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RESEARCHES

94(497.11 )1915/1918
316.728:94(497.11)1915/1918

19151918:


:

.
,
,
,
.
: , , ,
, ,

1. 1915.
1918. .
(/),
. .
, ,
. /,
1. 1916, 11. 1916. .
,


, . : ,
:
19151918, , 2008.

Holm

Sundhaussen, Historische Statistik Serbiens 18341914: Mit europische Vergleichsda


ten, Mnchen 1989, . 87, 229.


Michael
Jungerth, Entstehung und Organisation des k. u k. Militrgeneralgouvernements fr
Serbien, Belgrad 1918, . 5.

46

1, 2009.

,
, , , 1916. .
1917.
,
.

,
.
,
, ,
1916. .
, ,
.
1919. 20% 1914.
.




. ,
/.
(, , )
,
( , )
.
/ 10. 1916.
(Ortsverzeichnis fr das k. u. k. Truppen besetze Gebiet Serbiens. Zusammen
gestellt auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Volkszhlung vom 31. Dezember 1910, Belgrad
1917). , ,
( 350.000
1910), 17 50 .
.

Slubeni

glasnik c. i kr. Okrunog zapovjednitva u aku.

God. II, Br. 8, aak,

15. avgust
1917, . 1.

. , 1916.
1918. , 2000, . 27; , :
I , : - ,
2 (2003), . 129.

. , ..., . 28.

, 19151918: ...

47

( 41 43,5
). 1916. 63,3% (
43%), 66,02% (39,6%), 60% (45,9%),
60,4% (41,3%), 57,2% (41,5%).
(
, 1916). ,
48,7% , 1916. 57,2%.
, 1910, 3.798 km2 138.911
(71.189 67.722 ),
36,6 .
1910. 60,3
km2. 1916. 49.130
65.653 ( 114.783 ). 1916.
1910. 22.059 (31%), 2.069 (3,7%),
24.128 (17,4%).
, ,

1916. (
, 15.311 , 12,3%
17,3%). 1921.
121.888 ,
1910. ( 17.023 , 14%).10 1910.
5.671 (3.424 2.247 ). 1916.
4.156 (1.654 2.502 ),
3.000 .11 1916. 71%
1910, 52,5%,
45,8% ,
.
1910. (, ),
, ,
.12 , 1919.
, ( 1919)
, 19161918, 1987, . 5556.

Holm Sundhaussen, Historische Statistik Serbiens..., . 87; 1916.


, 30 .

, ( , ),
XIV/85,
1916. .
10
Dr Gordana Krivokapi-Jovi, Tipologija radikalske elite i radikalska baza (19181929), :
Tokovi istorije 34/1997, Beograd 1997, . 77.
11

Beogradske novine, god. III,

br. 132, Beograd 15. maj 1917, . 2.


12
. , ..., . 2931.



48

1, 2009.

4.800 .13
,
1914. 1919. 1.000 (
20%), .14
/
, .
,
,
(
, . . .). ,
. 1916. 1917. ,

,
1915-1918. .
, (1916)15,
1. 31. 1916.
1931 (997 934 ). 70
, 3,6% , 62 .16
1916. 2.436 (1.168
1.268 ). ,
( , )
(49% ). ,
15 1.073 (518 555 ),
44% , 15 1.363 (650
713 ).
.
1916. , , , 505
.17

1916.
13
( ),
(19181941) ( . .) -1, . 517, 28. 1919. .
14
, 1919, : :
23 (2007), 2007, . 5152.
15
, ,
XIV/70, 1. 31. 1916. .
16
, ..., . 104.
17
, . 105.

, 19151918: ...

108
137
86
69
53
21
55
38
43
53
39
41
743

29
25
32
40
27
45
25
9
9
13
7
16
277

13
29
22
15
11
4
13
13
8
15
13
28
184

184
145
119
113
114
94
86
59
56
48
67
77
1162

1
1
2

2
1
9

49

.

8
1
11
1

1
1

7
1
2
1
4
5
56

, 1916.
,
(66% ),
, , (
).
, ,
. ,
1914/1945. 18,
( 5%
).
1916. 1.668 ,
1.209 , 86 , ,
91 , 280 .19
,
, 1. 30. 1916:20

18
19
20

: , ..., . 41 .
, ,
XIV/70, 1. 31. 1916. .

, ,
XIV/36, 8. 1916. .

1, 2009.

50


174
217
264
95
109
859


67
228
148
156
103
702

242
422
553
176
185
1578

1916.
, 60% ,
.
,
( 14 ),
.
,
1917. :21

.
.
.
.

.
90
102
129
107
89
101
107
123
77
80
53
28
1.086

87
111
109
91
90
89
71
107
87
109
55
26
1.032

177
213
238
198
179
190
178
230
164
189
108
54
2.118

.
87
96
152
113
82
87
78
64
52
57
69
62
999

86
106
195
113
95
79
78
53
60
59
85
55
1.064

173
202
347
226
177
166
156
117
112
116
154
117
2.063

128
179

40
44
18
27
25
39
127
576

1.203

1916. , 1917.
( , 55 ),

,
. 1917. ,
1916. 1917.
. (
21

, ,
XIV/362, 15. 1917. .

, 19151918: ...

51

) 1916. 1917.
.22 ,
1916 1917. ( 1917)
.

:
, ,
.23


.
,
, .
,
.24
, ().

,
.

, 1915.
,
.
379.977
, 3.798 ( /).
106.158 ,
183.937 . , 89.846
, .
1916. :
( ) 3.889 ha, 590
ha, 7.637 ha, e 5 ha, 77.725 ha,
89.846 ha.25

, .
22
, ,
XIV/136, N. 454/17, 1917;
XIV/208, 1917;
XIV/236, 1917;
XIV/393, 1917;
XIV/290, 21. 1917; XIV/362, 15. 1917; XVIII/185, 15. 1917. .
23
.
24
, ..., . 72.
25
, ,
XIV/82, 1916.

52

1, 2009.


,
,
. , , ,
.
Beschlagnahme die Verwertung der Ernte (
) 1916. ,
,
.
(, , , , , ,
, ),
(Die K.
u k. Ernte-Verwertungs-Zentrale, EVZ).26
, , , , , ,
/.
, ,
300 42
. 170
.
, .
5.000 .27
,
(
40%),
.28
, ,
,
.
.
,
.
,
.29

1915. 1916. . 1916.
26
, 1917. , :
1917. , 6, 1988, . 15.
27
, , 2006, . 65.
28
, ..., . 81
29
, . 83.

, 19151918: ...

53

, 4-5 (8-10 ),
8 , 14 , 40-50 ,
,
.
, 280 (
, . . .).30
, ,
1915. ,
, 10 . , ,
3 .
( ). ,
() , 1/6
, .31
, ,
15 , ,
(
5-6 32), .
( ),
: , ,
, , , .33

, 1916. . (
)
,
.34
1915/1916. ,
.
,
,
1916. ,
,
, .
, (18711918),
( , . .). , . 507, .
XV (1916), II-VI.
XV/416-418,

8/21. 1916. .
31
, , . . , . 507, .
XV (1916), II-VI.
XV/439, 31.
1916. .
32
, ..., . 3536.
33
, , . . , . 507, .
XV (1916), II-VI. XV/445,

22.
1916. .
34
, , . . , . 507, .
XV (1916), II-VI.
XV/499-506,
[1916].
30

1, 2009.

54


.35 ( ) 1.
1916. 257 , 28
, (Edward
W. Ryan), .
30.000 .36


.
, 1916,
.
, ,

/
,
.37
,
:
3: ,
, .

. ,
.
4:
.

,
. / (
) ,
,
.38
/ ( ,
). ,
, , 1984, . 389, 393.
, , . . , . 509, .
XVI (1916), II-VI.
XVI/179, 13.
1916. .
37
, , . . , . 509, . XVI

(1916), II-VI.
XVI/230-231. 31.
1916. .
38
, , . . , . 509, .
XVI (1916), II-VI.
XVI/232-234.
31. 1916. .
35
36

, 19151918: ...

55

.
, ,
. 4, ,

/, .
.

,
. 28 .
,
.
(Comite Suisse de Secours aux Serbes)
, 1915. 1916. .
1916. (Karl Egger),

10 , .
, .
50 , 100 ,
. (Ville de Tschatschak) 16. 1916.
: 10 , 6,5 3,5
. 17. 1916. : (Ville
de Kraljevo) , (Districh de Kraljevo)
. 100
, .39

1916. ,
.
, .
, ,
: 10.300 ha ,
2.298,38 ha 1.446,35 ha 1916. .40
, 1916.
.41 : ,
, , .42
, , . . , . 509, . XVI

(1916), II-VI. XVI/207-214.

9.
1916; XVI/248. 1. 1916; XVI/333-356, 5. 1916. .
40
, ..., . 7680.
41
, ,
IX/82, N
. 4918, 24. 1916. .
42
Beogradske novine, God. II, br. 91, Beograd 15. maj 1916, . 1; Beogradske novine, God. II,
br. 144, Beograd 8. jul 1916, . 2.
39

1, 2009.

56

1916. ,
30% .43 ,
1916.
, ().44
.

. 400 ,
200 ; 1916. 320
. ,
.45
16. /
, 1918.
. () 350
, 180 ( 15. . .),
10 .46
,

: 10 , 10
, 100 , 10 , 1 , 25 100 .47
/

.48
,
.
,
.
, .
,
.
( ) .
,
.
,
43
Beogradske novine, God. II, br. 91, Beograd 15. maj 1916, . 1; Beogradske novine, God. II,
br. 131, Beograd 25. jun 1916, . 2.
44
Beogradske novine, God. II, br. 124, Beograd 18. jun 1916, . 2.
45
, ..., . 394395.
46

, ,
XVII/1032, N. 32983, 5. 1918. .

, . II,

19, , 19. 1917, . 7.


, , : 1916.
, 1987, . 304.
47
48

, 19151918: ...

57

,
.49

.
,
,
. 1916.
/
: 33 100 , 27, 26 25.
: (400
320 ); ;
50 .
(),
10% (
).50
: ,
,
. ( )
() 600
, 350 , 150 , 24 .
, 350
.
( ,
), .
.51
,
.
, 750
400 ( )
, 15. 1918. .
, 1918. 617,16
(61,7 ), 187,20 ,
( 76,7%),
23,3%
.52

, , 2002, . 25.
Beogradske novine, God. II, br. 166, Beograd 30. jul 1916, . 2.
51
, ( . .) -21, 10. 1918. .
52
, . . -21, 15. 1918. .
49
50

1, 2009.

58

.
, . , , , ,
, , , . [...]

20 30
. : , , .
1916. ; 1917.
: . ,
.53
.

.
,
.54
1917. ,
. 1916. 1917.
. 28.
1916. ,
. .
, , 1. 1917,

8 6 .
, ,
.55 .
,
.
14 . ,
.
12. 1917. 56 ,
,
1. 1917. 8.000 .57
,
.
, ,
, : , 1974, . 32.
. . -5, . 205, 8. 1916. .
55
, 1917. , :
1917. , 1988, . 14.
56
, 1917. ,
: 1917. , 1988, . 39.
57
, ..., . 394.
53
54

, 19151918: ...

59

.58
, 1918.
1. .
.
, .
1918.
.59
.
, .
500 100
. , a o
.
32 ( 15.
15. 1918).60
.
,
,
.
, ,
.
, ,
.61
() , .
, ,
. ,
, .62
,
. 1916.
, .63
1918. , ,
, ..., . 65.
, , : 1918.
( ), 1989, . 10.
60
,
( ), : 4 (2004), 2004,
. 104.
61
. , ..., . 195.
62
, ..., . 41.
63
, (19151918), :
: - 28. 29.
1994. , 1995, . 162.
58
59

60

1, 2009.

,
,
.64
, ,
. ,


, 60 .
.65 ,
,
,
,
.66 60
,
, ,
,
.
,
.67



,
.
, , , ,
.

.
,
.68 ,
64
, ,
VIII/1210, N. 849, 9. 1918;
VIII/1238, N. 4835, 18. 1918;
VIII/1246,
N. 6213/1918, 3. 1918. .
65
, . . -5, . 47, 16. 1916. .
66
,
( ), : 3 (2003), 2003 ( ),
. 60.
67
, , XVIII/73,

23. 1917; Beogradske novine, god. III, br. 30, Beograd 1. februar
1917, . 3; , ..., . 7071.
68
, 19151918, : 19001918,
1977, . 220.

, 19151918: ...

61

,
. ,
.69 , ,
,
.70 []
: , , , , ,
.71
, ,
,
.
,
.72 ,
, , .
1914. 1915. ,
,
. ( 1910. )
. 1914. 1915.
,
( ) . ,
, .73
1915.
.
, , .
, - ,
.74
,
.
.
, 1916.
, ,
.
19. 1916. 75,
, ..., . 124.
, . , . 32.
71
, ,
XVII/1089, N
. 35198, 18. 1918. .
72
, ..., . 123.
73
. , . , (3), :
,
III, 114, 10. 2006, . 23.
74
, 1916. 1918. , :
,
IV, . 1, 1997, . 35.
75
, ..., . 36.
69
70

1, 2009.

62

,
.
: , ,
, , , , , , ,
, , , (
), , , .
24 ,
, .
, ,
, ,
. , , ,
,
.
, ,
.

.
.
() .

.
5.000 .76

. , .77

.
. ,
.
,
( ).
, ,
5-6 .
1916. .78 ,
. ,
,
. . (
XIV), 31. 1918. .
, , : , . LI, 7, 16.
1984, . 12.
78
, (18711918), . . , . 507, . XV

(1916), II-VI. XV/416


418. , 8/21. 1916. .
76
77

, 19151918: ...

63

, 1905. .
,
. 1. 1915. ,
, ,
,
1908. .79 ,
,
,
.80
.
, .
,
. , ,

. ,
, , , .
:
.
,
.81
, ,
. ,
, , .

.
,
.82 (IV)
. 55 , 36
.83 2. 1916.
( ) .84

79
. , . , (3),
. 23.
, , ,
.
80
. , . , (4), :
,
III, 115, 17. 2006, . 22.
81
, ,
IV/3, 1916. .
82
. , ..., . 166.
83
Hugo Kerchnawe, . , . 223.

84
, ..., . 37.

1, 2009.

64

,
, .85
,
.
,
?. ,
, ,
.86 ,
. ,
, , .
,
.87
10/25. 1915.
22 ( ),
.
.88 1916.
(53 ), .
.
1916. .89
,
. 1916.
, (
) .90 1916.
37 , 298 ,
(, , ) 10
58 .
() 15 44
. 28 .91
10%
, , :
20 (2004), 2004, . 68.
86

Slubeni glasnik c. i kr.


Okrunog zapovjednitva u
aku, God. 1, Broj 2,
aak 15. septem
bar 1916, . 2.
87

Slubeni glasnik c. i kr. Okrunog zapovjednitva u


aku, God. 1, Broj 3,
aak 15. oktobar
1916, . 3.
88
, , . . , . 508, . XV

(1916), VII

VIII.
XV/439,

, 31.
1916. ,
.
89
Kalendar

des k. u k. Militr-General-Gouvernements in Serbien fr das Jahr

1918, Belgrad
1918, . 51.
90

,
, XVII/1435,

5. 1916. .
91
Kalendar des k. u k..., . 53.

85

, 19151918: ...

65

20% ( ) 1916. .
1916. ,
,
.92
4. 10. 1916
( ):

4-10. 1916.

18-24. 1916

5(2)
3
28(21)

18(9)

7(4)

22(9)

2(0)
3(0)
17(25)

9(10)

3(2)

3(1)

(15)

25(29)

16(27)

31(33)

11(9)

, ,
; ,
.
,
, , .93

80% .
. ,
,
. 1916.
:
.94 ,

,
, IV/1, 4-24. 1916. .
Kalendar des k. u k..., . 51.

94
, ,
IV/1, 4-24. 1916. .
92
93

1, 2009.

66

1917. 832 ,
63 (7,54%)95,
,
. 1916.
743 , 277, 2.436
, 30,5% ,
11,4%.96
1917.
1918. . 1917.
.97 ,
.
, ,
, ,
19.
.98 1918.
,
, .
,
, ,
. ,
( ),
, ( ,
, ).
, .99


(
/).
(
),
95
96

, ..., . 41.

, ,
XIV/70, 1. 31. 1916. .

. , ..., . 175.
,
XX , : 12
(2007), 2007, . 171.
.
, .
, , . ,
: , . 264.
99
. , ..., . 175.
97
98

, 19151918: ...

67

, ,
.
1916. ( ) (49%
), (44%)
15 , .
(505
),
60% .
1917. ,
( ,
, )
55 .
, ,
,

20% 1914. .

40%
( )
,
.

,

1916.
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
, ,
.
, 1918. 80%
.

1, 2009.

68

Summary
Bogdan Trifunovi
The County of aak 19151918:
Consequences of the Occupation on everyday life100
The occupation of Serbia in the First World War from the perspective of the population
of one county and changes that the war had brought in the everyday life were analyzed. Mortality rate in the county during the first four months of 1916 was very high (49% of all cases
that year), from which almost a half (44%) were children under 15 years of age. Somewhat
better conditions in 1917, better harvest and relatively consolidated health conditions in the
county enabled positive population growth in that year. Poor and insufficient nutrition, based
on insufficient supplies of corn, along with lack of medical staff and medication, were the
main reasons for high mortality rate of the civilians in the county and decrease of population of almost 20% in comparison to 1914. Everyday life in this part of Serbia during the
occupation times was very difficult because of decrease of agriculture of up to 40% when
compared with pre-war times. During the occupation, food production was insufficient even
for rationing and forced ransom, while humanitarian donations rarely reached this part of
Serbia. Until August of 1916 medication was mainly done at home, out of rare health facilities, and by use of strong brandy as traditional cure for many illnesses. Many poor habits,
along with poor hygiene, small number of physicians, and lack of medical care for civilians
by the occupant, fostered many illnesses. Among them, most dangerous were tuberculosis,
typhoid fever, malaria and venereal diseases.

100


, . : ,
:
19151918, , 2008.