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You are on page 1of 17

Section 1

Preview

Key Ideas

Bellringer

What Is Work?

Math Skills

Power

Machines and Mechanical Advantage

Section 1

Key Ideas

How is work calculated?

What is the relationship between work and

power?

How do machines make work easier?

Section 1

Bellringer

1. Which of the following is an example of work: bowling or

reading?

2. a. A man pushes against a brick wall, which doesnt move. Is

this an example of work?

b. A student carries her books to class. Is this an example of

work?

c. A woman raises and lowers dumbbells at the gym. Is this an

example of work?

d. A book falls off a table and lands on the floor. Is this an

example of work?

Section 1

What Is Work?

How is work calculated?

Work is calculated by multiplying the force by

the distance over which the force is applied.

work = force x distance, or W = Fd

The force must be applied in the direction of the

objects motion.

Section 1

work: the transfer of energy to an object by the

application of a force that causes the object to move in

the direction of the force

Work is zero when an object is not moving.

Work is measured in joules (J):

1 N m = 1 J = 1 kg m2/s2

Section 1

Section 1

Math Skills

Work

Imagine a father playing with his daughter by lifting her

repeatedly in the air. How much work does he do with

each lift if he lifts her 2.0 m and exerts an average force

of 190 N?

1. List the given and unknown values.

Given:

force, F = 190 N

distance, d = 2.0 m

Unknown: work, W = ? J

Section 1

2. Write the equation for work.

work = force distance

W=f d

3. Insert the known values into the equation, and

solve.

W = 190 N 2.0 m = 380 Nm

W = 380 J

Section 1

Power

What is the relationship between work and

power?

Power is the rate at which work is done, or how

much work is done in a given amount of time.

work

W

power

, or P

time

t

Section 1

Power, continued

power: a quantity that measures the rate at which work

is done or energy is transformed

Power is measured in watts (W):

1 W = 1 J/s

Section 1

Section 1

Math Skills

Power

Lifting an elevator 18 m takes 100 kJ. If doing so takes

20 s, what is the average power of the elevator during

the process?

1. List the given and unknown values.

Given:

work, W = 100 kJ = 1 105 J

time, t = 20 s

Distance is not needed.

Unknown: power, P = ? W

Section 1

2. Write the equation for power.

work

power

time

W

P

t

3. Insert the known values into the equation, and

solve.

1 105 J

P

5 103 J/s

20 s

P 5 103 W 5 kW

Section 1

How do machines make work easier?

Machines help do work by changing the size of

an input force, the direction of the force, or both.

Section 1

continued

Mechanical advantage is an important ratio.

much a machine multiplies force or distance

output force

input distance

mechanical advantage

input force

output distance

Section 1

Math Skills

Mechanical Advantage

Calculate the mechanical advantage of a ramp that is

5.0 m long and 1.5 m high.

1. List the given and unknown values.

Given:

output distance = 1.5 m

Unknown:

mechanical advantage = ?

Section 1

2. Write the equation for mechanical advantage.

We need only the distance part of the full equation:

input distance

mechanical advantage =

output distance

3. Insert the known values into the equation, and

solve.

5.0 m

3.3

mechanical advantage =

1.5 m

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