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BUS BAR

PROTECTION

Bus bar is just like junction in Railway network. In Railway junction, Train are coming from
different directions and leaving for other destinations. A bus bar is one of the more critical
elements of Power System. It is the connecting point of a variety of elements and a
number of transmission lines. Any incorrect operation would cause isolation the all of
these elements.

Bus Bar Arrangements:The buses typically illustrated are such as:i. Single bus, single breaker.
ii. Double bus bar with bus sectionalizer - single
breaker.
iii. Main and transfer bus single breaker.
iv. Double bus with single breaker.
v. Double bus with two breakers
vi. Ring bus
vii. Breaker and a half scheme.

Bus Bar Faults:Busbar faults are very rave, but are very
serious. They can result in considerable
loss and should be cleared in minimum
possible time. The common causes of
bus bar faults are as under:i. Equipment failures Circuit breaker
failure / C.T. failure.
ii. Small animal contacts.
iii. Broken conductors.
iv. Wind driven objects falling debris.

v. Contamination.
vi. Safety earths left connected.
vii. Isolators operated outside their ratings.

Critical Problem
The major problem with bus bar protection
has been unequal saturation of current
transformers connected to the bus bar.
This unequal core saturation is due to
possible variation of current magnitude
and residual flux in the individual current
transformers connected to the bus bar.

In case, for close-In external fault F1, as shown in


Fig(2), the current through C.T. associated with
breaker (B4) will receive total contribution from
the bus.
IF = I 1 + I 2 + I 3
While other C.Ts will only see the contribution of
the individual lines.
Under the above explained situation, the possibility
exists that there might be saturation of C.T.

Basic Requirement:The basic requirement of bus bar protection


is to provide the selectivity necessary to
differentiate between internal and external
fault.

Methods of Providing Bus Bar


Protection
1. Remote delayed protection.
i. Overcurrent protection.
ii. Distance.
2. Differential protection.
i. High Impedance.
ii. Low Impedance.
3. Directional comparison protection.
4. Phase comparison protection.
5. Frame to earth leakage protection.

Application of Bus Bar Protection

Zone Arrangement
1. Single Bus Bar

2. Double Bus Bar

Distance Protection

Suppose that a fault F occurs on bus bar B.


this fault lies in the 2nd zone of distance
protection of section AB. The distance
protection at circuit breaker CB1 operates
and trip the circuit breaker in 2 nd zone of
circuit breaker.

Kirsch offs Law

Kickoff's law states that all the currents


entering or leaving a point must be
vectorially to zero.
I1 + I 2 + I 3 + I 4 = 0

According to kirchoffs Law, vectorial sum of


all the currents entering a particular point
must be equal to vectorial sum of all the
currents leaving i.e.
I1 + I 2 = I 3 + I 4

Basic Condition
A. Normal Operation.

The sum of currents entering a particular


node should be equal to the sum of
currents leaving that node.
I1 + I 2 = I 3 + I 4

B. External Fault.

In case of an external fault, the sum of


currents leaving the bus is equal to sum of
currents lnterting the bus the total
summation is zero.
IF = I 1 + I 2 + I 3

C. Internal fault.

In the event of an internal fault, the sum of all


the currents entering the bus is equal to
the total fault current.
IF = I 1 + I 2 + I 3 + I 4

Basic Differential Equation


A. Normal Operation

Considering same C.T. Ratios and C.T.


polarity are matched.
Id = Differential current = i1 i2 = 0
across the relay.
B. External Fault.
In case of an external fault F, direction of
flow of currents will be same as in case
of normal operation i.e.
Id = i1 i2 = 0

C. Internal Fault

In case of an internal fault F, the total current


will flow through the relay for all internal
faults.
I F = I d = i 1 + i2

Application Of Overcurrent Relay


Overcurrent relay can be employed for bus
bar protection, in case, C.Ts associated
with this protection behave properly. For
an external fault, C.Ts may saturate and
thus overcurrent relay employing as
differential protection causes to operate.
Typical operating time should be 15 to 20
cycles for internal faults.

This protection is relatively inexpensive, but


slow. It is not secure against of C.Ts. It is
used for the small, low voltage level
buses. The inverse time characteristic
should be used for low current magnitude,
is an advantage to override unequal C.T.
saturation, particularly d.c. components.
Thus the d.c. time constant should be
short for these applications.

C.T. Saturation
C.T. saturation occurs when the flux
required to produce the secondary
current exceeds the saturation density of
the core. C.T. saturation depends on the
following factors.
i. C.T. Ratio.
ii. Core cross Sectional area
iii. Connected burden.

iv. Magnitude of burden.


v. Presence and amount of re-manant flux.
vi. Amount and direction of d.c. off set in the
current.
vii. Saturation flux density of the core steel.

C.T. Circuit

The above figure depicts a simplified circuit


of a current transformer.
Ip = Primary current
Ie = Magnetizing current
Is = Secondary current
RCT = C.T. Secondary winding resistance.
RL = C.T. Cable connection resistance.
Rb = Relay burden
Xm = Excitation reactance

Stability during External Fault


A. External fault without C.T. Saturation

Suppose that an external fault F occurs on


line L2.
The current flowing through relay under
normal operating condition = IS1 IS2
Assuming that resistances of the C.T.
secondary winding (RCT) and cable
connection burden (RL) are equal on both
the sides of resulting bridge circuit.
Total resistance = RT = RCT + 2RL

Assuming that magnetizing and leakage


reactance of C.T. is legible.
The current transformer must have same
transformation ratio.

VIR = Voltage developed across shunt path


XY due to current in secondary side
of current transformer CT1
= (RCT + 2RL) Is
V2R = Voltage developed across shunt path
XY due to current in secondary side
of current transformer CT2
= (RCT + 2RL) Is

VR = Net Voltage developed across the


shunt path XY = (UR1 UR2)
Where IF =

= 0

Through fault current


R = R R + RS

B. External fault with C.T.


Saturation.

Suppose that an external fault F occurs on


Line-2 and is accompanied by C.T.
saturation of C.T2. Assuming that
secondary leakage reactance of C.Ts are
lwo and magnetizing reactance of C.Ts in
saturated state are negligible.
Xm = 0

Suppose that C.Ts is saturated on


occurrence of fault F while C.T1 is
transforming current without saturation. In
case of saturation of C.T2, its output is
zero.
The criteria of stability of relay is to remain
un-operated when on C.T. transformers
perfectly and other has zero output.

As a result of un-balance current a


differential current Is will flow and voltage
will develop across high impedance Rs.
Current flowing through relay = Is = 0
= Is
Us = Voltage developed across shunt XY
=
Is Rs

The voltage drop across the relay is


determined by the leakage reactance of
C.T, C.T. secondary resistance (RCT) and
resistance of the lead (RL).
US = Voltage drop developed across the
relay = IF (RCT + 2RL)

IF = Fault current
=
US
RCT+2RL+RS
=
IF (RCT+2RL)
RCT+2RL+RS
If RS is small
IS = IF
If RS is large, then
IS = US
RS
UF = IS RS

It is therefore important to keep the lead


resistance (RL) as small as possible and to
choose C.T. with a low winding resistance
(RCT)
Determination of value of R s
U s = I s Rs + IB R R
Rs = U s - I s RR
Is

Is

Rs = U s - R R
Is

Meterosil Limitation of Relay


Voltage
Meterosil are used to limit peak voltage
developed by the current transformers
under internal fault conditions.

Meterosil Characteristic V = CIB


Where V, I are peak values
C = Constant depending upon
meterosil construction
B = Constant in range of 0.2 to
0.25
RCT = Current transformer secondary resistance
RL = Maximum load resistance from current to
relay

When the value of peak voltage is greater


than 3 kV, then metrosils should be
applied across the relay.

Suppose that an internal fault current F1


inside the zone, the total secondary
current of the supply lines is farced
through the relay impedance RS. To
ensure that there is no risk of false
tripping, the pick-up value of relay is given
by
U set 2.0. IS max (RCT + 2RL)

FOR N = Number of feeders connected to


the bus bar protection.
U set K Is max (RCT + NRL)
Where N = Number of feeders
From above K = Safety factor.
UF = IF R
Where R = RS = RS + RR

Example
The setting of relay is determined by
US = IS RS
High resistance RS is connected in series
with the relay. Voltage across the shunt
patch is given due to external fault is given
by
UF =

IF
C.T. Ratio

(RCT + 2RL)

UR should be grater than US to obtain


stability even in the event of most extreme
C.T. Saturation
IF
= 40 KA
C.T. Ration
= 1200/1
RCT
= 4 Ohm
RL

= 1 Ohm

UF

= 40,000
=

1200
200 V

(4+2x1)

A 20 % Safety margin is included in the


setting
UF = 1.20 x 200
= 240 V

High Impedance Differential


Protection

What is high Impedance

Differential Relays
i.

MCAG14/34
Current calibrated relay with external
stabilizing resistor.
ii. MFAC14/34
Voltage calibrated relay with internal
high impedance.

Normal Operation
In high impedance bus bar protection, each phase
of C.T. of all bays are connected together.
The fig ( ) shows that secondary currents of all
current transformers are connected in parallel
with high impedance relay. The differential
measurement principle applies that sum of
current entering is equal to sum of current
leaving i.e. Vectorial sum of all outgoing and
incoming primary current is zero.

It means that no differential current is


flowing through the high impedance.
In actual situation, it does not exist and
there is a small differential current due to
unequal current loading and C.T.
inaccuracy. The voltage drop (US = IS RS)
across the high impedance RS is well
below the preset value and hence there
can be no trip.

Requirements
The following conditions should be fulfilled
for reliable operation of high impedance
differential protection.
1. All C.Ts must possess same
transformation ratio.
2. All C.Ts should have same saturation
characteristics.

3. The resistance of C.T. secondary winding (RCT)


should be as low as possible.
Approximate value RCT 2 Ohm for 1A CT and
RCT 0.5 for 5 A CT.
4. Lead resistance should be as low as possible.
5. Whenever possible, separate C.T. cores should
be utilized, as C.Ts are driven into severe
saturation during internal fault. If connection of
other relays to the same core cannot be
avoided, the burden must be added to the
resistance of C.T secondary winding.

6. Suitable C.Ts according to class of British


standard BS 3938 should be used.
7. The use of interposing current
transformers should be avoided where
possible.
8. It is also necessary to know the knee
point voltage of C.Ts in order to be able to
design the scheme and determine its
sensitivity. The knee point voltage must be
higher than the saturation voltage for an
external fault.

9. In most cases, a metal oxide uaristor


(Mov) is conne3cted across the parallel
connection of the C.Ts and relay to clamp
the voltage to safe limit without affecting
relay operation. The Mov. Protects the
relay against high voltages developed
during in zone fault. Sufficient current still
flows through the relay to ensure
operation.

10. In extensive outdoor substation, the


connections of C.Ts should be radial at a
central point so that C.Ts connection
resistances are a symmetrical as possible.

Use of LC Circuit
The LC circuit in series with over voltage
relay is turned to 50 Hz to prevent over
voltage relay from mis-operation on d.c.
offset or harmonics.

Application of High Impedance Bus


Bar protection.
The high impedance bus bar protection is
generally applied to:i. Single bus bar.
ii. One and half circuit breaker arrangement.
iii. Rarely, it is applied to double bus bar with bas
couplers, in case, the C.T. secondary circuits
are switched by isolator auxiliary contacts.
The high impedance bus bar protection is not
suitable for complex bus bar arrangement.

Knee Point Voltage

The knee point voltage of the excitation


curve of current transformer is defined as,
that point at which further increase of 10
% of exciting voltage (Secondary e.m.f)
requires 50 % increment of exciting
current.

Settings of FAC34 Relay


DATA:System voltage =
220 kV
Short circuit rating=
40 KA
C.T. Ratio
=
1200/1
No. of feeders
=
n = 8
Secondary Resistance of CT
= RCT = 4 Ohm

C.T. connection Resistance = RL = 1 Ohm


Magnetizing current of CT at = Im = 40 mA
Or
Relay pickup current shunt resistance
=
Rsh
Current through uaristor = Is
Relay series resistance = RR = 10 K Ohm

UARISTOR
Leakage current of the uaristor = I v = 24 ma
At relay pick-up voltage

Stability Relay Setting


The required stability voltage is determined
as follows:US =
IF
(RCT + 2RL)
C.T. Ratio
= 40,000 (4+2x1)
1200
Considering 20 % safety margin
= 1.20 x 200 = 240 V

Required knee point voltage


The knee point voltage of C.Ts should be
twice the relay setting voltage.
VK

2 VS

=
=

2 x 240
480 V

Minimum primary operating current during


internal fault.
The primary operating current is given by.
Imin = n (IR + IV + NIm)
Where
n = current transformer ratio = 1200/1
IR= Relay pick up current = 20 mA
Im = Secondary CT magnetizing
current at the relay pickup voltage
=
40 mA

IV = Leakage current of uaristor at the relay


pickup voltage
=
24 mA
N = Number of connected current = 8
transformers.
The minimum pickup current
Imin = 1200 (20+24+320) x 10 -3
1
= 1200 (20 + 24 + 320) x 10 -3

If No Uaristor is provided , IV = 0
Stability during external fault.
IF (Through fault = N RR

IR

RL + RCT
=

1200 - 10,000 0.02


1
2+4

Voltage spike due to C.T. saturation due


internal fault:The voltage spike (Vp) due to C.T. saturation
is calculated from

If (mt) = Maximum secondary fault current.


VK = Actual CT knee point voltage
RL = Maximum loop resistance between
CTs and relay.
VA = Relay burden at setting
Ir = Relay setting current
Rs =
Vf = Maximum voltage in shunt patch which
would rise if No. C.T. saturation taken
Place.

If UKA is smaller than VF, then


Vp = 2

2 VK VF

Max. r.m.s = VF = If (int) (Rs+R1+RST)


+VA/Ir2)
If(Inst) = Maximum secondary fault current
UK = Actual CT knee point voltage
RL = maximum loop resistance between
CTs and relay

VA = Relay burden at setting


Ir = Relay setting current
Rs =
Vf = Maximum voltage in shunt patch which
would rise if No C.T. saturation takes
place.
If UKA is smaller than VF, then
Vp = 2 2 VK - VF

Determine whether a uaristor is required


Fault current = N = C.T. Ratio = 1200/1 A
Vs = Relay setting
IR = Relay pickup current = 20 mA
Relay internal resistance = RR = V/IR
Vf = The voltage during an internal fault with
C.T. saturation = Fault current x relay
internal resistance
x
1
C.T. Ratio

IF x RR x

I
N

V peak = 2 2 VkR - VF

Current Comparison Bus Bar


Protection

Complete differential protection requires that


all circuits connected to bus bar involved,
since it compares the total current entering
the zone with total current leaving the
zone. The above figure represents current
circulating bus bar protection subjected to
an internal fault.
Current passing through the relay
= 0.25 + 0.45 + 0.3 + 0.5
= 1.5 A

The relay will trip circuit breakers at location


A, B, C, D to isolate the fault.
The major technique used to avoid possible
unequal C.T. performance problem is multi
restraint current.

Current Comparison With Multiple


Current Restraints.

The above figure represents bus bar


protection system for a single bus bar with
current comparison and multiple current
restraints.
Let
M = Measuring unit
RT = Restraining interposing CT
OPT = Operating interposing CT
RR

= Restraint rectifier bridge

OPR = Operating rectifier bridge


R

= Stabilizing resistor

The secondary circuits on the lines are


connected to restraining interposing C.Ts
and operating interposing C.Ts i.e. Holding
circuit and differential circuit.
When the fault is lying out side the bus bar
protection zone and without C.T.
saturation, whose sum is zero are
balancing across the holding circuits.
There is no current in the differential circuit
or through measur5ing unit M
consequently, the protection behaves
correctly and it does not trip.

Suppose that a fault occurs out side the


zone of protection and one of main current
transformers become saturated, a
differential current is formed at secondary
side. This would flow the differential circuit
and without the holding or restraining
circuit would cause measuring unit M to
trip.
As there is a current flowing in the
restraining circuit which opposes the
differential circuit, the measuring unit M
is prevented from tripping.

In case of bus bar fault, the current flowing


in the differential circuit and restraining
circuit is same. The restraining circuit is
reduced by resistors R1 and R2 and
consequently differential current
predominant causes the measuring unit to
trip.
Methods of connections.
The bus bar differential protection can be
connected in low different ways.

A Separate Measuring Unit is


Employed in Each Phase

For sake of simplicity and economy, one


common differential unit is employed for
three phases which detects for all types of
fault. The phase currents of individual
feeders are frequently reduced to a single
phase measurement with aid of
summation or mixing current transformer.
The mixing or summation current
transformers can be connected in different
ways.

a. Normal Connections

b. Enhanced Ground Fault


Sensitivity

The solution is more sensitive in the event of


phase to ground fault than in event of
three phase fault.