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Cuddalore District Profile

LOCATION:
Cuddalore District has an area of 3,678 km (coastal line of 68 kms) with the human population of
26,00,880(Provisional 2011 Census). It is bounded on the north by Viluppuram District and Pondicherry, on the
east by the Bay of Bengal, on the south by Nagapattinam District, and on the west by Perambalur District.
GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION:
North Latitude between 15o 5'/11o 11 and 12o 35
East Longitude between 78 o 38 and 80o
SOIL TYPE:
Loamy soil, Clayey soil,
Alluvial soil, Sandy loam and
Sandy clay soil are the soil types found in the district
RAINFALL (in mm)
Normal
1. N E Monsoon : 716.5
2. S W Monsoon : 373.6
TEMPERATURE IN THE DISTRICT
1. Maximum : 36.8 C
2. Minimum : 19.9 C

Cuddalore District:
Revenue Divisions
Revenue Taluks
Revenue Villages
Township
Municipalities
Town Panchayats
Blocks
Panchayat Villages

:3
:8
: 896
:1
:5
: 16
: 13
: 681

a) Dairies
: Nil
b) Milk chilling plant
:1
c) No.of milk Co-op. Societies
: 237
d) Milk Production Per Day (in Liters) :1,30,16,265
CUDDALORE MAP

Cuddalore District Animal Husbandry Department Organization Setup


1. Regional Joint Director

(Cuddalore District)

2. Deputy Director ( Cattle Breeding and Fodder Development)

:1
:1
: 10

3. Assistant Directors
a. Animal Disease Intelligence Unit

(1)

b. Cuddalore Division

(1)

c.ChidambaramDivision

(1)

d.Viruthachalam Division

(1)

e. Clinician

(1)

f. Veterinary Surgeons

(5)

4. Veterinary Assitant Surgeons

: 81

a. Animal Disease Intelligence Unit

(2)

b. Cattle Breeding and Fodder Development

(2)

c. Cuddalore Division

(22)

d. ChidambaramDivision

(29)

e. Viruthachalam Division

(24)

f. Clinician Centre

(1)

g. VH. Melpattampakkam

(1)

No of Poly Clinic

: -Nil-

No of Clinician Center

:1

No of Veterinary Hospital

:5

No of Veterinary Dispensaries

: 60

No of Mobile Veterinary Dispensary

:2

No of Rural Veterinary Dispensary

: 13

No of Sub-Centers

: 64

HISTORY OF ANIMAL DISEASE INTELLIGENCE UNIT, CUDDALORE 607 001

1. G.O. No. & Date


2. Date of implementation

G.O.No. 666/ Agriculture Dept. Dt. 18.04.1978


:

15.05.1978

3. Staff
post

Sanctioned

Filled

Vaccant

Assistant Director

Veterinary Asst. Surgeon

Assistant

Lab Assistant

Driver

Lab Attender

A.H. Assistant

As per the Head office R.O.C. No. 35517/A1/78 Dt. 5.8.1978, Cuddalore Clinical Lab with one Veterinary
Asst. Surgeon, one Lab Attender and one A.H.Assistant was attached to this Unit.
Till 30.08.2007, ADIU was functioning at the first floor of the Clinical Block of Veterinary Hospital. Later
on, Permanent building was constructed with the financial assistance of NABARD X scheme with the estimate of
28.4 lakhs.

Instrumentation facilities available at ANIMAL DISEASE INTELLIGENCE UNIT, CUDDALORE

Sl.No

Name

Remarks

1.

Hot Air Oven

For sterilizing the instruments

2.

Autoclave

For sterilizing large quantity of media

3.

Mini Autoclave

For sterilizing small quantity of media

4.

Magnetic stirrer
with thermostat

5.

Digital pH meter

6.

Laminar Air Flow

7.

Semi Analyzer

8.

Auto haemo
analyzer

To prepare solution
To find PH of Various Reagents
To test for Brucellosis, media inoculation,
Culture preparation / ABST
For analyzing serum
For whole blood analysis

9.

Urine Analyzer

For urine examination

10.

Centrifuge

For dung examination

11.

Water bath

To maintain temperature for serum analysis

12.

Bottle cooler

Storage of buffer stock vaccine

13.

Deep freezer

Storage of freeze dried vaccine and serum

14.

Walk in cooler

For vaccine storage

15.

CIE

For detection of Antigen Antibody reaction

16.

Incubator

For incubation of culture media

Activities of Animal Disease Intelligence Unit


1) Survey of Helminthic problems in Cattle, Buffaloes, Sheep, Goat, Dogs and Poultry in villages of the
district, advising and initiating control measures and prepare Helminthic Maps.

2) To carry out Epidemiological surveillance work and collection of data regarding Outbreaks of Disease
both in endemic and in non-endemic areas and prepare Endemic Charts.
3) To keep close watch of Emerging Diseases of Livestock and Poultry (Bird Flu, Leptospirosis, Blue
tongue, Bovine Viral Diarrhoea, Infectious Rhino Tracheitis, Mycoplasmosis, Brucellosis, Infectious
Bursal Diseases, etc)
4) Forecasting outbreaks of Contagious and Infectious diseases and relaying the information well in
advance to the field staff for preventive measures and also to the farmers through Mass media.
5) Mass screening of milch animals in Organised dairy farms for Mastitis Brucellosis, Tuberculosis and
Johnin disease.
6) Examination of clinical materials and specimen samples received from the field staff and
communication of the result then and there.
7. To attend outbreak reports where diagnostic aids are needed from this unit and advice remedial
measures.
8. Semen evaluation works where ever applicable.
9. To study the migratory trends of cattle, sheep, Poultry etc, and its basic reasons and relevance for the
disease containment programme.
10. Collection of climatological data and study their effect on occurrence of diseases, helminthic problems
and ecosystem.
11. To examine the animals and carcasses periodically at the slaughter houses and assure the disease
position.
12. To study toxicological problems including aflotoxicosis, Poisoning due to pesticide, plants, industrial
effluents, sewage pollution etc.
13. To keep Buffer Stock Vaccines for urgent use.
14. Collecting Pre and Post serum samples from animals for efficacy testing of vaccine and antibody
demonstration of Foot and Mouth Disease.
15. To take part in all activities related to Preparedness, Control and Containment of Avian Influenza.
16. Sero monitoring, Clinical surveillance & Sero - Surveillance of Avian Influenza.
17. To attend Mass Contact Programme including Kalnadai Pathukappu Thittam .

ACTIVITIES OF ANIMAL DISEASE INTELLIGENCE UNIT


ADIU CUDDALORE LABORATORY WORKS
1) Dung and Faecal examination
2) Blood smear examination
3) Blood wet film examination
4) Skin scrapping examination
5) Intestinal scrapping examination
6) Impression smear examination

7) Nasal washing examination


8) Blood analysis
9) Urine analysis
10) Semen analysis
11) California mastitis test
12) ABST Antibiotic Sensitivity test
13) Brucellosis Screening
14) Vaginal cytology
15) Post mortem examination.

ADIU CUDDALORE FIELD WORKS


1) Disease Surveillance
2) Attending Outbreaks
3) Collection of Samples
4) Initiating and Monitoring Vaccination work
5) Disease control activities
6) Disease eradication measures
7) Sending Disease Forecast to the field Veterinarians
8) Collecting pre and post sera samples for FMD control Programme & PPR
9) Inspection of Slaughter House
10) Avian Influenza preparedness.
11) Helminthic and Blood Protozoan Surveillance
12) Reporting to Officials
13) Bird Flu Sero Monitoring

Work Done Particulars for the year 2013 - 2014


Sl.

TARGET

TARGET

(2013-14)

ACHIEVED

WORK DONE (No. of Specimen Tested)


No.
1.

Dung/ Faeces Samples

13500

14750

2.

Blood Smear

350

831

3.

Blood Wet Film

40

69

4.

Impression Smear

400

458

5.

Intestinal Scrapings

150

194

6.

Skin Scrapings

500

544

7.

Nasal Washing

70

91

8.

Blood Analysis (TC, DC, HB, ESR)

70

145

9.

Blood Bio Chemistry

90

178

10.

Urine Analysis

150

210

11.

Semen Analysis

120

147

12.

Milk Samples for Mastitis

120

237

13.

Brucellosis Test - Serum Samples

250

282

14.

Brucellosis Text - Milk Samples

120

1276

15.

ABST

350

555

16.

Other Specimens Tested

46

17.

Total Number of Specimens Tested

20013

ANIMAL TESTING

1.

No. of Animal Tested & Treated for Infertility

150

295

III.

GENERAL

1.

No. of O.B.R. Attended

2.

No. of villages visited

120

443

3.

No. of Panchayat Unions Covered

135

4.

No. of M.C.Ps. Attended (KPT)

44

5.

No. of visit made to organized farms

12

a. Government Farms

b. Private Farms

25

6.

No. of visit to Salughter houses

50

64

7.

No. of Post Mortems conducted

58

8.

No. of Specimens collected from Slaughter House/Post Mortem

250

316

9.

No. of days toured by Assistant Director

250

265

10.

No. of days toured by Veterinary Assistant Surgeon 1

200

87

11

No. of days toured by Veterinary Assistant Surgeon 2

200

258

II.

44

ANIMAL DISEASE INTELLIGENCE UNIT,CUDDALORE


ANNUAL ADMINISTRATION REPORT 2013-14
Report on the Samples Analysed
1.DUNG
Strongyles
sp.

Amphistomes

Ascaria

Trichiuris

Toxacara

Ancylostoma

Coccidia

Fasciola

Others

187

144

59

155

10

83

75

75

287

P.multocida

Trypnosoma

E.canis

Babesia

Theileria

Kochs-Blue

Anaplasma

Others

ESR

PCV

WBC

Hb

TC

DC

--

3.Blood analysis

Microfilaria

Anthracis Bascilus

2.Blood smear

--

--

67

5
2

53

--

56

--

10

--

63

10

75

4.SKIN SCRAPINGS
Psoroptes

Sarcoptes

29

Demodex

39

68

5.URINE SAMPLES

Trichophyton

Microsporum

--

--

Bile

Albumin

Ketones

Blood

Glucose

Sediments

Pigments

Bile
salts

10

16

71

23

2. Abstract of the Samples Examind

DUNG

BLOOD
SMEAR

URINE
SAMPLES

BLOOD
ANALYSIS

SKIN
SCRAPING
S

IMP.
SMEAR

MILK

NASAL
WASHINGS

Total

Positiv
e

Total

Positiv
e

Total

Positiv
e

Total

Positiv
e

Total

Positive

Total

Positiv
e

Total

Positiv
e

Total

positive

14750

1075

801

230

210

125

323

158 +

544

136

458

59

237

126

91

3. Result of the Tests Conducted

Jhonin Testing

Semen
Evaluation

Brucellosis

Intestinal
Scrapings

Electrophoro
sis

ABST

Test For
Infertility

Total

Positive

Total

Positive

Total

Positive

Total

Positive

Total

Positive

Total

Positive

Total

Positive

--

--

282

147

194

44

555

443

295

##

4. Tour Details
Panchayat
union

Villages
Visited

OBR
attended

Visited
135

443

Specimens send to

Beneficiaries

Slaughter
house
specimens

No. of
Post
mortem
Specimens
Examined

IVPM

MVC

CRL

SC/S
T

OTHERS

314

58

60

20

283

2315

4362

44

TOTAL

6677

*Only mass activity (motility ) of the sperm alone tested


## Test conducted to improve the fertility
+ Test conducted to know the Blood parameter

VACCINE DISTRIBUTED DETAILS - ADIU CUDDALORE


Name of Vaccine

Doses Lifted & Distributed


2010 -11

2011 -12

2012 -13

2013 -14

2014-15

ASV

92750

68000

87500

32500

39600

BQV

28000

42500

67500

70600

59900

HSV

2500

1500

250

56500

4500

PPRV

NIL

100300

183000

19800

81800

FMDV

300000

59000

477000

669000

703000

ETV

2250

8000

2000

3000

2500

RDVK

268800

581600

536600

973800

1052000

Vaccination details as per endemic chart ( ASCAD VACCINATION )


S.N
o

Name of
the
vaccine

Dosses to be
lifted

No.Vaccinated

Remarks

Month of
Vaccination

Name of the
block

Anthrax

25000 ml

31972

Vaccine fully
utilized

Aug-13

Kammapuram

Black
Quarter

17700 doses

17692

Vaccine fully
utilized

Sep-13

Kammapuram

Black
Quarter

20000 doses

19968

Vaccine fully
utilized

Oct-13

Panrutti

Black
Quarter

27000 doses

26989

Vaccine fully
utilized

Nov-13

Nallur

Work Done Particulars for the year 2014 - 2015

S.N
o.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

Kind of specimen

Dung sample
Blood smear
Blood wet film
Impression smear
Intestinal scraping
Skin scraping
Nasal washing
Blood analysis
Blood biochemistry
Urine analysis
Semen analysis
Milk sample for mastitis
Brucellosis test-serum sample
Brucellosis test-milk sample
ABST
Other specimens
Total tested at ADIU
No. sent to CRL-MVC-SRDDL etc
18
includes Birdflu
19
No.of sera sample sent to CRL for AI
Total No.specimens- Received by
ADIU ( 17 + 18 )
ANIMAL TESTING
II
1
No. of animals tested for TB
2
No. of animals tested for JD
3
No.of Infertility
III GENERAL
1
No.of OBR attended
2
No.of villages visited
3
No: of Panchayat Union covered
4
No.of MCP'S attended
5
Visits made to organised farms
a) Govt.Farm
b) Private farms

Bar

Target
13500
350
40
400
150
500
70
70
90
150
120
120
250
120
350

Achievement
15343
685
60
436
197
550
85
261
250
276
55
277
299
240
655
58
19730
50
90

150

120

19870
0
500
0
291
0
0
518
135
56

12
0
25

0
0
111

50

71
53

250

330

250

254

No of visits to slaughter houses

No. of Post Mortem conducted


No. of specimen from Slaughter
house PM
No. of days toured by AD, ADIU

10

No. of days toured - VAS-1. ADIU

200

242

11

No. of days toured - VAS-2. ADIU

200

159

Diagrammatic representation of target and achievement at ADIU , Cuddalore 23014-2015

Dung sample
15500
15000
14500

Dung sample

14000
13500
13000
12500
target

achievement

700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0

VACCINE PROCUREMENT AND DISTRIBUTION FOR 2014-15

target
achievement

No.of
Animal
Doses Lifted Vaccinated

S.N
o

Name of the
vaccine

1
2
3
4

Antharax
Blackquarter
ETV
HSV

39600 ml
59900
2500
4500

48881
59400
2392
4385

* ASCAD
ASCAD
Buffer Stock
Buffer Stock

FMD

350000

350350

FMD-CP VIIPhase

FMD

353000

350340

FMD-CP VIIIPhase

FMD Total

703000

700690

PPR

81800

78800

FMD-CP - 2014-15
NCP-PPR & Scheme animal
vaccination

RDVK

1052000

1032000

Annual Target

Brucella

21000

21000

NCPB

Remarks

The animals include cattle / Sheep & Goats

WORK DONE PATICULARS FOR THE YEAR 2014-15

1. DUNG
Strongyl
es sp.

Amphisto
mes

Asca
ria

Trichiu
ris

Toxaca
ra

Ancylosto
ma

Coccid
ia

Fasciol
a

Other
s

318

117

61

178

33

49

112

36

329

DUNG

Gluc
ose

47

--

27

25

70

BLOOD
SMEAR

URINE
SAMPL
ES

BLOOD
ANALY
SIS

SKIN
SCRAPI
NGS

IMP.
SMEAR

80

11
7

MILK

DC

Blo
od

ESR

Micr
Bile
Bil Albu
Keto
oe
min
nes
40Pigm47 sa 2
53
-69
spor
-ents
um
lts

5.URINE SAMPLES

TC

Others

Hb

--

WBC

79

PCV

40

27

Tric
ho6
54phyt
2
on

Anaplasma

Demo
dex

3. Blood analysis
Kochs-Blue

Sarco
ptes

Theileria

Babesia

E.canis

--

Trypno-soma

P.multo-cida

--

4.SKIN SCRAPINGS

Psoro
ptes

--

Microfl-aria

Anthracissss

Bascilus

2. Blood smear

Sedim
ents

14
0

92

NASAL
WASHI
NGS

Tot
al

Posit
ive

Tot
al

Posit
ive

Tot
al

Posit
ive

Tot
al

Posit
ive

Tot
al

Positi
ve

Tot
al

Posit
ive

Tot
al

Posit
ive

Tot
al

positi
ve

153
43

1233

68
5

221

27
6

175

51
1

366

55
0

146

43
6

317

27
7

165

85

Johnin
Testing

Brucello
sis

SemenEvalu
ation

Intestinal
Scrapings

ABST

Electropho
rosis

Test For
Infertilit
y

Tota
l

Positi
ve

Tota
l

Positi
ve

Total

Positi
ve

Total

Positi
ve

Tota
l

Positi
ve

Total

Positive

Tot
al

Positi
ve

--

--

52
6

55

197

48

65
5

605

29
1

##

Pancha
yat
union
Visited

Villag
es
Visite
d

135

518

OBR
attend
ed

Slaught
er
house
specim
ens

No. of
Post
mortem
Specim
ens
Examin
ed

330

53

Specimens
send to

Benefciarie
s

IVP
M

MV
C

CR
L

SC/
ST

OTHE
RS

600

50

284
4

4612

Graphical Representation of Work Done Particulars 2014-2015

TOT
AL

7456

Prevalance of Parastic infestation


Strongyles sp.

Amphistomes

Ascaria

Trichiuris

Toxacara

Ancylostoma

Coccidia

Fasciola

Others

Prevalence of Different Protozoal Infection

Trypnosoma
18%

E.canis

1%1%

Babesia

21%

Theileria

26%

27%

Kochs-Blue

15%

Anaplasma

24%
3%
9%
4%

Others

20%

9%
5%
3%

14%

Prevalance Of Parasitic Skin Infestation

Urine Samples

Glucose Sediments

18%
Psoroptes

Blood

Sarcoptes

Albumin

Demodex

54%

Bile pigment

27%
Ketones

DUNG SAMPLES-anlysed for endoparasites

URINE SAMPLES-presence of pathological constituents

BLOOD SAMPLES screened for protozoans

Total Positive
7%
Total collected
samples

24%
negative

39%
Positive samples

61%

Positive

76%

93%

BLOOD ANALYSIS -for blood parameters SKIN SCRAPINGS-for parasites

IMPRESSION SMEAR

21%
42% Total

Positive

Total

Positive

Positive; 42%
Total; 58%

58%
79%

NASAL WASHINGS

MILK ANALYSIS-CMT

Intestinal Scrapings

positive; 1%

20%
Total

Positive; 37%

Positive

Total; 63%
80%
Total; 99%

OUTBREAK DETAILS IN LAST SEVEN YEARS in cuddalore district

S.NO

YEAR
&MONT
H OF
OBR

Name of the
Disaese

Villages Affected

Name of the
Block

Name of the VD

Aug-07

Antharax

Visalur

Viruthachalam

Mangalampettai

Sep-07

FMD

Chinnavadavadi

Viruthachalam

Viruthachalam

Sep-07

FMD

Vadakuppam

Viruthachalam

Viruthachalam

Sep-07

FMD

Abathanapuram

Kurinjipadi

Vadalur

Oct-07

FMD

Keelpattampakkam

Annagramam

Nellikuppam

Oct-07

FMD

Muttam

K.M.Koil

Muttam

Oct-07

FMD

Karuperri

K.M.Koil

Muttam

Oct-07

FMD

Azangatthan

K.M.Koil

Muttam

Oct-07

FMD

Vallampadugai

Kumaratchi

Vallampadugai

10

Oct-07

FMD

Vadakkumankudi

Kumaratchi

Vallampadugai

11

Oct-07

FMD

Melakundalapadi

Kumaratchi

Vallampadugai

12

Oct-07

Enterotoxemia

Thachur

Mangalore

Thozudur

13

Oct-07

Enterotoxemia

Korrukai

Mangalore

Thozudur

14

Oct-07

Enterotoxemia

Sirugramam

Panrutti

V.P.Nallur

15

Nov-07

FMD

Orangur

Mangalore

Orangur

16

Nov-07

FMD

Keeranur

Kammapuram

V.Kumaramangalam

17

Nov-07

FMD

Tholar

Kammapuram

V.Kumaramangalam

18

Jan-08

Black Quarter

Maligaikottam

Thittakudi

Pennadam

19

Mar-08

PPR

Thoppukollai

Kurinjipadi

Kullanchavadi

20

Nov-09

Antharax

Karmankudi

Kammapuram

Kammapuram

21

Nov-12

Black Quarter

Ammrei

Kammapuram

Mandarakuppam

22

Dec-12

Black Quarter

Kudimiyankuppam

Panrutti

V.P.Nallur

23

Dec-12
Sep & oct
-13

Black Quarter

Thachampalayam

Panrutti

Marungur

FMD

43 villages

8 blocks

14 - VD

24

Patterns of Diseases month wise distribution in Cuddalore District

MONTH

January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

Anthrax

BQ

FMD

ET

PPR

Duck
plague

Goat
Pox

Veterinary Institutions under the Jurisdiction of A.D.I.U Cuddalore:


1) Chidambaram Division : Veterinary Dispensary, Rural Veterinary Dispensary and Sub Centres list
Blockwise
Block

Kumaratchi

Name of the Veterinary


Name of the Sub center
Dispensary/ Rural Veterinary
Dispensary
1
2
3
4

5
6
Parangipettai
7
8
9
1
11
Kattumannarkoil 1
1
3
1
1
1
1
Keerapalayam
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
Melbhuvanagiri 30
31
32

V.D Vallambadugai
V.D Kumaratchi
V.D Sivayam
V.D Lalpettai
R.V.D Ammapettai
Puliyangudi
V.D Kavarapattu
V.D Pinnathur
V.D B.Mutlur
V.D Parangipettai
R.V.D Sendirakillai
V.D Thirumuttam
V.D Vilvakulam
V.D Kattumannarkoil
V.D Kanjankollai
V.D Muttam
R.V.D Movur
V.D A.Puliyangudi
V.D Vilagam
V.D T.Nedunjeri
V.D Veiyalur
V.D Orathur
V.D Cholatharam
R.V.D Kannangudi
Perur
V.D C.Mutlur
V.D Pinnalur
V.D Sethiyathope
V.D Chidambaram
R.V.D Melvalaiyamadevi
maruthur
M.V.D Chidambaram

Total Number of Veterinary Dispensary


Total No. of Rural Veterinary Dispensary
Mobile Veterinary Dispensary
Total No. of Sub Centres

Karuppur
Thirunaraiyur
Meiyathur
Parivilagam
Neivasal
Ma.Udaiyur
Thiruvakulam
Nakaravanthankudi
Thillaividagan
Puduchatiram
Gunamangalam
Vanamadevi
Pazhanjanallur
Kollumedu
Chettithangal
Rediyur
Keerapalayam
Mugaiyur
Thenpathi
Nangudi
C.Alambadi
Veeramudaiyanatham
Manjakollai

26
5
1
23

2) Vridhachalam Division:
Veterinary Dispensary, Rural Veterinary Dispensary &Sub Centre Details Blockwise
Block

Vridhachalam

Kammapuram

Mangalore

Nallur

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

Name of the Veterinary Dispensary/


Rural Veterinary Dispensary

Name of the Sub


center

V.D Vridhachalam
V.D Karuvepilankurichi
V.D Mangalampettai
V.D Sathukoodal Keelpathy
R.V.D Mathur
V.D T.Gopurapuram
Kammapuram
V.Kumaramangalam
Mandarakuppam
R.V.D U.Mangalam
Kavanur
Iruppu
Kotteri
Mangalore
Thozhudur
Avatti
Avinangudi
Orangur
R.V.D Venganur
Nallur
Pennadam
Periyanesalur
Tholar
Veppur
R.V.DDheevalur
M. V.D Vridhachalam

Thoravalur

Total Number of Veterinary Dispensary

Total No. of Rural Veterinary Dispensary


Mobile Veterinary Dispensary
Total No. of Sub Centres

3) Cuddalore Division:

V.Sathapadi

C.Keeranur
Adari
Keezhakalpoondi

Edaicheruvai
Me.Mathur
Kothattai
Kovilur
Pelandurai

21
4
1
10

Veterinary Dispensary, Rural Veterinary Dispensary &Sub Centre Details Blockwise

Block

Name of the Veterinary Dispensary/


Rural Veterinary Dispensary

Name of the Sub center

L.N.Puram
Maligampattu
Perperiyankuppam
Vegakollai
Kadampuliyur
Thiruvamur
Kalliyankuppam

Panruti

Anguchettypalayam

Kurinjipadi

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Kudiyiruppu
Marungur
R.V.D Pathirakottai
V P Nallur
Adooragaram
Kullanchvadi
puliyur
R.V.D Maruvai
Mettupalayam

11

Neyveli

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

Vadalur
C N Palayam
Cuddalore O T
R.V.D Kannarapettai
Pudhukadai
Karamanikuppam
Thirupapuliyur
Ramapuram
Kandrakottai
Karumbur
Nellikuppam
Pagandai
R.V.D Thorapadi
MVD Cuddalore

Cuddalore

Annagramam

Total Number of Veterinary Dispensary

Ramanathankuppam
Thampipettai
Kothandaramapuram
Poondiankuppam
Thethanagiri
Venkadampettai
Vadakuthoo
Thiruvanthipuram
Sedapalayam
Thookanampakkam
Varakalpattu
Keelalingipattu
Periakankanamkuppa
Panapakkam
Pallur
Melkumaramangalam
Sathipattu

20
4
24
1

Total No. of Rural Veterinary Dispensary


Total No. of Sub Centres
MVD

Chapter- 1
PPR- An Emerging and Economically Important Disease Of Small Ruminants-An overview
Dr.V.S.Raghavan, M.V.Sc., Assistant Director, Animal Disease Intelligence Unit, Cuddalore

Introduction:
PPR (Peste des Petits Ruminants) outbreak in past occurrence in cuddalore region is encountered in
the months of March. Climatic pattern of cuddalore at the end of March embarks summer season, with the
mercury reaching its peak by the end of May and June.Summer rains are sparse and the first monsoon,
the South-West monsoon, sets in June/July and continues till September. North-East monsoon sets in
October and continues till January. The rainfall during South-West monsoon period is much lower than that of
North-East monsoon. However the pattern of PPR disease occurrence in india and worldwide varies pertinent to
different ecological systems and geographical areas.
PPR mainly affects sheep and goat, though the severity of the clinical symptoms is more
predominant in goats worldwide. However in india its severity impinge both on Goats and sheep. The disease
was first reported in the Ivory Coast of West Africa by Gargadenec and Lalanne (1942). In India, PPR first
reported in 1987 from Arasur village of Villupuram district of Tamilnadu. Over a decade of serosurviellance
corroborate one out of the three small ruminants is exposed to PPRV infection.
Since the small ruminants are chiefly the livelihood for most small farmers hence PPR emerging
in developing country is menace to the poor families and eventually to state and India.
Causative Agent:
PPR is caused by Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae (Gibbs et al., 1979). Virus members of
this group have six structural proteins. Since the virus is enveloped one, it is easily inactivated under sunlight
and with many chemicals. The genome of PPRV is a negative sense, singlestranded RNA with the size of
15948 bp.
Epidemiology:
PPR infection high positivity was encountered in Tamilnadu (78.6) compared to other states. PPR
outbreaks among sheep and goats in india can occur at any time of the year, but its occurrence is most frequent
in the wet season (September to November) and cold dry (December to February).
Clinical Signs:
Clinical pictures of PPR are almost analogue to rinderpest of cattle.
1. Clinical signs of PPR could be characterized by 3Ds i.e. discharge, diarrhoea and death, with additional
fourth major components that is the bronchopneumonia.
2. After a 57 days incubation period, the affected animals exhibit 105107 F followed by a frothy nasal
discharge and lacrimation.
3. Oral mucosa shows necrotic spots, oedematous lips and bran like deposits on the tongue.

4. With the progression of the disease, the animals develop diarrhoea, which usually appears 23 days after
the onset of fever.
5. Diarrhoea results in dehydration of the animal leading to sunken eyeballs. The animal either succumbs to
death due to respiratory problems within 710 days from the onset of the clinical reaction or recovers after
a protracted convalescence.
Note :
PPR infection severity exacerbate by secondary bacterial infection with Pasteurella Multocida in lungs.
Postmortem Lesion:
1. Prominent crusty scabs along the outer lips
2. Severe interstitial apical pneumonia
3. Erosive lesions that may extend from the mouth to the reticulorumen junction, characteristic linear
haemorrhages or zebra stripes occur in the large intestine. commonly at the caecocolic junction,
4. Necrotic or haemorrhagic enteritis
5. Necrotic lesions on the spleen and enlargement of lymph nodes.
Sample collection:
Antemortem materials
1. Nasal, ocular and oral swabs
(best material for diagnosis)
2. Unclotted blood (use EDTA or
Heparin)
3. Lymph node biopsies

Postmortem materials
1. Lymph node
2. Spleen
3. Lungs
4. Intestine:caeum/rectum
5. Ileocaecal junction

4. Paired sera samples


Swabs need to be collected in ~500 L of sterile PBS (pH 7.2) or NSS. The bud/swab is squeezed into a
microcentrifuge tube.
A portion of the tongue, spleen, lungs, trachea, lymphnodes (mediastinal and mesenteric) and
abomasum, caecum, rectum showing haemorrhagic lesions are recommended samples during
postmortem.
One set of the tissue samples should be chilled but not frozen. This set of sample can be used for making
impression smears. Prepare the impression smears by pressing the cut edge of the fresh tissues on the
clean slides.
Air dry the smears and store at 20C till used for immunofluorescence ass One set of the tissue samples
should be collected aseptically and stored frozen at 20 C. Such tissues are used for virus isolation in
natural host or in cell culture.

Materials for virulent PPR viruses used for challenge experiments are also collected from sacrificed
animals and stored frozen at 20 C.
Another set of tissues should be preserved in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histopathological
examination.
Blood samples collected with anticoagulants (heparin or EDTA) are required for the diagnosis of antigen
by ELISA, nucleic acid detection by RTPCR and for the isolation of virus in cell culture.
Blood samples without anticoagulant should be collected for serological assays. It is advisable to collect
paired serum samples for the seroconversion studies.

Diagnosis:
Laboratory confirmation of the disease is usually done through virus isolation and virus neutralization
assay, which are time consuming and tedious process.
1. Virus isolation remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of PPR. Blood collected at the height of
the temperature is the best material for this purpose. The nasal or ocular swabs or 10% tissue suspension
can also be used.
2. Sandwich ELISA to detect the PPR Antigen
3. monoclonal antibody based competitive ELISA (cELISA) for detection of antibodies against PPRV .
4. Real time RT PCR has been used for quantification and diagnosis of PPR virus. Reverse Transcription
Polymerase Chain Reaction (RTPCR) is the method of choice for detecting nucleic acids of PPRV in
clinical samples.
Control Strategies:
Any Viral disease treatment is not specific hence in case of PPR control measures solely on effective
vaccination to eradicate the disease.

.
In endemic areas, the virus is currently controlled either through the administration of a live attenuated
PPRV vaccine, such as the Nigeria 75/1 strain (Nig 75/1). In India, three live attenuated vaccines are currently
in use: Sungri/96, Arasur/87 and Coimbatore/97 for controlling the disease. Recombinant adenovirus expressing
F and H fusion proteins of PPRV induces both humoral and cellmediated immune responses in goats. Animals
that are vaccinated and those that recover from infection with PPRV generate a long lasting immunity that may
last for a lifetime.

Control program in India


Focused vaccinations in highrisk populations and mass vaccination are necessary to achieve 70 to
80 % of herd immunity. The control strategies should follow the bottomup approach (farmers to field
veterinarians to policy makers). Besides, strengthening of PPR vaccine production and quality control units,
disease diagnostic laboratories, infrastructure for field Veterinarians are also key factors. The NCPPPR control
programme started in 2010 and currently expanded to all the provinces of the country aims to eradicate this
disease by 2030.

Conclusion :
OIE (Office International des Epizooties) has said ,

PPR can be defeated, as proven by the example of rinderpest,


which

in

2011

became

the

first

animal

disease

to

be

eradicated

by

humankind.
The eradication of PPR will have a major positive impact, not only on the livelihoods of poor farmers,
poverty alleviation and food security in pertinent to veterinary public health. OIE has endorsed and stressed
the global control and eradication strategy and launch the global PPR control and eradication campaign, aiming
to eliminate the virus by 2030.

Chapter 2
SAMPLE COLLECTION & SUBMISSION

GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR SAMPLE COLLECTION


Samples should be taken from the affected site(s) as early as possible following the onset
of clinical signs. This is particularly important in viral diseases as shedding of virus is
usually maximal early in the infection. This is also true of enteric bacterial pathogens.
It is useful to collect samples from clinical cases and in-contact animals, particularly if
there has been an outbreak of disease. In-contact animals may be at an earlier stage in the
infection with a greater chance of them shedding substantial numbers of microorganisms.
Samples should be obtained from the edge of lesions and some macroscopically normal
tissue included. Microbial replication will be most active at the lesions edge.
It is important to collect specimens as aseptically as possible, otherwise the relevant
pathogen may be overgrown by numerous contaminating bacteria. In certain
circumstances a guarded swab should be used to bypass an area with a large population of
normal flora.
The laboratory should be informed if treatment has commenced in order that
counteractive measures may be taken to increase the possibility of isolating bacteria or
that an alternative method of detection such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may be
employed.
When possible a generous amount of sample should be taken and submitted, such as
blocks of tissue (approximately 2 cm3), biopsy material, or several millilitres of pus,
exudate or faeces. For serology, at least 5 mL of blood should be obtained to allow a
number of tests to be carried out if necessary and to allow the sample to be stored and
tested with subsequent samples.
Cross-contamination between samples must be avoided. This is essential where a highly
sensitive amplification technique such as PCR is to be used for the detection of the
aetiological agent.
Precautions must be taken to avoid human infection where a zoonotic condition is
suspected.
TISSUE

Postmortem material should be collected as soon as possible after death. However it


is sometimes worthwhile submitting old and even partially decomposed samples if that is
all that is available. In the outbreak of African horse sickness in the Iberian Peninsula in
the late 1980s virus was isolated from the bone marrow of a horse that had been buried
for eight days. An organism does not have to be viable or even entire for its genome to be

detected by polymerase chain reaction. Thus it may be possible to obtain a diagnosis by


PCR from a sample that is totally unsuitable for histopathological examination or agent
isolation.
Tissues from outside the body cavities should be collected first followed by tissues
from the thorax and then the abdomen. Sterile instruments should be used to collect tissue
samples of at least 1 cm3 which should then be placed in separate sterile screw-capped
jars (Fig. 1.2). If the laboratory is some distance away tissue may be forwarded in virus or
bacterial transport medium. It is important to remember that virus transport medium
usually contains antibiotics thus rendering the sample unsuitable for bacterial
examination. Tissue for histopathological examination should be placed in at least 10 times
its volume of neutral buffered 10% formalin. In cases of abortion the whole foetus and
placenta should be submitted. If this is not possible then samples of tissue, a piece of
affected placenta, foetal abomasal contents (ruminants) and uterine discharge (if
applicable) should be forwarded to the laboratory. A clotted blood sample from the dam
for serological examination may yield additional information.

SWABS AND DISCHARGES

Fluids are preferable to swabs as the greater sample volume increases the likelihood
of detecting the causal organism. Samples for agent isolation should be placed in sterile
containers. Viruses and many bacteria are susceptible to desiccation especially if collected
on a dry swab. Formulae for suitable transport media for viruses, chlamydia and other
organisms are given in Appendix 2. Whenever possible the sample should be collected
from the specific site of infection. The usual short cotton wool swabs are generally
unsatisfactory for obtaining nasopharyngeal specimens of epithelial cells and mucus for
the investigation of respiratory disease of large animals. Guarded swabs are necessary for
certain bacteriological examinations where misleading results could be generated due to
contaminants from adjacent sites that are colonized with bacterial flora. Similarly, fungal
organisms from the environmentreadily contaminate the nasal passages and upper
trachea. The diagnostic laboratory should be consulted before collecting samples for the
isolation of specific pathogens that require specialized media or culture conditions, for
example, Taylorella equigenitalis, Chlamydophila psittaci or Mycoplasma species. The
laboratory will either supply specialist swabs and transport media or recommend a
reputable source, as appropriate.
SAMPLES FROM SKIN LESIONS

If intact pustules or vesicles are present, the surface should be disinfected with 70%
ethyl alcohol, allowed to dry, and material aspirated from the lesion with a sterile syringe
and fine needle. A swab may be taken from the raw surface of ulcers. A biopsy of wound
tissue should be collected after the superficial area has been cleaned and debrided.

In cases where ringworm is suspected, hair should be plucked from the lesion and
the edge of the lesion scraped with a blunt scalpel blade until blood begins to ooze.Plucked
hair, skin scrapings (including the scalpel blade itself) and any scab material that is
present should be submitted. These specimens will also allow detection of mange or a
bacterial infection, if present. In cases of orf the crust and scrapings from the edge of the
lesion should be collected. In birds feather follicle skin is useful in the diagnosis of Mareks
disease.
BLOOD

Blood should be withdrawn using an aseptic technique into a dry syringe or


vacutainer. If collected in a syringe, care must be taken not to cause haemolysis. The
needle should be removed prior to expelling the sample carefully into a sterile dry tube. It
is not acceptable to submit blood to the laboratory in a syringe. Glass tubes are fragile.
However, blood clots often retract poorly in plastic bottles making it difficult to
separate the serum. Whole blood should never be frozen prior to submission to a
laboratory as the ensuing lysis of red blood cells makes it impossible to perform many
serological assays.
Serological tests are usually performed on the serum harvested from clotted
samples. Paired samples are frequently required to make a definitive diagnosis on thebasis
of serology. It is advisable to confirm the most appropriate sampling interval with the
microbiologist who should also advise as to usefulness of a single blood sample.
Blood for the isolation of viruses or bacteria should be prevented from clotting. The
laboratory should advise on the most appropriate anticoagulant. As a bacteraemia can be
intermittent, it is advisable to take more than one sample within a 24-hour period. The
blood should be added aseptically and without delay to one of the special commercial
blood-culture bottles. Blood samples forculture should be kept cool and submitted to the
laboratory as quickly as possible.
FAECES
A faeces sample freshly voided or collected from the rectum is preferable to a rectal
swab which often does not have enough faecal matter for agent detection. A faeces sample
(about the size of the end of a thumb) may be forwarded to the laboratory without
transport medium. Faecal swabs should be placed in medium such as buffered glycerol
saline to avoid desiccation. Some organisms are shed intermittently and samples may need
to be collected over several days.
Urine samples
Urine samples may be submitted for urinalysis, bacterial microscopy and culture or
for a bacterial viable count to establish whether clinical bacteriuria is present. For

bacteriological procedures the preferred methods of collection are by cystocentesis, by


catheter or mid-stream urine sample
.
ABSCESSES
If possible about 3 mL of pus should be collected together with scrapings from the
wall of the abscess. Pus at the centre of an abscess is often sterile. Pus from recently
formed abscesses will yield the best cultural results. Anaerobic bacteria can often be
cultured from abscesses.
EYE
A conjunctival swab may be taken gently holding the palpebrae apart. Scrapings
may also be taken with a fine sterile spatula. The cells should be washed carefully into
transport medium. Bovine mastitic milk samples
Milk samples should be collected from cows as soon as possible after the mastitis is
first noticed and not from animals treated with either intramammary or systemic
antibiotics. The udder should not be rinsed with water unless very dirty. If the udder and
teats are washed, they should be dried thoroughly with a paper towel. Usually it is
sufficient to wipe the teats vigorously, using 70% ethyl alcohol on cotton wool, paying
special attention to the teat sphincters. Antiseptics should be avoided. The two teats
furthest from the operator are wiped first and then the two nearest teats. The sterile
narrow-necked collection bottle must be held almost horizontally. The first squirt of milk
from each teat is discarded and then, for a composite sample, a little milk from each
quarter is directed into the bottle. The milk should be collected from the two near teats
first and then from the two far teats, so that ones arm is less likely to accidentally brush
against a cleaned teat.

SPECIMENS FOR ANAEROBIC CULTURE


A good collection method is essential because many anaerobes do not survive frank
exposure to the oxygen in the air for more than 20 minutes. It is important not to
contaminate the samples by contact with adjacent mucosal surfaces as these have a
resident anaerobic flora. Specimens from animals that have been dead for more than four
hours are usually unsuitable because of the rapid postmortem invasion of the animal body
by anaerobes from the intestinal tract. Bone marrow is a good specimen to collect for the
diagnosis of blackleg or malignant oedema as bone marrow appears to be one of the last
tissues to be invaded by contaminating bacteria. A piece of rib stripped of the periosteum
could be submitted to the laboratory for the extraction of bone marrow. Any specimens
for the attempted isolation of anaerobes must arrive at the laboratory as soon as possible
after collection. Collection of samples for anaerobe culture on ordinary swabs is usually of
no value. Acceptable samples include blocks of tissue (4 cm 3) or several millilitres of fluid
placed in a sterile closed container. Anaerobic transportmedium is essential for swabs.

In suspected enterotoxaemia cases, where the demonstration of a specific toxin is


required, at least 20 mL of ileal contents should be submitted. A loop of ileum with
contents, tied off at each end, is acceptable or the ileal contents drained into a secure
sterile container.

COLLECTION OF SPECIMENS
The determination of cause of an infectious disease depends on the isolation and
identification of infectious agent. Four main points should be realized in collecting the
specimens for this purpose :
(i) Most pathogenic bacteria die readily in decomposing tissues.
(ii) Many non-pathogenic intestinal and environmental microorganisms will grow in
decomposing tissues.
(iii) The pathogenic bacteria may be localized in the tissue with lesions or an abscess.
(iv) Allowing samples to dry out kills the bacteria.
It is essential to preserve the pathogens present to prevent contamination, with nonpathogenic organisms and minimize the growth of the contaminants. The means whereby
this can be achieved include collection of samples as early as possible after the death of
animal, working in a dust free environment and keeping the specimens as cool as possible
until it reaches the laboratory.
Use an aseptic technique. Shear the surface of the lesions with a hot scalpel, blade,
slice this surface with sterile blade and swab the cut surface. Never open the alimentary
tract before other organs are sampled. Use swabs only with transport medium. Each
sample should be collected in a separate container. Two or more samples in the same
container leads to cross contamination.
Never freeze the samples meant for bacteriological examination.
Another method of collection of bacteriological specimen is by using Pasteur Pipette.
The sample should be collected from active lesions, old fibrotic lesions are often sterile.
Different kind of specimens listed under each disease should be sent instead of only one
kind of specimen.

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR COLLECTION OF SPECIMEN


In general the following points should be duly considered while
collecting materials for laboratory bacterial, viral, parasitic and other
diseases
a. All materials collected should be accompanied with full history of disease out
break viz., morbidity and mortality rates, clinical signs, duration of disease,
species affected, disease suspected etc.
b. The materials from ailing 5-6 or more animals should be collected at the
height of body temperature/ clinical signs.
c. When sero-diagnosis is desired always paired sterile, about 2 ml, sera should
be collected. One serum sample at the time of start of disease and another
after recovery (3-4weeks) from disease.
d.

All biological specimens should be transported on ice to the nearest


laboratory though a courier within shortest possible time where they may be
processed and stored on proper conditions. The courier should be instructed
to change ice if long distance is involved.

e. When death is recorded in ailing animal, the post-mortem examination should


be conducted at the earliest to avoid putrification of the carcasses. Putrified
materials are unfit for lab examination.
f. Materials collected for bacteriological examination should not be kept at
subzero temperature (-20* C) while for virus isolation these can be stored at
-20 to -80* C. For most of the diseases keep at 4* C.
g. Detailed post-mortem report should be despatched with morbid materials in
10% formalin. The morbid materials should be sent without preservative in
sterile containers over ice. The transport media used specially for virological
examination of the morbid materials are 50% Phosphate Buffered Glycerine,
Phosphate Buffer Saline (pH 7.3-7.4) PBS and Hanks Balanced Salt Solution.
In case of non-availability of transport media, it is always desirable to collect
tissues in sterile containers, sealed and transported on sufficient ice to the
nearest laboratory for storage and processing. Small tissue pieces of x2 cms
thick from organs showing the lesions are considered better for preservation
and fixation in 10% Formalin. The specimen bottles should be sealed, labelled
clearly indicating the fixative/transport media used. Care should be taken to
seal and pack these bottles in hard boxes/polythene bags to avoid leakage
during transit. Unbreakable bottles and sterile polybags may be used for
collection and transport of biological specimens. When viral disease is

suspected, antibiotics (Penicillin 1000 units & streptomycin 10mg/ml) may be


used in transport media and in serum samples despatches for diagnosis. This
will inhibit contamination. About 20 gram each of spleen/lymphnode tissues
be collected for virus isolation. Always 5 to 6 or more animals be investigated
and material collected for lab examine. Less number of materials sometimes
fail
to
give
results/true
picture
of
disease
outbreak.

MATERIAL TO BE COLLECTED FOR BACTERIAL DISEASES :


1. HAEMORRHAGIC SEPTICAEMIA: From sick animals fixed smears from blood and
liver. Heart blood in a sterile pipette/bottle, lymph node and spleen on ice.
2. ANTHRAX: Flame fixed blood smears of cattle and sheep. From subcutaneous swelling
in horses, swine and dogs. Swabs of blood from ear vein for cultural examination from
dead animals. A small piece from tip of muzzle (x1 cm approx.) in saline or without any
preservative in sterile glass test tube or bottle on ice duly sealed. It is not advisable to open
the carcass suspected for anthrax in field. If opened, it should be properly disposed by
burning.
3. BLACK QUARTER : Impression smears from the affected muscle tissue; exudate from
lesions; pieces of affected muscles on ice.
4. ENTEROTOXAEMIA,LAMB DYSENTERY : Contents of small intestine with and
without chloroform separately on ice, kidney, urine.
5. BRUCELLOSIS : Paired serum, blood and abomasal contents of aborted foetus,
placenta with 2-3 cotyledons, vaginal swabs in PBS, separate bottle on ice, whole foetus if
small on ice.
6. JOHNES DISEASE : Rectal pinch smears, bowl washings(atleast 10gm preserved in
10% formalin). In dead animals terminal portion of ileum with ileocaecal valve,
mensenteric lymph gland in 10% formal-saline.
7.GLANDERS : Exudate from skin and lung lesions in vials on ice. Impression smears
from exudate duly fixed.

8. TUBERCULOSIS : (1) Cough material in sterile container from live animal, (2) Sample
of milk in sterile, container (3) Suspected lesions in 10% Formal-Saline (dead animal), (4)
Smears from lesions fixed by heat and (5) Lymph glands or lung lesions in sterile
container for isolation in 50%buffered glycerine.
9. LEPTOSPIROSIS : (1) Blood, serum (2) Pieces of liver and kidney in 10% formalin (in
dead animals) and (3) Milk or urine in vials by adding 1 drop of formalin per 20ml.
10. SALMONELLA SP. : Intestinal swab, heart blood, bile in sterile container on ice.
11. ACTINOMYCOSIS & ACTINOBACILLOSIS : (1) Smears from pus lesions, pus in
vial on ice (2) Formalin preserved materials from lesions (affected muscle).
12. LISTERIOSIS: (1) Aborted foetus, brain, placenta (2) All internal organs in 10%
formalin/on ice.
13. MYCOPLASMOSIS/CCPP/CBPP/CORYZA: (1) Swab from lesions, nasal and vaginal
swabs in PBS on ice. (2) Piece of lung preserved in 10% formalin for histopathological
examination and on ice separately. Paired serum.
14. CHLAMYDIA/PSITTACOSIS: (1) Nasal swab, lung pieces in sterile container on ice
and internal organs in 10% formalin, (2) Fixed impression smears from liver, lung and
foetus, (3) Paired sera.
15. MYCOTIC INFECTIONS: Deep skin scrap in sterile vials.
16. SKIN DISEASES (RINGWORM, MANAGE, MITES : Skin scrapings for
identification of ectoparasites and fungus in vials.
MATERIAL TO BE COLLECTED FOR VIRAL DISEASES
1. RINDERPEST/RINDERPEST
ALLIED
DISEASE/PPR/BOVINE
VIRUS
DIARRHOEA: (1) From live animals: About 10ml or more blood at the height of
body temp, in anticoagulant, rectal swab in PBS on ice. (2) From dead animals:
Prescapular lymph nodes, spleen, (20-30g) on ice and (3) lung, liver, spleen, tonsil
etc. 10% formalin. Materials 20g from 5 to 6 or more animals be collected and
despatched for better picture of disease/ outbreak. Eye, mouth and rectal swab in
PBS on ice. Pieces of intestine on ice for PPR.
2. FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE: Vesicular fluid from unruptured oral vesicles
and curetted epithelium from fresh lesions oesopharyngeal fluid in 50% Phosphate
Buffered Glycerine preferably on ice. About 10ml blood at height of body temp. In
EDTA/Heparin, Heart pieces on ice. At least 5 or more animals be investigated and

material collected. Pieces of heart in calves 10% formalin and ice separately.
3. RABIES: Half portion of brain; salivary gland in 50% Phosphate Buffered
Glycerine or Glycerine Saline in water tight hard box and the rest halt portion of
brain in 10% formalin. Alternatively small pieces from Hippocampus and Brain
(Cerebellum, medulla cerebrum, spinal cord) in 50% Buffered Glyerine and 10%
formalin separately duly sealed in bottles and packed in thick polybags and hard
box Labelled Suspected for Rabies:. Where available fresh smears from brain
may be stained with Sellers stain.
4. POX (SHEEP, COW AND BUFFALO): Scab in sterile container on ice, scab in
50% Buffered Glycerine. Skin lesions in 10% formalin, separately.
5. BOVINE HERPES VIRUS 1,2,3/IBR/IPV, BOVINE MAMMILTIS/
PARAINFLUENZA 3/ ADENO VIRUS ETC. Paired serum (sterile) on ice
(IBR/IPV,Bovine Manilitis), Swabs from vaginal and nasal lesions and pieces of
trachea, lung in transport medium on ice., and Smears and pieces of trachea, liver,
turbinate
bone,
lung
in
Bouins
fixative/10%
formalin.
6. SWINE FEVER: Heparinised 20ml blood in sterile vials or test tube on ice form
live animal, Heart blood, pieces of spleen, lymph node, pancreas (10 to 15g each) in
50% Buffered Glyerine Saline, pieces of brain, lung, intestines, ileocaeacal region
and kidney in 10% formalin from dead animal. Material from 5 to 6 or more
animals be collected in order to give diagnosis/true picture of disease. Materials for
isolation and serological tests may be collected in sterile vial on ice without glyerine.
7. BLUETONGUE DISEASE/AFRICAN HORSE SICKNESS/ARBO VERUSES:
Blood at the height of body temperature, in heparin (5-10 units/ml) or EDTA, paired
sera in sterile container on ice. About 10ml blood and 2ml may be collected on ice.
Dead animals-Spleen, lymph nodes (5-6g) on ice Spleen, lymph nodes, intestine,
internal etc. 10% formalin.
8. CAPRINE ARTHRITIS/ENCEPHALITIS/MAEDI/VISNA DISEASE: Paired
serum, joint capsule, lung, brain on ice and 10% formalin.
9. CANINE DISTEMPER: Pieces of lung, urinary bladder, liver, trachea, stomach
wall and brain in 10% formal-Saline, Impression smears from liver, Piece of liver &
spleen in ice.
10. EQUINE INFLUENZA Nasal swab in PBS or Hanks on ice, paired serum.
11. EQUINE INFECTIOUS ANAEMIA (E.I.A): Paired serum, all internal organs in

10%

formalin.

12. INFECTIOUS CANINE HEPATITIS: Liver, gall bladder and kidney in 10%
formalin-Salina. Impression smears from liver fixed in methanol. Spleen and liver in
sterile
containers
on
ice.
13. CANINE PARVOVIRUS: Rectal swab in PBS, pieces of intestines, heart on ice,
all internal organs in 10% formalin.
14. RANIKHET DISEASE: Freshly dead/moribund bird on ice. Portion of liver,
spleen, trachea, bronchi, lung in 50% Buffered Glycerine cerol-Saline in ice and
Proventriculus
in
10%
Formal-Saline.
15. MAREKS DISEASE: Live bird in acute stage of disease Feather follicles from
chest and neck in transport medium Paired serum and Portion of peripheral nerve,
trachea, ovary, liver, kidney, spleen and skin in 10% formalin for histopathology.
16. INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE (GUMBORO DISEASE): Live affected
chick/bird, Bursa of fabricious, kidney, spleen in 10% formalin for histopathology.
17. INFECTIOUS BRONCHITIS/OTHER RESPIRATORY DISEASES: Swab from
exudates, lung Paired sera. (For diagnosis of poultry diseases, it is desired that a few
ailing/moribund/dead birds may be sent for collection of suitable material at the
laboratory)
MATERIAL TO BE COLLECTED FOR PARASITIC DISEASES
1. THEILERIOSIS: Biopsy smears from swollen lymph nodes from early stage of disease
fixed with Methonol. Blood smears fixed in Methanol or alcohol. 2-3 blood smears from
each case.
2. BABESIOSIS: Thin blood smears from early stage of disease fixed with Methanol 2-3
blood smears.
3. ANAPLASMOSIS: Thin blood smears from ear vein fixed with methanol. 2-3 blood
smears.
4. SURRA/TRYPANOSOMIASIS: Blood in anticoagulant on ice, Blood smears fixed.
5. GASTRO-INTESTINAL PARASITIC DISEASES: Faecal sample in 10% formalin IN

dead animals, parasites (round worms in 70% formalin) for identification. All internal
organs in 10% formalin
MATERIAL TO BE COLLECTED FOR TOXICOSES/ POISONINGS
1. AFLATOXICOSIS: Suspected feed (specially groundnut cake) about 100gm. Each,
Piece of liver (50g), spleen in 10% Forma saline and on ice separately.
2. POISONING CASES: Stomach and intestinal contents 100gms. On ice, Left over fodder
100gm and about 100gm liver pieces in alcohol on ice.
3. FORAGE POISONINGS: Sample of grass/fodder, plants, liver and stomach contents on
ice
SAMPLE SUBMISSION
Laboratories usually supply a variety of sample containers and transport media.
The laboratory should supply sample submission forms. These forms must be completed
by the veterinary practitioner and must give specific details of the tests required as well as
clinical history, differential diagnoses, vaccination history, therapy, age of animal, etc. The
latter will enable the microbiologist to choose the most appropriate tests and to avoid
unnecessary expenditure. A complete history will also allow the laboratory to identify a
particularly urgent situation and expedite the processing of the sample. In certain
instances owners may be concerned that information in relation to their animals is kept
confidential. In such circumstances the clinician can assign a code name or number to the
animal and the owner but should never omit clinical detail that will facilitate the selection
of the appropriate tests and the interpretation of the results. The laboratory must be
notified if the differential diagnosis includes a fungal infection or any agent that is
potentially infectious for people.
Many laboratories only set up certain tests on particular days or at a designated
time each day. Clinicians need to familiarize themselves with the laboratory timetable in
order for them to provide an efficient service to their own clients. An awareness of the
time it takes to perform certain assays is essential. Some assays may take weeks to
complete. Where certification is required, samples should be submitted in good time and
allowance should be made for repeat testing and/or the collection of a second sample if
necessary.
The clinician should contact the laboratory in advance if they are not a regular
client or if the tests required are not routine. It is essential to give the laboratory adequate
time to prepare for the receipt of a sample which requires specialist testing. It is

inadvisable, for example, to submit a sample that needs to be passaged on a cell line that
the laboratory does not use on a regular basis without prior discussion. In such
circumstances the sample may have to be stored for days if not weeks, while cells are
resuscitated from the freezer. In certain cases it may be necessary to forward the sample to
a specialist laboratory. If samples are being submitted to a laboratory in another country
an import licence may be required.
Samples should be collected and delivered to the laboratory as early in the day as
possible so that processing can commence on the same day. If a result is required urgently
this must be indicated on the request form and the head of the laboratory should be
notified in advance of the arrival of the sample. Prompt delivery to the laboratory will
maximize the possibility of obtaining a diagnosis. Viruses only replicate in living cells and
a delay in sample submission may result in loss of viability. The transit time needs to be
minimized. Samples should be transported in contact with cold packs or wet ice. If
transportation to the laboratory is delayed, most samples should be held in the
refrigerator at +4C rather than frozen. Serum harvested from clotted blood samples can
be stored frozen for extended periods.
The labelling of samples must be clear and unambiguous. Samples must be
submitted individually in separate leak-proof containers that are clearly marked,
indicating the identity of the sample (tissue, exudate, etc.), animal identification and the
date of collection. Container caps should be screwed on tightly and taped, if necessary, to
avoid leakage. All samples sent in the post must be labelled and packed in accordance with
the regulations of the postal authorities. Glass tubes and other fragile containers must be
adequately packaged to ensure they are not broken in the mail. Samples must always be
surrounded by sufficient absorbent material to soak up the entire sample in the case of
breakage or leakage. In general, triple packaging of diagnostic samples is required. The
secondary or outer packaging must be a rigid container. The package should be clearly
labelled with the words biological substances.
CHAPTER 3
STAINING PROCEDURE

1) LEISHMANS STAIN
This stain may be purchased ready for use or made by dissolving 0.15 g of
Leishmans Powder in 100ml of pure methyl alcohol. The powder is ground in a morter
with a little methyl alcohol, the residue in the morter is treated with more methyl alcohol,
and the process is repeated until all the stain goes into solution. The remaining methyl
alcohol is now added. The stain can be used within an hour or two of making. The stain
consists of methylene blue and eosin. Leishmans stain is suitable for staining blood
smears.

Staining procedure
1. Prepare the smear and dry in air
2. Cover the smear with the undiluted stain and allow to act for one min(usually 1
2 minutes, 3 minutes as per WHO). ( The methyl alcohol in the stain will fix the
film)
3. Add twice the volume of distilled water to the stain on the slide with the aid of a
pipette and mix well and allow staining for 10-12 min. ( The PH of the distilled
water should be neutral. Phosphate buffer ( pH 7.0 ) may be used instead of
distilled water
4. Gently flood the slides with distilled water or buffer and allow the smear
( Usually about 30 sec)
5. Wash thoroughly in running tap water. The stained smear should grossly appear
neither too pink nor too blue, blot off excess water and dry. If the tap water is
highly acidic, resulting in smear turning grossly pink too fast or highly alkaline,
resulting in the smear remaining too blue, try using boiled cooled water or
filtered rain water or pH 6.8 buffered water which can be used as an additional
flooding step after washing in running water.
6. Examine under oil immersion objective of the microscope.

2) GRAMS STAIN
This is most useful and frequently employed stain. Bacteria stained by Grams method, fall in to
Gram Positive and Gram negative groups.

STAINING PROCEDURE.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Prepare bacterial smears and fix over the flame.


Pour ammonium oxalate crystal Violet stain and allow to act for 1 min.
Wash with tap water.
Add Lugols iodine and allow to act for 1min
Wash with tap water, blot and dry.
Decolourize in 95% ethyl alcohol for about 30 sec gently agitating the slide till no
color comes out from the smear or with a few drops of acetone for 2-3 sec. Blot
dry.
7. Counter stain for about 10 20 sec with safranin solutuion or for about min
with Carbol fuchin.
Wash with water, blot dry and examine under the oil immersion objective.
INTERPRETATION;
Gram Positive organism

: Violet

Gram negative organism : Red or Pink.

3.GIEMSA STAIN ;
Thin blood films (only) :
1. Fix air-dried film in absolute methanol by dipping the film briefly (two dips) in a Coplin
jar containing absolute methanol.
2. Remove and let air dry.
3. Stain with diluted Giemsa stain (1:20, vol/vol) for 20 min.
For a 1:20 dilution, add 2 ml of stock Giemsa to 40 ml of buffered water in a Coplin jar.
4. Wash by briefly dipping the slide in and out of a Coplin jar of buffered water (one or
two dips). Note: Excessive washing will decolorize the film.
Thick blood films :
1. Allow film to air dry thoroughly for several hours or overnight. Do not dry films in an
incubator or by heat, because this will fix the blood and interfere with the lysing of the
RBCs.
2. DO NOT FIX.
3. Stain with diluted Giemsa stain (1:50, vol/vol) for 50 min. For a 1:50 dilution, add 1
ml of stock Giemsa to 50 ml of buffered water in a Coplin jar.
4. Wash by placing film in buffered water for 3 to 5 min.
5. Let air dry in a vertical position.

4. ZEIHL NEELSENS ACID FAST STAINING


Species belong to the genus Mycobacterium do not readily stained by simple
staining procedures. Their staining is facilitated by heat. Once stained they retain the
color of the dye even when treated with a suitable decolourizer. These organisms are
designated as Acid Fast. The organisms which are decolourized, and take the counter
stain are Non Acid Fast
REAGENTS :
1. Concentrated Carbol fuchin solution
2. Acid alcohol ( Decolourizer)
a. Ethyl alcohol (95%) : 97ml
b. Conc. Hcl
: 3 ml
3. Loefflers alkaline methylene blue.
STAINING PROCEDURE :
1. The organism is not necessarily destroyed by ordinary heat fixation. Hence,
Prepare dry and fix the smear in methanol in a safety cabinet, allow to dry and
then remove from the cabinet and refix with heat.
2. Flood the slide with carbol fuchsin solution and heat ( dont boil ) at intervals
until steam rises. Allow the stain to act for 5 min.

3. Wash well with water.


4. Decolorize with acid alcohol until the preparation is faint pink or colourless
( about 15 20 sec)
5. Wash well with water
6. Counter stain with Loefflers methylene blue solution for 30sec to 1 min.
7. Wash with water, blot carefully and dry.
8. Examine under oil immersion objective.
INTERPRETATION
Acid fast organisms

: Red

Non Acid fast organisms : Blue

5.CLAUDIUSS STAINING FOR CLOSTRIDIAL ORGANISMS


REAGENTS

1. 1 % Aqueous methyl violet or Crystal Violet solution.


2. Picric acid solution-Saturated. (To be half saturated with water while use.)
3. Acetone
STAINING PROCEDURE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Fix the smear in heat.


Stain with 1 aqueous methyl violet or Crystal Violet.
Wash in water.
Flood the slide with half-saturated aqueous solution of Picric acid for 1-2 min.
Drain off the Picric acid solution and decolourize with acetone until no violet
colour comes out.
6. Dry and examine under oil immersion objective.

6.SPORE STAIN
Under certain unfavourable circumstances spore forming bacteria (e.g. Bacillus,
Clostridium), develop into spores, which are refractile bodies resistant to various
physical and chemical agents. Shape, size and position of the spore in the bacterial cell are
useful for the identification of sporulated organisms.
REAGENTS
1. Conc. Carbol fuchsin
2. Sulfuric acid 0.5%
3. Loeffles alkaline methylene blue.

STAINING PROCEDURE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Make smear and fix over flame


Stain with carbol fuchsin and steam for 3-4 min
Wash with tab water
Decolourize with 0.5% Sulphuric acid
Wash with waterounter stain with Loefflers methylene blue for 2 min

INTERPRETATION
The spore will stain red and the vegetative cells will stain blue.

CHAPTER 4
RESULTS
INTERPRETATION OF DIAGNOSTIC RESULTS
There must be full co-operation between the laboratory and the veterinary practice
for the benefit of the patient and owner. It is the responsibility of the clinician to collect
and submit the appropriate samples accompanied by specific requests or adequate history.
It is the responsibility of the microbiologist to interpret the results in relation to the
information supplied. The quality of the diagnostic activity undertaken by the laboratory
depends to a large degree on the clinical and epidemiological information supplied by the
veterinary clinician.
The following points are pertinent when interpreting reports from a diagnostic
microbiology laboratory:
A negative diagnostic report does not necessarily mean that the suspected
microorganism is not the aetiological agent of the condition. There may be many reasons
for the failure of the laboratory to isolate and identify the pathogen, such as a bacterium
being overgrown by contaminants, a virus or other fragile microorganism having died on
the way to the laboratory or the animal may have stopped excreting the microorganisms
before the sample was taken. Unexpected negative results should be discussed with the
head of the laboratory who may decide to perform additional tests for the detection of the
suspect agent. They may also be able to advice on the collection of alternative samples or
suggest other possible causal agents.

It must not always be assumed that the detection of a virus or bacteria establishes
a diagnosis. The laboratory result must be interpreted in light of the clinical signs, history
of vaccination, etc. If the sample is collected from a site normally colonized with bacteria,
including species that have the potential to cause disease in certain circumstances, the
culture results need to be interpreted cautiously. Some latent viruses may reactivate and
bacteria proliferate in response to a condition which they have not caused. Apparently
healthy animals can be subclinical shedders of microorganisms such as salmonellae,
rotaviruses, enteroviruses or coronaviruses in faeces and leptospires in urine. Even if these
potential pathogens are isolated and identified, the illness or death might have been due to
another cause.
The clinician should always discuss unexpected results with the laboratory. This
may assist the head of the laboratory in the early detection of a problem with a particular
technique. The microbiologist must be prepared at all times to act on information received
and to critically appraise the procedures in the laboratory.
It is important that the difficulties associated with some types of samples and the
limitations of certain assays are flagged to the clinician. This will help to promote
intelligent utilization of the laboratory and to avoid unrealistic expectations.
Bacteria such as members of the Enterobacteriaceae are ubiquitous. Isolation of
microorganisms may represent contamination of the sample by faeces or soil or their
presence could be due to post-mortem invasion.
Some bacteria such as salmonellae, leptospires or Mycobacterium avium subsp.
paratuberculosis may be shed intermittently. A repeat sample following a negative
examination report might be worthwhile.
Escherichia coli in diarrhoeal faecal samples from farm animals is usually only
significant if the animal is under 10 days of age and if the E. coli isolate possesses the K88,
K99, F41 or 987P fimbrial antigens, associated with enteropathogenicity. Pigs are the
exception as they are also susceptible to colibacillosis soon after weaning and to oedema
disease in the growing period.
Diagnosis of a mycotic disease thought to be due to a ubiquitous fungus such as
Aspergillus fumigates should always be confirmed histopathologically. It is necessary to
demonstrate the fungal hyphae actually invading the tissue and causing a tissue reaction.
Herd or flock vaccination programmes will modify the interpretation of serological
tests. Serological diagnosis of recent viral exposure usually requires the comparison of two
samples collected approximately two weeks apart.

Conflicting results may reflect the sensitivity of different assays. Thus a sample
that is negative by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by isolation may be
positive by PCR.

CHAPTER 5
ANALYSIS OF MILK SAMPLES :
A)Detection of Mastitis :
1. Bromothymol blue test: The reaction of milk is detected by this test. In this test, 1 ml
of 0.2% bromothymol blue solution is taken and to this 5 ml of freshly collected milk
sample is added. If sample is alkaline due to mastitis, it becomes blue to green.
However, the test may give false positive reaction in later stage of lactation.
2. Chloride test: The presence of more than 0.14% chloride content in milk is
considered abnormal. For this test, take 5 ml of 0.1341% silver nitrate solution in a
test tube and add 2 drops of 10% potassium dichromate solution as indicator. To
this add 1 ml of milk sample and mix it properly. If the chloride is less than 0.14%
then it will remain brownish red while in positive case it will become yellow
indicating more than 0.14% chloride content in milk. However, this test may give
false positive reaction during early and late lactation.
3. White slide test: In this test, 4-5 drops of test milk sample are placed on a clean dry
glass slide. To this add a drop of 4% sodium hydroxide and mix with a glass rod. If
the milk is from animal having mastitis, it becomes thickened and flakes.
4. California mastitis test: This test is based on increased number of leukocytes and
increased alkalinity in milk due to mastitis. Take 0.5 ml milk from each quarter in
plastic peddle cups and add equal quantity of mastoid solution and mix well by
circular movement of peddle on a horizontal plane.
The results are read as follows:
a. Liquid milk with no streaks or precipitation: Negative for mastitis.
b. Streaky fluid: + (weak positive cell count 500,000/ml).
c. Slimy:
++
d. Gelatinous:
+++
This is an indirect measurement of cell count.

B)Brucella Abortus Milk Ring Test (MRT) Antigen


(Abortus bang ring (ABR) Antigen )
Description
This antigen is a coloured suspension of Brucella abortus standardized to FAO/WHO
specifications.
Indication
This antigen is used for testing pooled bovine milk samples or individual milk samples from sheep
& goats for the detection of Brucellosis.
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE TEST
1.
2.
3.
4.

Abortus Bang Ring (ABR) Antigen.


Test tube Rack.
2 ml pipette, 1 ml pipette, clean test tubes with internal diameter of 10 mm
10ml of pooled milk from 2 to 5 cows. Id the milk samples is to be transported to a laboratory at a
distance, add 2 drops of 1:12 dilution of formalin or a few drops of 1 % boric acid to each samples
of 10 ml mixed milk. Such preserved milk can be held cool ( not frozen ) for 1 or 2 days before
testing.

TEST PROCEDURE
1. Measure out 2 ml of milk in a test tube.
2. Add 2 drops of antigen using 1 ml pipette.
3. Shake the mixture by rotating between palms taking care not to shake so vigorously as to cause it
to froth. Mixing should be done within 1 min after addition of antigen. The appearance of pink
colour in the top layer of the milk column after allowing to stand for a few min indicates that
mixing has been incomplete. In such a case, mix again thoroughly.
4. Incubate at 37 c for 1 hr
5. After incubation allow the tubes to stand for about 90 min at room temperature. There is no shift
in reaction even when the tubes are left standing several hrs.
6. Interpretation
7.
An intensely cherry coloured ring at the cream layer and absence of
colour in the milk below the cream layer

+++

Incomplete discoloration of milk column and ring formation at the top

++

Ring formation but no discoloration milk

White ring of cream and no coloration of milk

Negative

PRESENTATION
The antigen is available in a minimum packing at 20 ml
TRANSPORTATION
Either by post or through messenger.

STORAGE & KEEPING QUALITY


The antigen should be stored at 2-5 C. At this temperature, it keeps well for 9 months

C)Test for presence of Ketone Bodies in Milk


Reagent required :
Ammonium sulphate
100gm
Sodium Carbonate Anhydrous
50g
Sodium Nitro-prusside
3gm
*Mix it and preserve in Brown coloured wide mouth bottle.
Test :
Place 2 or 3 pinch of reagent powder in a test tube
Add 2 to 3ml of Milk carefully
Milk must run the side of the test tube
Do not shake the tube
Keep it for few minutes
If the milk is changed into permanganate colour, the animal is positive for
Ketosis

CHAPTER 6
DIAGNOSIS OF POISONINGS IN ANIMALS
The veterinarians should collect the proper samples from the suspected cases of
toxicosis and forward them to the appropriate laboratory for confirmation and diagnosis
after proper labelling. The veterinarian may also carry out certain simple tests at his own
level in order to provide a rapid diagnosis and initiate the treatment. For this purpose,
some of the simple diagnostic tests are described here, so that these can be performed in a
clinical pathology laboratory or disease investigation laboratory with minimal facilities.

CYANIDE POISONING

1.
a. Take 1 ml supernatant of centrifuged gastrointestinal contents in a test tube. Add
2 ml of 10% sodium hydroxide solution.
b. Add 2 ml of 10% ferrous sulfate solution (freshly prepared in distilled water).
c. Add 10% hydrochloric acid in sufficient quantity, which can dissolve the
precipitate formed in the mixture due to ferrous oxide formation. Blue colour will develop
due to formation of ferriferrocyanide complex (Prussian blue) in the test tube if cyanide is
present in the sample of gastrointestinal contents.
2.
a. In a flask, take 5.0 gm sodium carbonate and 0.5 gm picric acid; dissolve in 100
ml distilled water. The filter paper strips (1 cm wide x 5 cm long) are wet in the solution
and dried in air.
b. Take about 5.0 gm of moist plant or rumen content and grind into small pieces
and keep in test tube. Add few drops of chloroform.
c. The strip is placed at the mouth of test tube, 2/3 part of which should be in test
tube. Apply stop cork on the test tube. Incubate for 24 hours at 37C or keep in a warm
place.
d. In cyanide positive cases, the filter paper strip becomes reddish brown in colour.
NITRATE POISONING
FOR PLANTS
1.
a. In a 100 ml volumetric flask, take 20 ml distilled water and dissolve 0.5 gm
diphenylamine. Add sufficient quantity of sulfuric acid to make it 100 ml. Store the
solution in a dark coloured bottle.
b. For testing of nitrate in plants, put one drop of above solution on the cut surface
of plant; in positive cases, the cut surface of plant will become green or blue in colour.
FOR FEED AND FODDER
2.
a. It is applied on prepared and grinded fodder and feed. In this test, take about 5
gm ground feed and mix it with 5-10 ml distilled water in a beaker, mix well and keep for
15-30 minute.
b. Centrifuge the contents and take out 2.0 ml supernatant in a test tube and add 2
ml of 0.3% sulfanilic acid prepared in 20% glacial acetic acid, mix well.
c. Add 2 ml of 0.15% alphanaphthylamine hydrochloride in 20% glacial acetic acid.
Development of a pink to red colour is an indication of the presence of nitrate in the
sample.
FOR STOMACH, INTESTINAL CONTENTS AND URINE
3.
a. This type of test can be applied to stomach or intestinal contents and in
urine.

b. In a test tube take 0.1 ml of the clear stomach contents after centrifugation or
urine.
c. Add 0.1 ml sulfanilic acid reagent and mix well.
d. Add 0.1 ml imipramine solution and 0.2 ml concentrated sulfuric acid and mix
thoroughly.
e. Development of a blue colour confirms the presence of nitrate in the sample.
NITRITE POISONING
1. Take 1 ml clear stomach contents or urine in a test tube and add 0.1 ml imipramine
solution. Mix well.
2. Add 0.2 ml hydrochloric acid.
3. The development of a blue colour in the tube is indicative of nitrite in the sample.
OXALATE POISONING
1. In a test tube, take 1 ml clear stomach contents or urine and add 0.2 ml concentrated
ammonium hydroxide and heat it on flame of a burner or spirit lamp to evaporate the
solution.
2. Add 40 mg thiobarbituric acid crystals and gently reheat on burner or spirit lamp.
3. Formation of an orange red colour, which is soluble in ethanol is indicative of
oxalates in the samples.
STRYCHNINE POISONING
1. Strychnine can be detected in stomach contents, intestinal contents, serum and urine.
2. In a clean and dry petridish, take 1-2 ml clear stomach contents or urine and serum.
Add equal quantity of concentrated sulphuric acid and mix well with the glass rod.
3. Add few crystals of potassium dichromate in the contents of petridish. Mix the contents.
4. Examine the plate for change of colour for 5-10 minute. A change in colour from yellow
orange to greenish blue is indicative of the presence of strychnine.
ARSENIC POISONING
1. Take 1 ml of the stomach content fluid in a test tube. Add small crystal of zinc and 2-3
ml hydrochloric acid and 0.5 ml iodine (Lugols iodine).
2. Place an absorbent cotton plug and put a filter paper strip wet in silver nitrate solution.
(Note: In place of silver nitrate strip, one can also use filter paper strip impregnated in
mercuric chloride.)
3. If arsenic is present in the sample, the filter paper becomes yellow which may turn
black if water is applied on it.
LEAD POISONING

1. Collect about 1.0 ml of scrapings of mucosal surface of the stomach (abomasum in


ruminants).
2. Mix 1 ml of concentrated nitric acid and heat gently or air dry till it becomes dry.
3. Add about 0.5 ml water and 0.1 ml of 10% potassium iodide in the test tube. In case
lead is present in the sample, it may give yellow colour in the test tube.
THALIUM POISONING
1. Take one ml urine in a test tube and add 1 ml of 10% potassium iodide in a
petridish. Mix them properly.
2. A yellow precipitate will appear in the tube.
3. Add 1 ml of 2% sodium thiosulfate in the test tube, if the yellow precipitate do not dissolve in it, it
confirms the presence of thalium in the sample.
ERGOT POISONING
Take 1 ml clear supernatant of centrifuged stomach contents and add 1 ml of sulfuric acid and 0.1 ml of
ferric chloride solution. It becomes orange red to deep red in colour with margin deep blue to greenish
blue in colour, if the sample is positive for ergot poisoning.
CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING
1. Take 15 ml distilled water in a small beaker and add 2-3 drops of freshly collected blood; the colour of
water becomes faint pink.
2. Add few drops 20% sodium hydroxide and mix well.
3. Observe the colour
a. Pink colour persists for 30 secondMore than 20% carboxyhemoglobin.
b. Pink colour changes to strain yellow colour Less than 20% carboxyhemoglobin.
PHENOTHIAZINE POISONING
1. Take 2 ml urine and add 6 drops of sulphuric acid and 2 drops of 10% ferric chloride.
2. Light pink to purple colour is indicative of phenothiazine compound in the sample.

Simple Field Tests To Detect Poisoning


1. Test for Ketone Bodies
Reagent required
Ammonium sulphate
100gm
Sodium Carbonate Anhydrous
50g
Sodium Nitro-prusside
3gm
*Mix it and preserve in Brown coloured wide mouth bottle.
Test for presence of Ketone Bodies in Urine
Take a pinch of a reagent powder and place it in a slide
Add 2 or 3 drops urine over it
Wait for minute
If it changes into permanganate colour, it is positive for Ketone.

2. To Detect Strychnine Poisoning


To 3ml of filtered stomach contents in a test tube, add carefully 5ml of
concentrated sulphuric acid.
For a check test, to 3ml of distilled water in another test tube add carefully
5ml concentrated sulphuric acid.
To each tube drop a few crystals of potassium dichromate and thump gently.
Hold the tubes up in front of a light. Falling coloured streamers of blue, violet,
red, and orange from the falling crystals indicates Strychnine.
3. Field Test to Detect Insecticide Poisoning
Useful when animals die due to suspected poisoning from insecticide.
Procedure
Smear stomach or rumen contents on the inside of top half of a jar and allow
to dry somewhat.
Trap flies in the jar.
Cover the jar opening with cloth.
If positive, flies should exhibit toxic symptoms on the jars bottom within 2
hours, and finally die .
Other insects will also serve in lieu of flies for the test.

CHAPTER 7
VETERO LEGAL CASES
VETERINARY FORENSIC MEDICINE AND SPECIMEN COLLECTION
AN OVERVIEW
Veterinary Forensic Medicine is one of the rapidly developing branches of Veterinary Science. It
has become the attention gaining subject now-a-days as it deals with the application of veterinary
knowledge to aid in the administration of justice.
Vetero-legal medicine, verinary Forensic medicine and Veterinary Jurisprodence are synonymously
used. Veterolegal medicine insolves, as the name implies, the veterinary expertise with law matters. In
verolegal cases a veterinarian is called an expert witness and he/she must have adequate knowledge on
veterinary subjects and legal procedures and animal related acts. Vetero legal medicine involves
postmortem examination, using health, wound or soundless, protecting animal rights, investigation of
offences against animals, poisonings and fraudulence of animals or animal products.

Vetero legal specimen collection for the laborotory investigation of animal diseases or poisoning is
the essential step. Specimens may be collected from live animals, dead animals or from environment for
the variety of purposes. These specimens should in correct quantity and quality to provide valid results.
After sampling, they are carefully packed, labelled and transported to laboratory as quickly as possible
with adequate requirements.
The main part of veterolegal medicine is postmortem examination.
CONSIDERATION FOR POSTMORTEM EXAMINATION IN LEGAL CASES
. A vetero legal postmortem examination should be done by written order from the Police officer
or the Executive Magistrate (RDO is subdivisional executive magistrate-I and Thasildar is
subdivisional executive magistrate-II).
. Refer examination, carefully read police report (Ask for History of the Case or FIR xerox).
.l The examination should be done in day light (Official court permitted timing : 10.00 am to 5.00
pm)
. No unauthorised person should be allowed to be pressent at the time of postmortem examination.
The investigating polce officer may however be present.
SPECIMEN COLLECTION
The starting point of laboratory investigation of an animal disease or vetero legal case is the specimen
collection. Samples may be taken from live or dead animals or from environment. The purpose of sample
collection is to diagnose a disease, or for disease survillance, or for detecting the poisoning, if any, or for health
certifying or to monitor the response to vaccination or treatment. Equally the packaging, labelling and transport
of sample is also important.
COLLECTION, PACKING AND DELIVERY OF SAMPLES FOR TOXICOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
.

Organic materials / viscera to be collected depend upon the nature of toxic chemical suspected. In the
absence of this knowledge, specimens such as stomach and rumen with its contents, small intestinal loop with
its contents, liver bit, kndney bit, brain bit, blood, urine, vomits (if present) may be particularly useful for
toxicological analysis.

Minimal suitable quantity:


Liver

500 gms

Kidney

One half

Brain

500 gms

Fat (If needed)

200 gms

Hair

5 to 10 g

Intestinal Content

580 gms

Stomach Content

750 gms in ruminants and


available contents in
small animals

Whole Blood

30 ml

Serum

15 mL

Urine

50 ml

Faeces

10 gm or Faecal swabs

Collect each isceral specimen in a separate wide mouthed glass bottle/plastic bottle liver and kidney may be
combinedly collected in a single bottle.

Add preservative (Rectified spirit (or) saturated Sodium chloride (common salt) solution and tightly closed
it.

Label the container as follows. (Refer appendix I)

Pack all these bottles in a box (card board box preferrably)

Seal the viscera box with red sealing wax and paste a label on the top of box also.

Hand over te viscera box to the concerned Head Constable who came for P.M. with a letter of request, copy
of the label and Form No.66 (refer appendix II)

Submit the Samples to Regional Forensic Lab, Animal Toxicology Division Situated in Salem / Tanjore.

PRESERVATIVES USED
I. Visceral Samples

Saturated Sodium chloride for toxicological analysis Solution or rectified


spirit

II. Blood

Sodium fluoride 20gms/ml, EDTA or Citrate.

III.Faeces

Not needed

IV.Urine

Thymol in all cases. But in suspected alcohol poisoning, Phenyl mercuric


nitrate is used.

V. Milk

Preservative not needed, sent in cold storage condition.

Vi.Feed, samples from environment, water swabs from feeders and ventilation duct. - Prervative not needed.

SUSPECTED POISONS - POSSIBLE SOURCES AND SPECIMENS REQUIRED


S.
No.
1.

SUSPECTED
POISION
Arsenic

POSSIBLE SOURCES
Weed killers, Rat poisons, Fly
papers, Wall papers, Sheep-dip,
Artifical Flowers, As mordant in
dyeing

SPECIMENS REQUIRED
Acute poisoning cases :
Stomach, Intestine, Liver, Kidney, Blood,
Urine and feed.
Chromic poisoning casess :
Stomach, Intestine, Liver, Kidney, Blood,
Urine, Feed, Hair and Bone.

2.

Antimony

Medicaments

Stomach, Intestine, Liver, Kidney, Thyroid,


Urine and Milk.

3.

Alkaloids

Toxic Plants

Stomach, Intestine, Liver, Kidney, Blood,


Bone and Urine.

4.

Ammonia

Urea

Stomach, Intestine, Liver, Kidney, Blood,


Bone, Urine and Feed.

Parasiticidal preparation

Stomach, Intestine, Liver, Kidney, Blood.

(Urea Poisoning)
5.

Copper

Agricultural fungicides
6.

Cyanide

Feed (Sorghum)

Stomach, Intestine, Liver, Kidney, Blood,


Feed and Muscles.

(HCN)
7.

Organo Chloride

Insecticides and repellents

Stomach, Intestine, Liver, Kidney, Blood,


Brain and Fat.

Insecticides and repellents

Stomach, Intestine, Liver, Kidney, Blood,


Brain and Fat.

Paints, Used batteries

Acute poisoning cases :

Substances
8.

Organophoshorus
Components

9.

Lead

Stomach, Intestine, Liver, Kidney, Blood,


Urine.
Chromic poisoning casess :
Stomach, Intestine, Liver, Kidney, Blood,
Urine, Hair and Bone.
10.

Mercury

11.

Nitrates

Industrial Wastes of Fungicides

Stomach, Intestine, Liver, Kidney, Blood.


Stomach, Intestine, Liver, Kidney, Blood.

(Quick Transport is
required as they
disintegrate rapidly)
12.

Phosphorus

Insecticides, Smoke screens and Fire


works

Stomach, Intestine, Liver, Kidney, Blood.

13.

Oxalates

Spinach plant, more intake of


cabbage, stain removers

Stomach, Intestine, Liver, Kidney, Blood.

14.

Rat Poisons

Rodenticides

Stomach, Intestine, Liver, Kidney, Blood


and Urine.

IMPORTANT CERTIFICATES FOR VETERINARIANS IN VETEROLEGAL CASES


1. WOUND CERTIFICATE
Serial No .

Date

Dr.Veterinary Hosp.
Time of Exam..Place of Exam
This is to certify that at the request of (1) ..........


Vide his/ their letter/reference No..date
I have on this the day of.examined
..Having the following identification marks.........
(kind of animal)
.
.
belonging to (Name and address of the owner of the animal)
..
The said animal has got the following injuries on its body.
..
..
Opinion as to the cause of injuries..

Nature of injuries (Grievous or Simple)


Age of injuries (Approx. nearest time)
Signature
Name.
Place..

Designation..

Date.. .

V.C.reg. No.

2. CERTIFICATE OF SOUNDNESS
No.
Date:
I have this day examined at the request of Shri -----------------------------------------------------------------------------S/o ------------------------------------------------------------Address-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Kind of Animal-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Breed of Animal---------------------------------------------------------------------------------Age-----------------------------------------Colour---------------------------Height------------Identification Marks-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Lactation-------------------------------------Bands---------------------------------------------In my opinion the above animal is ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Signature & Designation of issuing officer
Registration No

3. PROFORMA FOR CERTIFICATE OF FITNESS TO TRAVEL CATTLE


(This certificate should be completed and signed by a qualified veterinary surgeon )
Date and time of examination----------------------------------------------------Species of cattle--------------------------------------------------------------------Number of trucks/Railway wagons---------------------------------------------Number of cattle-------------------------------------------------------------------Sex----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Age--------------Breeds and identification marks, if any-------------------Transported from ----------------------------to -------------via----------------I here by certify that I have read rule 46 to 26 in chapter IV of the transport
of animals rules, 1978
1- that, at the request of (consignor)---------------------I examined the above
mention cattle in the goods vehicle/Railway wagons not more than 12 hours
before their departure
2- that each cattle appeared to be in fit condition to travel by Rail/Road and
is not showing any signs of infectious or contagious or parasitic this disease
and that it has been vaccinated against any other infectious or contagious or
parasitic disease(s)
3- that the cattle were adequately fed and watered for the purpose of the
journey
4- that the cattle have been vaccinated
signature------------------Address----------------Date---------------- Qualification----------

4. CONSENT FORM FOR EUTHANASIA

Species--------------------------------Sex ----------------- Age---------------------Breed -----------------------------Colour---------------------------------------------Identificaton marks-------------------------------------------------------------------I, the undersigned, do hereby certify thatI am the owner (duly authorized
agent for the owner) of the above mentioned animal, that I do hereby give the
veterinarian/his representative --------------------------------------------------full and
complete authority to destroy the said animal in whatever manner the said

veterinarian/his representative shall deem fit, and I do hereby forever release


the said veterinarian/his representative from any and all liability for so
destroying the animal. I do also certify that to the best of my knowledge the
said animal has not bitten any person oranimal during the last fifteen (15)
days, and has not been exposed to rabies.
Place---------------Date ----------------(Signature of the owner/Authorised Agent)
Name------------------------------------------Address---------

CHAPTER 8
ANIMAL DISEASE SURVEILLANCE INFORMATION SYSTEM (ADSIS)
Animal Disease Surveillance Information System (ADSIS) is a system to know quickly the status
of animal diseases in a region for taking appropriate action. The objectives of the system are twofold:
(i) Prevention, Control and Eradication of diseases by sharing information with others and using
the latest techniques in diagnosis and use of vaccines.
(ii) Promotion of international trade in livestock and livestock products.
SURVEILLANCE :
Surveillance is keeping a constant vigil on the occurrence of diseases; it is an active disease
accounting process and an essential prerequisite in prevention, control and eradication of diseases. It has
three components :
(i)

Collection of data

(ii) Analysis
(iii) Interpretation and prompt dissemination of disease intelligence information.
DISEASES FOR SURVEILLANCE :
Disease for surveillance falls under two categories :

(i) Specific diseases of viral, bacterial, fungal or parasitic origin


(ii) Systemic diseases which may be clinical, surgical or toxic in nature.
In the present context we are concerned only with the diseases in the first category. OIE (Office
International Epizooties) an international organization in agreement with FAO and WHO has grouped
these diseases under three lists based on severity and socio-economic importance as follows :
List A : Communicable diseases which have the potential for very serious spread irrespective of
national borders which are of serious socio-economic or public health consequence and which are of
major importance in the international trade or livestock and livestock products.
List B : Communicable disease which are considered to be of socio-economic and public health
importance within countries and importance in international trade of livestock and livestock products.
List C : Communicable disease with important socio-economic and or sanitary influence at the
local level.
This list A, B and C diseases are given in Appendix-I
FREQUENCY OF REPORTING :
It is OIE requirements that diseases should be reported in the following manner.
(i)

Notification by telex / telephones / fax / special messenger within 24 hours of first occurrence
or reoccurrence of list A diseases in the region.

(ii) Weekly reports subsequent to notification to provide further information on the evolutionof
the incident. These reports should continue until the disease stabilises / subsides and monthly
reporting as per item (iii) below will suffice the needs thereafter.
(iii) Monthly report on the presence or absence of diseases in list A.
(iv) Annual report on the presence or absence of all diseases in list A, B and C and others
considered to be of socio-economic importance or of major veterinary interest.
For the purpose of this State Administration the diseases to be reported under item i, ii and iii
above will be,
List A : All diseases
List B : Avian infectious bronchitis (B301); Anthrax (B051); Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (B109);
Infectious bursal disease (B309); Mareks disease (B310), Theileriasis (B111).
List C : Black leg or Black quarters (C614); Enterotoxemia (C704)

Others that may be specified from time to time.


REPORTING UNITS :
The veterinary dispensaries, Hospitals and Livestock farms specified in Appendix-II are the
primary surveillance and reporting units in respect of the jurisdictions concerned. It is obligatory on the
part of the veterinarians incharge of livestock farms in the private, co-operative sectors or educational
institutions including the University of notify the occurrence of the above diseases to the veterinary
administration of the area immediately and continue to provide the information as desired by the
administration. These Reporting Units should maintain a list of such livestock farms and the
veterinarians attending on them.
TO WHOM TO REPORT :
The basic reporting units will send the First Information Report (FIR) on the occurrence of the
diseases and the weekly reports to the District Administration, the Regional Joint Directors of Animal
Husbandry in this case, with copy to the Assistant Director of Animal Husbandry concerned. The
monthly report will be sent to the Assistant Director of Animal Husbandry before the fifth of every
succeeding month and the Assistant Director will send it to the Joint Director of Animal Husbandry
before the 10th of the month. The Joint Director of Animal Husbandry will enter the data in the
electronic media at the NIC centre at the Collectors Office in each District and transmit them
instantaneously to the State Head quarters or the Centre as is desired.
SPEED IN REPORTING :
So far we have been sending reports through the telecommunication or postal system which are
subjected to delays and loss in transit. The problem can be solved by directly communicating the
message to the desired place through the electronic mailing system. The system has been made available
to the Animal Husbandry Department by the Government of India through the National Informatics
Centre Net Work (NICNET) whose units are located at all district and State Head Quarters in the
country. As you enter the data at the NICNET unit at the district level the message is instantaneously
transmitted through the satellite to any other unit of the system as you desire including the neighbouring
states, State Head quarters and Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying at Krishi Bhawan at
New Delhi. The delay will then be only the transit time from the reporting unit to the District NIC
Centre.
UNIFORMITY IN REPORTING :
If the computer is to accept, analyse the transmit data and give the desired output results the
reporting should be uniform from all the units. For this purpose proformas have been printed and
supplied.
FIR

Proforma Pdl.No. 1/ADSIS

Weekly / Monthly report -

Proforma Pdl.No. 2/ADSIS

Nil Report

Proforma Pdl.No. 3/ADSIS

In case there are no diseases to report use the Nil Report Proforma (Pdl.No.3)
The proforma are so designed that writing is minimal. Alfa and numerical codes are used for
which you refer the proforma and read carefully. Codes for the blocks and districts are given in
Appendix III. Wherever names occur use capital letters. Avoid over writing and make things legible for
the person who used NIC to transmit the message to the computer without ambiguity.
QUALITY REPORTING :
Quality reporting is of paramount importance for disease intelligence work. For this purpose
there must be a common understanding of the meaning of certain terminologies used in disease reporting.
Given below are definitions of some terms based on the OIE publications :
i) International Animal Health Code
ii) Manual of standards for diagnostic and vaccines.
INCIDENCE :
Incidence means the number of new cases of outbreaks within a specified period of time in a
defined animal population.
e.g. Incidence of Rinderpest in Tamilnadu

Incidence of Foot and Mouth in Madurai :

Five outbreaks during 1993-94 in bovines.


100 cases during Nov93 in bovines.

CASE :
An individual animal affected by one of the infectious or parasitic diseases being made clear
through clinical signs / laboratory diagnosis. eg., It was a case of Rinderpest based on clinical diagnosis.
INFECTED ZONE :
A clearly defined territory in which a disease has been diagnosed. This are must be clearly defined
and degreed by the Veterinary Administration. For this State this zone occupies a radius of 8 kilo meters
around the foci of the incidence of the disease for Rinderpest and Foot and Mouth (Specify for other
diseases)
The length of time during which the infected zone is maintained will vary according to the diseases
and sanitary and control methods adopted.
In case of Rinderpest the infected zone shall be considered as such until at least 21 days
(Incubation period of Rinderpest) have elapsed after the last case has been reported and following the
completion of a stamping out policy and disinfection procedures or six months after the clinical recovery
or death of the last affected animal if the stamping out policy is not adopted.
In case of Foot and Mouth infected zone is a zone having a depth of at least 10 kilometer around
the foci of Foot and Mouth disease. It is seperated from the remainder of the country a surveillance zone
with a depth of at least 10 kilo-meters. In both zones animal movement must be controlled.

To regain the disease free status two years should lapse after the last case has recovered without
stamping out policy.

DISEASE FREE ZONE :


Disease Free Zone means a clearly defined territory within a country in which no case of a disease
listed in the international code has been reported during the period stated for such disease in the code
and within which and at the borders of which official veterinary control is effectively applied for animals
and animal products and their transportation.
For Rinderpest it is three years.
For Foot and Mouth disease it is 2 years with certain condition.

OUTBREAK OF DISEASE :
Outbreak of disease means an occurence of one of the diseases in List, A, B or C in an agricultural
establishment, breeding establisment or premises, including all buildings and all adjoining premises,
where animal are present.
Where it cannot be defined in this way, the outbreak shall be considered as occuring in the part of
the territory in which, taking local conditions into account, it cannot be guaranteed that both susceptible
and non-susceptible animals have had no direct contact with affected or suspected cases in that area.

For example, in the case of certain parts of Africa, an outbreak means the occurence of the disease
within a sixteenth square degree; the occurence is still referred to as an outbreak even though the disease
may occur in several places within the same sixteenth square degree.
STAMPING-OUT POLICY :
Stamping-out Policy means the carrying out under the authority of the Veterinary Administration
on confirmation of a disease, of animal health prophylactic measures, consisting of killing / destroying the
animals which are affected and those suspected of being affected in theherd and when appropriate, those
in other herds which have been exposed to infection by direct animal to animal contact, or by indirect
contact of a kind likely to cause the transmission of the causal pathogen. All susceptible animals,
vaccinated or unvaccinated on an infected premises should be killed and the carcasses destroyed by
burning or burial, or by any other method which will eliminated the spread of infection through the
carcasses or products of the animals killed. This policy should be accompanied by the cleaning and
disinfection procedures as defined in the code. The term modified stamping-out policy should be used
in communications to the OIE whenever the above animal health measures are not implemented in full
and details of the modifications should be given.

STABILISATION OF DISEASE :
In an outbreak, the disease is considered stabilised in the nth week only when the affected animal
population in the nth week is less than those in (n-1)th week is observed, however for the nth week a
weekly report should be sent indicating Disease Stabilised on it.
MANDATE :
The following are the mandates to the Veterinarians at various levels.
VETERINARIAN (INCHARGE) OF THE REPORTING UNITS :
Animal disease surveillance is one of the important duties of the Veterinary Surgeon and he should
keep the following :
i)

Disease outbreak register.

ii) A professional register where in the incidence of the diseases in OIE list A, B and C will be
recorded with details for annual reporting to the Veterinary Administration.
iii) Livestock census of the Jurisdiction updated every first at April of the year.
iv) Statistical bulletin of the Animal Husbandry Department which lists theaverage values of
livestock and livestock products.
v) List of livestock and poultry farms in the jurisdiction in the private and co-operative sectors
and under educational institutions including the University.
vi) Veterinarians in private practice and under Non-Governmental Institutions.
He should organis the Clinical Laboratory and examine clinical materials at least from 5-10% of
clinical cases attending the dispensary / Hospital.
ASSISTANT DIRECTOR OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY :
Soon after the receipt of FIR the Assistant Director will organise the various steps to contain the
disease such as deployment of the Disease Investigation Unit/Disease Intelligence Unit and the vaccination
squad in the area so that the Veterinarian incharge of the Dispensary is not much disturbed from his
treatment work.
JOINT DIRECTOR OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY :
The Joint Director will be responsible for the prompt entry of data in the computer net work at
the NIC and do such things for electronic mailing of the output reports to the concerned authorities. He
will supervise the operations and give directions to the staff for quick containment of the disease.
He will keep ready always a contingency plan in respect of control of outbreaks.

DISEASE CODE LIST

S. No.

DISEASE CODE

DISEASE NAME

1.

A010

FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE (FMD)

2.

A011

FMD - VIRUS O

3.

A012

FMD - VIRUS A

4.

A013

FMD - VIRUS C

A014

FMD - VIRUS SAT1

6.

A015

FMD - VIRUS SAT2

7.

A016

FMD - VIRUS SAT3

8.

A017

FMD - VIRUS ASIA1

9.

A018

FMD - VIRUS NOT TYPED

10.

A020

VESICULAR STOMATITIES (VS)

11.

A021

VS - VIRUS INDIANA

12.

A022

VS - VIRUS NEW JERSEY

13.

A023

VS - VIRUS NOT TYPED

14.

A030

SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE

15.

A040

RINDERPEST

16.

A050

PESTE DES PETITS RUMINANTS

17.

A060

CONTAGIOUS BOVINE
PLEUROPNEUMONIA

18.

A070

LUMPY SKIN DISEASE

19.

A080

RIFT VALLEY FEVER

20.

A090

BLUETONGUE

21.

A100

SHEEP POX AND GOAT POX

22.

A110

AFRICAN HORSE SICKNESS

23.

A120

AFRICAN SWINE FEVER

24.

A130

HOG CHOLERA

25.

A140

TESCHEN DISEASE

26.

A150

FOWL PLAGUE

27.

A160

NEW CASTLE DISEASE

28.

B051

ANTHRAX

29.

B052

AUJESZKYS DISEASE

30.

B053

ECHINOCOCCOSIS / HYDATIDOSIS

31.

B055

HEARTWATER

32.

B056

LEPTOSPIROSIS

33.

B057

Q FEVER

34.

B058

RABIES

35.

B059

PARATUBERCULOSIS

36.

B060

SCREWWORM (COCHLIOMYIA
HOMINIVORAX)

37.

B101

ANAPLASMOSIS

38.

B102

BABESIOSIS

39.

B103

BOVINE BRUCELLOSIS (B.ABORTUS)

40.

B104

BOVINE GENITAL CAMPYLOG


BACTERIOSIS

41.

B105

BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS
(MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS)

42.

B106

CYSTICERCOSIS (C.BOVIS)

43.

B107

DERMATOPHILOSIS

44.

B108

ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUCOSIS

45.

B109

HAEMORRHAGIC SPETICAEMIA

46.

B110

INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS

47.

B111

THEILERIASIS

48.

B112

TRICHOMONIASIS

49.

B113

TRYPANOSOMIASIS

50.

B114

BOVINE MALIGNANT CATARRH

S. No.

DISEASE CODE

DISEASE NAME

51.

B115

BOVINE
SPONGIFORME
ENCEPHALOPATHY (BSE)

52.

B151

BRUCELLA OVIS INFECTION

53.

B152

CAPRINE AND OVINE BRUCELLOSIS

54.

B153

CAPRINE ARTHRITIS / ENCEPHALITIS

55.

B154

CONTAGIOUS AGALACTIA

56.

B155

CONTAGIOUS
PLEUROPNEUMONIA

57.

B156

ENZOOTIC ABORTION OF EWES

58.

B157

PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS

59.

B158

NAIROBI SHEEP DISEASE

60.

B159

SALMONELLOSIS

61.

B160

SCRAPIE

62.

B161

MAEDI - VISNA

63.

B201

CONTAGIOUS EQUINE METRITIS

64.

B202

DOURINE

65.

B203

EPIZOOTIC LYMPHANGITIS

66.

B204

EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS

67.

B205

EQUINE INFECTIOUS ANAEMIA

68.

B206

EQUINE INFLUENZA (VIRUS TYPE A)

69.

B207

EQUINE PIROPLASMOSIS (BABESIOSIS)

70.

B208

EQUINE RHINOPNEUMONITIS

71.

B209

GLANDERS

CAPRINE

72.

B210

HORSE POX

73.

B211

INFECTIOUS ARTERITIS OF HORSES

74.

B212

JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS

75.

B213

HORSE MANGE

76.

B214

SALMONELLOSIS (S.ABORTUS EQUI)

77.

B215

SURRA (T.EVANSI)

78.

B216

VENEQUELAN
ENCEPHALOMYELITIS

79.

B251

ATROPHIC RHINITIS

80.

B252

CYSTICERCOSIS (C.CELLULOSAE)

81.

B253

PORCINE BRUCELLOSIS (B.SUIS)

82.

B254

TRANSMISSIBLE GASTROENTERITIS OF
PIGS

83.

B255

TRICHINELLOSIS

84.

B301

AVIAN INFECTIOUS BRONCHITIS

85.

B302

AVIAN
LARYNGOTRACHEITIS

86.

B303

AVIAN TUBERCULOSIS

87.

B304

DUCK HEPATITIS

88.

B305

DUCK VIRUS ENTERITIS

89.

B306

FOWL CHOLERA

90.

B306

FOWL POX

91.

B308

FOWL TYPHOID (S.GALLINARUM)

92.

B309

INFECTIOUS
BURSAL
(GUMBORO DISEASE)

93.

B310

MAREKS DISEASE

94.

B311

MYCOPLASMOSIS (M.GALLISEPTICUM)

95.

B312

PSITTACOSIS AND ORNITHOSIS

96.

B313

PULLORUM DISEASE (S.PULLORUM)

97.

B351

MYXOMATOSIS

98.

B352

TULARAEMIA

99.

B353

VIRAL HAEMORRHAGIC DISEASE OF


RABBITS

100,

B401

VIRAL HAEMORRHAGIC SEPTICAEMIA

EQUINE

INFECTIOUS

DISEASE

101.

B404

SPRING VIRAEMIA OF CARP

102.

B405

INFECTIOUS
NECROSIS

103.

B406

HERPESVIROSIS OF SALMONIDS

104.

B408

RENIBACTERIOSIS

105.

B411

HERPESVIROSIS OF ICTALURIDS

106.

B413

EPIZOOTIC
NECROSIS

107.

B414

EDWARDSIELLOSIS (E.ICTALURI)

108.

B431

BONAMIOSIS

109.

B432

HAPLOSPORIDIOSIS

110.

B433

PERKINSOSIS

111.

B434

MARTEILIOSIS

112.

B435

LRIDOVIROSIS

113.

B451

ACARIASIS OF BEES

114.

B452

AMERICAN FOUL BROOD

115.

B453

EUROPEAN FOUL BROOD

116.

B454

NOSEMOSIS OF BEES

117.

B455

VARROASIS

118.

B501

LEISHMANIASIS

119.

C611

LISTERIOSIS

120.

C612

TOXOPLASMOSIS

121.

C613

MELIODOSIS

122.

C614

BLACKLEG

123.

C615

BOTULISM

124.

C616

OTHER CLOSTRIDIAL INFECTIONS

125.

C617

OTHER PASTEURELLOSES

126.

C618

ACTINOMYCOSIS

127.

C619

INTESTINAL SALMONELLA INFECTIONS

128.

C620

COCCIDIOSIS

129.

C621

DISTOMATOSIS (LIVER FLUKE)

130.

C622

FILARIASIS

HAEMATOPOIETIC

HAEMATOPOIETIC

131.

C652

MUCOSAL DISEASE / BOVINE VIRUS


DIARRHOEA

132.

C653

VIBRONIC DYSENTERY

133.

C654

WARBLE INFESTATION

134.

C701

CONTAGIOUS PUSTULAR DERMATITIS

135.

C702

FOOT-ROT

136.

C703

CONTAGIOUS OPHTHALMIA

137.

C704

ENTEROTOXAEMIA

138.

C705

CASEOUS LYMPYHADENITIS

139.

C706

SHEEP MANGE

140.

C751

EQUINE COITAL EXANTHEMA

141.

C752

ULCERATIVE LYMPHANGITIS

142.

C753

STRANGLES

143.

C801

SWINE ERYSIPELAS

144.

C851

INFECTIOUS CORYZA

145.

C853

AVIAN ENCEPHALOMYELITIS

146.

C854

AVIAN SPIROCHAETOSIS

147.

C855

AVIAN SALMONELLOSIS

148.

C856

AVIAN LEUCOSIS

149.

C921

CANINE DISTEMPER

SPECIES CODE LIST

1.

01

BOVINE

2.

02

OVINE

3.

03

CAPRINE

4.

04

SWINE

5.

05

CAMEL

6.

06

EQUINE

7.

07

CANINE

8.

08

FELINE

9.

09

WILD FAUNA

10.

10

AVIAN

1. Cuddalore District Code

: 006

Name Of Block
1. Bhuvanagiri
2. Keerapalayam
3. Kattmannarkoil
4. Parangipettai
5. Panrutti
6. Cuddalore
7. Kurinjipadi
8. Kumaratchi
9. Annagramam
10.
Viruthachalam
11.
Nallur
12.
Mangalur
13.
Kammapuram

Code
: 0310
: 0130
: 0350
: 0320
: 0240
: 0260
: 0250
: 0340
: 0230
: 0280
: 0270
: 0300
: 0290

FORMATS FOR DISEAS OUTBREAK REPORT


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY DEARTMENT, TAMILNADU
From

To : The Joint Director of Animal Husbandry

Designation

District

Institution

Place & Pin Code


Pdl.1/ADSIS

FIRST INFORMATION REPORT ON OUTBREAK OF DISEASES

Institution Code
Registration No
A. Animal Disease and its Initial Occurrence :
A.1. Disease Name ____________________________________________________________
A.2. Disease Code
A.3. Date of Initial Occurrence (dd/mm/yy)
B. Location Particulars
B. 1. District Code & Name
B.2.

Block Code & Name

B.3.

Municipality / Corporation

B.4.

Village Name______________________________________________________________

C.

Date :

Details of Outbreak
C.1

Species Code

C.2

Number Affected

C.3

Number of Deaths

Signature

Name

Designation

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY DEARTMENT, TAMILNADU


From
Designation
Institution

:
:
:

To : The Joint Director of Animal Husbandry


District
Place & Pin Code
Pdl.2/ADSIS
WEEKLY/MONTHLY OCCURRENCE OF ANIMAL DISEASE OUTBREAKS
District Code & Name
End Date (dd/mm/yy)
Instituition Code & Name

Block Code & Name


Municipality/Corpn.

1. Disease

a.
b.
c.
d.

Name
OIE Code
Registration No.
Disease Status

a.
b.

New
Old + New

a.
b.
c.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
a.
b.
c.
d.
a.
b.
c.
d.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Clinical Symptoms
Lab. Confirmation
PM Confirmation
Segregation
Vaccination
Ring Vaccination
Stamping
Burial
Incineration
Disinfection
Breeding Stock
Fattening Stock
Individual Herds
Collective Herds
Stall Fed Population
Grazing Population
Introduction Mode
Exotic
Indigenous
Cross
Viral
Bacterial
Parasite
Others
Serological
Biological
Isolation
Allergic

2. Village Affected
3. Number of Outbreaks
4. Species Affected
5. Nature of Diagnosis

6. Control Measures Adopted

7. Affected Population

8. Disease Introduction and


Identification

9. Causal Agent

10. Laboratory
Confirmation
11.

Manifestation of Malady

12.

Infected Zone

13.

Uninfected Zone

14. Estimated Loss of


Production in surviving
Animals

Loss in Draught Bullock


Power

Item 1d. Indicate as,


P - Disease Present
A - Disease Absent
NA - Data Not Available
Items 5 - 10 : Mark Y
Wherever applicable

No. of Villages
No Vaccination
No Treated
No Vaccinated
a. Milk Quantity
b. Milk Value
c. Meat Quantity
d. Meat Value
e. Egg Quantity
f. Egg Value
g. Wool Quantity
h. Wool Value
i. Days in Nos.
ii. Value Rs.

Kg.
Rs.
Kg.
Rs.
Kg.
Rs.
Kg.
Rs

4. Species Codes
BOV - Bovine
CAM - Camel
CAN - Canine
CAP - Caprine

OVI - Ovine
SUI - Swine
EQI - Equine
FEL - Feline

8 a. Introduction Mode
D - Direct
I - Indirect
B - Both

11. Manifestation of Malady


VI - Virulent
LO Localised
SC - Subclinical
EN Endemic
WS - Widespread MI - Mild
SP Sporadic

15. Details of Disease Outbreak(s)


Disease :

Y
O
U
N
G

A
D
U
L
T

Y
O
U
N
G

A
D
U
L
T

Y
O
U
N
G

FEMALE MALE FEMALE MALE

A
D
U
L
T

FEMALE MALE FEMALE MALE

Y
O
U
N
G

Exotic
Indigenous
Crossbred
Exotic
Indigenous
Crossbred
Exotic
Indigenous
Crossbred
Exotic
Indigenous
Crossbred
Exotic
Indigenous
Crossbred
Exotic
Indigenous

FEMALE MALE FEMALE MALE

A
D
U
L
T

Exotic
Indigenous
Crossbred
Exotic
Indigenous
Crossbred
Exotic
Indigenous
Crossbred
Exotic
Indigenous
Crossbred

FEMALE MALE FEMALE MALE

Affected
(No)

Exotic
Indigenous
Crossbred
Exotic
Indigenous
Crossbred
Exotic
Indigenous
Crossbred
Exotic
Indigenous
Crossbred

Date :

Species Affected :

Dead
(No)

Appr. Value
of Dead
Animals
(Rs.)

Registration No.:

Destroy
ed (No)

Appr. Value
of Destroyed
Animals(Rs.)

Slaugh
tered
( No)

Appr. Value
of
Slaughtered
Animals
(Rs.)

Vaccinated
(No.)

Disease :

Species Affected :

Registration No.:

Disease :

Species Affected :

Registration No.:

Disease :

Species Affected :

Registration No.:

Crossbred
Exotic
Indigenous
Crossbred
Exotic
Indigenous
Crossbred

Signature

Treat
ed
(No)

Susceptib
le (No)

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY DEARTMENT, TAMILNADU


Name

To : The Joint Director of Animal Husbandry

Designation

District

Institution

Place & Pin Code


Pdl.3/ADSIS

WEEKLY/MONTHLY OCCURRENCE OF ANIMAL DISEASE OUTBREAKS


District Code & Name

End Date (dd/mm/yy)

Instituition Code & Name

Block Code & Name


Municipality/Corpn.
* * * NIL * * *

Date :

Signature

DISEASE FORECAST - FOLLOW UP ACTION BY VAS


After receiving the forecast of Diseases from AD, ADIU all VAS should take necessary action to
indent vaccines and preventive vaccination should be carried out immediately.
After completing vaccination the returns should be furnished in the following proforma to the
office of AD, ADIU in four copies.

RETURNS SHOWING THE DISEASE FORECAST


FOR THE MONTH OF .................................

Name of
Sl.
No.

Name

Name

of the

of the

Disease

Village

Name of

Name

Last

the

of the

occurrence

Anticipated

Panchayat

Distric

of the

occurrence

Union

disease

the
Institutio
n

Vaccine
indent
month

Vaccination
Month

RETURNS SHOWING VACCINATION DONE FOR THE DISEASE


FORECASTED
FOR THE MONTH OF ...................................

Name of
Sl.
No.

Name of
the
Disease

Name of

the

the Village

Name of the
District

Institution

Livestock
Population

No.of
Vaccination

of the Village

done

Date of
Vaccination

% of
Vaccination

Sample Submission Form to ADIU

From

To
The Assistant Director,
Animal Disease Intelligence Unit,
Cuddalore

R.O.C.No

date

Sir,
Sub : Specimens for examinations - reg.
The following samples may please be examined and the results be sent at the earliest.

Sl. No.

Sample No.

Case No.

Species

Specimen

Date of
Collection

Disease
Symptom

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Yours faithfully,

Expected

CHAPTER 9

HELMINTHOLOGY
INTRODUCTION
Diagnosis of Endoparasitic Infection to combat anthelmintic resistance:
Helminthiasis caused by nematodes, trematodes and cestodes is the most
important cause of lost production in small and large ruminants in many parts of the
world. In developing countries like India too face these problems of parasitic infection
more than developed countries since its a land of agriculture and animal husbandry
activities. This infection causes myriad of problems in the health of livestock causing
burdens to livestock owners and eventually to the countrys GDP. Apart from infection
by parasite nowadays helminthic resistance is also becoming major concern for
veterinary practitioner in their practice when drugs flunk to eliminate the infection.
When livestock producers use anthelmintic parasite-control products in their herd and
fail to see a response, there are a number of factors to consider. Was the timing of use
appropriate to minimize re-infection? Did the dosage match the weight of the animals?
Or did the product fail to achieve a response because the parasite population has
become resistant to the dewormer of choice? Even though different factors contribute to
the resistance, the most pressing reasons are low dosage and indiscriminate
administration of anthelmintic by livestock owners and quacks. Anthelmintic resistance
is already a serious problem in some parts of the world, not just in sheep and goats but
also in cattle. Drug resistance was first defined in nematodes by Prichard et al. in 1980.
The earliest reports of anthelmintic resistance in sheep involved Benzimidazoles,
followed by resistance to levamisole and finally resistance to macrocylic lactones like
ivermectin. Resistance has been reported from all the four corners of the world, to all
available drugs, in all classes of helminthes.
Veterinarian role in combating these problems will enhance the
livelihood of farmers and also will be fruitful for the future generation of veterinary
practitioner. Even though many factors contribute to this resistance, as a veterinarian
how far we can minimize further resistance. For example Cyathostome, a small
strongyle in horse resistance to fenbendazole, pyrantel pamoate , oxifendazole and
showing sensitivity to ivermectin Kaplan et al (2003). There are only three broadspectrum anthelmintics available for the control of helminths: group 1, the
benzimidazoles
flubendazole,

(albendazole,
mebendazole,

cambendazole,
oxibendazole,

ciclobendazole,

ricobendazole,

fenbendazole,

thiabendazole

and

triclabendazole); group 2, the imidazothiazoles (morantel, pyrantel and levamisole


LEV); and group 3, the macrocyclic lactones (abamectin, doramectin, eprinomectin,
ivermectin, moxidectin and selamectin).
Minimizing resistant can be accomplished by following criteria; correct
anthelmintic, proper dosage, duration of administration, season of administration of
specific drugs, age, rotation of anthelmintic, IDENTIFYING RESISTANCE with
FECRT and proper diagnosis pertaining to laboratory findings. The FECRT can be
used to examine whether or not we are seeing loss of efficacy with these drugs, said Dr.
Dwight Bowman, professor of parasitology at Cornell University fecal egg count
reduction test . However at the field level there are handfuls of simple procedures to
make a diagnosis. In contemporary scenario veterinary diagnosis of helminth infection
is important to mitigate the incremental helminthic resistant for certain parasite in field
condition to impede indiscriminate use of drugs. Diagnosis plays a pivotal role in
veterinary medicine before embarking treatment.
Diagnosis is not the end, but the beginning of the practice

TABLE SHOWING ATHELMINTIC RESISTANCE:

- Michael

Ref: Lalchhandama (2010), Anthelmintic resistance: the song remains the same.
BZs = benzimidazoles; IZs = imidazothiazoles [M = morantel, P = pyrantel]; MLs =
macrocyclic lactones [IVM = ivermectin, MXD = moxidectin, DRM = doramectin]; SNs
= salicylanilide [MBC = milbemycin; CST = closantel]; RXN = rafoxanide; OPP =
organophosphate; OXA = oxamniquine; PPZ = piperazine.

Direct Smear Fecal Exam


Method:
1. Place a small amount of feces on a microscope slide.
2. Add a drop of liquid to the feces and mix thoroughly. The type of liquid added
depends on what you hope to accomplish with the technique. If you are
examining a liquid fecal sample for the presence of protozoan trophozoites (live
active protozoa) then use saline (if any extra liquid is needed).If you are looking
for helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in a small sample (bird droppings, rectal
smear, etc) then either water or iodine may be used.
3. Cover with a cover slip. Move the cover slip around until it lays flat. You should
be able to read through the smear (light from the microscope must be able to
pass through the sample in order for you to examine it).
4. Examine the slide using the 10X objective, and then go over it with the 40X
objective.
NOTE: Because this technique examines only a very small amount of feces, it should
only be used in the following circumstances:

Liquid feces where protozoan trophozoites may be present.

Fecal samples where the amount of feces obtained is too small to handle with any
other technique.

As an adjunct to a flotation technique where you are looking for eggs that do not
float. (In this case you probably would be better off running ethyl acetate
sedimentation and examining the resultant pellet using the direct smear method.)

Saturated Salt Flotation


Method:

A small amount of feces (a pea to grape size, about 1 gram) is mixed with about
10 ml of flotation medium and poured into a tube so that the liquid comes just
over the top of the tube. The mixture is allowed to sit for about 15 min while the
eggs float to the top and the rest of the fecal matter sinks to the bottom. A cover
slip can be placed on the top of the tube before the incubation period starts or
can be applied at the end. The cover slip is then transferred to a microscope
slide.

Commercial devices have a sieve incorporated into the tube to keep large
particles from floating up and sticking to the coverslip. See image below of some
commonly available commercial fecal devices.

USES: This method will recover most nematode eggs and protozoan cysts,
however many trematode and cestode eggs, as well as Giardia cysts will not be
recovered.
Specific Gravity of Some Helminth Eggs as Determined Using Sucrose Density
Gradient Centrifugation*
Species

Mean Specific Gravity

Range

Ancylostoma caninum

1.0559

1.0549 - 1.0573

Toxocara canis

1.0900

1.0791 - 1.0910

Toxocara cati

1.1005

1.1004 - 1.1006

Taenia sp.

1.2251

1.2244 - 1.2257

Physaloptera sp.

1.2376

1.2372 - 1.2380

ZnSO4 Solution

1.18

Saturated salt or sugar

1.20

REF : from David and Lindquist, 1982. J. Parasitology 68:916-919.


3.ZINC SULFATE CENTRIFUGAL FLOTATION
Method:
1. Fill a 15 ml centrifuge tube with ZnSO4 solution (1.18 specific gravity) and pour
into a glass dish.
2. Using a tongue depressor, push the feces (2 to 3 grams, a piece the size of a grape)
through the strainer into the ZnSO4 solution in the dish.
3. Using a funnel, pour the ZnSO4-fecal mixture back into the centrifuge tube.
4. Centrifuge for 2 min at high speed (1500 - 2000 rpm).
5. Using a headed-rod or loop, remove a sample from the surface of the solution
and place on a microscope slide.*
6. Add a drop of iodine solution (to stain the cysts and ova) and a coverslip.
7. Examine at 10X.
*Note You may have to take several samples with the rod or loop to get enough material
to examine, you want the equivalent of a large drop on the slide.)
HELPFUL TIPS:

1. The sieve must be in the liquid in order for the feces to be passed through.
2. The more feces you use, the more likely you will be able to find eggs which are
present in low numbers.
To increase the sensitivity: After removing the tube from the centrifuge, fill the
tube with ZnSO4 to just
3. Place a coverslip over the top of the tube and wait 5 to 10 min. This modification
also allows you to skip using the loop or headed rod to obtain your sample, and
thus may be easier to do at a veterinary practice.
4.If the sample contains a large amount of fat or other material that floats in
water, you may want to wash the sample before doing the flotation. To do this,
start at step 1 but use water instead of ZnSO4. When you centrifuge the waterfecal mixture the eggs ,being heavier than water, will sink but the fat and other
material will float. After centrifugation pour off the supernatant, add the
ZnSO4 solution and mix well. Centrifuge as in step 4 and examine as in step 5.
PREPARATION OF ZNSO4 SOLUTION:
Add 386 grams of ZnSO4 to 1 liter of water. The mixture should be checked with a
hydrometer and adjusted to 1.18 sp. Gr. The ZnSO4 solution should be stored tightly
capped to prevent evaporation (and the resulting change in the specific gravity of the
solution).
PREPARATION OF THE IODINE SOLUTION:
Add 10 gms Potassium Iodide (KI) to 1 liter of distilled H2O. Shake to dissolve.
Add 10 gms of Iodine (I2) to the above solution. Allow to stand over-night with
stirring, at this time you may still have Iodine crystals at the bottom, this is OK,
just leave them there. This solution will stain (and kill) most parasite eggs and
cysts (coccidial oocysts are an exception, they do not take in the iodine).
ETHYL ACETATE SEDIMENTATION
METHOD:
1. Pass a grape-sized piece of feces through a sieve into about 9 ml of water and pour
into a 15 ml centrifuge tube.
2. Add about 3 ml of ethyl acetate, plug the tube with a rubber stopper and shake the
tube vigorously.
CAUTION: Test materials before placing Ethyl Acetate into them. This solvent will
dissolve many types of plastic!! The white plastic centrifuge tubes (polypropylene) used
in the lab are OK, but clear hard plastic tubes and the disposable polystyrene cups will
dissolve.

3. Remove the rubber stopper and centrifuge the tube (1500-2500 rpm) for 1 to 2
minutes.
4. Using a stick, "ring" the plug of fat at the water - ethyl acetate interface (the plug
adheres to the side of the tube and must be detached before the liquid contents of the
tube can be poured off).
5. Pour off the supernatant, being careful to leave the pellet at the bottom of the tube
intact. (Flush the ethyl acetate down the sink with plenty of water.)
6. Transfer some of the sediment from the bottom of the tube to a slide and examine.
The sediment can be transferred in several ways: 1) If some liquid remains, the pellet
can be resuspended and a drop transferred with a pipette. 2) Add a drop of iodine to the
pellet to resuspend it and then transfer with a pipette. 3) Use a stick to remove some of
the pellet and smear it on a slide as you would when making a direct smear.
Note: For this technique to be as sensitive as a flotation method, you must examine the
entire pellet!
NOTE: When removed from centrifuge, your tube will have clearly defined layers:
1. ethyl acetate layer on top
2. plug of dissolved fat in the middle
3. layer of water below fat
4. pellet of sediment on bottom
USES: Used when the feces contain a large amount of fat
(which make use of a flotation method difficult) or when
you are specifically looking for trematode or cestode eggs.
Because formalin fixed eggs and cysts may not float (they
may now have a specific gravity of greater than 1.2) this
technique is preferred for formalin fixed samples.
TIP: If you did this technique just to remove fat, you can
resuspend the pellet in flotation solution, centrifuge, and
remove the material from the top of the float to examine
for eggs.
Baermannization:
In 1917, while working in Java, the Dutch physician Dr. Baermann developed a simple
method for isolating nematodes from soil. Today veterinarians use his method for the
extraction of live larval stages of nematode parasites from the feces.
1. Place a sieve in a custard dish or other similar container.
2. Spread about 10 grams of fresh feces on a piece of tissue paper and place it into the
sieve.
Note: Since you are looking for live larvae, anything which is done to the feces that
might kill the larvae should be avoided (i.e. don't let it dry out, don't put it into

formalin, don't freeze it, and even keeping it in a refrigerator overnight may impair the
larvae's motility).
3. Place warm water* in the custard dish until it just covers the feces, taking care not to
disrupt the feces.
4. Allow to sit for about one hour**.
5. Lift off sieve and pour liquid into a 50 ml centrifuge tube.
6. Let sit for 20 minutes.
7. Using a Pasteur pipet, remove a drop of the sediment at the bottom of the tube and
place it on a microscope slide for examination. (Be careful not to resuspend the sediment
before you take a sample from it.)

Traditional Baermann set-up

Clinical Baermann set-up

USES: This technique is used to recover larval nematodes for identification. Larval
nematodes are normally not numerous in feces and therefore not seen on a direct smear
or sedimentation. They are also damaged by flotation solutions, making identification
difficult to detect them. This technique makes use of two characteristics of parasitic
larval nematode behavior:
1. The warmer it is the more active the larva (up to a point: 37 to 400C is as warm
as you want to get. You dont want to cook them!). Also, some nematode larvae
are thermotaxic and will move toward the warmer water in the funnel (the
surface cools quicker than the middle of the funnel).
2. Most parasitic larval nematodes are poor swimmers.
Therefore, the following events take place when the sieve is placed in the water:
The larvae will be moving around in a random fashion and within any given time

interval some of them will migrate through the tissue and fall into the water. Because
they can't swim, they sink to the bottom and over time a number accumulate there. The
more active (or themotaxic) the larvae are (i.e. the warmer the water) the greater the
number of larvae that will accumulate at the bottom in a given time interval.
The longer you wait the more larvae will fall to the bottom of the dish, but with time the
fecal sample also breaks down, leading to an accumulation of sediment along with the
larvae.

Techniques

Advantages

Direct Smear

Quick to prepare.

Disadvantages

Can miss parasite if concentration is too low


or if too much debris or fat is present.

No distortion of parasites if
isotonic saline is used as diluent.

Sand, seeds, or other fecal debris can make


apposition of coverslip onto slide difficult.

Only way to see live trophozoites


(isotonic saline must be used as

May take a long time to examine

Procedure will not float trematode ova and

the diluent).

Useful for examining feces of


small birds and reptiles (where
trematode eggs are common).

Procedure floats the most


common helminth ova and

Saturated Salt

some tapeworm (pseudophyllidian) ova.

coccidian oocysts.

Flotation

Distorts Giardia cysts.

Time consuming if centrifugation not

Solutions are inexpensive.


There is little debris to obscure

performed.

the view of the parasite.

Unsuitable for fatty stool samples.

Zinc sulfate
floatation

Recommended procedure for

most fecal exams.

Procedure will not float some trematode


ova, and some tapeworm (pseudophyllidian)
ova.

Procedure floats most helminth


eggs.

Unsuitable for fatty stool samples.

Best method for protozoan cysts,

ZnSO4 is expensive and a hydrometer

especially Giardia.

should be used to make up the solution.

There is little debris to obscure


view of parasites.

Ethyl acetate
sedimentation

Procedure recovers ALL types of

helminth ova, larvae, and most

it is more difficult to perform than other


techniques.

protozoan cysts.

Ethyl acetate is flammable and expensive.

There is more debris in preparation preps

It is the best technique for


formalin - fixed samples and for
stools with high fat content.

than in flotation preps - therefore it will


take longer to read.

EXAMINATION OF FAECES
Direct Smear Method
In this method a clean and dry glass slide is used which should be free from scratches.
Place a drop of distilled water in the middle of the slide and add small amount of faeces
on it. Mix with tooth pick or match stick and place a coverslip on it. Examine it under
microscope for the presence of parasitic ova. In direct smear method, if no parasitic ova
is detected then it should be examined by qualitative or quantitative methods before
being declare it as negative.

Qualitative Concentration Method


In this method, the faeces is mixed with either of the saturated sugar solution, saturated
salt solution, saturated sodium nitrate solution, 41% magnesium sulfate solution or

33% zinc sulfate solution. The parasitic ova, being lighter float on the top of fluid and
thus can be concentrated for examination.
A. Simple floatation: In this method, about one gram of faeces is taken and
mixed with few ml of distilled water and is filtered through a fine sieve or
muslin cloth. The filtrate is then mixed with 4-5 ml of saturated salt solution.
It should be then placed in a tube or cylinder and filled up to the top with
solution. A clean glass slide or cover-slip is placed on the mouth of tube or
cylinder. This is left for 30 to 60 minutes at room temperature without any
disturbance.After that coverslip or slide is removed and examined under
microscope for the presence of parasitic ova. The unfiltered material left on
sieve or muslin cloth is examined for tapeworm segments or/parasite.
B. Centrifugation floatation: In this method about one gram of faeces is mixed
with distilled water and filtered through a fine sieve or muslin cloth. The
filtered material is mixed with saturated sugar solution in a ratio of 1:3 in a
test tube. Mix the contents and centrifuge at 1500 rpm for 5 minutes. The
tube is taken out and placed on stand without any disturbance. Transfer the
small amount of superficial contents of tube on a clean and dry glass slide
and examine under microscope for the presence of parasitic ova. The
sediment of the floatation method is examined under microscope for eggs of
liver flukes

Examination of Faeces for Flukes


The eggs of liver flukes are heavy and do not float on the water and settle in sediment.
Two grams of faeces is taken in a tube and mixed with distilled water. Put the mixture in
a tube
and leave it for 30-60 minutes discard the supernatent and repeat the process 2-3 times.
Take small amount of sediment on slide and examine under microscope.

Examination of Faeces for Presence of Blood


In a small test tube 2-3 ml of saturated solution of benzidine in glacial acetic acid is
taken. To this equal amount of hydrogen peroxide is added. The faeces (1-2 gm) is mixed
with distilled water and the fecal suspension is poured in the benzidine solution drop by
drop.The development of a blue colour is indication of the presence of blood in faeces.

Commonly Seen Parasitic eggs

Ancylostoma

Toxocara Leonina

Toxocara

Canis

Echinococcus

Trichuris

Spirocera lupi

unsporulated

Diphyllobothrium

Giardia ( iodine stain)

Fasciola Egg

Toxoplasma oocyst

Diphylidium
Caninun

Common parasite of Dogs:

latum

Strongyle Egg

Name of parasite

Symptoms

Diagnosis

Trematodes:
1. Paragonimus
kellicotti

Intermittent cough

Tracheal washethyl acetate


sedimentation
technique

2. Heterobilharzia
americana.

Nematodes:
Intestional
nematodes
1.Ascarid

diarrhea (which
may be bloodtinged), vomiting

Dose and length of


dosage

fenbendazole

5o mg /kg
10 to 14 days

Praziquantel

25 mg/kg, TID for 2


days

Praziquantel

10mg/kg PO tid for


2 days)

fenbendazole

(24mg/kg PO sid
for 7 days)

Pyrantel

5 mg/kg (PO)

Fenbendazole

50 mg/kg Sid for 3


days

pyantel

5 mg/kg (PO). Over


2 weeks of age.

ivermectin

2 doses for 2weeks


apart

Fenbendazole

50mg/kg for 3 days

Fenbendazole

50mg/kg for 3 days

Pyrantel

5mg /kg, over 2


weeks

Butamisole

2.4mg/kg , use over


8 weeks of age.

Fenbendazole

50mg/kg for 3 days

Zoonotic
importance

dermatitis in
humans
(swimmers
itch)

Normally found in
young puppy
pot-bellied, with
abdominal pain,

Eggs are found


in fecal
flotation

a. toxocara canis

b. toxoascars leonina

Sedimentation
with saline in
faeces

Drugs of choice

Diarrhea and
vomiting.

Baermann
Technique, Zinc

visceral larva
migrans

floataion

c. strongyloides
species

pot-bellied, and
have
Diarrhea, in auto
infection troubled
breathing
verminous
pneumonia

Urine
Sedimentation.
fecal flotation

fecal flotation
2.Hook worms
Ancylostoma
caninum

3.whipworms
Trichuris vulpis

Anemia, pale
membranes,
diarrhea

Bouts of diarrhea,
often with large
amounts of mucus
and frank blood on
the stool.

fecal flotation

Cutaneous
larval
migrans

Non Intestinal
nematodes:
a. Dirofiliria Immitis
(Heart worm)

Cough, dyspnoea,
tachycardia, caval
syndrome, right
heart failure,
hypertension,
exercise intolerance

Difil Test or
Knotts Test

b. spirocerca lupi
(oesophageal worm)

vomiting with
worms, difficulty in
swallowing

Fecal
Flotation,Trach
eal wash

c. Dioctophyme
renale
( giant kidney worm)

Asymptomatic and
sometimes
vomiting

d. Cappilaria spp.
( lung worm)

rattling and
wheezy breathing
and some
coughing.

e. Thalazia
Callipaeda
( Eye worm)

Blepharospasm
and epiphora.

Eggs may be
found in faeces
or vomit
otherwise
diagnosis may
be by
endoscopy or
radiography.

Fecal floataion
Trachea wash

detection of
adult or larval
stages from
samples of the
tear film

ivermectin

Diethycarbamizi
ne

0.006 mg/kg (PO),


given monthly in
puppies 6 weeks of
age and older.

11.4 to 22.7 mg/kg ,


PO

Surgical removal

Ivermection

0.2 to 0.4 mg/kg

Fenbendazole

50mg/kg for 3 days

Ivermection

0.2 to 0.4 mg/kg

Fenbendazole

50mg/kg for 3 days

Ivermection

0.2 to 0.4 mg/kg

Zoonotic

3.Cestodes
a)Ecchinococcus
granulossus

Praziquantel

30mg/kg

Epsiprantel

Dog: 5.5 mg/kg


(Use in dogs over
7 weeks of age)

Usually
asymptomatic in
the dog.

b) Diphyllobothrium
latum
c) Diphylidium
Canninum

Parasitic infestation in cattle

Fecal floatation

Disease
Nematodesa) Ascariasis

Symptoms
The calves with ascariasis
remain unthrifty and pass
large load of worms in the
faeces at periodic
intervals. The calves may
show convulsions and
indigestion as main
symptoms and normally
pass foul smelling clay
colored or watery feces. A
characteristic butyric
odour may also be
detectable in their breath.

b)Strongyloidosis

Intermittent diarrhoea
with blood and mucus is a
common feature. Build-up
of warm and moist areas
should be prevented inside
shed.

2.Trematodes-

Weight loss and chronic


diarrhea. dairy cows show
reduced milk yields and
poor fertility,
submandibular edema,

a)fasciolosis

Treatment
Piperazine compounds provide prophylaxis towards all the
round worms effectively including Neoascaris. Piperazine
hydrate (56.3% w/v) is administered right from day 3 @ 3-6
ml per 10 kg body weight.

Micronised albendazole powder 5-10 mg/kg bw per oral


may also be given. Second dose is to be given after 21 days.
For the first year repeat doses every two months but rotate
drug every 2nd or 3rd dose. Thereafter, dosage is to be given
thrice a year.
Levamisole (7.5 mg/kg per oral) is another drug of choice.
The treatment is repeated every month for first three
months and thereafter every two months.

Thiabendazole, levamisole and other broad-spectrum


anthelmintics are effective.

Triclabendazole is effective at killing all stages of


triclabendazole-susceptible flukes from two weeks old.
Cattle may be slaughtered for human consumption only
after 56 days from last treatment
Nitroxynil is licensed for the treatment of fascioliasis
(infestation of mature and immature Fasciola hepatica).
The interval between nitroxynil treatments must not be less
than 60 days. Cattle may be slaughtered for human
consumption only after 60 days from last treatment. Do not
use in cattle producing milk for human consumption.
Clorsulon is effective against adult flukes. Advice for dosing
as for nitroxynil.Cattle may be slaughtered for human
consumption only after 66 days from last treatment. Do not
administer to cows producing milk for human consumption
nor dairy cattle including heifers within 60 days of calving.
Oxyclozanide also useful dugs
Closantel is long acting for 15 days than oxyclozanide only
6 days

oxyclozanide (two doses 3 days apart)

b)Amphistomes

anorexia, polydipsia,
unthriftiness, and severe
diarrhea, shooting foetid
diarrhoea
albendazole at 1520 mg/kg in a single dose or two doses of
7.5 mg/kg on successive days, or netobimin at 20 mg/kg.
c)Dicrocoelium
dentriticum
condition, recumbency,
hypothermia, and anemia,
diarrhea

3.Cestodes

Diarrhea , reduce weight,


Intestional obstruction

Praziquantel, fenbendazole are usedful in this case

There may be sudden


onset of severe diarhoea
with foul smelling, fluid
feces containing mucus
and blood. Blood may
appear as dark tarry
staining of feces or as
streaks of clots, or the
evacuation may consist
entirely of large clots of
fresh red blood. Perineum
and tail are commonly
smeared with blood
stained feces. There is a
characteristic severe
straining and sometimes
rectal prolapse may occur.
Excitement, itching,
irritation, abscesses on
skin

Amprolium and sulphamethazine@ 10 mg/ kg and 140 mg/


kgrespectively orally daily for 3-5 days are useful. Same
drugs @ 5mg/ kg and 35 mg/ kg in feed for 15-20 days are
good for prophylaxis. Coccidiosis treatment with sulpha
drugs and other coccidiostats is required only when the
fecal examination reveals presence of coccidia.

a. Moniezia Sp

Coccidiosis

Ectoparasites

Cypermethrin (100mg/lit) need to be sprayed on calves and


in the paddock. The dosage for ticks, mites and lice is 1
ml/lit of water; for flies is 5 ml/lit of water and for animal
housing is 20 ml/lit of water (5 lit of emulsion per 100 sq
met surface). This should be sprayed thrice in a year.
Ivermectin 1ml /50kg
Pour on solution containing flumetrin, cypermethrin

CHAPTER 11
VACCINOLOGY
Precaution to vaccination:
1. Vaccinate only healthy animals
2. Avoid Animal with malnutrition, helminth infestation,
3. Refrain from use of administration of immunosuppressive agents like corticosteroids, radiation
therapy, etc. will suppress immune response to vaccine;
4.Injection site is important - follow Manufacturers Instruction
5. In rare cases hypersensitivity may occur, immediate treatment with antihistaminics is advocated

Vaccination Schedule in Cattle:


Infection

Manufacturer

adjuvant

Dose

Primar
y

Booster

revaccinatio
n

Intervet India

Binary
ethyleneimine (BEI)
inactivated FMD
mineral oil emulsion
vaccine containing a
mixture of virus
serotypes O, A and
Asia-1
Inactivated tissue
culture FMD virus
strains O, A and
Asia-1 adsorbed on
Al (OH)3gel and
saponin as an
adjuvant
Inactivated tissue
culture FMD virus
strains O, A, and
Asia-1 adjuvanted
with mineral oil
Formaldehyde
inactivated culture
ofPasteurella
multocidaadsorbed
on aluminium
hydroxide gel

2ml, i/m
(Vial: 100 ml)

3 months
onwards

After
4-6
weeks
of
primary
vaccination
II After 24
weeks of
first booster

Every 4 to 6
months after
2nd booster
vaccination

3 ml in the
mid-neck
region, s/c
(Vial: 30 ml)

4 months

weeks after
primary
vaccination

Every 4to 6
months after
booster and every 4
months in endemic
areas

2 ml in
the mid-neck
region, deep
i/m

4 months

9 months
after
primary
vaccination

Annually

2 ml, midneck region,


s/c
(Vial:100 ml)

6 months
and above

Annually and in adverse climatic


conditions like unseasonal rains
and cyclones, etc.

FMD

Bovilis Clovax

Raksha

Indian
Immunologicals

Raksha Ovac

Indian
Immunologicals

Haemorrhagic
Septicemia

Indian
Immunologicals

Raksha HS

Compound Vaccine
Infection
Manufacturer
Raksha biovac
(FMD+HS)

Raksha triovac
(FMD+HS+BQ)

Indian
Immunologicals

Indian
Immunologicals

adjuvant

Dose

Primar
y

Booster

revaccination

FMD inactivated antigens


against O, A, and Asia-1
strains and formaldehyde
inactivatedPasteurella
multocidaculture mixed
together in light mineral
oil emulsion
FMD inactivated antigens
against O, A, Asia-1 and
formaldehyde
inactivatedPasteurella

3
ml,
midneck,
deep i/m
(Vial: 30 ml)

4
months

9 months

Annually

3 ml, midneck, deep


i/m

4
months

9 months

Annually

multocidaculture,
inactivatedClostridium
chauvoeiculture mixed
together in light mineral
oil emulsion
Formaldehyde inactivated
cultures ofPasteurella
multocidaand Clostridium
chauvoeiadsorbed on
aluminium hydroxide gel

(Vial: 30 ml)

3 ml, midneck region,


s/c
(Vial: 90 ml)

6
months
and
above

Annually and in adverse climatic


conditions like unseasonal rains and
cyclones, etc.

4-8
months
old
serologic
ally
negative
female
calves

Note:Only serologically negative female


calves should be vaccinated with live B.
abortus strain 19 while bulls and pregnant
animals should not be vaccinated

Raksha HS+BQ

Indian
Immunologicals

Bruvax

Indian
Immunologicals

Live Brucella
abortusstrain 19 freeze
dried bacteria, each dose
40x109 organisms

2 ml., s/c
(Vial: 5 dose
freeze dried
vaccine with
10 ml sterile
ciluents)

RakshaAnthrax
(Prophylactic
only)

Indian
Immunologicals

Suspension of live spores


of attenuated noncapsulated strain ofB.
Anthracis in 50%
glycerinated saline, each
dose 1x108 viable spores

1 ml, i/m or
s/c
(Vial: 50 ml)

Sterne Vaccine

institute of
Veterinary
Preventive
Medicine, Tamil
Nadu

Live spores of highly


antigenic
nonencapsulated
avirulent Sterne strain (34
F2) of B. anthracisin
glycerine saline

1 ml, s/c

one month before grazing season or prior to the time


the disease usually occurs
Approx.
4 weeks
prior to
the time
the
disease
usually
appears

Revaccinate
after 2-3
weeks in
heavily
contaminated
areas

annual vaccination in
endemic areas
Depending upon
prevalence in a given
area, vaccination
against following
diseases may also be
taken up Anthrax

Note: Protect animals from overexertion 3 days following anthrax vaccination. Do not vaccinate the animal 60 days before slaughter
Rabies
Raksharab,
Prophylactic

Indian
Immunologicals

Tissue culture rabies


virus, CVS strain
adjuvanted with
Al(OH)3 adjuvant,
antigen potency >2.5
IU/ml

Post-exposure
therapy (PET)

In case
3 years, annual
primary
vaccination recommended
vaccination
in endemic areas
is given
below 3
months of
age, a
booster dose
should be
given at 3
months age
I-Day Zero of dog bite or within 24 hrs, II-Day 3, III-Day 7, IV-Day 14,
V- Day 28 and VI-Day 90
1 ml by
s/c or i/m
route
(Vial:
1
ml, 5 ml,
10 ml)

3 m and
above

Vaccination for Goat and Sheep in India:


Infection

Manufacturer

Primary

Booster

Dose

revaccination

Enterotoxae
mia

Raksha ET
Intervet

Given at the age


42 days. if no
ewe/dam given at
the age of 21st
day
At the age of 42

21 days
after
booster

S/c 2 ml

After 1 year before


monsoon. Before 3- 4
weeks before parturition .

Tetanus

Both are toxoid vaccine ET and TT .so can be

days
Before weaning
or before
monsoon
3 rd months

administered simultaneously
After 21
S/c
Annually
days
-

S/c 1 ml

3 years once

Goat pox
vaccine IVRI

3 rd month

1 year once

Raksha
SP/Sheep pox
vaccine (50 ml)
Indian
immunologicals /
Intervet/ Indian
immunologicals /
Intervet/IVBP
Raksha FMD

3 rd

Caudal
fold of tail
1 ml sc
1ml sc

4th months

Deep im

6 months

5 to 8 months

s/c

Once in life time

1ml Sc

Annually in endemic areas

Pastuerollosis

Raksha HS

PPR vaccine

Raksha PPR/
Tissue culture
PPR Vaccine ,
(IVRI)/ IVPM

Goat pox
Sheep Pox

FMD
Brucella

Bruvax Rev1

Anthrax

Intervet /IVBP

6 months

1 year once

Poultry vaccine Vaccination of Broilers


Vaccine Name

Age of vaccine administration

Mode of
administration

Marek's disease

1 day

SC

Newcastle/infectious bronchitis

14 21 days

Water

Infectious bursal disease

1421 days

Water

Newcastle/infectious bronchitis

5 wk

Water or coarse spray

Newcastle/infectious bronchitis

810 wk

Water or coarse spray

Encephalomyelitis

1012 wk

Wing web

Fowlpox

1012 wk

Wing web

Laryngotracheitis

1012 wk

Intraocular

Mycoplasma gallisepticumb

1014 wk

Intraocular or spray

Mycoplasma gallisepticumb

or 18 wk

Parenteral

Newcastle/infectious bronchitis

1214 wk

Water or aerosol

Newcastle/infectious bronchitis

1618 wk

Water or aerosol

Newcastle/infectious bronchitis

Every 6090 days or 18 wk

Parenteral

Poultry vaccine Vaccination of Layers


Vaccine Name

Age of vaccine Administration

Mode of
administration

Marek's diseaseb

1 day

SC

Newcastle disease

1 day or

Coarse spray

1421 days

Water or coarse spray

1 day or

Coarse spray

1421 days

Water or coarse spray

1421 days

Water

Infectious bronchitis

Infectious bursal disease

This is an example of a typical vaccination program. Individual programs are


highly variable and reflect local conditions, disease prevalence, severity of challenge,
and individual preferences.Note : See manufactures Label for mode of Administration.
Reference : mercks Veterinary Manual

IVPM vaccine production list and details of vaccine


The following are list of Vaccines Produced by IVPM
1. Black quarter
2. Haemorrhagic septicaemia
3. Enterotoxaemia
4. Anthrax
5. Sheep POX
6. Ranikhet DiseaseRDVF, RDV(kumorovs strain),
RDV (Lasota strain) and
7. Duck plague vaccine.

1.Black Quarter Vaccine (Alum precipitated)


Description:
Prepared from highly antigenic strain of clostridium chauvoei grown in anaerobic fluid
medium, inactivated by formalin and precipitated by addition of alum. Vaccination
should be done prior to monsoon in rainfall and outbreak areas and in endemic areas.

Presentation :

250 ml bottles ( 50 Doses )

Dose :
5 to 10 ml for cattle & buffaloes
depending upon the size of the animal.
5 ml for
sheep & goats
Route of Administration: Through subcutaneous
Age:

Six months and above

Immunity:

Six months

Keeping quality of Vaccine: 21 days at room temperature


Six months at 4C

2.Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Vaccine (Alum


Precipitated)
Description:
Prepared from highly antigenic strain of Pasteurella
multocida inactivated by formalin and precipitated by addition of alum.
Presentation:

250 ml bottles ( 50 Doses )

Dose: 5 to 10 ml for cattle & buffaloes depending upon the size of the animal
Route of Administration:
Age:
Immunity:

Through subcutaneous

Six months and above


Six months

Keeping quality of Vaccine:21 days at room temperature & Six months at 4C

3. Enterotoxaemia Vaccine (Sheep)

Description:
Prepared from highly toxigenic strain of clostridium perfringens type D grown in
anaerobic fluid medium, activated by trypsin, rendered sterile and atoxic by addition
of formalin and precipitated by addition of alum.
Periodical vaccination in endemic and outbreak areas

Presentation:
Dose:

250 ml bottles
Three to five ml.

Route of Administration:
Age:

Through subcutaneous

Lambs Three months and above


Pregnant ewes can safely

vaccinated
Immunity:

Six months

Keeping quality of vaccine: 21 days at room temperature


Six months at 4C

4. Anthrax Spore Vaccine (Living)


Description:
ASV is a glycerinated suspension of live spores of un-capsulated avirulent strain of
Bacillus anthracis
Periodical vaccination in endemic and outbreak areas & can be used to protect all
species of animals cattle,sheep,goat,horse,ass,elephant,pig and camel.
Presentation: 250 ml (250 doses), 100 ml (100 doses) bottles
Dose: cattle - 1 ml S/c, Sheep & goats 0.5 ml S/c
Route of Administration: Through subcutaneous
Age: Six months and above
Immunity: 10 months to one year against natural infection
Keeping quality of vaccine:21 days at room temperature Six
months at 4C
Precautions: since the vaccine contains attenuated live spores care should be taken
while vaccination

5.CELL CULTURE SHEEP POX VACCINE ( LIVING )


Description:
Cell Culture Sheep Pox Vaccine is prepared from an attenuated strain of sheep pox
virus (Ranipet Strain) grown in secondary culture of sheep thyroid cells and freeze
dried & supplied as aluminum hydroxide gel absorbed vaccine.

Presentation: 50 ml (100 doses), 100 ml (200 doses) bottles


Dose:Sheep 0.5 ml S/c
Route of Administration: subcutaneously in the external
aspect of the ear about an inch from the tip after cleaning
the area with sterile cotton wool.
Age: Lambs above 3 months of age
Immunity: confers immunity in 21 days after vaccination
and the immunity lasts for one year
Keeping quality of vaccine: should be used with in 10days from the date of dispatch &
should be transported in an Ice-Box packed with ice
Precautions:
vaccination.

i Antiseptics should not be used for cleaning the site of


ii. Care should be taken to avoid vaccine get in to blood vessel.
iii. In outbreak healthy animals alone should be vaccinated.

6.Poultry vaccines
Ranikhet DiseaseRDVF, RDVK (kumorovs strain),
RDV (Lasota strain) and
Duck plague vaccine

Description:
Egg adopted vaccines Prepared out of living ranikhet disease virus of high antigenicity
and low virulence strains by freeze drying the emulsion of embryo and fluids from
infected embryonated eggs.
Transportation of Poultry vaccines:
The vaccine should be transported on ice in thermo cool boxes.
Storage and Keeping quality:

The vaccine can be stored at -20c in deep freezer for one year.
When transported on ice and stored in freezing chamber of refrigerator , the
vaccine can be used up to 2months from the date of despatch.

FORMAT FOR FIELD VETERINARIANS


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CHAPTER12
BIOSECURITYMEASURES
TYPESOFDISINFECTANTSUSEDINANIMALDISEASECONTROL
Disinfection is the process of eliminating infectious organisms by using
chemical or physical agents. The antimicrobial agents designated as disinfectants are
sometimes used alternatively as sterilizing agents, sanitizers or antiseptics. For the most part,
disinfectants used in animal health are relatively strong, usually toxic antimicrobial or
biocidal chemicals, and are applied to contaminated surfaces. Those used in food processing
are usually less toxic and more diluted. Modern disinfectants are complex formulations of
chemicals, soaps, detergents, and compounds which improve penetration of the active
ingredients.
These include hot water, acid-anionic surfactants (substances that improve
penetration by reducing surface tension), amphoteric surfactants, bromides, chlorides,
Chlorhexidine, iodides, phenolic compounds and quaternary ammonium compounds.
Water
Water is the most important element of the HACCP concept and of the cleaning
and disinfection process. Although water is actually a cleaner rather than a disinfectant, hot
water has major disinfecting applications. Hot water is sometimes the major component of
cleaning and disinfection in abattoirs and food-processing plants, where chemical residues
must be avoided. Hot water under pressure cleans by flushing and by hydraulic impact; it
dissolves inorganic salts, emulsifies fats, washes away organic debris, and is briefly
bactericidal until the surface cools.
Ammonium hydroxide
Ammonium hydroxide is effective against oocysts of Coccidia spp., which
affect poultry and rabbits. This substance is not effective against most bacteria. To obtain

reasonable antimicrobial coverage, use of ammonium hydroxide should be followed by


general disinfection with a compound appropriate to the situation pertinent to disease
Prevalence.
Calcium oxide
When mixed with water, calcium oxide (quicklime) becomes lime wash, which
has biocidal effects on some bacteria and viruses but is not very effective against FMD virus.
Sometimes, quicklime is spread on the ground after depopulation of infected premises, but
the value of quicklime under these conditions has been questioned. Quicklime has also been
used to retard putrefaction of buried carcasses after depopulation. In these situations, it
probably has little direct effect on FMD virus.
Chlorine disinfectants
Chlorine is usually found in nature in combination with other elements. It has
bleaching and germicidal properties and is commonly used in disinfection, sanitizing and
water purification. In high concentrations, chlorine is used for sewage treatment. Chlorine
disinfectants and sanitizers are readily available, inexpensive, have a broad antimicrobial
spectrum and present minimal environmental hazards. Aqueous chlorine solutions (obtained
by dissolving hypochlorites) are rapidly bactericidal and exert virucidal effects via
mechanisms which have not yet been completely explained but which are probably related to
the destruction of essential enzyme systems. In solution, chlorine (an oxidizing agent) reacts
readily with metallic ions, various radicals and organic materials. After these reactions, the
remaining active chlorine rapidly interacts with pathogens in a disinfecting capacity. Aqueous
chlorine disinfectants have largely been replaced by organic chlorine compounds. Bacteria,
viruses and spores vary in their relative resistance to chlorine disinfectants .Protozoa also
have varying sensitivities; for example, Giardia spp. are affected but not Cryptosporidia
spp.
Chlorine disinfectants are very effective in the absence of organic material.
Hypochlorites are still commonly used in animal health programmes. They include sodium
hypochlorite (obtained by electrolysis of salt) and calcium hypochlorite (chlorinated lime,
bleaching powder or chloride of lime). Hypochlorites have broad spectrums of
antibacterial and antiviral action, and are compatible with most detergents. However,
these substances are corrosive, are easily neutralized by organic material and decompose
readily.

Chlorhexidine
Chlorhexidine and its analogs are commonly used at concentrations below 4% as
skin cleaners, teat dips and antiseptics; they are also used for cold sterilization of surgical
instruments and for disinfecting equipment, barns and buildings. While Chlorhexidine is not
sporicidal, it is useful against fungi, Gram-positive bacteria and, to a much lesser extent,
against viruses and Gram-negative bacteria (some of which are resistant to Chlorhexidine).
Chlorhexidine retains some activity in the presence of small amounts of uncontaminated
organic material (e.g. milk, serum or fish meal) but is ineffective when gross faecal
contamination is present. The low toxicity of Chlorhexidine makes it useful in combination
with other disinfectants. Chlorhexidine has broad applications in cleaning dairy equipment
and in aquaculture.
Iodine and iodine-based disinfectants
Many forms of iodine find common use in animal health and food-processing
disinfection. In nature, iodine is always found in combination with other elements. It is
present at high levels in seaweed, which is the most common commercial source; iodine is
also found in extractable levels in sea water and other brines, and in nitrate deposits (where it
exists as iodates). In the pure state, iodine is a soft black crystalline solid. Low levels of
iodine are essential to mammalian life, and deficiency results in goiter. In great excess, iodine
can cause acute or chronic toxicity. Aqueous iodine (Lugol's solution) or alcoholic iodine
solutions (tinctures of iodine) are commonly used as antiseptics.
Iodophors
Iodophors are disinfectants formed by combinations of iodine with various carrier
compounds. These release iodine in an acid medium and have disinfectant properties which
affect bacteria, viruses and some spores . Iodophors are used for general disinfection and
cleaning, bovine teat dips, and surgical scrubs. Hard water and the presence of large amounts
of organic material reduce the activity of iodophors, but these disinfectants can function
against salmobnella, E.coli infection, and pasteurella infection since it is bacteriocidal.
Quaternary ammonium compounds
Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs; also called 'quats') are natural
biochemicals involved in the transmission of neuromuscular impulses in mammals.
Synthesized QACs are surface-active cations which have sanitizing/disinfecting and mild

detergent actions. They act as one-step cleaner/sanitizers in aqueous solution or when


combined with detergents. QACs are generally more effective in slightly alkaline media.
They are widely used in medical facilities, in food-processing and food-handling
establishments, and in agricultural settings. In appropriat e dilutions, QACs are effective,
non-toxic, biodegradable disinfectants. Even in the presence of hard water and/or moderat e
amounts of organic material, they have a broad spectrum of antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral
and sporicidal activities. QACs lack efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Sodium hydroxide
Sodium hydroxide sodium hydroxide (lye, caustic soda or soda ash) in a 2%
solution was the recommended disinfectant for anthrax; 2% lye was also formerly used to
disinfect equipment, animal conveyances, surfaces and water-resistant clothing when FMD
was diagnosed. In this concentration, sodium hydroxide is also effective against many other
viral and bacterial diseases, and has been used against fowl cholera and pullorum disease .
Phenolic compounds
Pure phenol (carbolic acid) is rarely used in disinfection. However, related
compounds are common components of disinfectants and are frequently used in disinfection
of horse facilities. They are effective against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive
bacteria, yeasts, fungi and some viruses. Synthetic phenols are usually ineffective against
bacterial spores. The antiviral activity of different phenols varies. In general, enveloped and
naked lipophilic viruses are more susceptible to these disinfectants. Unlike most other
phenols, the 2-phenylphenols are effective against the tubercle bacilli. Although the strong
odour produced by phenols serves as a warning of their deteriorating effect on plastics and
rubber, their extremely irritating qualities and their toxicity, it is of the utmost importance to
emphasize that phenols can be fatal if swallowed and that toxic doses can be absorbed
through the skin. Swine and cats are particularly sensitive to the phenols and even small
doses can be fatal. Nonetheless, these are commonly-used and highly-effective general
disinfectants.
Inorganic acids
The inorganic acids most commonly used in animal disease control are sulfuric
acid and hydrochloric acid. Both of these are effective against FMD virus but are also highly
toxic if swallowed, highly irritating to the skin and eyes, and very corrosive to metals. Thus
these acids are used only in very limited situations.

Organic acids
A number of organic acids with bactericidal and mild viricidal properties have
disinfectant applications in animal health and food processing, as they are less toxic and less
corrosive than the inorganic (metallic) acids mentioned above. Acetic acid is readil
available, being present (4%) in vinegar. At 2%, acetic acid can significantly reduce levels of
FMD virus on contaminated surfaces, and is used to reduce bacterial levels in meat packing
plants. Acetic, citric, lactic, and formic and propionic acids are sometimes used in meat and
poultry packing plants, and in calf and pig barns. These acids have also been added to animal
feeds to reduce levels of Salmonella contamination
Formaldehyde
The natural form of formaldehyde is a gas. However, formaldehyde is more readily
available as a 40% aqueous solution called 'formalin'. Gaseous formaldehyde is used for the
fumigation of buildings, rooms or vehicles which can be sealed. Fumigation with
formaldehyde is effective against most viruses and bacteria, including the acid-fast
Mycobacteria. Formaldehyde gas is relatively unstable and can sometimes explode. It is
difficult to achieve an even distribution and penetration of formaldehyde gas throughout
buildings, which may lead to incomplete effect (13). For formaldehyde fumigation to be
complete, the temperature must be above 55F (13C) and relative humidity must be above
70%. Spraying with hot water is sometimes necessary to achieve these conditions. For
fumigation purposes, formaldehyde gas can be produced by oxidizing formalin with
potassium permanganate, by heating paraformaldehyde, by mechanically generating a mist of
formalin, or by applying complex mixtures from which formaldehyde is slowly released after
application. Formaldehyde fumigation is hazardous and must be carefully supervised. A 1-5%
formalin solution is sometimes used to disinfect buildings or as a prophylactic and
therapeutic foot bath for foot rot in sheep and cattle. The use of formaldehyde in disinfectant
situations is declining, due to the strong, irritant odour, corrosiveness, fibrolytic properties
and toxicity.
Glutaraldehyde
Glutaraldehyde, which has been used for cold liquid sterilization of surgical
instruments, is sometimes still used to disinfect surfaces. As with formaldehyde, the use of
glutaraldehyde is diminishing in favour of newer products.

Sodium carbonate
Sodium carbonate, also known as washing soda, has been used in a hot solution
(180F [82C]) for disinfecting buildings which have housed animals with FMD. This
substance lacks efficacy against some bacteria and most viruses, including Newcastle disease
virus. Sodium carbonate is more effective as a cleanser than as a disinfectant. In case of FMD
outbreak 4 percent sodium carbonate can be used as disinfectant.
LIST OF DISINFECTANT FOR DECONTAMINATION:
Disinfecta
nt group

Form

Strength
Usual
Final
dilution
As
appropri
ate

Soaps and
detergents

Solids or
liquids

Sodium
hypochlorite
NaOCI

Conc.
liquid (10
12%
available
chlorine)

1:5

Calcium
hypochlorite
Ca(OCI)2

Solid

30 g/litre

Vikron

Powder

20 g/litre

Contac
t time

10 min

23%
available
chlorine
(20
000&ndas
h;30 000
ppm)

1030
min

Applications
and virus
category
Thorough cleaning
is an integral part
of effective
decontamination.
Use for category A
viruses.
Use for virus
categories A, B,
and C. Effective
for most
applications
except when in
the presence of
organic material.
Less stable in
warm, sunny
conditions above
15C.

1030
min
23%
available
chlorine
(20
000&ndas
h;30 000
ppm) 2%
(w/v)

10 min

Sodium
hydroxide

Pellets

20 g/litre

2% (w/v)

10 min

Sodium

Powder

40 g/litre

4% (w/v)

10 min

Excellent
disinfectant active
against all virus
families.

Very effective
against virus
categories A,B and
C. Do not use in
the presence of
aluminium and
derived alloys.
Recommended for

carbonate
anhydrous
(Na2CO3
washing
soda
(Na2CO3.10H
2O)

use in the
presence of high
concentrations of
organic material
Crystals

100
g/litre

10% (w/v)

30 min

Hydrochlori
c acid

Conc. acid
(10 Molar)

1:50

2% (w/v)

10 min

Citric acid

Powder

2 g/litre

0.2% (w/v)

30 min

Glutaraldeh
yde

Conc.
solution

as
appropri
ate

2% (w/v)

1030
min

Formalin

40%
formaldeh
yde

8%(w/v)

1030
min

1:12

Used only when


better
disinfectants not
available.
Corrosive for
many metals and
concrete.
Safe for clothes
and body
decontamination.
Especially useful
for FMD virus
decontamination.
Excellent
disinfectant
effective against
virus categories
A,B and C.
Disinfectant;
releases irritating,
toxic gas.

*List A,B, & C refer in Disease List Code

Reference: OIE Manual

CHAPTER-13

National Animal Disease Reporting System (NADRS)


The National Animal Disease Reporting System, in short NADRS, is a new Centrally
Sponsored Scheme proposed for implementation during last three years of the 11th Five Year
Plan with cent percent Central assistance.
India has a large animal population comprising, as per Livestock Census (2003), 485 million
of livestock and a one-time count of 489 million poultry. Livestock also plays an important
role in Indias economy, contributing (along with fisheries) 5.21% to the countrys GDP and
31.6% to the agriculture GDP in 2007-08. The livestock sector has immense potential. It has
emerged as the key driver of agricultural growth in the country.

The biggest impediment to growth of this sector, however, is the large-scale prevalence of
diseases such as Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (HS), Black
Quarter (BQ) in cattle, Enterotoxaemia, Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) & Sheep-Goat Pox
in sheep and goats and Swine Fever in pigs, which drastically affect the productivity of
animals. The presence of animal diseases also deters domestic and foreign investment in the
livestock sector. These diseases not only wreck havoc on the existing stock but also constrain
market access to our livestock sector, in spite of the fact that we have ample scope to
participate in the global trade.
The economic impact of the diseases in livestock results from both morbidity and mortality
and the consequent production losses. This includes the direct losses due to mortality, reduced
production in terms of milk, meat, wool, hide and skins, as well as indirect loss due to
abortions, subsequent infertility, sterility, and deterioration of semen quality. Controlling
animal diseases is of upmost important for to prevent these losses and livestock industry to
progress for the benefit of the livestock farmers.
At present, an animal disease is primarily recorded by the veterinary doctor working in a
Government hospital / dispensary on the basis of clinical diagnosis. This information is
passed on to the Taluka / Block level and then to the District and the State veterinary
authorities. Disease information is also generated from the disease diagnostic laboratories at
the District, State or regional level on the basis of laboratory diagnosis. Finally, information
from State level is transmitted to the Central Government, i.e., the Department of Animal
Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries (DADF) in New Delhi. The DADF notifies the World
Animal Health Organization (OIE) and other international organizations, as appropriate.
The present system of animal disease reporting is not satisfactory for the following reasons:
The disease reporting is neither timely nor complete. As a result of reliance on
postal means of communication, the reports and returns take considerable time and some are
also lost in transit. Hence, the compiled information does not represent true picture of the
disease situation at any given point of time.
The veterinary services available in the country are grossly inadequate. As a
result, a large portion of the livestock owners do not have access to the Government
veterinary services. These people rely on either the traditional systems of veterinary medicine
or the private veterinary services. These incidences of animal diseases remain out of the
reporting system. Their number is believed to be significant. In the prevailing situation, many

times animal diseases assume serious proportion before control and containment steps can be
initiated, thereby causing avoidable social and economic costs on the livestock owners and
the countrys economy.
In order to bring about desired change to the existing situation, a computerized
system of animal disease reporting is being introduced, linking each Taluka / Block, District
and State Headquarters to a Central Disease Reporting and Monitoring Unit at the DADF in
New Delhi. The diagrams given below depict the NADRS contemplated diagrammatically,
along with various agencies who would be expected to contribute data to the system and its
transmission to the Central Monitoring Unit in the DADF at New Delhi.
The reporting system envisaged will enable the Block, District and State animal
health officials to report the disease information and render reports and returns prescribed in
this regard via internet. The system will be so designed as to assure secure data transfer and
confidentiality of information. At the apex level, NADRS will compile and generate animal
disease information for the country as a whole. The users will have access to the information

as per permissions in consonance with their role and responsibilities envisaged under the
system. This computerized system, proposed to be called National Animal Disease Reporting
System (in short NADRS), will enable fuller and timely reporting of the animal disease
situation in the country, enabling its effective management.

Central Monitoring Unit (CMU)

Regional / National Laboratory


State Monitoring Unit at AH Directorate

State Laboratory / Veterinary College

District Unit
District Laboratory

Block Veterinary Hospital


Veterinary Dispensary/Hospital

NGOs
Stockman/sub-centers

Local bodies
Farmers/ Livestock Owner

Private Veterinary Practitioners

As a result of the information that would emerge from the NADRS, it would
be possible to develop disease forecasting models, leading to development of disease
prevention strategies. As the proposed scheme aims at effective monitoring the occurrence of
livestock diseases with a view to enabling their early control, it will result in improving the
livestock health in the country. By the very nature of the benefits that would accrue, these
cannot be quantified in concrete terms. There is, however, no doubt that implementation of
the scheme will yield immediate benefits to the livestock owners and to the economy by way
of better health status of animals, prevention of losses due to their morbidity and mortality
and improvement in the quality of their products. The benefits likely to accrue to livestock
owners and to the economy may be summarized below:Benefits to livestock owners

Better management of diseases of their livestock


Availability of veterinary service
Increased economic gain from higher productivity of animals
Improved market acceptability of their livestock products

Benefits to animal husbandry administration

Availability of a common channel for dissemination of animal disease


information to all stakeholders
Availability of SMS-based instant alert system for outbreak of diseases,
spread of diseases, remedial measures and expert advice, enabling
prompt control of diseases
Availability of enhanced decision support system with GIS integration
for effective and timely decision making

Benefits to economy

Increased livestock production and productivity


Improved market acceptability of domestic livestock products in
international trade
Saving of costs otherwise incurred for treatment of animals
Fillip to the growth of the livestock sector, leading to increased
employment generation and higher availability of animal protein to the
population

In the beginning the users may find the data entry forms exhaustive, but this is because
these are designed to capture all details about the disease reporting. If filled properly,
in long run these will be beneficial in the future activities like generating detail reports
without going through the manual exercise of referring different registers maintained
for it. It would create a very good data bank about animal diseases which can be
further used for analytical purposes.

CHAPTER -14
ASSISTANCE TO STATE FOR CONTROL OF ANIMAL DISEASES (ASCAD)

A Centrally Sponsored Project with 75% Central & 25% State Assistance. To be
implemented in the state during 10th plan.

Objectives
1. To control emerging diseases, exotic diseases and existing diseases of the State.
2. Training of field veterinarians as well as field Para-veterinarians.
3. Surveillance and Monitoring of diseases and preparation of disease forecasting
model
Information and Communication campaign and Community participation
Immunization of animals against economically important diseases like Foot and
Mouth Disease (in areas not covered under FMD-CP), Haemorrhagic septicaemia, Anthrax,
Black quarter, Peste des petits Ruminants (PPR), Enterotoxaemia, Sheep & Goat Pox, Swine
fever, Ranikhet diseases, Marek,s diseaseand Duck plague.
Earlier the diseases covered were only of zoonotic importance. Now the thrust is
also on preventive and curative thus leading to control and eradication of diseases, especially
the transmissible diseases having the potential for very serious and rapid spread irrespective
of national borders, which are of serious socio-economic or public health consequence and of
major importance in the international trade of animals. The activities to be covered under this
component are given as under:
Strengthening / modernization of Biological Production Units/ State Disease
Diagnostic Laboratories. This will include minor alteration / modification of the existing
laboratories / units, purchase of tools and equipments, Computers, Photocopier, Air
conditioner, Fax etc. State-wise number of Biological Production Unit/ Disease Diagnostic
laboratory to be strengthened / modernized
Strategic immunization of Livestock and Poultry against economically imporrtant
diseases. Strategic immunization would depend essentially on the epidemiology of the
disease in various States. /Uts. And the tools available to control and eventually eradicate the
disease. This will include expenditure on cost of vaccine and diagnostic, maintenance of cold
chain & Transportation.
Disease Surveillance, Monitoring and Forecasting.
This will include collection of information on the incidence of various livestock and poultry
diseases from States and Union Territories and compiling the same for the whole country. The

information so compiled is disseminated in the form of a bilingual (English and Hindi)


Monthly Animal Disease Surveillance Bulletin to all the States and Union Territories and also
Organizations like Office International Des Epizooties (OIE).
Information and Communication campaign to ensure that the livestock holders to
come forward to have their animal vaccinated. Any other emergency measure to tackle
disease situation in the event of occurrence of emerging and exotic diseases.
No money is being provided for delivery system or for the manpower to undertake
above activities, which is to be borne by the State Governments.

CHAPTER -15
Physiological Parameters & Probable Diseases in Animals
1 . Animal Disease and Body Temperature Chart
Sr.
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13
14
15
16
17
18

Disease

Temperature

19.

Heat stroke

103-109F

Anaplasmosis
Anthrax
Babesiosis
Black quarter
Blue tongue in sheep
Bovine ephimeral fever
Bovine malignant
catarrh
Bovine viral diarrhea
Braxy in sheep
Calf pneumonia
Camel pox
Contagious bovine
Pleuropneumonia
Fern poisoning
Fog fever
Foot and mouth disease
Foot rot
. Glassers disease in
pig
Hemorrhagic
septicaemia

<105F
107F
106F
106F
105-106F
105-106F
106-107F

20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

Hog cholera/swine fever


Infectious equine anemia
Meningoencephalitis
Equine influenza
Louping ill in sheep
Leptospirosis
Listeriosis

105-107F
105F
105.8-107.6F
101-106F
107F
105-107F
105F

105-106F
>107F
104-105F
103-105F
105F

27.
28.
29.
30.
31.

97-101F
103F
105-107F
103-105F
105-107F

105-109F
106-108F
104-106F
103-104F
104-107F

32.
33.
34.
35.
36.

Milk fever
Pyelonephritis
Rinderpest
Rabies
Salmonellosis (calves and
pigs)
Sheep pox
Strangles
Swine influenza
Theileriosis
Toxoplasmosis

>105F
103-105F
107F
106F
(pigs) 104-107F

106-107F

Gait and Diesase

GAIT

DISEASE/DISORDER

Slow wobble gait

All febrile and Septecaemic diesease

Painful limb movements and


disinclination to move

Laminitis, Pododermatitis and Foot rot

Stiff gait with incoordination

Azoturia

4
5

High stepping movements with


rigidity of limbs
Walking in circlae (Circling
Disease)

Tetanus
Coenurosis(gid); Otitis: Listeriosis

Ataxia (Incoordination gait)

Cerebello-Vestibular Disorder

Stumbling gait

Encephalitis, narcotic poisoning.

Animal taking off its hind legs


from the ground suddenly with a
jerk and brings it back with extra
rapiddity

Stringhalt (Luxation of Petella)

Enzootic ataxia, Sway back

Hypocuprosis (Copper Defeciency)

10

Stiff painful gait with septicaemia

Black Quarter in Calf

11

Goose stepping gait

Pantothenic acid defeciency in Pigs

12

Aimless forward movements


ignoring the obstacles (Walking
Disease)

Hepatic insufficiency in Cattle

13

Stiff gait holding the whole body


rigidly

Traumatic pericarditis in Cattle

14

High stepping hacking gait

Louping ill in sheep

15

Hyper extension of hock during


walk

Hip dysplasia in Dog and Cat

16

Dropped hock in dog and Cat

Rupture of achillis tendon

17

Weight bearing during walk with


partial flexion of stifle joint

Luxation of patella in Dog and Cat

18

Knuckling of fetlock

Neuritis, Nerve Paralysis

Posture changes and Diesase

Posture
A Cow sits on sternum and the head rests
on the flank

Disease/Disorder
Milk Fever (Hypocalcaemia)

A Cow having no defects in eating,


defaecation or Urination but unable to
stand and remains in sternal recumbancy

Downer Cow Syndrome

A Cow in sternal recumbency with hind


limbs extended behind in a "Frog
like"Posture

Bilateral Hip dysplasia

A Cow lies with extende forelegs

Inflammation of the extensor tendon


of Carpal Joints

A Cow Stands with crossing of the fore


limbs

Painful condition due to fracture of


third phalanx

Sinking of intact pelvis on the left side of


a Cow

Luxation of left Hip Joint

Frog like" Posture in Coe with hind legs


flexed

Obturator paralysis

Frog like" Posture in Coe with extended


hind limbs

Rupture of abductor muscles

A Calf unable to extend the fetlock joint

Contracture of the flexor tendon

10

A Cow keeping on the carpal joints and


unable to stand

Calcinosis condition of nutrional


origin

11

Abducted elbow with extension of head


and neck accomanied with mouth
breathing in farm animals

Pneumonitis

12

Abducted elbow with extension of head


and neck with brisket oedema

Traumatic pericarditis

13

A Cow standing in arched back condition


with tensed abdomen

Percarditis

14

A Cow holding its tail in upward


direction by itself

Painful anus; Proctitis

15

A Calf in lateral recumbency with the


head hold in opisthotonus along with
tono-clonic contractions of limbs

Hypomagnesaemic - Tetany

16

A Cow placed in stiff manners with its


four legs abducted from the body with
locked jaw condition and rigidity of ears.

Tetanus.

17

A Male Dog urinating like a bitch

Cystitis, Urolithiasis

18

A Dog sits erect for a long period to


relieve respiratory distress.

Pneumonitis, Pleurisy

19

A Dog showing arching of its back


(Kyphosis)

Acute nephritis

20

Dog Schooting

Whip worm infestation

21

A Goat & Sheep may adopt a posture


keeping the head in elevated direction
with erect ears as if listiening higher
sound.

Pregnancy Toxaemia.

22

A goat may hold its head in upward


direction as if looking at the sky (Star
Gazing- Posture)

Polyoencephalomalacia (Thiamine
Defeciancy): Gid

23

A Sheep and Goat lie in "Frog like"


posture

Parurient Hypocalcaemia.

24

A Kid or Lamb unable to extend the knee


due to swelling of the carpal joint.

Infective Arthritis

25

Erect posture in sheep with the


appearance of exaggerated alertness.

Scrapie.

26

Abnormal twist in neck(Torticollis)

Due to deformities of cervical


vertebrae, muscles, tendon or nerves

27

Abnormal posture with abducted front


legs and scapulae protruding over the line
of withers.

Muscular dystrophy.

Common Names for the Sex, Young, Group and Birthing of Animals.
Animal
Antelop
1 e

Male

Female

Young

Group

Giving
Birth

Buck

Doe

Kid

Herd

Kidding

2 Bear

Boar

Sow

Sleuth

Cubbing

3 Bird

Cock/Stag

Hen

Cub
Fledging/
Nesting

Flock

Hatching

4 Bison

Bull

Cow

Calf

Herd

Calving

5 Bobcat

Tom

Lioness/Queen

Kitten

Litter

Littering

6 Cat

Tom

Pussy/Queen

Kitten

Clowder

Queening

7 Cattle

Cow/Heifer

Calf

Herd/Drove

Calving

8 Chicken

Bull
Rooster/
Cock

Hen/Pullet

Chick

Flock

Hatching

9 Deer

Buck/Stag

Doe

Fawn

Herd

Fawning

10 Dog

Dog

Pup/Puppy

Kennel

Whelping

11 Donkey

Jackass

Bitch
Jennet/
Jennyass

Colt

Herd

Foaling

12 Duck
Elephan
13 t

Drake

Duck

Duckling

Flock

Hatching

Bull

Cow

Calf

Herd

Calving

14 Fox

Reynard

Vixen

Cub/Pup

Earth/Skulk

Pupping

15 Giraffe

Bull

Cow

Calf

Herd

Calving

S.N

16 Goat

Billylbuck

Nanny

Kid

Trip

Kidding

17 Goose
Hog/Swi
18 ne

Gander

Goose

Gosling

Gaggle/Flock

Hatching

Boar

Sow/Gilt

Piglet/Shoat
Foal/
Colt (male) /
Filly (female)

Herd/Drove

Farrowing

Stable/Herd

Foaling

Joey

Troop/Herd

Cub

Pride/Flock

Whelping

Chick

Flock

Hatching

Howlet/Owlet

Flock

19 Horse
Kangar
20 oo

Stallion/
Stud
Buck/
Bommer

21 Lion

Lion/Tom

Doe/Flyer
Lioness/She
lion

22 Ostrich

Cock

Hen

23 Owl

Owl

24 Ox

Steer

Cow

Stot

Herd/drove

Calving

25 Rabbit

Buck

Doe

Kitten

Colony

Kindling

26 Rat

Buck

Doe

27 Seal

Bull

Cow

28 Sheep

Buck/Ram

Ewe/Dam

Pup
Lamb/Lambk
in

29 Turkey

Tom

Hen

30 Walrus

Bull

Cow

Mare/Dam

Colony
Herd/Harem/
Rookery
Flock/Hurtle

Lambing

Poult

Flock

Hatching

Cub

Herd

Adapted from Merck Veterinaty Manual. 7th Edition

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Species
Livestock
Ass
Cattle
Goat
Horse,Heavy
Horse, Light

Days
365
280-290
148-156
333-345
330-337

1
2
3

Pig
Sheep
Pets
Cat
Dog
Guinea pig
Hamster
Mouse
Rabbit
Rat
Fur Animals
Chinchilla
Ferret
Fisher

105-115
42
338 358

4
5

Fox
Marten

49-55
236 274

6
7
8

Pine Marten
Mink
Muskrat

220 265
40-75
28 -30

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

112-120
144-150
59 68
56-68
58-75
15 -18
19 31
30-35
21 30

Pregnancy period for Animals

Hematologic Reference Ranges


Conventional
(USA) Units

SI Units

Dog

Cat

Cow

Horse

Pig

Sheep

PCV (hematocrit)

102 L/L

3557(2534)

3045(2434)

2446

2743

3643
(2635)

2745

Hemoglobin (Hgb)

g/dL

10 g/L

1219

1015

815

1016

913

9--15

Red blood cells

106/L

1012g/L

5.07.9

5.010.0

5.010.0

6.010.4

57

915

Reticulocytes

01.0

00.6

012

Mean corpuscular
volume

fL

fL

6677

3955

4060

3749

5262

2840

Mean corpuscular
Hgb

Pg

pg

21.026.2

1317

1117

13.7
18.2

1724

812

Mean corpuscular
Hgb concentration

g/dL

10 g/L

32.036.3

3036

3036

35.3
39.3

2934

3134

Platelets

103/L

109/L

211621

300800

100800

117256

200500

25075

White blood cells

10 /L

10 /L

5.014.1

5.519.5

4.012.0

5.612.1

1122

412

Neutrophils

5885

4564

1533

5270

2070

1050

103/L

109/L

2.912.0

2.512.5

0.64.0

2.98.5

215

0.76.0

03

02

02

01

04

(segmented)
Neutrophils
(band)
Lymphocytes
Monocytes

10 /L

10 /L

00.45

00.3

00.1

00.1

00.8

821

2736

6263

2142

3575

4075

103/L

109/L

0.42.9

1.57.0

2.57.5

1.25.1

3.816.5

29

210

05

08

06

010

06

Eosinophils

Basophils

10 /L

10 /L

0.11.4

00.9

00.9

00.7

01

00.75

09

04

020

07

015

010

103/L

109/L

01.3

00.8

02.4

00.8

01.5

01

01

01

02

02

03

03

103/L

109/L

00.1

00.2

00.2

00.3

00.5

00.3

serum Biochemical Reference Ranges


Measure
Units
Dog
ALT
u/L
10109
Amylase
u/L
2261,063
Alk phos
AST
Creatine kinase
GGT
LDH
SDH
Bicarbonate
Bilirubin
Calcium
Chloride
Cholesterol

u/L
u/L
u/L
u/L
u/L
u/L
mEq/L
mg/dL
mg/dL
mEq/L
mg/dL

1114
1315
52368
1.09.7
0236
3.17.6
1724
00.3
9.111.7
110124
135278

Cat
2597
5501,458
045
738
69214
1.812
58120
2.46.1
1724
00.1
8.711.7
115130
71156

Cow
6.935
4198
18153
60125
0350
617.4
309938
4.315.3
2030
01.6
8.011.4
99107
62193

Horse
2.721
47188
70227
160412
60330
632
112456
18
2430
03.2
10.213.4
98109
71142

Pig
2247
4488
41176
1555
66489
3152
160425
0.54.9
1827
00.5
9.311.5
97106
81134

Sheep
1544
140270

Goat
1552

27156
49123
7.7101
2044
83476
3.521
2027
00.5
9.311.7
101113
4490

61283
66230
1648
2050
79265
9.321

0.10.2
9.011.6
100112
65136

Creatinine
Glucose
Magnesium
Phosphorus
Potassium
Protein
Albumin
Globulin
Sodium
Urea nitrogen

mg/dL
mg/dL
mg/dL
mg/dL
mEq/L
g/dL
g/dL
g/dL
mEq/L
mg/dL

0.51.7
76119
1.62.4
2.95.3
3.95.1
5.47.5
2.33.1
2.44.4
142152
828

0.92.2
60120
1.72.6
3.06.1
3.76.1
6.07.9
2.83.9
2.65.1
146156
1934

0.52.2
40100
1.52.9
5.68.0
3.64.9
6.77.5
2.53.8
3.03.5
136144
1025

0.42.2
62134
1.42.3
1.54.7
2.94.6
5.67.6
2.64.1
2.64.0
128142
1127

0.82.3
66116
2.33.5
5.59.3
4.46.5
5.88.3
2.34.0
3.96.0
139153
8.225

0.92.0
4481
2.02.7
4.07.3
4.36.3
5.97.8
2.73.7
3.25.0
142160
1026

0.71.5
4876
2.12.9
3.79.7
3.85.7
6.17.5
2.33.6
2.74.4
137152
13.26

CHAPTER 16
DRUSGS AND DOSAGE
Please copy and paste the pages from no.96 to no.100