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INTRODUCTIO

N TO

CELL
BIOLOGY

CELL BIOLOGY

study of the life of


the cell and all
underlying processes
emerge modern
techniques,
advancement and

Molecular Biology

study
of
molecular
underpinnings of the process
of replication, transcription
and
translation
of
the
genetic material
the field that overlaps with
other areas of biology and
chemistry,
particularly
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Molecular Biology

concern
with
understanding
the
interactions between DNA, RNA and
protein biosynthesis as well as learning
how these interactions are regulated
since the late 1950s and 1960s,
molecular biologists have learned to
characterize, isolate and manipulate the
molecular components of cells and
organisms
includes:
DNA,
the
repository of genetic information; RNA,
a close relative of DNA and protein
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Two Basic Cell


Types

Eukaryotic cell
- true nucleus (more
complex)

Prokaryotic cell
- pre nucleus (simple,
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Eukaryotic and
Prokaryotic Cell

Eukaryotic cell

Characteristics:
1. Possess a true nucleus
nuclear material surrounded by a
nuclear membrane
nuclear material organized into
paired chromosomes

nuclear membrane associated


with proteins called histones (form
the chromosomes)
nucleus contains nucleolus (site of

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Eukaryotic cell

Characteristics:

2. Internal

structure more
complex contains organelles ,
each have a specific function

3. Cytoplasmic streaming
continuous
movement
of
the
cytoplasm

4. Cell membrane contains


complex lipids- sterol(cholesterol)
5. Cell wall occur only on plant
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Animal Cell

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Plant Cell

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Prokaryotic cell

Characteristics:
1. Has no true nucleus,
instead it has nucleoid.

no
no
no
no

nuclear membrane
paired chromosomes
histones
nucleolus
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Prokaryotic cell

Characteristics:
2. No organelles.
3. No cytoplasmic
streaming.
4. Cell membrane contains
no sterols.
5. Possessed cell walls which

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Bacteria

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Organisms of each cell


type

Prokaryotic cell
Bacteria,

archaea

Eukaryotic cell
fungi, plant,
animal, protozoa,

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Bacteria

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Prokaryotic Cell
includes the two domains :
eubacteria and archaea
relatively small
single-celled
no nucleus or other membranebound organelles
single morphologies
primarily synthesizers or
absorbers ( not engulfers)

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Prokaryotic Cell

EuBacteria
simple, single celled organism,
whose genetic material is not
enclosed in a nuclear membrane
(prenucleus)
reproduce via binary fission
utilizes organic and inorganic
chemicals
some exhibit photosynthesis
move via flagellar or ciliary

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Archaea

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Prokaryotic Cell

Archaea
prokaryotes with has no
peptidoglycan on its cell wall
(pseudopeptidoglycan)
found in extreme environment

methanogens
halophiles
psychrophiles
themophiles

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