean and dry 250 mL beaker using a 10 mL
volumetric pipette. 75 mL of distilled water was added to cover the pH electrode tip
during the titration.

2. 1 mL of 0.6 M NaOH was added to the vinegar solution and the pH was recorded.
When a sudden change in pH occurred, the NaOH was added by 1 mL until the pH
became stable.
3. Steps 1 to 2 were repeated once more.
4. The graph of pH versus volume NaOH was plotted. The volume of NaOH required to
neutralize vinegar in each titration was determined in each titration. The data was
recorded.
5. The molarity of acetic acid in vinegar was calculated for titration 1 and 2.
6. The average molarity of acetic acid was calculated for each titration.
7. The percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar was calculated for titration 1 and 2.

6.0

Result

6.1

Standardization of sodium hydroxide solution

pH

pH against volume of NaOH (Trial 1)


13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0

5
6
7
8
9
Volume of NaOH (mL)

10

11

12

13

14

Figure 6.1: pH against volume of NaOH (Trial 1)

pH

pH against volume of NaOH (Trial 2)


13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0

5
6
7
8
9
Volume of NaOH (mL)

10

11

12

13

14

Figure 6.2: pH against volume of NaOH (Trial 2)

Table 6.1: Result of standardization of NaOH


Section

pH value at

Volume of NaOH

Molarity of NaOH

equivalence point

(mL)

(M)

Trial 1

8.77

10.50

0.7010

Trial 2

8.82

10.40

0.7087

Average

10.50

0.7043

Percentage error = 17.383%

10

6.2

Molarity of acetic acid and percent of vinegar

pH

pH against volume of NaOH (Trial 1)


13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0

4
5
6
7
8
Volume of NaOH (mL)

10

11

12

10

11

12

Figure 6.3: pH against volume of NaOH (Trial 1)

pH

pH against volume of NaOH (Trial 2)


13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0

4
5
6
7
8
Volume of NaOH (mL)

Figure 6.4: pH against volume of NaOH (Trial 2)

11

Table 6.2: Results of molarity and percent of vinegar


Section

pH value at

Volume of

Molarity of

Mass of

Percent by

equivalence

NaOH (mL)

CH3COOH

CH3COOH

mass of

(M)

(g)

CH3COOH

point

(%)
Trial 1

8.60

8.50

0.5987

0.3596

3.596

Trial 2

8.98

8.50

0.5987

0.3596

3.596

Average

8.50

0.5987

0.3596

3.596

Vinegar is 4-5% by mass solution (Beran, 2011)


Percentage error = 10.1%

7.0

Calculations

7.1

Standardization of sodium hydroxide solution

Trial 1:
Number of moles of KHP (n567 ) =

mass of KHP
1.5020 g KHP
=
KHP
molecular weight of KHP
204.2 g
mol

= 0.00736 mol KHP


nFGH6 = 0.00736 mol KHP
pH of equivalence point =

1 mol NaOH
= 0.00736 mol NaOH
1 mol KHP

6.05 + 11.48
= 8.77
2

At pH = 8.77, V = 10.50
Molarity of NaOH (MFGH6 ) =

mole of NaOH
0.00736 mol NaOH
=
= R. SRTR U VWXY
litre of solution
0.0105 L

Average:
mGZ[ =

m\ + m] 1.5020 + 1.5043
=
= 1.5032 g NaOH
2
2
12

!^"

_!^"

VGZ[ =

1.5032 a b cd
204.2 a b cd/_

= 0.00736 b cd

V\ + V] 10.50 + 10.40
=
= 10.45 mL = 0.01045 L
2
2

MFGH6,GZ[ =

mole of NaOH
0.00736 mol NaOH
=
= R. SRhi U VWXY
litre of solution
0.01045 L

MGkl Mnop
0.7043 0.6
Percentage error = j
100%j = j
100%j = 17.383%
0.6
MGkl
7.2

Molarity of acetic acid and percent of vinegar

Vq6r qHH6 = 10 mL = 0.01 L


Trial 1:
s!tu

V = 8.50 mL = 0.00850 L
v\ =

0.7043 _ b cd
0.0085 w = 0.005987 _ b cd
w

nq6r qHH6 = 0.005987 mol NaOH


q6r qHH6

1 mol CHz COOH


= 0.005987 mol CHz COOH
1 mol NaOH

{ CHz COOH 0.005987 _ CHz COOH


=
= R. |}~S Yi XXY
{
0.01 w

mq6r qHH6 = MVM


= 0.5987 M CHz COOH 0.01 L

. [ q6r qHH6

= 0.3596 g CHz COOH


mq6r qHH6 l = 10 mL

1 g
= 10 g CHz COOH solution
1 mL

Percent by mass of CHz COOH =

mq6r qHH6

mq6r qHH6 l

100%

.z [ q6r qHH6

= \ [ q6

r qHH6 l

100%

= i. |}% Yi XXY

13

8.0

Discussions

Standardization of a solution refers to establishing the exact concentration of the solution,


usually through a titration. In this experiment, NaOH of exactly known molarity, close to 0.6
M is needed. The solution cannot be prepared by weighing out the required amount of NaOH
and dissolving it in water. The solid is not pure and its actual purity, that is the mass percent
NaOH is not known (Petrucci, Herring, Madura, & Bissonnette, 2014). Conversely, KHP can
be obtained in the pure form and allow it to be oxidized by NaOH solution. By determining
the volume of NaOH required to oxidize a known quantity of KHP through acid-base titration,
the exact molarity of NaOH can be calculated.
Based on Figure 6.1 and Figure 6.2, the volume of NaOH increases gradually as it is
added into KHP, causing the pH to increase gradually. However, there is a sudden change in
pH when the volume increases from 10.0 mL to 11.0 mL as the pH increases from 6.05 to
11.48 in Trial 1. This situation also occurs in Trial 2 as pH rises from 6.10 to 11.53 when the
volume rises from 10.0 mL to 11.0 mL. This is because the solutions of NaOH and KHP in
the beaker are already in stoichiometric proportions that is both solutions are completely
consumed and neither remained in excess. It indicates that the titration has reached
equivalence point. The equivalence point in both figures at 8.77 and 8.82 respectively is
10.50 mL and 10.40 mL respectively.
The concentration of NaOH is determined from the titration curve. Based on the
results in Table 6.1, the molarity of NaOH in Trial 1 is 0.7010 M and 0.7087 M in Trial 2.
The average molarity of NaOH calculated from both concentrations is 0.7043 M. The
concentration value obtained is far from the one needed in the experiment that is 0.6 M
NaOH. It is found that the percentage error is as high as 17.383%.
In order to determine the concentration of acetic acid in vinegar, the vinegar solution
was diluted with 75.0 mL distilled water so that the pH electrode tip is covered during
titration. Since the experimental concentration of NaOH found in the standardization of
NaOH solution is 0.7043 M, it is used in the titration with 10.0 mL of CH3COOH. During the
titration, the similar situation in experiment of standardization of NaOH solution happened.
The volume of NaOH increases gradually as it is added into CH3COOH, causing the
pH to increase gradually as shown in Figure 6.3 and Figure 6.4. However, a sudden change in
pH occurs when the volume increases from 8.0 mL to 9.0 mL as the pH increases from 5.89
14

to 11.30 in Trial 1. This situation also occurs in Trial 2 as pH rises from 6.44 to 11.51 when
the volume rises from 8.0 mL to 9.0 mL. This is because the solutions of NaOH and
CH3COOH in the beaker were already in stoichiometric proportions that is both solutions
were completely consumed and neither remained in excess. It indicates that the titration has
reached equivalence point. The equivalence point in both figures at 8.60 and 8.98
respectively is 8.50 mL and 8.50 mL respectively.
The content of CH3COOH in vinegar is determined from the titration curve. Table 6.2
shows that the molarity of CH3COOH in both Trial 1 and Trial 2 is the same which is 0.5987
M. Thus, the average molarity of NaOH calculated from both concentrations is 0.5987 M. It
is also shown that both trials produce similar experimental percent by mass of CH3COOH in
vinegar which is 3.596%. The percent by mass value obtained is irrelevant as according to
Beran (2011), the household vinegar is 4-5% CH3COOH by mass solution. It is found that
the percentage error is as high as 10.1%.
The major source of error in standardizing NaOH solution is it may contain varies
impurities that disturb the exact concentration of NaOH by making it more concentrated, as
found during the experiment. One of the possible causes that contributed to the error in both
experiments is the equipment used as all of apparatus have an uncertainty attached to it.
These uncertainties are then applied in the calculations making the amount of uncertainties
associated with the amount of material used to increase. The uncertainties include those that
are applied when the solution were made, for example, the uncertainty of mass balance that
was used to measure the amount of sodium needed to make sodium hydroxide, as well as the
transfer of the solution from one instrument to another. These uncertainties can be reduced by
using more accurate equipment, for example, a mass balance with reading near to 0.001 g.
Besides that, the transfer of solution from one container to another should be limited to
reduce the error. Human judgement also accounts for some of the error in this experiment as
the person performing the experiment was required to take the reading from high sensitivity
apparatus such as burette and pipette. To reduce this error, the reading should be taken at the
same eye level by the same person as judgement varies with person.

15

9.0

Conclusion

In order to determine the content of CH3COOH in vinegar through acid-base titration with
NaOH solution, it is important to standardize NaOH solution prior to performing the
experiment of CH3COOH. This is because the NaOH solution prepared for the investigation
may contain varies impurities. In the standardization of NaOH solution, the concentration of
sodium hydroxide as the standard solution and the content of acetic acid in vinegar were
measured by acid-base titration method with titration curve. It was discovered that the
concentration of sodium hydroxide is 0.7043 M, obtained from the average molarity of both
Trial 1 and 2 with molarity of 0.7010 M ad 0.7087 M respectively. However, this value is
17.383% inaccurate due to the errors that occurred while conducting the experiment.
When investigating the molarity and percent by mass of CH3COOH in vinegar, the
standardized NaOH solution was used to titrate the acid. During the experiment, it was found
that volume of NaOH solution at equivalence point of pH 8.60 and 8.98 is 8.50 mL with
molarity of 0.5987 M for both Trial 1 and 2. The percent by mass is 3.596% of CH3COOH in
vinegar in both trials. Thus, the average value of molarity and percent by mass of CH3COOH
are 0.5987 M and 3.596% respectively. However, this value is 10.1% inaccurate due to the
errors that occurred while conducting the experiment.
In conclusion, CH3COOH in vinegar has low concentration and low percent by mass
despite being the main component of vinegar. It may be due to the vinegar being diluted.

10.0

Recommendation

One of the recommendations suggested for the improvement of the experiment is obtain a
sample of vinegar with an acetic acid known more specifically to at least 3 decimal places to
analyze the results more effectively and the accuracy would be much easier to see.
Furthermore, a smaller volume of NaOH solution should be added during the titration of
NaOH with the acid, for example, 0.5 mL instead of 1 mL for every pH reading so that the
results obtained would be more accurate.

16

11.0

References

Beran, J. A. (2011). 9th edition. Laboratory manual for principles of general chemistry. John
Wiley & Sons, Inc.: NJ. doi:10.1007/s13398-014-0173-7.2
Ebbing, D. D., & Gammon, S. D. (2009). 9th edition. General Chemistry. Houghton Mifflin
Company: Boston.
Petrucci, R. H., Herring, F. G., Madura, J. D., & Bissonnette, C. (2014). General chemistry:
principles and modern applications. Pearson: Toronto. doi:10.1007/s13398-014-01737.2
Sohn, H. & Thornton, J. (n.d.). Titration of a weak acid with a strong base (on-line)
http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Analytical_Chemistry/Quantitative_Analysis/Titration/Titr
ation_Of_A_Weak_Acid_With_A_Strong_Base (11 October 2015)
Stanton, B., Lin, Z., & Atwood, C.H. (2010). Experiments in general chemistry.Brooks/Cole:
Bermont.
Whitten, K. W., Davis, R. E., Peck, L., & Stanley, G. G. (2007). General Chemistry.
Brooks/Cole.

12.0

Appendices

17