You are on page 1of 24

Bone Functions

The skeleton
A framework of bones, ligaments (attach
bone to bone), and cartilage (e.g., tip of
nose) that functions in movement and the
protection of internal organs
The human body has 206 bones which vary
in size and shape (flat, long, short, irregular).

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Bone Functions
The skeleton
Provides support for soft tissues
Gives a place of attachment for muscles
Protects internal organs
Stores minerals (calcium, phosphorus) and
fat
Produces blood cells in the marrow of
certain bones

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Bone Structure
Most bones contain both
compact bone, which is dense bone, and
spongy bone, which may contain marrow

Spongy bone
In adults, the spaces of some bones are
filled with red marrow, which generates red
blood cells
The shaft is filled with yellow marrow, a
fatty tissue for energy storage

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Bone Is Living Tissue


Osteocyte: mature living bone cell
During development, most of the bone is
first formed of cartilage (made by
chondroblasts) and is gradually replaced
by bone (made by osteoblasts)

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Bone Is Living Tissue


Two regions of cartilage remain at each
end of the long bone
The cap that covers the surfaces that rub
against other bones
A plate of cartilage called the epiphyseal
plate, or growth plate from which bone can
continue to lengthen

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Bone Is Living Tissue


Bone growth is stimulated by growth
hormone during childhood
Thyroid hormones ensure that the skeleton
grows with the proper proportions
At puberty, increasing levels of male or
female sex hormones initially stimulate
cartilage cells to divide, but eventually
allow for the growth plates to fuse, and
bone can no longer increase in length
Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Bone Fractures are Healed by Fibroblasts


and Osteoblasts
When a bone fracture occurs, fibroblasts
secrete collagen fibers that form a callus
linking the two parts of the bone
This cartilage is later replaced by bone
(osteoclasts and osteoblasts)

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Bones Are Continuously Remodeled


Bones continually go through remodeling,
New bone is deposited by osteoblasts and
old bone is broken down by osteoclasts
Estrogen in women plays a role in bone
remodeling
If bone is broken down faster than it is
built, osteoporosis results

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

First Part of the Human Skeleton


The first part is the axial skeleton
Skull
Vertebral column
Sternum and rib cage

It protects and supports our internal


organs

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Skull
The skull is the most complex bony
structure in the body
It has two divisions
The Cranium
The Face

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Cranial Bones


The cranial bones protect the brain,
house the structures of hearing, and
provide attachment sites for the muscles of
the head and neck
There are eight flat bones
Facial bones are 14 bones that support
several sensory structures and serve as
attachments for most facial muscles

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Vertebral Column


The vertebral column consists of 26
vertebrae

7 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
1 sacrum (fusion of 5 sacral vertebrae)
1 coccyx (fusion of 4 vertebrae)

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Vertebral Column


The bones of the vertebral column, called
vertebrae, are cushioned with intervertebral
disks consisting of pads of fibrocartilage
A slipped disk is actually a disk that bulges
inward and can press against the spinal cord
Sciatica is a disk that bulges outward and
presses against the sciatic nerve

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Scoliosis
Twisted disease is an abnormal
curvature of the spine to the left or right
Cause is unknown
Affects over 1.5 million adolescents,
primarily females

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Rib Cage
12 pairs of ribs attach at the back of the rib
cage to the thoracic vertebrae
The upper 10 pairs of ribs are attached by
cartilage either directly or indirectly to the
sternum
The last 2 pairs of ribs do not attach to the
sternum and are called floating ribs

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Second Part of the Human Skeleton


The second part of the human skeleton is
the appendicular skeleton
Pectoral girdle
Pelvic girdle
Limbs

It allows you to move and interact with the


environment

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Pectoral Girdle


The pectoral girdle is composed of the
scapulae and the clavicles
Connects the arms to the rib cage

The pelvic girdle is composed of the two


pubic bones
Connects the legs to the vertebral column
The femur is the largest and strongest bone
in the body
The structure of the wrists and hands
parallel that of the feet and ankles
Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Joints Are Junctures between Bones


Joints are the places where bones meet
Classified as
Fibrous
Cartilaginous
Synovial

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Fibrous Joints
Fibrous joints are held together by fibrous
connective tissue, have no joint cavity, and
do not permit movement
Example: The immovable joints between the
skull bones in an adult are called sutures

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Cartilaginous Joints
Cartilaginous joints allow very little
movement
Vertebral column
Joint between the rib and sternum
Joint holding the two halves of the pubic
bone together

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Synovial Joints
Most joints in the body are freely movable,
synovial joints
The surfaces of these joints move past
one another on a thin layer of cartilage
Synovial joints are surrounded by a thin
capsule containing synovial fluid, a
lubricant

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Synovial Joint Movements


Synovial joints differ in the type and range
of motion they permit
Hinge Joints
Motion is only on one plane
Example: Knee
Ball-and-socket joints
Allow movement on all planes
Example: Shoulder

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Joints
Sprains are injuries to ligaments and may
range from slight, caused by
overstretching, to serious, caused by
tearing of the ligament
Bursitis is an inflammation of the bursae,
the sacks that surround and cushion joints

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Joints
Arthritis is joint inflammation
Osteoarthritis is a degeneration of the
surfaces of a joint over time
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune
condition marked by an inflammation of the
synovial membrane

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.