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# Inverse Circular Functions and Equations Involving Them

Lecture 26

(IMath, UP)

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(IMath, UP)

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## Recall: Circular functions are not one-to-one

We restrict each of their domains such that:
the circular function is one-to-one on the restricted domain
the range of the restricted circular function is the same

(IMath, UP)

## Inverse Circular Functions

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Definition
Inverse sine function:
For any x 2 [ 1, 1],
y = sin

x , x = sin y, y 2

i
,
2 2

h i
,
2 2

dom sin

(IMath, UP)

: [ 1, 1]

ran sin

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1. sin

p !
3
2
y = sin

y=
3
1
2. sin 1
2
y = sin
y=

(IMath, UP)

p !
p
h
3
3
) sin y =
, y2
2
2

1
2

) sin y =

h
1
, y2
2

## Inverse Circular Functions

i
,
2 2

i
,
2 2

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3. sin

4. sin

5. sin

p !
2
=
2

0=0

2
6. sin 1 2: undefined
( 1) =

(IMath, UP)

## Inverse Circular Functions

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Definition
Inverse cosine function:
For any x 2 [ 1, 1],
1

y = cos

x , x = cos y, y 2 [0, ]

dom cos

(IMath, UP)

: [ 1, 1]

ran cos

= [0, ]

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1. cos

p !
3
2

y = cos

p !
p
3
3
) cos y =
, y 2 [0, ]
2
2

y=
6
p !
2
3
=
2
4

2. cos

3. cos

1(

1) =

1
2
1
4. cos
=
2
3

5. cos 1 0 =
2

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## The other inverse circular functions are defined similarly:

,
2 2

y = tan

x , x = tan y, x 2

, y2

y = cot

x , x = cot y, x 2

, y 2 (0, )

n o
x , x = sec y, x 2 ( 1, 1] [ [1, +1), y 2 [0, ] \
2
h i
y = csc 1 x , x = csc y, x 2 ( 1, 1] [ [1, +1), y 2
,
\ {0}
2 2
y = sec

## The sin 1 , cos 1 , tan 1 , . . . functions are also denoted

Arcsin, Arccos, Arctan, . . ..

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y=

y=

dom tan

(IMath, UP)

ran tan

,
2 2
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y=

dom cot

(IMath, UP)

ran cot

= (0, )

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## Inverse secant function:

( 1, )

y=

(1, 0)

dom sec

(IMath, UP)

= ( 1, 1] [ [1, +1)

ran sec

= [0, ] \

n o
2

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## Inverse cosecant function:

(1,

( 1,

dom csc

(IMath, UP)

)
2

)
2

= ( 1, 1] [ [1, +1)

ran csc

h i
,
\ {0}
2 2

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sin

1,

tan

1,

csc

cos 1 , cot
0

1,

sec

p !
3

tan 1
=
3
6

tan 1 ( 1) =
4
p
5
cot 1
3 =
6

Arccot 0 =
2

(IMath, UP)

sec

sec

2 =

3
4

2
2) =
3
p

Arccsc 2 =
4
p !
2 3
csc 1
=
3

1(

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Recall: (f
Thus,
sin
cos
tan
cot
sec
csc
Circ

## f )(x) = x for every x 2 dom f

h i
,
2 2
1 (cos x) = x for every x 2 [0, ]

1 (tan x) = x for every x 2
,
2 2
1 (cot x) = x for every x 2 (0, )
n o
1 (sec x) = x for every x 2 [0, ] \
h i2
1 (csc x) = x for every x 2
,
\ {0}
2 2

(IMath, UP)

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tan
=
12 12

7
7
cos 1 cos
=
8
8

5
5
5 h i
sin 1 sin
6=
since
2
/
,
6
6
6
2 2

1
1 1
Rather, sin
sin
= sin
=
6
2
6
h i
Note that 2
, .
6
2 2
tan

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## In general, to obtain Circ 1 (Circ ), find in the restricted domain of

Circ such that Circ = Circ , so that:
Circ

(Circ ) = Circ

(Circ ) =

sin

1,

tan

1,

csc

cos 1 , cot
0

1,

sec

csc

csc 3
5

= csc

csc 2
5

sec

sec 8
7

= sec

sec 6
7

tan

tan 8
11

cos

cos 19
10

(IMath, UP)

2
5
6
7

3
11

10

## Inverse Circular Functions

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Recall: (f

1 )(x)

Thus,
1

sin(sin
cos(cos
tan(tan

1 x)

cot(cot

1 x)

sec(sec

1 x)

csc(csc

1 x)

x) = x for every x 2 [ 1, 1]

1 x)

Circ(Circ

## = x for every x 2 dom f

= x for every x 2 [ 1, 1]
= x for every x 2

= x for every x 2

## = x for every x 2 ( 1, 1] [ [1, +1)

= x for every x 2 ( 1, 1] [ [1, +1)

(IMath, UP)

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cos cos

tan(tan

cos sin

1 2
3
1(
1

(IMath, UP)

2
3

4)) = 4

= cos

3
2

1
2

## Inverse Circular Functions

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Evaluate: sin cos
Let = cos

3
5

3
5

. Then, cos =

cos2 =

## Alternative Solution: Take x =

p
p
y = 52 ( 3)2 = 16 = 4
sin =

3
5,

q
1

2,

9
25

.
=

16
25

4
5

3, r = 5.

4
5

(IMath, UP)

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## Evaluate: tan csc

1(

5)

tan

1 2
3

p
Let = csc 1 (
5), = tan 1 23 .
p

2
csc =
5, 2
2 , 0 , tan = 3 ,
tan tan
1 + tan tan
p
For : take r = 5, y = 1.
tan(

)x=
tan(

2 0, 2

)=

1
2

1 = 2 ) tan =

)=

1
2

1+

(IMath, UP)

2
3
1
2

2
3

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cos

x
4

x
4

+ tan

p !
3
= cot
3

10

=
6
2
x
1
cos
= +
4
6
2
x 2
cos 1
=
4
3
x
2
= cos
4
3

1
x=4
2
x=

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3
4

tan

(x

1(

2) =

2)

tan

1 (x

2) = csc

1(

2)

3
+ = tan 1 (x
4
6
11
= tan 1 (x
12

But ran tan 1 =
,
.
2 2

2)
2)

No solution

(IMath, UP)

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1

(x)

cos

1 (x)

= cos 1 x.
h i
Then sin = x, 2
, , cos
2 2

= +
6

sin = sin
+
6

6
6
p
1
3
x = (x) +
sin
2
2
Let = sin

Since

x,

2 [0, ], sin
(IMath, UP)

p
1

cos2

2 [0, ].

= x,

x2

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p
1
3p
x = (x) +
1 x2
2
2
p p
2x = x + 3 1 x2
p p
x = 3 1 x2
x2 = 3(1
x2 = 3
4x2 = 3
3
x2 =
4
x=

x2 )

3x2

3
2

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Check:
p

p
3
3
x=
: sin 1
2
2
p
3
x=
: sin 1
2
extraneous

(IMath, UP)

cos 1
=
2
3
p !
3
cos 1
2

= X
6
6
p !
3

=
2
3

5
=
6

7
6

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