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held across India.

STD. XI Sci.

Triumph Physics

Based on Maharashtra Board Syllabus

First Edition: July 2014

Salient Features

Exhaustive subtopic wise coverage of MCQs

Important formulae provided in each chapter

Hints included for relevant questions

Various competitive exam questions updated till the latest year

www. targetpublications.org

No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, C.D. ROM/Audio Video Cassettes or electronic, mechanical

including photocopying; recording or by any information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from the Publisher.

TEID : 770

Preface

Std. XI: Sci. Triumph Physics is a complete and thorough guide to prepare students for a competitive

level examination. The book will not only assist students with MCQs of Std. XI but will also help them to prepare for

JEE, AIPMT, CET and various other competitive examinations.

The content of this book is based on the Maharashtra State Board Syllabus. Formulae that form a vital part of

MCQ solving are provided in each chapter. Notes provide important information about the topic. Shortcuts provide

easy and less tedious solving methods. Mindbenders have been introduced to bridge the gap between a text book

topic and the students understanding of the same. A quick reference to the notes, shortcuts and mindbenders has been

provided wherever possible.

MCQs in each chapter are divided into three sections:

Classical Thinking: consists of straight forward questions including knowledge based questions.

Critical Thinking: consists of questions that require some understanding of the concept.

Competitive Thinking: consists of questions from various competitive examinations like JEE, AIPMT, CET, CPMT etc.

Hints have been provided to the MCQs which are broken down to the simplest form possible.

An Evaluation Test has been provided at the end of each chapter to assess the level of preparation of the

student on a competitive level.

An additional feature of pictorial representation of a topic is added to give the student a glimpse of various

interesting physics concept.

The journey to create a complete book is strewn with triumphs, failures and near misses. If you think weve

nearly missed something or want to applaud us for our triumphs, wed love to hear from you.

Please write to us on : mail@targetpublications.org

Yours faithfully

Authors

Sr. No.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

Topic Name

Measurements

Scalars and Vectors

Projectile Motion

Force

Friction in Solids and Liquids

Sound Waves

Thermal Expansion

Refraction of Light

Ray Optics

Electrostatics

Current Electricity

Magnetic Effect of Electric Current

Magnetism

Electromagnetic Waves

Page No.

1

28

55

91

126

161

184

218

256

284

323

356

382

403

01 Measurements

Syllabus

Measuring the radius of the Earth

1.0

Introduction

1.1

1.2

Units of measurements

1.3

System of units

1.4

S.I Units

1.5

1.6

Dimensional analysis

1.7

Order of magnitude

significant figures

1.8

Accuracy

and

measurements

errors

and

in

Earth using the difference in angle of shadows cast

at the same time in two different cities Syene (now

Aswan) and Alexandria. Using simple geometry, he

determined the degrees of arc between them to be 7.

Formulae

1.

2.

3.

Numerical value size of unit. i.e., M = nu

For definite amount of physical quantity:

1

n

u

1

i.e., magnitude of physical quantity

units

Conversion factor of a unit in two system of

units:

a

4.

Notes

x = x1 + x2

6.

x

mx1

nx 2

=

+

x

x1

x2

8.

9.

Absolute error:

Average value Measured value

| an | = | am an |

Mean absolute error:

a1 + a 2 + ... + a n

1

=

| a m | =

n

n

i =1

2.

Percentage error:

a m

am

ii.

a i

am

10.

Supplementary Quantity

Plane angle

Solid angle

a m

100 %

i.

Fundamental units: These

are

independent of other units. The seven

fundamental quantities and their units

are given below.

Fundamental Quantity

Length

Mass

Time

Temperature

Electric current

Luminous intensity

Amount of substance

L M T

n= 1 1 1

L 2 M 2 T2

Average value or mean value:

a + a 2 + a 3 + .... + a n

1 n

am = 1

= ai

n i =1

n

5.

7.

1.

Abbreviation

m/

nm

ly

AU

a.m.u./u

T

S.I. unit

1010 m

106 m

109 m

9.46 1015 m

1.496 1011 m

1.66 1027 kg

1 mm of Hg

S.I. Unit

radian (rad)

steradian (sr)

the fundamental units to give units of a

physical quantity.

Distance

For example: speed =

Time

Thus its unit is m/s. It means that unit of

speed depends upon the fundamental

unit of length and time.

i.

to measure separation between two

sources (i.e., two planets), if distance (b)

between them is very large.

O

Practical units

1 Angstrom

1 Micron

1 Nanometer

1 Light year

1 Astronomical unit

1 Atomic mass unit

1 Torr

S.I Unit

metre (m)

kilogram (kg)

second (s)

kelvin (K)

ampere (A)

candela (cd)

mole (mol)

L

s=

Basis

b

=

Parallactic angle

ii.

iv.

Mindbenders

O

EARTH

Linear diameter = distance

angular diameter

D =s

3.

4.

and the error in measurement of b is

a

b then the percentage error in,

is

b

a b

+

100

b

a

quantity, the unit of fundamental quantities

are represented by L for length, M for

mass, T for time, K for temperature, I or

A for current, C for luminous intensity and

mol for amount of substance.

1.

independent of the system of units.

2.

unit is always dimensionless.

3.

ratio of two similar physical quantities i.e.,

arc/radius and requires a unit.

4.

In the formula,

[Mx Ly Tz]; if x = y = z = 0, then the quantity is

a dimensionless quantity.

i.

If the error in a is a, then the

a

percentage error in a =

100

a

ii.

If the error in a is a, then the

a

percentage error in an = n

a

100

iii. If the error in measurement of a is a

and the error in measurement of b is

b then, the percentage error in ab is

a b

+

100

b

a

specific gravity, relative density, angle, solid

angle, poissons ratio, relative permittivity,

Reynolds number, all the trigonometric

ratios, refractive index, dielectric constant,

magnetic susceptibility etc.

A dimensionless quantity has the same numeric

value in all the system of units.

Quantity

Speed

Formula

Distance

Time

Unit

Dimension

m s1

[M0L1T1]

Acceleration

Changein velocity

Time

m s2

[M0L1T2]

Force

Mass Acceleration

N (newton)

[M1L1T2]

Pressure

Force

Area

N m2

[M1L1T2]

Mass

Volume

Force distance

kg m3

[M1L3T0]

joule

Density

Work

Energy

joule

watt

[M1L2T3]

kg m s1

Ns

[M1L1T1]

[M1L1T1]

= rF

Nm

-Energy

kelvin

joule

[M0L0T01]

[M1L2T2]

joule/kg K

[M0L2T21]

joule/K

[M1L2T21]

Force distance

Momentum

Work

Time

Mass Velocity

Impulse

Force Time

Power

Torque

Temperature (T)

Heat (Q)

Specific heat (c)

Thermal capacity

Q

m

--

heat ()

mass (m)

joule/kg

[M0L2T2]

PV

T

joule/mol K

[M1L2T21]

joule/K

[M1L2T21]

joule/m s K

[M1L1T31]

watt/m2 K4

[M1L0T3 4]

mK

[M0L1T01]

Energy (E)

Frequency (F)

joule s

[M1L2T1]

--

kelvin1

[M0L0T01]

--

joule/calorie

[M0L0T0]

Current Time

coulomb

[M0L0T1A1]

coulomb metre2

[M0L2T1A1]

ampere

ampere/m2

[M0L0T0A1]

[M0L2T0A1]

R

, N = Avogadro

N

number

From

Q

T

Coefficient of thermal t = KA x

conductivity (K)

Q x 1

K=

t T A

Boltzmann constant

(k)

Stefan's constant ()

Wien's constant (b)

Planck's constant (h)

Coefficient of linear

Expansion ()

Mechanical

equivalent of Heat(J)

Electric charge (q)

Surface charge

density()

Electric current (I)

Current density (J)

E

T4

b = Nm T

charge

area

Work

Charge

joule/ coulomb

[M1L2T3A1]

Intensity of electric

field (E)

Force

Charge

volt/metre, newton/coulomb

[M1L1T3A1]

Resistance (R)

P.D.

Current

volt/ampere or ohm

[M1L2T3 A2]

Conductance

1

R

ohm1

[M1L2T3A2]

Resistivity or

Specific resistance

()

Ra

l

ohm metre

[M1L3T3 A2]

Conductivity ()

ohm1metre1

[M1L3T3A2]

Electric dipole

moment (p)

q(2a)

coulomb metre

[M0L1T1A1]

coulomb 2

newton metre 2

[M1L3T4A2]

Unitless

[M0L0T0]

[M1L2T4A2]

volt second

or henry or

ampere

ohm-second

[M1L2T2 A2]

henry

[M1L2T2A2]

wdt

q

volt-second or weber

[M1L2T2 A1]

B=

F

qv

newton

or

ampere metre

joule

or

ampere metre 2

volt second

or

metre 2

tesla

[M1L0T2 A1]

Idl

r2

ampere/ metre

[M0L1T0 A1]

ampere metre2

[M0L2T0A1]

joule

newton

or

2

ampere

ampere2 metre

volt second

or

or

ampere metre

ohmsecond

henry

or

metre

metre

[M1L1T2 A2]

m1

[M0L1T0]

q1 q 2

4Fr 2

Permittivity of free

space (0)

0 =

Dielectric constant

(K)

K=

Capacitance (C)

Charge

P.D.

Coefficient of self

induction (L)

L=

Coefficient of mutual

inductance (M)

ed t

dI

Magnetic flux ()

d =

Magnetic induction

(B)

Magnetic dipole

moment (M)

(w / q)dt

dI

M = IA

4r Fr 2

m1m 2

Permeability of free

space (0)

0 =

22 mk 2 e 4

ch 3

Dimension

0 0 1

[M L T ]

[M1L2T2]

[M1L1T2]

[M1L1T1]

[M0L1T2]

[M1L1T2]

[M1L2T1]

[M1L0T2]

[M0L0T0]

[M0L2T2]

[ML2T21]

[M0L0T1]

[M0L0T1]

[ML2T2]

Quantity

Frequency, angular frequency, angular velocity, velocity gradient and decay

constant

Work, internal energy, potential energy, kinetic energy, torque, moment of force

Pressure, stress, Youngs modulus, bulk modulus, modulus of rigidity, energy

density

Momentum, impulse

Acceleration due to gravity, gravitational field intensity

Thrust, force, weight, energy gradient

Angular momentum and Plancks constant

Surface tension, Surface energy (energy per unit area), spring constant

Strain, refractive index, relative density, angle, solid angle, distance gradient,

relative permittivity (dielectric constant), relative permeability etc.

Latent heat and gravitational potential

Thermal capacity, gas constant, Boltzmann constant and entropy

l / g , m / k , R / g , where l = length

g = acceleration due to gravity, m = mass, k = spring constant,

R = Radius of earth

L/R, LC , RC where L = inductance, R = resistance, C = capacitance

V2

q2

t, VIt, qV, LI2,

, CV2

R

C

where I = current, t = time, q = charge, L = inductance, C = capacitance,

R = resistance

I2Rt,

i.

Pressure:

1 N/m2 = 10 dyne/ cm2 or

1 dyne/cm2 = 0.1 N/m2.

ii.

Density:

1 kg/m3 = 103 g/cm3 or

1 g/cm3 = 103 kg/m3.

iii.

iv.

v.

Coefficient of viscosity:

SI units is decapoise (N s/m2) and CGS

unit is poise.

1 poise = 101 decapoise or

1 decapoise = 10 poise.

following prefixes are used:

Power of 10

Prefix

Symbol

10

18

exa

10

15

peta

12

10

109

tera

giga

T

G

106

mega

kilo

10

10

hecta

deca

h

da

Magnetic induction:

S I unit is tesla (Wb/m2) and CGS unit is

Gauss.

1 gauss = 104 tesla or

1 tesla = 104 gauss.

101

deci

10

centi

10

milli

106

micro

Magnetic flux:

SI unit is weber and CGS unit is

maxwell.

1 Wb = 108 maxwell or

1 maxwell = 108 Wb.

nano

12

pico

femto

atto

10

10

10

1015

10

18

1.4

Classical Thinking

1.0

1.

2.

(A) yellow

(B) red

(C) pink

(D) orange

3.

(A) law of gravitation

(B) basic laws of electromagnetism

(C) laws of electrostatics

(D) nuclear model of an atom

1.1

4.

6.

supplementary unit.

(A) 7

(B) 2

(C) many

(D) 4

11.

can be exchanged between different parts of

the world?

(A) M.K.S.

(B) C.G.S.

(C) F.P.S.

(D) S.I.

1.5

Units of measurements

measurement of a physical quantity is called

_______.

(A) standard quantity (B) dimension

(C) constant

(D) unit

Which of the following

characteristic of a good unit?

(A) It is invariable.

(B) It is reproducible.

(C) It is perishable.

(D) It is easily available.

1.3

is

NOT

7.

(A) 2

(B) 4

(C) 5

(D) 6

8.

known as _______.

(A) supplementary units

(B) system of units

(C) complementary units

(D) metric units

9.

all the systems of unit is _______.

(A) length

(B) time

(C) mass

(D) foot

fundamental unit?

(A) newton

(B) second

(C) pound

(D) kg

13.

quantity in terms of

(A) length and mass

(B) mass and time

(C) length, mass and time

(D) none of these

14.

(A) joule

(B) erg

(C) dyne

(D) mole

15.

of writing units?

(A) 25 ms length

(B) 30 Kg

(C) 5 Newton

(D) 10 N

16.

earth ______ method is used.

(A) echo

(B) direct

(C) parallax

(D) paradox

17.

(A) temperature.

(B) pressure.

(C) quantity of matter contained in the body.

(D) location of the body from the observer.

18.

atomic mass unit (1u)?

(A) 8.333 101 of the mass of an atom of

12

C in kg

(B) 0.8333 101 of the mass of an atom of

12

C in g

(C) 8.333 101 of the mass of an atom of

12

C in g

(D) 0.8333 101 of the mass of an atom of

12

C in kg

System of units

_______

12.

verification of various theories.

(A) Unit

(B) Symbol

(C) Instrument

(D) Measurement

1.2

5.

10.

Introduction

are the parts of ______ domain.

(A) macroscopic

(B) microscopic

(C) megascopic

(D) electroscopic

S.I Units

19.

(A) cesium-122 atom (B) cesium-132 atom

(C) cesium-133 atom (D) cesium-134 atom

20.

21.

30.

next noon.

(A) mean solar day (B) solar day

(C) lunar day

(D) day

dimensionless quantity?

(A) angle

(B) strain

(C) specific gravity (D) density

31.

_______.

(A) distance

(B) time

(C) temperature

(D) luminous intensity

dimensions are

(A) [M0L0T0]

(B) [M1L1T0]

(C) [M0L1T1]

(D) [M1L0T1]

32.

(A) to check the correctness of a physical

quantity.

(B) to derive the relation between different

physical quantities.

(C) to find out constant of proportionality

which may be pure number.

(D) to change from one system of units to

another system.

33.

quantity is [M1L2T2] then the physical

quantity is _______.

(A) torque

(B) impulse

(C) force

(D) force per unit area

34.

given by [LaMbTc], then the physical quantity

will be

(A) force, if a = 1, b = 0, c = 2

(B) pressure, if a = 1, b = 1, c = 2

(C) velocity, if a = 1, b = 0, c = 1

(D) acceleration, if a = 1, b = 1, c = 2

22.

as force per unit area?

(A) work

(B) pressure

(C) volume

(D) density

23.

is _______.

(A) velocity

(B) mass

(C) force

(D) acceleration

24.

(A) watt

(B) lux

(C) lumen

(D) candela

25.

(A) steradian

(B) candela

(C) kelvin

(D) pascal

26.

(B) 102 N/m2

(A) 10 N/m2

2

2

(C) 10 N/m

(D) 101 N/m2

1.6

27.

28.

29.

Dimensional analysis

_______.

(A) joule constant

(B) gravitational constant

(C) pressure

(D) force

Checking the correctness of physical

equations using the method of dimensions is

based on

(A) equality of inertial frame of reference.

(B) the type of system of units.

(C) the method of measurement.

(D) principle of homogeneity of dimensions.

A unitless quantity

(A) always has a non-zero dimension.

(B) may have a non-zero dimension.

(C) never has a zero dimension.

(D) has no dimensions.

8

1.7

35.

nearest integral power of 10 is called _______.

(A) significant figure

(B) uncertain number

(C) significant number

(D) order of magnitude

36.

(A) 1018

(B) 109

6

(C) 10

(D) 103

37.

magnitude of the length of the rod is

(B) 102 m

(A) 103 m

(D) 101 m

(C) 101 m

38.

The order of magnitude is

(A) 1019 C

(B) 1018 C

(C) 1018 C

(D) 1019 C

39.

of the measuring instrument.

(A) length

(B) readings

(C) number

(D) accuracy

40.

(A) 4

(B) 3

(C) 2

(D) 1

41.

(A) 1

(B) 2

(C) 3

(D) 4

42.

(A) 4

(B) 3

(C) 2

(D) 1

43.

6.032 J

(A) 4

(B) 3

(C) 2

(D) 1

1.8

44.

45.

49.

pointer and its image in case of magnetic

compass needle causes _______.

(A) instrumental error

(B) persistant error

(C) personal error

(D) random error

50.

(A) taking large number of readings.

(B) using different accurate instrument for

the same reading.

(C) adjusting zero of the instrument.

(D) maintaining the temperature of the

surrounding.

51.

mean value and each individual value is called

_______.

(A) absolute error

(B) error in reading

(C) most probable error

(D) true error

52.

a m

100%

(A) Percentage error =

am

measured value is called _______.

(A) mistake

(B) error

(C) significant figures (D) fault

If the pointer of the voltmeter is not exactly at

the zero of the scale then the error is called

_______.

(A) instrumental error (B) systematic error

(C) personal error

(D) random error

46.

(A) systematic error

(B) random error

(C) instrumental error

(D) none of these

47.

(A) taking only one reading.

(B) taking small magnitude of the quantity.

(C) selecting instrument with greater least count.

(D) selecting instrument with small least count.

48.

(A) faulty construction of instrument.

(B) wrong setting of instrument.

(C) lack of concentration of observer.

(D) wrong procedure of handling

instrument.

the

(B)

(C)

(D)

1 n

a i 100%

n i=1

a

Percentage error = m 100%

a m

Percentage error =

n

Percentage error = 1 ai 100%

n i=1

a

, then maximum relative error in the

b

measurement is

a b

a / a

(A)

(B)

+

a

b

b / b

a b

b / b

(D)

(C)

a / a

a

b

53.

If x =

54.

uncertainty in l1 + l2 is

(A) 0

(B) 0.1

(C) 0.2

(D) 0.4

55.

R2 = 60 3 ohm are connected in series, the

equivalent resistance of the series combination

is

(A) (110 4) ohm

(B) (110 2) ohm

(C) (110 5) ohm

(D) (110 6) ohm

9

56.

57.

power of a)

a

a

+n

(B) n

(A)

a

a

a

a

(C)

n

(D)

a

na

Thickness of the paper measured by

micrometer screw gauge of least count

0.01 mm is 1.03 mm, the percentage error in

the measurement of thickness of paper is

(A) 1.1%

(B) 1%

(C) 0.97%

(D) 0.8%

Critical Thinking

1.2

1.

Miscellaneous

58.

(A) 1 micron = 108 cm

(B) 1 micron = 106 cm

(C) 1 micron = 105 cm

(D) 1 micron = 104 cm

10

System of units

based on units of mass, length and time alone?

(A) S.I.

(B) M.K.S

(C) F.P.S

(D) C.G.S

1.5

3.

mass pressure

is _______.

density

(A) force

(B) momentum

(C) angular momentum (D) work

4.

(A) rotation of the earth on its axis.

(B) Earths orbital motion around the Sun.

(C) vibrations of cesium atom.

(D) oscillations of quartz crystal.

5.

1 a.m.u. is equivalent to

(B)

(A) 1.6 1027 kg

24

(C) 1.6 10 g

(D)

measure small mass in the sub-milligram range. The

measuring pan (0.1 mg) is inside a transparent

enclosure with doors so that dust does not collect

and air currents in the room do not affect the

balance's operation.

Electronic analytical scale measures the force

needed to counter the mass being measured rather

than using actual masses.

systems of measurement and n1 and n2 are

their numerical values, then

(A) n1u1 = n2u2

(B) n1u1 + n2u2 = 0

(C) n1n2 = u1u2

(D) (n1+ u1) = (n2 + u2)

1.3

2.

Units of measurements

934 MeV

All of the above

6.

kg

kg m

(B)

(A)

m

sec

2

kg m

(D) kg newton

(C)

sec

7.

Curie is a unit of

(A) energy of -rays

(B) half life

(C) radioactivity

(D) intensity of -rays

8.

displacement. The unit of B is

(A) m1s1

(B) m2s

2

(C) s

(D) s1

9.

10.

11.

F L

; where L = length,

the formula is Y =

A L

A = area of cross-section of the wire, L =

change in length of the wire when stretched

with a force F. The conversion factor to

change it from CGS to MKS system is

(A) 1

(B) 10

(C) 0.1

(D) 0.01

The moon subtends an angle of 57 minute at

the base-line equal to the radius of the earth.

What is the distance of the moon from the

earth? [Radius of the earth = 6.4 106 m]

(B) 3.86 108 m

(A) 11.22 108 m

3

(C) 3.68 10 cm (D) 3.68 108 cm

The angular diameter of the sun is 1920. If

the distance of the sun from the earth is

1.5 1011 m, then the linear diameter of the

sun is

(B) 0.7 109 m

(A) 2.6 109 m

(C) 5.2 109 m

(D) 1.4 109 m

1.6

12.

17.

of mass is doubled then dimension of force is

(A) [M2L2T2]

(B) [M2L1/2T2]

(D) [M1L1T2]

(C) [M2L1/2T2]

18.

NOT have identical dimensions?

(A) Energy and moment of force

(B) Work and torque

(C) Density and surface energy

(D) Pressure and stress

19.

dimensionally correct?

(A) pressure = Energy per unit volume

(B) pressure = Energy per unit area

(C) pressure = Momentum volume time

(D) pressure = Force area

20.

same as dimensional formula for _______.

(A) acceleration

(B) force

(C) momentum

(D) rate of change in momentum

21.

The dimensions of

Dimensional analysis

same dimensions in the dimensional formulae

of torque and angular momentum are

(A) mass, time

(B) time, length

(C) mass, length

(D) time, mole

13.

dimensions of the coefficient of viscosity?

(A) [M1L1T2]

(B) [M1L1T1]

(C) [M1L1T1]

(D) [M1L2T2]

14.

resistance of a conductor is

(A) [M1L2T2I1]

(B) [M1L2T2I1]

1 1 3 2

(D) [M1L2T3I2]

(C) [M L T I ]

15.

moment, electric flux and electric field are

respectively

(A) L, L2, L3

(B) L3, L2, L

(C) L1, L3, L3

(D) L, L3, L

16.

through which a current i is flowing, the

dimensions of Li2 are

(A) [L2M1T2]

(B) Not expressible in LMT

(C) [L1M1T2]

(D) [L2M2T2]

(A)

(C)

Velocity

Capacitance

1

is that of

00

(B)

(D)

Time

Distance

22.

dimensions?

(A) Current density and charge density

(B) Angular momentum and momentum

(C) Spring constant and surface energy

(D) Force and torque

23.

radius r falling under gravity through a

column of viscous liquid coefficient of

viscosity depends on mass of the ball m,

acceleration due to gravity g. Which of the

following relation is dimensionally correct?

mgr

(A) v

(B) v mgr

mg

mg

(D) v

(C) v

r

r

24.

time. What are the dimensions of a and b?

(A) [M1L1T1] and [M1L1T0]

(B) [M1L1T3] and [M1L1T4]

(C) [M1L1T4] and [M1L1T1]

(D) [M1L3T1] and [M1L1T4]

11

25.

time t as F = a x + bt2. The dimensions of a/b is

(B) [M0L1/2T2]

(A) [M0L0T2]

(C) [M0L1/2T2]

(D) [M0L1/2T2]

26.

force, A is the area, v is the velocity and d is the

density, the values of a, b and c are respectively

(A) 1, 2, 1

(B) 2, 1, 1

(C) 1, 1, 2

(D) 0, 1, 1

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

dimensions, find which of the following relation

is correct? [T is the time period, a is the radius of

the orbit and M is the mass of the sun.]

4 2 a 3

4 2 a 3

(B) T2 =

(A) T2 =

G

GM

4 2 a 3

(C) T2 = 42a3

(D) T2 =

GM 2

The period of a body under SHM is

represented by T = PaDbSc ; where P is

pressure, D is density and S is surface tension.

The value of a, b and c are

3 1

(A) , , 1

(B) 1, 2, 3

2 2

1

3 1

1

(C)

,

(D) 1, 2,

2

2 2

3

The equation of a wave is given by

x

Y = A sin k

v

linear velocity. The dimension of k is

(A) LT

(B) T

(D) T2

(C) T1

Find the dimensions of (a/b) in the equation:

a t2

P=

bx

Where P is pressure, x is distance and t is time.

(B) [M1L0T2]

(A) [M1L1T2]

1 2 2

(C) [M L T ]

(D) [M1L2T2]

The equation of state of some gases can be

a

V

temperature and a, b, R are constants. The

dimensions of a are

(A) [M1L5T2]

(B) [ML1T2]

0 3 0

(D) [M0L6T0]

(C) [M L T ]

12

32.

gravity (g) and pressure (p) are taken as the

fundamental quantities, then the dimension of

gravitational constant is

(A) [c2g0p2]

(B) [c0g2p1]

3 2

(C) [cg p ]

(D) [c1g0p1]

33.

980 cm s2. If the unit of length is kilometre

and that of time is minute then value of

acceleration due to gravity is

(A) 980 km min2

(B) 98 km min2

(C) 35.28 km min2 (D) 28.35 km min2

1.7

34.

expressed as A 10n where n is a number

called order of magnitude and A is

(A) 0.1 A < 1

(B) 0.5 A < 5

(C) 5 A < 9

(D) 1 A > 9

35.

of magnitude is

(B) 104 m

(A) 107 m

3

(D) 102 m

(C) 10 m

36.

magnitude of 51

(A) is same.

(B) differs by 1.

(C) is 1.

(D) is 2.

37.

express it in the order of magnitude.

(A) 8.64 104 s, 105 s (B) 6.84 104 s, 104 s

(C) 8.64 105 s, 105 s (D) 6.85 104 s, 105 s

38.

does not necessarily denote certainty is

defined as _______.

(A) special figures

(B) characteristic figures

(C) unknown figures

(D) significant figures

39.

given numbers 25.12, 2009, 4.156 and

1.217 104 is

(A) 1

(B) 2

(C) 3

(D) 4

40.

to significant figure is

(A) 13.000

(B) 13.00

(C) 13.0

(D) 13

41.

a vernier calliper, only uncertain figure is

(A) 1

(B) 2

(C) 4

(D) 6

42.

Taking the significant figures into account, the

area of the rectangle is

(A) 72.00 cm2

(B) 72.1 cm2

2

(D) 72.12 cm2

(C) 72 m

1.8

43.

44.

48.

mass of a body is 0.75% and the percentage

error in the measurement of its speed is

1.85%. Then the percentage error in the

measurement of its kinetic energy is

(A) 7.05%

(B) 4.45%

(C) 2.6%

(D) 1.1%

49.

the simple pendulum is 0.1% and the error in

time period (T) is 3%. The maximum possible

L

error in the measurement of 2 is

T

(A) 2.9%

(B) 3.1%

(C) 5.9%

(D) 6.1%

50.

l

is given by T = 2

where l is about

g

100 cm and is known to have 1 mm accuracy.

The period is about 2 s. The time of

100 oscillations is measured by a stop watch of

least count 0.1 s. The percentage error in g is

(A) 0.1%

(B) 1%

(C) 0.2%

(D) 0.8%

51.

block of wood were measured to be

l = 13.12 0.02 cm, b = 7.18 0.01 cm,

h = 4.16 0.02 cm.

The percentage error in the volume of the

block will be

(A) 7%

(B) 0.77%

(C) 0.72%

(D) 0.27%

52.

I 2 Rt

cal

determined from the relation: H =

4.2

If the maximum errors in the measurement of

current, resistance and time are 2%, 1% and

1% respectively, what would be the maximum

error in the dissipated heat?

(A) 5%

(B) 4%

(C) 6%

(D) 0.5%

following data.

20.17, 21.23, 20.79, 22.07, 21.78

(A) 0.85

(B) 0.58

(C) 0.03

(D) 0.01

In the expression A =

xy3

the percentage

z2

error is given by

45.

(A)

x

y

z

+3

2 100%

y

z

x

(B)

x 3y 2z

+

+

100%

y

z

x

(C)

x 3y 2z

100%

y

z

x

(D)

x

y

z

3

+ 2 100%

y

z

x

The diameter of a wire is 0.020 cm as measured

by it. The percentage error in measurement is

(A) 25%

(B) 20%

(C) 15%

(D) 5%

46.

radius r of a sphere is 0.1% then the percentage

error introduced in the measurement of volume

is

(A) 0.1%

(B) 0.2%

(C) 0.25%

(D) 0.3%

47.

measuring the force on the plate and the length

of the sides of the plate. If the maximum error

in the measurement of force and length are

respectively 4% and 2%, The maximum error

in the measurement of pressure is

(A) 1%

(B) 2%

(C) 6%

(D) 8%

Miscellaneous

53.

assumed to be fundamental quantities, then

energy has dimensional formula

(B) [P1A1/2T1]

(A) [P1A1/2T1]

(D) [P1A1T1]

(C) [P2A1T1]

13

54.

55.

atoms in one gram mole.

Competitive Thinking

constant.

1.5

(A)

is a correct explanation for Assertion

(B)

is not a correct explanation for Assertion

(C)

(D)

1.

[MH CET 2011]

J

N

(B)

(A)

m

m2

J

(C) J m

(D)

m2

2.

energy?

[MP PET 98, 2000]

(A) watt-hour

(B) electron volt

(C) N m

(D) kg m2 s2

3.

is

[MH CET 2002]

(A) Nm4/mole.

(B) Nm2/mole.

(C) N2m/mole.

(D) none of these.

4.

[MH CET 2006]

is

3

(A) m /mole

(B) m2/mole

(C) m/mole

(D) m3

5.

displacement law are

[MH CET 2008; 09]

(B) mK

(A) cm K1

(C) cm2K1

(D) cm K2

6.

[MH CET 2004]

(A) kcal/gm K

(B) cal/gm K

(C) J/kg K

(D) erg/kg K

7.

As is unit of

(A) capacitance.

(C) energy.

8.

[MH CET 2004]

(A) cm

(B) m

(C) /cm

(D) mho-cm

9.

1 Tesla =

straight line, when P/Q is constant.

Reason: The straight line graph means that P

is proportional to Q or P is equal to constant

multiplied by Q.

(A)

is a correct explanation for Assertion

(B)

is not a correct explanation for Assertion

(C)

(D)

Quartz crystal clock

oscillator regulated by a quartz crystal to keep time.

This crystal oscillator creates a signal with very

precise frequency, so that clock has an accuracy of

1 s in every 109 s.

14

(A)

(C)

10.

1 Wb/m

1 N/Am

(B) charge.

(D) power.

(B)

(D)

1 J/Am

1 Am/N

Unit of in radioactivity is

(A)

(C)

m

(year)1

(B)

(D)

(unit of half life)1

sec

11.

four times, then the unit of energy is

[Kerala PMT 2005]

(A) Increased 4 times

(B) Increased 8 times

(C) Increased 16 times

(D) Decreased 16 times

12.

108 dyne/cm. It is equivalent to

[MH CET 1999]

(A) 107 N/m

(B) 106 N/m

(C) 105 N/m

(D) 104 N/m

18.

[IIT 2005]

dimensions?

(A) Pressure, Youngs modulus, stress

(B) e.m.f, potential difference, electric

potential

(C) Heat, work done, energy

(D) dipole moment, electric flux, electric

field

19.

constant are

[AIIMS 2000; MH CET 2006;

Orissa JEE 2010]

2 2 2

(A) [M L T ]

(B) [M1L3T2]

1 2

(D) [ML2T2]

(C) [ML T ]

20.

[MH CET 2004]

(A) [M1L2T2]

(B) [M1L2T1]

(D) [M1L0T1]

(C) [M1L2T1]

21.

[MH CET 2002]

1 2 2

(B) [M1L0T2]

(A) [M L T ]

(D) [M0 L0 T2]

(C) [M1L2T2]

22.

[MH CET 2003]

(A) [M1L1T2]

(B) [M0L1T1]

(D) [M1L0T1]

(C) [M1L0T2]

23.

1

W = Kx 2 is

[Orissa JEE 2003]

2

(A) [M1L0T2]

(B) [M0L1T1]

(D) [M1L0T1]

(C) [M1L1T2]

24.

viscous damping force acting on it is

proportional to the velocity. Then dimension

of constant of proportionality is

[Orissa JEE 2002]

(A) [M1L1T1]

(B) [M1L1T1]

(D) [M1L0T1]

(C) [M0L1T1]

25.

[MH CET 2014]

number is

(A) [L0 M0 T0]

(B) [L1 M1 T1]

(C) [L1 M1 T1]

(D) [L1 M1 T1]

1.6

13.

14.

15.

Dimensional analysis

L

The quantities RC and (where R, L and

R

C stand for resistance, inductance and

capacitance respectively) have the dimensions

of

[Kerala PET 2010]

(A) force

(B) linear momentum

(C) linear acceleration(D) time

resistance, inductance and capacitance

respectively. Which one of the following

combination has dimensions of frequency?

[IIT JEE 1986]

R

R

(A)

(B)

L

RC

1

C

(C)

(D)

LC

L

LV

The quantity X = 0 :0 is the permittivity

t

of free space, L is length, V is potential

difference and t is time. The dimensions of X

are same as that of

[IIT JEE 2001; AMU (Engg.) 2009]

(A) Resistance

(B) Charge

(C) Voltage

(D) Current

16.

[MH CET 2004]

(A) energy.

(B) angular momentum.

(C) mass.

(D) force.

17.

the dimensions of the product of

[MH CET 2010]

(A) Force and time

(B) Force, displacement and time.

(C) Force and velocity

(D) Force and displacement

15

26.

[Pb PET 2003; AIIMS 2010]

2 2 1

(A) [ML T ]

(B) [M2LT2]

3 1 1

(C) [ML T ]

(D) None of these

27.

x

. The dimensions of x are

is F =

d

[MH CET 2014]

1/ 2

3/ 2

2

(A) [L M T ] (B) [L1/ 2 M1/ 2 T 2 ]

(C)

28.

29.

30.

31.

[L1 M 3/2 T 2 ]

(D)

34.

system, if X and Z are the dimension of

capacity and magnetic field respectively is

[MP PMT 2003]

(A) [M3L2T4A1] (B) [M1L2]

(C) [M3L2T4A4]

(D) [M3L2T8A4]

35.

drop depends on surface tension (S), radius (r)

of the drop and density () of the liquid, then

[AMU (Med.) 2000]

the expression of T is

[L1 M1/ 2 T 2 ]

[MH CET 2005]

equation?

1 1 2

2

(A) [M L T mol ] (B) [M1L3T2mol2]

(C) [M1L5T2mol2] (D) [M1L3T2mol1]

36.

the permittivity of vacuum. If M = mass,

L = length, T = time and A = electric current,

then

[JEE (Main) 2013]

(A) [0] = [M1 L3 T2 A]

(B) [0] = [M1 L3 T4 A2]

(C) [0] = [M1 L2 T1 A2]

(D) [0] = [M1 L2 T1 A]

1

E2, where 0 is

2 0

permittivity of free space and E is electric

field, is

[AIPMT 2010]

(A) [L2M1T2]

(B) [L1M1T2]

(D) [L1M1T1]

(C) [L2M1T2]

The dimension of

[MH CET 2001]

1 2 2

1

(A) [M L T A ] (B) [M1 L1 T2 A1]

(C) [M1 L1 T2 A1] (D) [M1 L2 T2 A1]

32.

b

, where a, b and c are

by v = at +

t+c

constants. The dimensions of a, b and c are

respectively

[AIPMT 2006]

2

(A) L, LT and T

(B) LT2, L and T

2

2

(D) LT2, LT and L

(C) L ,T and LT

33.

mass, angular momentum and gravitational

EJ 2

constant, then 5 2 has the dimensions of

MG

[AIIMS 1985; IIT 1990]

(A) length

(B) angle

(C) mass

(D) time

16

(A)

T = k r 3 / S

(C)

In the relation P =

(B)

Z

k

T= k 1/ 2 r 3 / S

P is pressure, Z is

is the temperature. The dimensional formula

of will be

[IIT (Screening) 2004]

0 2 0

(A) [M L T ]

(B) [M1L2T1]

(C) [M1L0T1]

(D) [M0L2T1]

1.7

37.

[Kerala PET 2010]

is

(A) 6

(B) 4

(C) 7

(D) 2

38.

for the numbers 23.023, 0.0003 and 2.1 103

are

[AIEEE 2010]

(A) 4, 4, 2

(B) 5, 1, 2

(C) 5, 1, 5

(D) 5, 5, 2

39.

measured using an instrument. 29 divisions of

the main scale exactly coincide with the 30

divisions of the vernier scale. If the smallest

division of the main scale is half-a-degree

(=0.5) then the least count of the instrument

is

[AIEEE 2009]

(A) one minute

(B) half minute

(C) one degree

(D) half degree

40.

main scale. It has 20 equal divisions on the

Vernier scale which match with 16 main scale

divisions. For this Vernier callipers, the least

count is

[IIT JEE 2010]

(A) 0.02 m

(B) 0.05 mm

(C) 0.1 mm

(D) 0.2 mm

41.

42.

43.

44.

45.

Vernier callipers with no zero error. It is found

that the zero of the Vernier scale lies between

5.10 cm and 5.15 cm of the main scale. The

Vernier scale has 50 divisions equivalent to

2.45 cm. The 24th division of the Vernier

scale exactly coincides with one of the main

scale divisions. The diameter of the cylinder is

[JEE (Advanced) 2013]

(A) 5.112 cm

(B) 5.124 cm

(C) 5.136 cm

(D) 5.148 cm

A student measured the length of a rod and

wrote it as 3.50 cm. Which instrument did he

use to measure it?

[JEE (Main) 2014]

(A) A meter scale

(B) A vernier calliper where the 10 divisions

in vernier scale matches with 9 division

in main scale and main scale has

10 divisions in 1 cm

(C) A screw gauge having 100 divisions in

the circular scale and pitch as 1 mm

(D) A screw guage having 50 divisions in

the circular scale and pitch as 1 mm

In a vernier callipers, one main scale division

is x cm and n divisions of the vernier scale

coincide with (n 1) divisions of the main

scale. The least count (in cm) of the callipers

is

[AMU PMT 2009]

nx

n 1

(A)

(B)

x

(n 1)

n

x

x

(D)

(C)

(n 1)

n

A screw guage gives the following reading

when used to measure the diameter of a wire.

Main scale reading : 0 mm

Circular scale reading : 52 divisions

The diameter of wire from the above data is

[AIEEE 2011]

(A) 0.52 cm

(B) 0.052 cm

(C) 0.026 cm

(D) 0.005 cm

A spectrometer gives the following reading

when used to measure the angle of a prism.

Main scale reading : 58.5 degree

Vernier scale reading : 09 divisions

Given that 1 division on main scale

corresponds to 0.5 degree. Total divisions on

the vernier scale is 30 and match with 29

divisions of the main scale. The angle of the

prism from the above data

[AIEEE 2012]

(A) 58.59 degree

(B) 58.77 degree

(C) 58.65 degree

(D) 59 degree

1.8

46.

[AMU 2010]

following.

(A) Every measurement by any measuring

instrument has some error.

(B) Every calculated physical quantity that

is based on measured values has some

error.

(C) A measurement can have more accuracy

but less precision and vice versa.

(D) The percentage error is different from

relative error.

47.

radius of the sphere is 0.3%. The permissible

error in its surface area is 0.6%.

Reason: The permissible error is calculated by

A

4r

the formula

=

[AIIMS 2008]

A

r

(A) Assertion is True, Reason is True; Reason

is a correct explanation for Assertion

(B) Assertion is True, Reason is True; Reason

is not a correct explanation for Assertion

(C) Assertion is True, Reason is False

(D) Assertion is False, Reason is False.

48.

percentage error in its volume will be

[Pb PET 2000]

100

1

100

0.01

(A) 3 + 6.01

(B)

5.3

3

5.3

3 0.1

0.1

100 (D)

100

(C)

5.3

5.3

49.

measuring the current flowing in it and the

voltage difference applied across it. If the

percentage errors in the measurement of the

current and the voltage difference are 3%

each, then error in the value of resistance of

the wire is

[AIEEE 2012]

(A) 6%

(B) Zero

(C) 1%

(D) 3%

50.

are measured with percentage error 1%, 2%,

3% and 4% respectively. Quantity P is

calculated as follows:

a 3 b2

% error in P is [NEET UG 2013]

P=

cd

(A) 14%

(B) 10%

(C) 7%

(D) 4%

17

51.

52.

gauge cover a distance of 1 mm on its main

scale. The total number of divisions on the

circular scale is 50. Further, it is found that the

screw gauge has a zero error of 0.03 mm.

While measuring the diameter of a thin wire, a

student notes the main scale reading of 3 mm

and the number of circular scale divisions in

line with the main scale as 35. The diameter of

the wire is

[AIEEE 2008]

(A) 3.73 mm

(B) 3.67 mm

(C) 3.38 mm

(D) 3.32 mm

(A)

(C)

54.

(D)

55.

are 50. It moves 0.5 mm on main scale in one

rotation. The diameter of the ball is

[IIT JEE 2006]

O 30

O 10

25

5

0

53.

(C)

2.25 mm

1.20 mm

20

(B)

(D)

2.20 mm

1.25 mm

in an experiment. The diameter of the ball is

measured with a screw gauge, whose pitch is

0.5 mm and there are 50 divisions on the

circular scale. The reading on the main scale is

2.5 mm and that on the circular scale is 20

divisions. If the measured mass of the ball has

a relative error of 2%, the relative percentage

error in the density is

[IIT JEE 2011]

(A) 0.9%

(B) 2.4%

(C) 3.1%

(D) 4.2%

I

II

III

used. For a load M = 2.5 Kg, an extension l =

0.25mm in the length of the wire is observed.

Quantities d and l are measured using a screw

gauge and a micrometer, respectively. They

have the same pitch of 0.5 mm. The number

of divisions on their circular scale is 100. The

contributions to the maximum probable error

of the Y measurement are

[IIT JEE 2012]

(A) due to the errors in the measurements of

d and l are the same.

(B) due to the error in the measurement of d

is twice that due to the error in the

measurement of l.

18

measuring the acceleration due to gravity (g)

using a simple pendulum. They use different

lengths of the pendulum and/or record time for

different number of oscillations. The

observations are shown in the table.

Least count for length = 0.1 cm

Least count for time = 0.1 s

Length of

the

pendulum

(cm)

64.0

64.0

20.0

Total time

Number of

for (n)

oscillation

oscillations

(n)

(s)

8

128.0

4

64.0

4

36.0

Time

period

(s)

16.0

16.0

9.0

g

i.e.,

g

respectively,

[IIT JEE 2008]

(A) EI = 0

(B) EI is minimum

(C) EI = EII

(D) EII is maximum

4MLg

Y =

by using Searles method, a wire

ld 2

is twice that due to the error in the

measurement of d.

due to the error in the measurement of d

is four times that due to the error in the

measurement of l.

Miscellaneous

56.

(A)

1015 m

(B)

1015 m

(C)

1012 m

(D)

1012 m

57.

dimensions ML2/Q2 where Q denotes the

electric charge?

[AIEEE 2006]

(A) henry (H)

(B) H/m2

(C) weber (Wb)

(D) Wb/m2

58.

taken as fundamental units, then the

[AIPMT 2014]

dimensions of mass are

1

(B) [F V T2]

(A) [F V T ]

(C) [F V1 T1]

(D) [F V1 T]

Answer Key

Classical Thinking

1.

(B)

2.

(C)

3.

(B)

4.

(D)

5.

(D)

6.

(C)

7.

(A)

8.

(B)

9.

(B)

10. (B)

11. (D)

12. (A)

13. (D)

14. (D)

15. (D)

16. (C)

17. (C)

18. (D)

19. (C)

20. (B)

21. (A)

22. (B)

23. (D)

24. (D)

25. (A)

26. (B)

27. (C)

28. (D)

29. (D)

30. (D)

31. (A)

32. (C)

33. (A)

34. (B)

35. (D)

36. (C)

37. (B)

38. (D)

39. (D)

40. (D)

41. (C)

42. (B)

43. (A)

44. (B)

45. (B)

46. (A)

47. (D)

48. (A)

49. (C)

50. (B)

51. (A)

52. (A)

53. (B)

54. (C)

55. (C)

56. (B)

57. (C)

58. (D)

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

(C)

10. (B)

Critical Thinking

1.

(A)

2.

(A)

(D)

(C)

(D)

(B)

(C)

(A)

11. (D)

12. (C)

13. (B)

14. (D)

15. (D)

16. (A)

17. (D)

18. (C)

19. (A)

20. (C)

21. (A)

22. (C)

23. (C)

24. (B)

25. (C)

26. (A)

27. (B)

28. (A)

29. (B)

30. (B)

31. (A)

32. (B)

33. (C)

34. (B)

35. (A)

36. (B)

37. (A)

38. (D)

39. (D)

40. (C)

41. (C)

42. (C)

43. (B)

44. (B)

45. (A)

46. (D)

47. (D)

48. (B)

49. (D)

50. (C)

51. (B)

52. (C)

53. (B)

54. (C)

55. (A)

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

(C)

10. (B)

Competitive Thinking

1.

(D)

2.

(C)

3.

(D)

(A)

(B)

(C)

(B)

(B)

11. (C)

12. (C)

13. (D)

14. (B)

15. (D)

16. (B)

17. (B)

18. (D)

19. (B)

20. (C)

21. (B)

22. (C)

23. (A)

24. (D)

25. (A)

26. (A)

27. (A)

28. (C)

29. (B)

30. (B)

31. (D)

32. (B)

33. (B)

34. (D)

35. (A)

36. (A)

37. (B)

38. (B)

39. (A)

40. (D)

41. (B)

42. (B)

43. (C)

44. (B)

45. (C)

46. (D)

47. (C)

48. (C)

49. (A)

50. (A)

51. (C)

52. (C)

53. (C)

54. (A)

55. (C)

56. (B)

57. (A)

58. (D)

Hints

Classical Thinking

13.

26.

103 dyne/cm2 = 103 105/104 N/m2

= 102 N/m2

OR

Using quick conversion for pressure,

1 dyne/cm2 = 0.1 N/m2

103 dyne/cm2 = 103 0.1 = 102 N/m2

57.

100 %

Percentage error =

d

0.01

100 %

=

1.03

= 0.97%

Critical Thinking

1.

= Numerical value (n) Unit (u)

If physical quantity remains constant then

n 1/u n1u1 = n2u2.

19

2.

3.

fundamental quantities.

16.

mass pressure m (F / A) F V

=

=

density

(m / V)

A

17.

F (A s)

= F s = work

A

6.

m

mv = kg

sec

7.

Curie = disintegration/second

8.

Bxt is unitless.

Unit of B is m1s1.

9.

Y=

10.

21.

23.

24.

F L

dyne 105 N

.

=

=

= 0.1 N/m2

A L

cm 2 104 m 2

o

11.

25.

Angular diameter of sun,

1920

1920

= 1920 =

rad

=

3600 180

60

60

Diameter of sun, D = s

1920

= 1.5 1011

3600 180

D 1.4 109 m

12.

Torque = [M1L2T2],

Angular momentum = [M1L2T1]

So mass and length have the same dimensions.

13.

Pr 4

=

8l (dV / dt)

[M1L1T2 ][L4 ]

= [M1L1T1]

1

3

1

[L ][L / T ]

[] =

15.

[Electric flux]

= [M1L3T3A1]

[Electric field] = [M1L1T3A1]

20

changes in its magnitude.

1

00

= c = velocity of light

M1 L1T 2

mg

= 1 1 1

= [L1T1]

r

L M T L1

From F = at + bt2

1 2

M1LT

F

=

= [M1L1T3]

a=

T1

t

M1L1T 2

F

b= 2 =

= [M1L1T4]

2

T

t

Parallactic angle, = 57

57

57

= =

rad

60 180

60

b = Radius of earth = 6.4 106 m

Distance of the moon from the earth,

6.4 106 60 180

b

=

s=

57

8

s = 3.86 10 m

1 2

Li = energy stored in an inductor

2

= [M1L2T2]

F= a x

a=

M1L1T 2

=

= [M1L1/2T2]

1/ 2

L

x

bt2 = F

F

b= 2

t

M1L1T 2

=

= [M1L1T4]

T 2

M1L1/ 2 T 2

a

=

= [L1/2 T2]

b

M1L1T 4

= [L2a] [LbTb] [McL3c]

= [Mc L2a + b 3c Tb]

Comparing powers of M, L and T,

c = 1, 2a + b 3c = 1,

b = 2

b=2

2a + 2 3(1) = 1

2a = 2

a=1

27.

Let T2 =

26.

4 2 a x

G y Mz

42 being pure number is dimensionless.

[M 0 L1T 0 ]x

[M0L0T2] =

[M1L3T2 ] y [M1L0 T 0 ]z

28.

29.

Comparing powers of M, L and T

y z = 0,

x 3y = 0 and

2y = 2

y=1

Substituting value of y,

z = 1, x = 3

4 2 a 3

Thus, T2 =

GM

a

T=PDS

[M0L0T1] = [M1L1T2]a [M1L3T0]b [M1L0T2]c

Comparing powers of M, L, T

a + b + c = 0,

a 3b = 0 and

2a 2c = 1

3

1

Solving, a = , b =

and c = 1.

2

2

a t2

bx

a = [t2] = [T2]

T2

P=

bx

P=

T

T2

=

=

1 1 2

Px

M L T L1

2

b=

32.

1 km 1 min

= 980 10 3600

= 35.28 km min2

given number is 4.

41.

Hence measurement is accurate only upto

three significant figures.

42.

should retain the same number of significant

figures as there are in the original number with

the least significant figures.

Area of rectangle = 6 12 = 72 m2

43.

am =

5

am = 21.21

a1 = 21.21 20.17= 1.04

a2 = 21.21 21.23 = 0.02

a3 = 0.42

a4 = 0.86

a5 = 0.57

am =

a1 + a 2 + a 3 + a 4 + a 5

5

1.04 + 0.02 + 0.42 + 0.86 + 0.57

= 0.58

=

5

45.

100 %

Percentage error =

d

0.005

100 % = 25%

=

0.020

x y z

Let G c g p

Substituting dimensions,

[M1L3T2]= [M0L1T1]x [M0L1T2]y [M1L1T2]z

Comparing powers of M, L, T

1 = z,

x + y z = 3 and

x 2y 2z = 2

Solving, x = 0, y = 2

T2 = 1 min

39.

T 4

M1

a

V 2 = [P]

[a] = [P] [V2] = [M1L1T2] [L6]

= [M1L5T2]

2nd system

L2 = 1 km

L 2 T 2

M1

a

= [T2] 4 = [M1T2]

b

T

31.

s

t2

10 5 km 1 /60 min

n = L 1 T 1 = 980

x

g = [L1T2]

a = 1, b = 2

1st system

L1 = 1 cm

= 105 km

1

T1 = 1 s = min

60

b c

v

Hence from the principle of homogenity k has

dimensions of T.

30.

33.

46.

4

r

100 = 0.1% and V = r 3

r

3

V

Percentage error in volume =

%

V

3r

=

= 0.3%

r

21

47.

48.

49.

50.

F

F

= 2

A

l

so maximum error in pressure (P)

F

l

P

100 + 2 100

100 =

F

l

P

max

= 4% + 2 2%

= 8%

P=

m 2v

+

Percentage error in K.E =

%

v

m

= (0.75 + 2 1.85)%

= 4.45%

Maximum possible error in measurement of

L L

T

+2

=

%

2

T

T

L

= (0.1 + 2 3) % = 6.1%

T = 2 l / g T2 = 42l/g g =

42 l

T2

1mm

0.1

100 = 0.1%

100 =

% error in l =

100cm

100

1 0.1

100 = 0.05%

2 100

= 0.1 + (2 0.05) = 0.2 %

and error in T =

51.

52.

3.

4.

12.

1 dyne/cm = 103 N/m

108 dyne/cm = 105 N/m

13.

I 2 Rt

4.2

H

I R t

+ %

% Error,

100 = 2 +

R

t

H

I

= 2 2 + 1 + 1 = 6%

54.

of atoms in 1 gram mole of an element. i.e., it

has the dimensions of mole1.

As the graph is a straight line , P Q, or

P

= constant.

P = Constant Q i.e.,

Q

22

nb has dimensions of volume.

V

b=

n

Thus, S.I. units of b is m3/mol.

Energy = force distance, so if both are increased

by 4 times then energy will increase by 16 times.

H=

[Energy] = [M1L2T2]

= [M1L1T1] [L1] [T1]

= P1A1/2T1

the gas is,

n 2a

P

+

[V nb] = nRT

V2

Volume

Pressure

correction

correction

F

V 2 FlV Fl 4

PV 2 A

= 2 = 2

a= 2 =

n

n2

n

n

Thus, S.I.Units of a is N m4/mol2.

11.

V

l b h

100 = +

+

100%

V

b

h

l

0.02 0.01 0.02

+

+

=

100%

13.12 7.18 4.16

= 0.77%

53.

55.

Competitive Thinking

L

is the time constant of LR circuit. Hence,

R

L

both RC and have the dimensions of time

R

Alternate method:

coulomb

RC = ohm farad = ohm

volt

coulomb coulomb

volt

=

=

volt

ampere

ampere

= second = [T] and

L

henry

=

R

ohm

ohm second

=

ohm

= second = [T]

Both RC and

15.

[ 0 L] = [C]

X=

L

have the dimensions of time.

R

0 LV C V Q

=

= = Current

t

t

t

Gm1m 2

r2

Fr 2

G=

m1m 2

30.

19.

F=

M L T L

[G] =

2

1 1

OR

2

1

0 E2 = u

2

where u is energy density and has dimensions

[M1L1T2]

= [M1L3T2]

23.

1 2

Kx

2

[W]

[K] = 2

[x ]

32.

W=

M1L2 T 2

=

2

L

1 2

= [M T ]

24.

26.

33.

Fv

F = kv

[M1L2 T 2 ][M1L2 T 1 ]2

[M1 ]5 [M 1L3T 2 ]2

= [M0L0T0]

The dimensions of angle is [M0L0T0].

M1L1T 2

F

= 1 1 = [M1L0T1]

v

LT

34.

Y=

PV

M1L1T 2 L3

1 2 2 1

=

= [M L T ]

35.

Let T Sxryz

[M0L0T1] = [M1L0T2]x [M0L1T0]y [M1L3T0]z

Comparing powers of M, L, T

x + z = 0,

y 3z = 0 and

2x = 1

1

3

1

Solving, x = , y = , z =

2

2

2

1/2 3/2 1/2

Thus, T S r

x

d

[x] = [ F][ d ]

1/ 2

1/ 2

= M1L1T 2 M1L3T 0

= M 3/ 2 L1/ 2 T 2

29.

EJ 2

M 5G 2

F=

c = [T]

v [L1 T 1 ]

a=

=

t

[T1 ]

= [L1T2]

b = v(t + c) = [L1T1] T1 = [L1]

27.

28.

= [M1L3T4A2] [M1L1T3A1]2

= [M1L1T2A0]

the gas is,

n 2a

P

+

[V nb] = nRT

V2

Volume

Pressure

correction

correction

F

2

V

FlV Fl 4

PV 2

a= 2 = A 2 = 2 = 2

n

n

n

n

4

Fl

[ a ] = 2 = [M1L5T2mol2]

n

0

q1 q 2

4 Fr 2

A2 T2

(M1L1T 2 ) L2

= [M1 L3 T4 A2]

[0] =

X

[M 1L2 T 4 A 2 ]

=

3Z2

[M1L0 T 2 A 1 ]2

= [M3L2T8A4]

T = k (r 3 / S)1/ 2 = k

36.

r 3 / S

Z

k

should be

dimensionless,

k

=

Z

[M1L2 T 2 K 1 K1 ]

[] =

[L1 ]

= [M1L1T2]

And P =

1 1 2

[M L T ]

[] = = 1 1 2

P [M L T ]

[] = [M0L2T0]

23

39.

40.

Least count

30 VSD = 29 MSD

29

1 VSD =

MSD

30

L.C. = 1 MSD 1 VSD

29

= 1 MSD

30

1

=

0.5

30

= 1 minute

44.

20 VSD

= 16 MSD

1 VSD

= 0.8 MSD

Least count = MSD VSD

= 1 mm 0.8 mm

= 0.2 mm.

45.

Main scale

0.8 mm

0

41.

42.

43.

1mm

10

1 MSD = 5.15 5.10 = 0.05 cm

2.45

1 VSD =

50

= 0.049 cm

L.C

= 1 MSD 1VSD

= 0.001 cm

Thus, the reading = 5.10 + (0.001 24)

= 5.124 cm

diameter of cylinder = 5.124 cm

As per the question, the measured value is

3.50 cm. Hence the least count must be

0.01 cm = 0.1 mm

For vernier scale, where the 10 divisions in

vernier scale matches with 9 division in main

scale and main scale has 10 divisions in 1 cm

1 MSD = 1 mm and 9 MSD = 10 VSD,

Least count = 1 MSD 1 VSD = 0.1 mm

Hence, correct option is (B).

One main scale division, 1 M.S.D. = x cm

One vernier scale division,

(n 1) x

1 V.S.D. =

n

24

47.

= 1 M.S.D. 1 V.S.D.

nx nx + x

=

n

x

=

cm.

n

1

mm

100

= 0.01 mm

Diameter = Main scale reading + (Divisions on

circular scale least count)

1

= 0 + 52

= 0.52 mm

100

30 VSD = 29 MSD

29

1 VSD =

MSD

30

Least count of vernier = 1 M.S.D. 1 V.S.D.

0.5

29

= 0.5 0.5 =

30

30

+ V.S. reading L.C.

0.5

= 58.5 + 9

30

= 58.65

A = 4r2

A

2r

=

Fractional error

A

r

A

100 = 2 0.3% = 0.6%

A

Least count of screw gauge =

4 3

r

3

r

100

% error in volume = 3

r

0.1

100

= 3

5.3

48.

49.

R=

50.

Given that: P =

V

R

V I

I

R

V

I

= 3+3

= 6%

a 3b2

cd

error contributed by a

= 3 100

a

= 3 1%

= 3%

b

= 2 100

b

= 2 2%

= 4%

c

c

d

p

100 = (error contributed by a)+(error

p

contributed by b) + (error contributed by c)

+ (error contributed by d)

= 3% + 4% + 3% + 4%

= 14%

error contributed by b

51.

Least count =

54.

4MLg

ld 2

l

d

Y

+2

=

l

d

Y max

Y=

0.5 /100mm

0.25mm

= 2%

Error due to d measurement,

0.5

2

d

100

2

=

d

0.5mm

0.5 / 100

0.25

= 2%

52.

53.

0.5

= 0.05 mm

50

Actual measurement

0.5

= 2 0.5 mm + 25

0.05 mm

50

= 1 mm + 0.25 mm 0.05 mm

= 1.20 mm

g=

% error in g =

0.01

3 2.7 100%

g

100

g

T

l

= 100 + 2

100

l

T

0.1

0.1

100 + 2

EI =

100 = 1.406%

64

16

0.1

0.1

100 + 2

EII =

100 = 1.406%

64

16

0.1

0.1

100 + 2

EIII =

100 = 2.72%

20

9

Least count =

= 2% +

max

= 3.1%

4 2l

T2

55.

Zero error = 5

0.5

= 0.01 mm

50

Diameter of ball D = 2.5 mm + (20) (0.01)

D = 2.7 mm

M

M

=

=

V 4 D 3

3 2

M

D

+3

=

D

max M

l

l

Pitch

No.of div.in circular scale

0.5

= 0.01 mm

50

Actual reading = 0.01 35 + 3

= 3.35 mm

Taking error into consideration

= 3.35 + 0.03

= 3.38 mm.

0.5

mm

d = l =

100

= 5 103mm

57.

ML2

M1L2

= M1L2T2A2

=

(A1T1 ) 2

Q2

These are the dimensions of unit Henry.

58.

F = ma =

m=

mv

t

Ft

v

Ft

[m] =

v

= [F1 V1 T1]

25

Evaluation Test

1.

are given, the physical quantity is unique.

(A) The statement and its converse both are

true.

(B) The statement and its converse both are

false.

(C) The statement is false but its converse is

true.

(D) The statement is true but its converse is

false.

2.

A

= m, where m is linear mass

relation

B

density and A is force. The dimensions of B

will be same as that of

(A) latent heat

(B) pressure

(C) work

(D) momentum

3.

are noted four times by a student. The student

averages these readings but does not take into

account the zero error of the voltmeter. The

average measurement of the potential

difference is

Reading 1

Reading 2

Reading 3

Reading 4

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

4.

5.

gauge cover a distance of 1 mm on its main

scale. The total number of divisions on the

circular scale is 50. Further, it is found that the

screw gauge has a zero error of 0.02 mm.

While measuring the diameter of a thin wire, a

student notes the main scale reading of 4 mm

and the number of circular scale divisions in

line with the main scale as 37. The diameter of

the wire is

(A) 4.37 mm

(B) 4.39 mm

(C) 4.74 mm

(D) 4.76 mm

7.

with distance x from a fixed origin as

A x

U= 2

where A and B are dimensional

x +B

constants. The dimensional formula for AB is

(A) [M1L7/2T2]

(B) [M1L11/2T2]

1 5/2 2

(C) [M L T ]

(D) [M1L9/2T2]

8.

significant digits.

Reason: All non-zero digits are significant.

(A) Assertion is True, Reason is True; Reason

is a correct explanation for Assertion.

(B) Assertion is True, Reason is True; Reason

is not a correct explanation for Assertion.

(C) Assertion is True, Reason is False.

(D) Assertion is False but, Reason is False.

1.176 V

1.178 V

1.177 V

1.176 V

precise but not accurate.

accurate but not precise.

not accurate and not precise.

measurement of

(A) the rate of decay of radioactive source.

(B) the ability of a beam of gamma ray

hotons to produce ions in a target.

(C) the energy delivered by radiation to a

target.

(D) the biological effect of radiation.

The dimensions of capacitance in M, L, T and

C (Coulomb) is given as

(A) [M1L2T2C2]

(B) [L2T2C2]

(C) [M1L2T2C2]

(D) [M1L2T2C2]

26

6.

9.

10.

C

, the dimensions of B and C

D+E

are [M0LT1] and [M0LT0], respectively. Find

the dimensions of A, D and E.

(A) A = [M0L0T1], D = [T], E = [LT]

(B) A = [MLT0], D = [T2], E = [T2]

(C) A = [M0LT1], D = [MT], E = [MT]

(D) A = [M0LT1], D = [T], E = [T]

If A = B +

A2B

X = 1/3 3 . The percentage errors introduced

C D

in the measurements of the quantities A, B, C

and D are 1%, 3%, 4% and 5% respectively.

Then the minimum amount of percentage of

error in the measurement of X is contributed

by

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

11.

I = impulse and M = mass, the dimension

GI 2 M

is same as that of

E2

(A) spring constant

(B) wavelength

(C) energy gradient

(D) Rydberg constant

12.

(A) A dimensionally correct equation may

be correct.

(B) A dimensionally correct equation may

be incorrect.

(C) A dimensionally incorrect equation must

be incorrect.

(D) A dimensionally incorrect equation may

be correct.

13.

percentage error in the volume of the ball is

(A) 11%

(B) 4%

(C) 19%

(D) 9%

14.

perpendicular to the z-axis per unit time is

n n1

given by N = D 2

where n1 and n2

z 2 z1

are the numbers of particles per unit volume at

z1 and z2 respectively along z-axis. What is the

dimensional formula for the diffusion constant

D?

(A) [M0L1T2]

(B) [M0L2T4]

(C) [M0L1T3]

(D) [M0L2T1]

15.

of circular scale is 4 divisions above the

reference line of graduation. If L.C. of screw

gauge is 103 cm, the zero error is

(A) 4 103 cm

(B) + 4 103 cm

(C) 0.004 mm

(D) + 0.004 mm

16.

(A) Relative refractive index

(B) Relative permittivity

(C) Relative density

(D) Relative velocity

17.

wall of calorimeter without any undue

pressure. The position of zero of vernier scale

on the main scale reads 3.48. The 6th of

vernier scale division is coinciding with any

main scale division. Vernier constant of

callipers is 0.01 cm. Find actual internal

diameter of calorimeter, when it is observed

that the vernier scale has a zero error of

0.03 cm.

(A) 3.37 cm

(B) 3.57 cm

(C) 3.42 cm

(D) 3.54 cm

18.

moves downward from top to bottom in such a

way that it just touches the surface of beaker.

Main scale reading of calliper is 6.4 cm

whereas its vernier constant is 0.1 mm. The 4th

of vernier scale division is coinciding with

main scale division. The actual depth of

beaker in mm is (when zero of vernier

coincides with zero of main scale)

(A) 6.64 cm

(B) 6.42 cm

(C) 6.44 cm

(D) 6.13 cm

1.

5.

9.

13.

17.

(C)

(C)

(D)

(C)

(B)

2.

6.

10.

14.

18.

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(C)

3.

7.

11.

15.

(B)

(B)

(B)

(A)

4.

8.

12.

16.

(D)

(B)

(D)

(D)

27

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