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AlissaDavies

Education3602Assignment3:PersonalStrategyToolbox
Exceptionality
Name

Definition &
AB Educ. Code

Characteristics &/or Observable Behaviors

Teaching Strategies &


Resources

Links &/or Sources

Learning
Disabled

Learning disabilities
include various
disorders that may
affect the acquisition,
organization, retention,
understanding, or use of
verbal or nonverbal
information.
Learning disabilities
range in severity and
interfere with the
acquisition and use of
oral language (e.g.,
listening, speaking,
understanding), reading
(e.g., decoding,
comprehension), written
language (e.g., spelling,
written expression),
and/or mathematics
(e.g., computation,
problem solving).
Code 54

Individual students with a learning


disability can have very different profiles.
LD often encompasses co-occurring
conditions that can include problems in
listening, concentrating, speaking, reading,
writing, reasoning, math, or social
interaction. Learning disabilities are due to
genetic, other congenital and/or acquired
neuro-biological factors and can also
appear in association with such medical
conditions as sensory impairments, or
other disabilities such as communication
disorders and emotional behavioural
disorders.

Teachersshouldformatrusting
relationshipwithstudentswithLD
andlearntonotcallonthestudent
withoutnotifyingthem
beforehand.Teachersshouldcall
ontheLDstudentstoanswer
questionswhentheyareexpecting
itandensureitisaquestionthat
theywillbecapableofanswering.

TakeTenSpotlightSeries:
Strategies&ToolsforTeaching
StudentswithLearning
Disabilities/ADHD:
http://canlearnsociety.ca/resource
s/taketenseries/

Dyslexia is a severe impairment of the


ability to read and spell;
Dysgraphia is characterized by difficulties
in handwriting, spelling, or composition;
Dyscalculia is an impairment of the ability
to pick appropriate strategies for
mathematics.
Students with learning disabilities can also
experience difficulties retrieving academic
and everyday information. Learning
disabilities may also cause difficulties with
organizational skills, social perception, and
social interaction.

Teachersshouldprovidestudents
withLDtimetoprocessthe
questionsthatwillbeaskedof
them.Theyshouldavoidsnapping
theirfingersorrushingstudentsif
theyarehavingtroublewithword
recall.Teacherscouldthencallon
themfirsttoprovideananswer,as
theywillmostlikelyhaveonly
comeupwithafewanswers.
Teachersshouldprovidestudents
exposuretobothauditoryand
visualinformation.
Teachershoulduseexplicit
languagewithstudents.This
includeshavingthestudentsrepeat
instructionsbacksothatyouare
suretheyhaveunderstoodwhatis
expectedofthem
Teachersshouldensurethatthey
alwaysreinforcegoodbehavior.

UnlockingPotential:Key
ComponentsofProgrammingfor
StudentswithLearning
Disabilities:
http://education.alberta.ca/admin/
supportingstudent/diverselearnin
g/unlocking.aspx
UnderstandingDyslexia:
https://www.understood.org/en/le
arningattentionissues/child
learning
disabilities/dyslexia/understandin
gdyslexia#item7
DyslexiaTheleastknown,most
commonlearningdisability:

http://www.teachers.ab.ca/Publicatio
ns/ATA%20Magazine/Volume
%2084/Number
%201/Articles/Pages/Dyslexia
%20The%20Least%20Known
%20Most%20Common%20Learning
%20Disability.aspx

AlissaDavies
Exceptionality
Name

Definition &
AB Educ. Code

Characteristics &/or Observable Behaviors

Teaching Strategies &


Resources

Links &/or Sources

EBD:

ADHDisaneurobiological
conditionthatcancause
inattention,hyperactivity
and/orimpulsivity,along
withanumberofrelated
difficulties,inappropriate
foranindividualsage.The
prefrontallobeandthebasal
gangliaareinactiveinpeople
withADHD.
NospecificcodeforADHD.
Canbeaphysical(Code:58)
orabehavioraldiagnosis.

The three primary characteristics of ADHD are


inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The most
common form includes all three of these characteristics.
Inattention symptoms include: trouble staying focused,
difficulties remembering things and following
directions, trouble with planning and organization and
difficulty keeping track of personal belongings.
Hyperactivity symptoms include: inability to sit still,
talking excessively, difficulty relaxing and having a
quick temper. Impulsivity symptoms include: acting
without thinking, inability to wait their turn, inability to
keep emotions in check and guessing rather than taking
time to solve problems.

ADHD
Providethestudentswithanagendaat
thebeginningofthedaysotheycan
anticipatewhatiscomingnext.

TakeTenSpotlightSeries:Strategies
&ToolsforTeachingStudentswith
LearningDisabilities/ADHD:
http://canlearnsociety.ca/resources/ta
ketenseries/

(ADHD)
AttentionDeficit
Hyperactivity
Disorder

(ODD)
Oppositional
DefiantDisorder

(CD)Conduct
Disorder

ODDissometimesaresultof
poorcircumstances,home
environmentorparenting
practices.Itmaybe
neurologicalifthechildalso
hasADHD.Itischaracterized
byapersistentpatternof
aggressiveanddefiantbehavior
andaneedtoannoyorirritate
others.ODDusuallyshowsup
inchildrenbyage8and
sometimesasearlyas3years
old.40%ofkidswithADHD
willalsoqualifyunderthe
categoryofODD.Treatment
foroppositionaldefiant
disordermayinclude
counseling,behaviortherapy,
parenteducationand
medication.
Code:42
Conductdisorderisaresultof

Signs of ODD typically occur during preschool years.


ODD includes both emotional and behavioral
symptoms. Characteristics of ODD include:
stubbornness, blaming their problems on others,
frequent temper tantrums, vindictiveness, frequently
arguing with peers and adults over everyday tasks,
intentionally annoying others, and appearing angry and
irritable. ODD is most common in adolescents and these
behaviors must occur at least once at week for at least
six months for a diagnosis to occur.
ODD can vary in severity from mild to severe. Mild
symptoms occur in only one setting, moderate occurs in
at least two settings and severe occurs in three or more
settings.

Thebehaviorofachildoradolescentwhohasa
Conductdisorderfallintofourmaingroupings:
aggressiontopeopleandanimals,destructionof
property,deceitfulness,lyingorstealingandserious
violationsofrules.Aggressiontopeopleandanimals

Firstthis,thenthisstrategysothat
studentsknowwhattodonextmay
alsohelpstudentswithADHDwho
havetroublestayingontask.
Teachersshouldcommunicatewiththe
parentstolearnwhatworksbestfor
theirchild.Theparentsknowtheir
childbest.Often,thestrategiesthat
haveshownsuccessathomeforthe
parentswilloftenshowsuccessat
schoolaswell.
Providestudentswithfidgettoolsto
helptheminclass.Thiswillbehelpful
forthosestudentswhocantsitstilland
mayjustneedsomethingtooccupy
theirhands.
ODD
Communicationwiththeparentsiskey
andteachersshouldcollaboratewith
strategiestheparentsuseathome.
Maintainpredictableclassroom
routinesandinformstudentsifthere
willbechangestotheirnormalroutine.
Thismayhelpreduceoppositionto
changeintasks.
Providethestudentwithamentoror
buddytohelptheminsocialsituations.
UseDoinsteadofDont.Thiswill
helpreinforcewhatthechildshoulddo

FocusonSuccess:TeachingStudents
withAttentionDeficit/Hyperactivity
Disorder:
http://education.alberta.ca/admin/sup
portingstudent/diverselearning/adhd.
aspx
AttentionDeficit/Hyperactivity
Disorder(AD/HD):
http://www.learnalberta.ca/content/in
mdict/html/adhd.html
OppositionalDefiantDisorder:
http://www.learnalberta.ca/content/in
mdict/html/oppositional_defiant.html

ChildrenwithOppositionalDefiant
Disorder:
http://www.aacap.org/AACAP/Famil
ies_and_Youth/Facts_for_Families/F
acts_for_families_Pages/Children_W
ith_Oppositional_Defiant_Disorder_
72.aspx
ConductDisorder:
http://www.learnalberta.ca/content/in
mdict/html/conduct_disorder.html
ConductDisorder:
http://www.aacap.org/AACAP/Famil
ies_and_Youth/Facts_for_Families/F
acts_for_Families_Pages/Conduct_D
isorder_33.aspx

AlissaDavies
multiplefactorsincluding
homeenvironmentorparenting
practices.Amentalhealth
conditionthathasseverecosts
ifleftuntreated.Prevention
programscanmakea
differenceandtheearlierthey
arestartedthebetteroffthe
childwillbe.
Manychildrenwithaconduct
disordermayhavecoexisting
conditionssuchasdepression,
anxiety,PTSD,substance
abuse,ADHD,learning
problems,orthoughtdisorders.

Code:42

includes:bullyingothers,initiatingphysicalfights,and
beingphysicallycrueltopeopleandanimals.
Destructionofpropertyincludes:deliberatelyengaging
insettingfiretoordestroyingthepropertyofothers.
Deceitfulness,lyingorstealingincludes:breakingand
entering,lyingtoobtaingoodsorstealing.Lastly,
seriousviolationofrulesincludes:runningawayfrom
home,causingtroubleatschoolandstayingoutlateat
nightdespiteparentalobjections.
Conductdisorderinvolvespersistentpatternsof
behaviorinwhichtherightsofothersareignored. These
students exhibit behaviors that are socially unacceptable
and often dangerous.

insteadofwhatthechildshouldnot
do.Thiswouldhelpreinforceand
drawattentiontogoodbehavior
insteadofbadbehavior.
CD
Carefullyconsiderthephysical
placementofstudentswithCDwithin
theclassroom.Seatthemclosetothe
teacherandawayfrompossible
distractionstomonitorthestudent
throughouttheday.
Consistentsupervisionneededto
ensurethesafetyofthechildandthe
otherchildrenintheschool.Thestaff
shouldbemadeawareofthestudent
whileonsupervisionorinthehalls.
Trytobeasignificantotherforthe
childandgettoknowthemandbea
positiverolemodelforthatchild.

ConductDisorder:Signs&
Symptoms:
http://www.aboutourkids.org/familie
s/disorders_treatments/az_disorder_g
uide/conduct_disorder/signs_sympto
ms

AlissaDavies

Exceptionality
Name

Selectivemutism
(Emotional
Disability)

Definition &
AB Educ. Code

Characteristics &/or Observable Behaviors

Teaching Strategies &


Resources

Links &/or Sources

Selectivemutismismost
frequentlylinkedtoan
underlyinganxietydisorder
thatthestudenthas.
Childrenwithselectivemutism
speaknormallyinsome
situationsbuttheymaybe
unabletospeakincertain
socialsituation.
TheDSMIVTRstatesthat
selectivemutismisaconsistent
failuretospeakinspecific
socialsituationsdespitethe
abilitytospeaktoothers.Itcan
interferewitheducational
achievementorsocial
communication.Theduration
ofoccurrencelastslongerthan
onemonth(notincludingthe
firstmonthofschool).Thereis
nolackofknowledgewiththe
languagerequiredinthesocial
situationtheyareputin,and
theoccurrencedoesnothappen
duetoacommunication
disorderoraprevailing
psychoticdisorder.
Mostincidentsofselective
mutismarenottheresultofa
singletraumaticevent,but
ratherthemanifestationofa
chronicpatternofanxiety.
Treatmentincludes:behavioral,
groupandfamilytherapyand
speechlanguagetherapy.

Not all children manifest their anxiety in the same


way.

Createaseatingplaninwhichthe
childisseatedclosetoaclosely
trustedpeer.Thismayprovidethem
withasenseofsecuritywithinan
overwhelmingclassroomsetting.

Selectivemutism:
http://www.learnalberta.ca/conte
nt/inmdict/html/selective_mutism
.html

Some may be completely mute and unable to


speak or communicate to anyone in a social
setting. Others may be able to speak or whisper to
certain people. Others may freeze, be
expressionless, unemotional and may be socially
isolated.

Providethestudentswithalternate
assessmentforms.Thiscould
providealternatesforpublic
speakingassignmentsand
presentationsandcouldinclude
writtenresponsesorpodcasts.

Children who are less severely affected by


selective mutism may look relaxed or carefree on
the outside. However, they may be unable to
communicate effectively to teachers or some
peers. When compared to the typically shy and
timid child, most children with Selective Mutism
are at the extreme end of the spectrum for timidity
and shyness.

Positivelyreinforcethestudents
participationintheclass.Thiswould
bebestdoneprivatelytonotdraw
directattentiontothestudentinfront
oftheirpeers.

It is important to note that these students


understand what they are learning and are able to
articulate it in other ways than speech. It is out of
fear that they are unable to speak in certain social
situations.

Keepastructuredandpredictable
classroomschedule.Thiswillhelpto
reducesomeoftheanxietythatthe
childmayhavewhentheycometo
school.
Incorporatenonverbalformsof
communicationintotheclassroom.
Forexampleusingindividual
whiteboards,thumbsupordownor
raisinganumberoffingerstoshow
howmuchtheyunderstanda
particulartopic.

SafeSchools:
http://www.education.alberta.ca/a
dmin/supportingstudent/safescho
ols/mhm/understand.aspx
Selectivemutismcentre:
http://www.selectivemutismcente
r.org/aboutus/whatisselectivemuti
sm
Selectivemutism:
http://www.asha.org/public/speec
h/disorders/SelectiveMutism/
ClassroomStrategiesfor
teachers:
http://www.selectivemutism.org/r
esources/library/School
%20Issues/Classroom
%20Strategies%20for
%20Teachers%20of%20SM
%20Children.pdf

AlissaDavies
Code:53
(emotional/behavioral
disability)and42(severe)

ExceptionalityName

Autism

Definition&
ABEduc.Code

Characteristics&/or
ObservableBehaviors

TeachingStrategies&Resources

Links&/orSources

Autismspectrumdisorders
arecomplexneurological
disordersthataffectthe
functioningofthebrain.

AutismSpectrumDisorders
arecharacterizedby
restrictive,repetitiveand
stereotypicpatternsof
behavior,interestsand
activities.
Childrenwithautismmay
obsessivelyinsistona
routineandfindchangetobe
verydifficult.
Commoncharacteristics
include:
Difficultyinsocial
situations.They
mightexpress
themselvesina
monotonequality
andmaynotpick
uponcuessuchas
facialexpressionor
bodylanguage
Sensitivitytonoise,
touch,lightor
smell
Unusualor
challenging
behaviors,which
mayinclude
repetitive
mannerisms,
tantrumsor
fascinationwith

AppliedBehavioralAnalysis(ABA)is
atoolkitforteacherstofigureoutwhat
strategieswillworkbesttoimprove
socialskills,communication,behavior
andlearningthatwillbemodifiedfor
everychild.

TeachingStudentswithAutism
SpectrumDisorder:
http://education.alberta.ca/admin/supp
ortingstudent/diverselearning/autism.a
spx

Typesofconditionsthatfall
underthespectrummay
include:
AutisticDisorder
RettsDisorder
Childhood
Disintegrative
Disorder
Expressive
languagedisorder
Aspergers
Disorder
Autismageneticcondition
withaprevalencerateof
25casesper10000
individuals,andamaleto
femaleratiobetween4:1to
5:1.
Itisalifelongdisabilitythat
canrangefromhightolow
functioning.Itcanimpact
howpeopleunderstand,what
theysee,hearandsense.
Peoplewithautismwillhave
moderatetosevere
intellectualdisabilitiesand

Theuseofpositivereinforcement
throughmaterialreinforcerssuchas
snacksorpreferredactivity.
FSCDisalsoaresourcethatisutilized
byAlbertaEducationforfamiliesin
needofextrasupportathomeandin
theclassroom
Adaptthephysicalenvironment.
Considerplacingthestudentnearthe
teacherandawayfromthedoororfrom
toomuchstimuli
Adaptingtheequipmentthatthestudent
usessuchasprovidingpencilgrippers
orseatcushionsetc.
Provideinformationinvisualforms
includingwrittenwords,pictures,
symbolsorphotos.Thiscouldinclude
makingavisualcalendarforthechilds
dayatschool.

AmericanPsychiatricAssociation.
(2011).Diagnosticandstatistical
manualofmentaldisorders[DSMIV]
(4thed.).Washington,DC:Author.
Woolfork,A.E.,Winnie,P.H.,Perry,
N.E.(2012).Learnerdifferencesand
learningneeds.Educational
Psychology(pp.114160).New
Jersey,USA:PearsonEducationInc.
Strategiesforteachingkidswith
AutismSpectrumDisorder:
http://www.learninglinks.org.au/wp
content/uploads/2012/11/LLIS
03_AutismStrategies.pdf
AppliedBehavioralAnalysis:
http://www.autismspeaks.org/what
autism/treatment/appliedbehavior
analysisaba
Autism:
http://www.learnalberta.ca/content/in
mdict/html/autism.html

AlissaDavies
maybeeitherverbalor
nonverbal.
Code:44(severeautism)

ExceptionalityName

Anxiety
(Emotional
Disability)

certainobjects
Mayhavedifficult
withattention,
planningand
organizing

Definition&
ABEduc.Code

Characteristics&/or
ObservableBehaviors

TeachingStrategies&Resources

Links&/orSources

AnxietyDisordersare
characterizedbyan
excessiveandpersistent
senseofapprehension
alongwithphysical
symptomssuchas
sweatingand
stomachaches.Anxiety
disordershave
biologicaland
environmentalcauses,
andareusuallytreated
withtherapyand/or
medication.Anxiety
disorderscancoexist
withmanyother
disordersand
disabilities.
Anxietyisatermfor
severaldisordersthat
causenervousness,fear,
apprehensionand
worrying.Anxietycan
rangefrommildto
severe.Mildanxietyis
unsettling;whereas
mildanxietycanhavea
seriousimpactondaily
life.Thereareawide
varietyofanxiety
disorders.
Code:53
(emotional/behavioral
disability)42(severe)

Anxietydisordersare
characterizedbyan
excessiveandpersistent
senseofapprehension
alongwithphysical
symptoms.Physical
symptomsmayinclude:
sweating,palpitations,
stomachacheand
feelingsofstress,fast
heartrateandbreathing,
drymouthorshortness
ofbreath.

Teachclasswideanxietymanagementstrategiestohelpall
students.Teachstudentstorecognizewhentheyare
becomingstressedandwhentheyneedtotaketimetocalm
themselvesdown.Byopeningupthediscussionwiththe
wholeclass,youarenotsinglingoutindividualstudents,but
letthemknowthatotherpeoplecanhaveanxietyaswell.
Strategiestoreduceanxietycouldinclude:movingtoaquiet
space,visualizationexercises,physicalmovementoruseof
sensoryinputsuchasasqueezeball.

AnxietyDisorders:
http://www.learnalberta.ca/content/inmdict/
html/anxiety_disorders.html

Commonmind
symptomsofanxiety
include:racingthoughts,
thinkingincirclesabout
oneparticularthing,
feelingsoffearordread,
difficultyconcentrating,
worryorafearoflosing
control.

Pairingstudentswithanxietywitharolemodelorabuddy
toprovidesupportduringpotentialanxietyproducing
situations.
Havingapersonalrelationshipwithyourstudentsand
understandingwhichstudentsmayhaveanxiety.Teachers
canthenbesuretocheckinonthesestudentsandensure
theyfeelimportantandcaredfor.Ifateacherisawaythata
studentgetsanxietywithtests,theyshouldbesureto
providethemlotsofnoticeorprovideextratimeontestsor
assignmentsifnecessary.

Childhoodanxietydisorders:
http://www.adaa.org/livingwith
anxiety/children/childhoodanxiety
disorders
AnxietyManagement:
http://www.teachspeced.ca/anxiety
management
ManagingAnxiety:
http://www.learnalberta.ca/content/insp/ht
ml/managing_anxiety.html
AnxietyDisorders:
http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/anxi
etydisorders/index.shtml

Teachersshouldworkcloselywiththestudentsparentsto
determinetriggersofanxietyandstrategiesthathavebeen
successfulforthestudentathome.

Schoolasasettingforpromotingpositive
mentalhealth:
http://www.jcshcces.ca/upload/PMH
%20July10%202011%20WebReady.pdf

Makesurestudentshaveacomprehensiveroutineand
knowswhenthereisgoingtobeachangeintheirdaily
routinesotheycanprepareforitasbestaspossible.

MentalHealthMatters:
http://www.education.alberta.ca/admin/sup
portingstudent/safeschools/mhm.aspx

AlissaDavies

ExceptionalityName

Gifted and Talented


Students

Definition&
ABEduc.Code

Characteristics&/or
ObservableBehaviors

TeachingStrategies&Resources

Links&/orSources

Thereisnouniversally
accepteddefinitionof
giftedness.

Liketobechallenged
Childrenwhoaregifteddiffer
fromtheirpeersinmultiple
waysandallexhibitdifferent
characteristics.
Thecharacteristicsof
childrenwhoaregiftedcan
becategorizedintothree
broadareas:
1.Advancedintellectual
ability
2.Abundantcreativity
3.Heightenedemotionsand
sensitivities
Generalqualitiesofgifted
studentsinclude:finishing
workquickly,strong
curiosity,highknowledge
retention,hightask
commitment,andbeing
highlysenseofselfdirected.
Giftedstudentsoftenhave
difficultiesinteractingwith
peersoftheirownage,and
maybedisruptivewithinthe
classroomoutofasenseof
boredom
Giftedstudentsalsomay
becomeanxiousordepressed
asaresultofbeingpushed
harderbyparentsbybeing
labeledasgifted.

Goalsettingisagreatstrategyto
involvethestudentintakingownership
overhis/herownlearning.Thisallows
forpracticeofhigherorder
metacognitivethinkingandforstudents
tobecomeengagedatadeeperlevel.
Thestudentwillbeawareoftheir
strengthsandweaknessesthroughgoal
settingandwillknowwhattheycan
improveon.

TheJourney:
https://education.alberta.ca/media/448831/
journey.pdf

Individualtutoringormentorship
programforthegiftedstudentwitha
personwhowillworkwiththegifted
studentonhis/herareaofinterest.
Workonimprovementofsocialskills
Theuseoftieredassignmentsinthe
classroom.Theentireclassfocuseson
thesameoutcomesbuttheyworkat
differentlevelsofactivitiesinrelation
totheoutcome.Thisallowsgifted
studentstoworkatamorechallenging
levelthanotherstudents.Theseare
beneficialforallstudentsbuthelpto
provideanadditionalchallengefor
giftedstudents.

Alberta,AlbertaEducation.(2010).
MakingaDifference:meetingdiverse
learningneedswithdifferentiated
instruction,Studentswhoaregifted:
chapter10(171187).AlbertaEducation:
LearningandTeachingResourcesBranch.
AccessedJanuary27,2015from
http://education.alberta.ca/media/1234009/
13_ch10%20gifted.pdf

Giftedlearnersaredefinedas
studentswhopossessnatural
academicgiftsortalents,and
whomaydisplaysuperior
abilitiesintheareasof
intellectualreasoning,
specificacademicareas,
creativethinking,musical,
artisticorathletictalentsfor
theirage.
Giftedstudentsmaydevelop
asynchronously:theirminds
aheadoftheirphysical
growth,andspecific
cognitiveandsocial
emotionalfunctionscan
developunevenly.Some
studentswithexceptional
aptitudemaynot
demonstrateoutstanding
levelsofachievementdueto
environmental
circumstances.
Theincidenceratefor
studentswhoaregiftedis
approximately2%to5%.

Usinghigherlevelquestioningwithin
theclassroomallowsforstudentsto
drawontheircriticalthinkingskillsand
createnew,morecomplexrelationships
betweenconcepts.

Alberta.AlbertaEducation(2012)Special
EducationCodingCriteria2012/2013.
InclusiveLearningSupportsBranch.
AccessedJanuary18,2015,from
http://education.alberta.ca/media/825847/s
pedcodingcriteria.pdf.

Alberta.AlbertaEducation.(2006).
PlanningforStudentswhoareGifted.In
AlbertaEducation(Eds.),Individualized
programplanning(IPP):ECStograde12
(253).AlbertaEducation:Learningand
TeachingResourcesBranch.Accessed
January20,2015,from
https://education.alberta.ca/media/525558/
ipp92.pdf.
Giftedstudentsintheclassroom:

AlissaDavies

ExceptionalityName

ELL
(English Language
Learners)

Code:80

Giftedstudentsmayalsolack
insocialbehaviors.

Definition&
ABEduc.Code

Characteristics&/or
ObservableBehaviors

TeachingStrategies&Resources

Links&/orSources

AnELLstudentisastudent
whoseprimaryheritage
languageisnotEnglishand
wouldrequireadditional
Englishlanguagesupportto
developreading,writing,
listeningandspeakingskills.
Thesestudentsspeak
minimalEnglishorarenon
Englishspeaking.
ELLstudentscomefrom
multiplelinguisticand
culturalbackgroundswitha
widevarietyoflife
experiences.

BehaviouralCharacteristics:
ELLstudentsmaybehesitant
orselfconsciousandmay
carefullyobservetheir
surroundings.Somestudents
mayevenexperienceasilent
periodwheretheywillnot
speak.ELLstudentsmay
respondwithoneortwo
wordsofmemorised
language.
ELLstudentsobservethe
behavioursofothersbefore
attemptingataskthemselves.
ELLstudentsmayrelyon
otherspeakersoftheir
languageforsocial
interaction.
LinguisticCharacteristics:
Studentswilluseoneortwo
wordutterances,picturesand
gestures.
ELLstudentsmayhave
difficultywritingorreading
orwillcopytextwithoutany
understandingofmeaning
behindit.
ELLstudentswillunderstand
basicclassroomroutineswith
visualsupports.
ELLstudentsmaynotwrite
butwillchoosetodraw

Providingvisualsupportswithinthe
classroomthroughboardmaker,posters
orawordwallasthestudentwillnotbe
assuccessfulinrelyingonauditory
informationalone.

Workingwithyoungchildrenwhoare
learningEnglishasanewlanguage:
http://education.alberta.ca/media/1093791/ea
rlylearning.pdf

TherearenotypicalELL
students,someareCanadian
bornandothersareforeign
born.
CanadianbornELLstudents
mayincludeFirstNations,
Metis,Francophones,
Hutterites,Mennonitesand
Canadianbornchildrenof
immigrants.
ForeignbornELLstudents
includerecentlyarrived
immigrants,refugeesand
feepayingandfunded
internationalvisastudents.

Flexiblepacingallowsstudentstomove
throughthecurriculuminanysubjectat
adifferentratethantherestoftheclass.
Allowinggiftedstudentstocomplete
outcomesmorequicklyandspendtime
onmorechallengingactivitieswould
helpdecreasethesenseofboredom
theymayhaveatschool.

PartneringELLstudentswithstrong
Englishspeakingorbilingualstudents
toprovideextraassistance.
Theteachershouldspeakslowlyand
clearlyandwritekeyvocabularywords
downfortheELLstudentstoreferback
tothroughouttheday.
Encourageclassroomparticipationof
ELLstudents.Thiscouldbedone
throughthinkpairshareifthestudent
isuncomfortablesharinginfrontofthe
largegroup.Thiswillenablestudentsto
workwithothersandheartheir
opinions.
Providehandoutsorgraphicorganizers
foreasiernotetaking.Thestudentcan
thenfocusmoreonwhatisbeingsaid
insteadofworryingaboutcopyingitall
down.
ProvidetheELLstudentopportunities
tospeakinhis/hernativelanguage
wheneverpossible.Usingthenative

http://www.teachersfirst.com/gifted_strate
gies.cfm

SupportingEnglishasSecondLanguage
Students:
http://education.alberta.ca/media/1076318/su
pport_esl.pdf
CharacteristicsofEnglishLanguage
Learners:
http://www.learnalberta.ca/content/eslapb/do
cuments/characteristics_of_english_language
_learners.pdf
FundingManualforSchoolAuthorities
2014/2015Schoolyear:
http://education.alberta.ca/media/9318192/20
142015%20funding%20manual%20for
%20school%20authorities.pdf
SupportingEnglishLanguageLearners:
http://www.learnalberta.ca/content/eslapb/res
ources_research.html
Woolfolk,Anita.E.,Winne,Philip.H.,&
Perry,Nancy.(2012).Educational
Psychology(5thed.).Toronto:Pearson
Canada.
WhoistheESLstudent:
http://www.ed.gov.nl.ca/edu/k12/curriculum/
guides/esl/esl_student.pdf

AlissaDavies

ExceptionalityName

Depression
(Emotional
Disability)

Code:301forthosewho
areforeignbornand303
forthosewhoareCanadian
born.
Codingmustbesupportedby
anannualassessmentofthe
studentslanguage
proficiencyinEnglish.

picturesinstead.
GeneralCharacteristics:
ELLstudentsmayhave
difficultywithbullyingdue
thelanguageorcultural
barrier.

languagehasbeenshowntoimprove
Englishlanguagelearning.

Definition&
ABEduc.Code

Characteristics&/or
ObservableBehaviors

TeachingStrategies&Resources

Links&/orSources

Depressionmaybecaused
bygeneticorbiochemical
factors,orbypastorongoing
trauma.Depressionisusually
treatedwithcounseling
and/ormedication.
Depressionaffectsstudents
academicperformanceand
socialrelationships.
TypesofDepression:
MajorDepressiveDisorder:
asevereformthat
significantlyimpairs
functioningathomeand
school.
Dysthymia:amilderform
thatlastsforoneyearand
impairsfunctioningathome
andschool.
Bipolar:adepressive
disordercharacterizedby
extremechangesin
emotionalstatesbetween
depressionandmania.
AdjustmentDisorderwith
DepressedMood:aresponse
toastressorthatresultsin
depressivesymptoms.
SeasonalAffectiveDisorder:
aseasonaldepression
triggeredbychangesinthe

Students may show feelings


of sadness and grief,
hopelessness, anger and
irritability, may start avoiding
people, lost of interest in
activities, criticize
themselves, have difficulty
concentrating and making
decisions, appetite or weight
changes, pessimistic or
hopeless about the future,
loss of energy and/or
thoughts of death, suicide or
harm to others.

Createapositiveclassroom
environment.Thiscanincludethings
likedeterminingwhatinterestseach
studentandmakingaccommodations
foraquietworkspacethatwillbenefit
thisstudentaswellasotherstudents.

Resource List for teachers:


http://www.albertahealthservices.ca/Schoo
lsTeachers/if-sch-csh-provincial-teacherresource-list.pdf

Irritability is frequently the


predominant symptom in
depressed adolescents and
teens.

Teachorganizationalstrategiesto
encouragechildrentotakecontrolover
theirownlives.Providingstructurewill
beimportantforthesestudents.

Depressive disorder is
diagnosed if two or more
symptoms are present:
anxiety, sleep disturbance,
irritability, suicidal thoughts,
eating disturbances, school
refusal, phobias, alimentary
disorders, obsessions,
hypochondrias

Encouragepositiveselftalkand
problemsolvingskills.

Characteristics of depression
are often more noticeable in a
school setting. Teachers may

EnglishasaSecondLanguageStudents:
http://education.alberta.ca/teachers/program/
esl.aspx
WhatK9administratorsneedtoknowabout
ESLstudentsandprogramming:
http://education.alberta.ca/media/718896/eslb
rochure.pdf

Workwiththeparentstofindoutthe
strengths,weaknessesandneedsof
theirchild.Itisimportanttomaintain
communicationbetweenhomeand
schooltocreateasystemofsharing
information.

Providestudentsaccesstoresources
likecounselors,books/magazinesor
informationonwheretheycanaccess
helpifneeded.Oftenstudentsmaynot
knowwheretogowhentheyneed
informationoradvice.
Playrelaxingmusicinclasstocalm
downthestudentswhenfeeling

FactsheetforTeachers:
http://studentsfirstproject.org/wp
content/uploads/SchoolandClassroom
DepressionStrategies.pdf
ResiliencyProject:
http://www.albertahealthservices.ca/10473.
asp
Studentsagainstdepression:
http://studentsagainstdepression.org/unders
tand-depression/
Depression:
http://www.learnalberta.ca/content/inmdict
/html/pdf/Depression_E.pdf
SpecialEducationCoding:
http://education.alberta.ca/media/825847/s
pedcodingcriteria.pdf
MentalHealthKit:
http://www.albertahealthservices.ca/ps
7344mhkjhsmanual.pdf
Depressioninyoungpeople:
https://myhealth.alberta.ca/health/pages/co

AlissaDavies
seasons.

notice things like:


-Notable drop in academic
behavior, especially if the
student has performed well in
the past
-Problems with authority
-Dramatic change in
personality or appearance
-Withdrawal from friends and
activities

anxious.

nditions.aspx?hwid=hw30709

Definition&
ABEduc.Code

Characteristics&/or
ObservableBehaviors

TeachingStrategies&Resources

Links&/orSources

Due to the multitude of


symptoms, and the
varied severity of FASD
there is no specific
Alberta Education
code. However, if
students are coded
(which is rare) they
could be coded
under code 44,
which is a severe
physical/mental
disability.

Physicalcharacteristicsmay
includeaflatmidface,thin
upperlip,shortnoseorminor
earabnormalities.However,
physicalcharacteristicsarenot
alwayspresent.

Communicatewiththe
parents/caregiversofthechildiskey.
Establishedroutinesandstructuresthat
havebeensuccessfulathomemaybe
adaptedforschool.Thismakesfora
morestructuredenvironmentto
increasestudentsuccess.
Providesimpleinstructionsoronlyone
instructionatagiventime.Bygiving
studentswithFASDoneinstructionata
time,itallowsthestudenttofocus
solelyonthattaskbeforemovingon.
Usecueswhentransitioningbetween
activities.Transitionscanbedifficult
forstudentswithFASD;so
personalizedstrategiesmayworkbest
toinsurethatthestudentisawarewhen
atransitioniscoming.Thiscouldbe
donethroughgivingthematimeto
transitionandprovidingthemwitha
countdown.
Createacalmlearningenvironment.
Keepingtheclassroomclutterfree,
providingheadphonesforquiettime
andplayingrelaxingmusiccanhelpto
accomplishthis.
Usevisualaidssuchaspictures,graphs
anddiagrams.Writinginformationon
theboardinadditiontogivingoral
instructionscanbebeneficialfor

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder:


http://education.alberta.ca/teachers/resourc
es/fasd.aspx

Code:53for
mild/moderateand42for
severe

ExceptionalityName

Fetal Alcohol
Spectrum Disorder
(FASD)

FASD is an umbrella
term that describes the
spectrum of disabilities
associated with fetal
alcohol exposure. It
covers a wide range of
characteristics. It is a
physical brain injury
due to alcohol
exposure. The brain
damage is permanent.
FASD is a variety of
physical changes and
neurological/psychome
tric patterns of brain
damage associated

IndividualswithFASDmay
experiencelearning
difficulties/behaviouralissues
duetodamagetothebrainand
centralnervoussystem.
Mayhavedifficultyinthe
areasof:cognitivefunctioning,
memory,language,learning
disabilities,behavioural
regulationandadaptiveskills.
Youngerstudentsmayhave
difficultywithletterand
numberrecognitionand
readingandwriting.Theymay
alsobeslowtoacquire
languageandfinemotorskills.
Theyareusually
developmentallyathalfoftheir
actualage.
Olderstudentsatthe
junior/highschoollevelmay
experiencedifficultywith
complexlearningtasksand
mathskills.

Get to know FASD:


http://fasd.alberta.ca/get-to-knowfasd.aspx
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder:
http://www.learnalberta.ca/content/inmdict
/html/fasd.html
A team approach to teaching students with
FASD:
http://education.alberta.ca/media/932737/r
edefining_final.pdf
Special Education Coding:
http://education.alberta.ca/media/825847/s
pedcodingcriteria.pdf
Teaching students with FASD:
https://education.alberta.ca/media/377037/
fasd.pdf
BC Education. Teaching students with
FASD:
http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/specialed/fas/
National Organization on Fetal Alcohol
Syndrome:

AlissaDavies
with fetal exposure to
alcohol during
pregnancy. It is
associated with a
variety of learning,
behavioral and
physiological
disabilities.
FASD can include:
partial fetal alcohol
syndrome, alcohol
related
neurodevelopmental
disorder, alcohol
related birth defects
and fetal alcohol
syndrome.

ExceptionalityName

Deaf/Hard of
Hearing

IndividualswithFASDoften
experiencemoodswingsand
areeasilyoverwhelmedand
oftenimpulsivetheyoftenhave
troubleswithvisualsequencing
andhavepoorretentionoftask
instruction.Othercommon
behavioursincludeviolence,
difficultyholdingattentionand
withdrawal.
StudentswithFASDmayalso
experiencesocialdifficulty.

studentswithFASD.
Allowforenergy/brainbreaks
throughoutthecourseoftheday.These
helpallstudentstorefocusandburnoff
extraenergy.
Useconcretenotabstractlanguageas
studentswithFASDhavetroublewith
abstractconceptsandmaynot
understandwhatyouareaskingof
them.
Assignstudentsextrajobswithinthe
classroomtomakethemfeelspecial.

http://www.nofas.org/parents/

Definition&
ABEduc.Code

Characteristics&/or
ObservableBehaviors

TeachingStrategies&Resources

Links&/orSources

Studentswhoaredeafor
hardofhearinghavea
diagnosisfroman
audiologist,whichidentifies
thepresenceanddegreeof
hearingloss.
Hearinglosscanbedefined
bytheCanadianAcademyof
Audiologyas:
1. Mild(2640
decibels)
2. Moderate(4155
decibels)
3. Moderatetosevere
(5670decibels)
4. Severe(7190
decibels)
5. Profound(90and
overdecibels)
6. Acombinationof
theselevels

Ifhearinglossissignificant,
somestudentsmayhave
troublessocializingwith
othersandwilloftenfeel
isolated.

Incorporateavarietyofsensory
challengesintotheclassroom.
Studentswithhearinglossneedtosee
yourfaceallthetimetospeechread
andgetmeaningcues.

HearingLoss:
http://www.learnalberta.ca/content/inmdict
/html/hearing_loss.html

Ifstudentsaredeaftheywill
usesignlanguageinsteadof
speaking.Thesestudentsmay
sufferfromspeechdelays.
Studentswhoarehardof
hearingmayaskforrepeated
instructioniftheydonot
understanddirectionsthefirst
time.

Nonverbalcommunicationiscrucialfor
thesestudents.Speakingnaturallyis
alsothebestforthestudents,donottry
andspeakloudlyasitmakesitharder
forthestudents.

Thesestudentsmayhave
difficultywriting,appear
inattentiveormayhave
behaviouralproblemsdueto
difficultycommunicating

Setuptheclassroomwithasmuch
naturallightingaspossible.Donot
standinfrontofawindowordoorway
asthiscouldcreateshadowsforthe
student.
Allowthestudenttopickthebestspot
forthemwheretheycanbeclosertothe
teacherandreceivemaximum

AlbertaEducation.StandardsforSpecial
Education.(2004).EssentialComponents
forEducationalProgrammingforStudents
whoareDeaforHardofHearing.
Retrievedfrom
https://education.alberta.ca/media/511693/
ecep_deaf_or_hard_of_hearing.pdf
Deaf/Hardofhearingtoolkit:
http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/docs/suppo
rt/dhh_resource/toolkit_resources.pdf
NewResourcesforStudentswhoareDeaf
orHardofHearing.(2015).InAlberta
Education.RetrievedJanuary25,2015,
from
http://education.alberta.ca/teachers/resourc

AlissaDavies
Thedegreeofhearingloss
doesnotpredeterminehow
studentsfunctioninauditory,
educationalandsocial
situations.
Withcurrenttechnologies,
studentswithseverto
profoundhearinglossmay
functionashardofhearing.
Code:45/55

withothers.Theywilloften
havedifficultieswithsocial
cues.

informationwithinthenormalflowof
classroomactivities.

es/connection/archive/october
2012/inclusiveed/newtools.aspx

Havevisualaidsavailablesuchas
graphicorganizers,webs,maps,
overheadsetc.toaidtheminnote
taking.Theuseofvisualschedulescan
behelpfulfordeafstudentstokeep
trackoftheactivitiesoccuring
throughouttheday.

BCMinistryofEducation:
http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/specialed/heari
mpair/tip15.htm

Reduceechoeswithintheclassroomby
placingmufflingdevicessuchastennis
ballsonthebottomofthechairsor
closingwindowsanddoorsinthe
classroom.
Providethestudentwithabuddyto
assistthestudentwithnotetakingor
classactivitiesthroughouttheday.
ExceptionalityName

Blind/Low Vision
(Visual Disability)

Definition&
ABEduc.Code

Characteristics&/or
ObservableBehaviors

TeachingStrategies&Resources

Links&/orSources

The term visually


impaired has varying
definitions across
North America.
Visual impairment can
involve a loss of visual
clarity, peripheral
vision or both.
Low vision is denoted
as having a visual
acuity of less than 6/18
(20/70) or less with
corrective lenses or a
field of view restricted
to 20 degrees or less.
Students with little or
no functional vision for
learning are considered
educationally blind and
primarily use braille
and audio resources to

Manytimesproblemswitha
childseyesightarenot
detecteduntilafterhe/she
goestoschool.
Physicalsignsthatachildhas
visionproblemsinclude:
crossedeyes,eyesthatturn
out,eyesthatflutterfrom
sidetosideorupanddown,
oreyesthatdonotseemto
focus.
Achildmighthaveavision
problemifhe/sheappearsto
beoverlyclumsy.Poorvision
mightbethecausewhena
childisconstantlyrunning
intothingsorfallingdown.
Somechildrenwithvision
problemsappeartohavea
shortattentionspan.Others
mayblinkfrequentlyor

Workcloselywiththeparentsto
discusssupportsnecessaryforthe
students.Discusstechnologyand
specialequipmentthatthestudentmay
useathomeoratschoolinprevious
years.

VisualImpairment:
http://www.learnalberta.ca/content/inmdict
/html/visual_impairment.html

Consultwithaspecialisttoacquire
informationonnecessary
accommodationsforthestudents
safety.Thismayinclude:markingson
stairs,additionallightingorreduced
light.
Arrangetheclassroomsothatthe
studentisabletomoveaboutfreelyand
independentlywithoutobstructions.
Ensuretokeeptheclassroomlayout
consistentsothestudentknowswhere
tofindthings.

SpecialEducationCoding:
http://education.alberta.ca/media/825847/s
pedcodingcriteria.pdf
Blindness:
http://www.learnalberta.ca/content/inmdict
/html/blindness.html
VisualEducationAlberta:
http://www.vision.alberta.ca/
EssentialComponentsofEducation
Programming:
http://education.alberta.ca/admin/supportin
gstudent/schoolleaders/programming/com
ponents.aspx

AlissaDavies
access instructional
materials. An individual
is considered legally
blind if they have a
visual acuity of 6/60
(20/200) or less in the
better eye, even with
corrective lenses or if
the visual field is
restricted to a
diameter of 20 degrees
or less.
Only 1 in 10 people
who are legally blind
see nothing at all.
Student programs and
services will be
assessed based on the
severity and age or
vision loss, and the
presence of additional
disabilities.
Code: 56

squintwhenreadingor
watchingtelevision.Often
childrenaresensitivetolight.
Poorhandandeye
coordinationcanbeanother
signthatachildmayhave
visionproblems.
Childrenwhohavetrouble
seeingoftenperformpoorly
atschool.Theycanfindit
difficulttoreadorwrite.

Giveverbalnoticeforthingssuchasa
visitorintheclassroomorchangesin
theclassroomlayout.
Identifypeersbynamewhen
respondingtoraisedhandsorwhen
callingonspecificstudentstorespond
toquestions.Thisallowsthestudent
withlowvisiontobegintoidentify
theirpeersbytheirvoices.