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Exercise 8.

Chapter 8
Exercise 8.1
1. Ce
2. Sn
3. (Iw Is)
4. Jr Nr
5. Di Dm
6. (Sb Sf) (Ea Eg)
7. (x)(Mx Tx)
8. (x)(Gx Sx)
9. (x)(Nx Bx)
10.

(x)(Hx Rx)

11.

Cg Mt

12.

Cg Gt

13.

(x)Tx

14.

(x)(Lx Wx)

15.

(x)(Ax Px)

16.

(x)(Sx Gx)

17.

(x)(Px Lx)

18.

(x)(Tx Rx)

19.

(x)(Sx Vx)

20.

(x)[(Cx Mx) (Vx Nx)]

21.

(x)[Tx (Rx Ex)]

Exercise 8.1

22.

(x)(Cx Hx)

23.

(x)Ix

24.

(x) Gx

25.

(x)(Tx Hx)

26.

(x)(Tx Wx)

27.

(x)(Mx Ex)

28.

(x)(Hx Ex)

29.

(x)(Gx Ax)

30.

(x)(Px Gx)

31.

(x)[Cx (Sx Bx)]

32.

(x)(Cx Tx)

33.

(x)[Sx (Hx Fx)]

34.

(x)[(Dx Bx) Tx]

35.

(x)[Ax (Sx Px)]

36.

(x)[Cx (Sx Bx)]

37.

(x)[Cx (Ax Tx)]

38.

(x)[(Mx Ax) Tx]

39.

(x)[(Mx Px) Tx]

40.

(x)[(Wx Cx) Rx]

41.

(x)[(Fx Cx) Rx]

42.

(x)[(Gx Vx) (Rx Ex)]

43.

(x)[(Vx Cx) (Sx Ix)]

44.

(x)[(Rx Vx) Ax]


2

Exercise 8.1

45.

(x)[(Rx Vx) Ex]

46.

(x)[(Fx Rx) Ex]

47.

(x)[(Fx Cx) Rx]

48.

(x)[(Hx Ex) (Vx Dx)]

49.

Gt (x)(Wx Cx)

50.

(x)(Wx Tx) (Gp Gh)

51.

(x)(Mx Ix) Ir

52.

(x)(Ix Mx) Ir

53.

(x)[(Sx Dx) (Ix Ex)]

54.

(x)[(Sx Wx) (Ex Mx)]

55.

(x)[(Bx Mx) Sx] Sc

56.

(x)[(Ex Mx) Wx] (x)[(Mx Ex) Lx]

57.

(x)[(Sx Bx) Cx] (x)[(Sx Ox) Tx]

58.

(x)(Ex Rx) (x)(Mx Ox)

59.

(x){[(Px Ax) Sx] [(Cx Rx) Lx]}

60.

(x)[(Sx Tx) (Cx Ex)] (x)[Mx (Px Dx)]

Exercise 8.2
Part I
(1) 1. (x)(Ax Bx)
2. (x)(Bx Cx)
3. Ax Bx
4. Bx Cx
5. Ax Cx
6. (x)(Ax Cx)

/ (x)(Ax Cx)
1, UI
2, UI
3, 4, HS
5, UG

Exercise 8.2, I

(2) 1. (x)(Bx Cx)


2. (x)(Ax Bx)
3. Am Bm
4. Bm Cm
5. Bm Am
6. Bm
7. Cm
8. Am
9. Am Cm
10. (x)(Ax Cx)

/ (x)(Ax Cx)
2, EI
1, UI
3, Com
5, Simp
4, 6, MP
3, Simp
7, 8, Conj
9, EG

(3) 1. (x)(Ax Bx)


2. Bm
3. Am Bm
4. Am
5. (x) Ax

/ (x) Ax
1, UI
2, 3, MT
4, EG

(4) 1. (x)(Ax Bx)


2. (y)(Ay By)
3. Ax Bx
4. Ax Bx
5. Bx Ax
6. Bx Ax
7. Ax Bx
8. (x)(Ax Bx)

/ (x)(Ax Bx)
1, UI
2, UI
4, Com
5, Impl
3, 6, Equiv
7, UG

(5) 1. (x)[Ax (Bx Cx)]


2. Ag Bg
3. Ag (Bg Cg)
4. Ag
5. Bg Cg
6. Bg Ag
7. Bg
8. Cg

/ Cg
1, UI
2, Simp
3, 4, MP
2, Com
6, Simp
5, 7, DS

(6) 1. (x)[(Ax Bx) Cx]


2. (y)(Ay Dy)
3. Am Dm
4. Am
5. (Am Bm) Cm
6. Am Bm
7. Cm
8. (y)Cy

/ (y)Cy
2, EI
3, Simp
1, UI
4, Add
5, 6, MP
7, EG

Exercise 8.2, I

(7) 1. (x)[Jx (Kx Lx)]


2. (y) Ky
3. Km
4. Jm (Km Lm)
5. Km Lm
6. (Km Lm)
7. Jm
8. (z) Jz

/ (z) Jz
2, EI
1, UI
3, Add
5, DM
4, 6, MT
7, EG

(8) 1. (x)[Ax (Bx Cx)]


2. (x)(Ax Cx)
3. Am Cm
4. Am (Bm Cm)
5. Am
6. Bm Cm
7. Cm Am
8. Cm
9. Cm Bm
10. Bm
11. (x)Bx

/ (x)Bx
2, EI
1, UI
3, Simp
4, 5, MP
3, Com
7, Simp
6, Com
8, 9, DS
10, EG

(9) 1. (x)(Ax Bx)


2. Am An
3. Am Bm
4. Am
5. Bm
6. An Bn
7. An Am
8. An
9. Bn
10. Bm Bn

/ Bm Bn
1, UI
2, Simp
3, 4, MP
1, UI
2, Com
7, Simp
6, 8, MP
5, 9, Conj

(10) 1. (x)(Ax Bx)


2. Am An
3. Am Bm
4. An Bn
5. (Am Bm) (An Bn)
6. Bm Bn
(11) 1. (x)(Bx Ax)
2. (x)(Bx Ax)
3. Bx Ax
4. Bx Ax
5. Ax Bx
6. Ax Bx
7. Ax Bx

/ Bm Bn
1, UI
1, UI
3, 4, Conj
2, 5, CD

/ (x)Ax
1, UI
2, UI
3, Com
5, DN
6, Impl
5

Exercise 8.2, I

8. Ax Ax
9. Ax Ax
10. Ax Ax
11. Ax
12. (x)Ax

4, 7, HS
8, Impl
9, DN
10, Taut
11, UG

(12) 1 (x)Ax (y)(By Ay)


2. An
/ (y)By
3. (x)Ax
2, EG
4. (y)(By Ay)
1, 3, MP
5. Bn An
4, UI
6. An Bn
5, Com
7. An
2, DN
8. Bn
6, 7, DS
9. (y)By
8, EG
(13) 1. (x)[(Ax Bx) Cx]
2. (x)(Bx Cx)
3. Bm Cm
4. (Am Bm) Cm
5. Cm Bm
6. Cm
7. (Am Bm)
8. Am Bm
9. Bm
10. Bm
11. Bm Am
12. Am
13. (x)Ax

/ (x)Ax
2, EI
1, UI
3, Com
5, Simp
4, 6, MT
7, DM
3, Simp
9, DN
8, Com
10, 11, DS
12, EG

(14) 1. (x)(Ax Bx)


2. (x)(Cx Dx)
3. Ae Ce
4. Ae Be
5. Ce De
6. (Ae Be) (Ce De)
7. Be De
8. (x)(Bx Dx)

/ (x)(Bx Dx)
1, UI
2, UI
4, 5, Conj
3, 6, CD
7, EG

(15) 1. (x)Ax (x)(Bx Cx)


2. Am Bm
/ Cm
3. Am
2, Simp
4. (x)Ax
3, EG
5. (x)(Bx Cx)
1, 4, MP
6. Bm Cm
5, UI
7. Bm Am
2, Com
6

Exercise 8.2, I

8. Bm
9. Cm

7, Simp
6, 8, MP

(16) 1. (x)Ax (x)Bx


2. (x)Cx (x)Dx
3. An Cn
4. An
5. (x)Ax
6. (x)Bx
7. Cn An
8. Cn
9. (x)Cx
10. (x)Dx
11. Dm
12. Bm
13. Bm Dm
14. (x)(Bx Dx)

/ (x)(Bx Dx)
3, Simp
4, EG
1, 5, MP
3, Com
7, Simp
8, EG
2, 9, MP
10, EI
6, UI
11, 12, Conj
13, EG

(17) 1. (x)(Ax Bx)


2. Cr (x)Bx
3. Ax Bx
4. Bx Ax
5. Bx
6. (x)Bx
7. (x)Bx Cr
8. (x)Bx
9. Cr
10. Ax
11. (x)Ax
12. Ar
13. Cr Ar
14. (x)(Cx Ax)

/ (x)(Cx Ax)
1, UI
3, Com
4, Simp
5, UG
2, Com
5, DN
7, 8, DS
3, Simp
10, UG
11, UI
9, 12, Conj
13, EG

(18) 1. (x)[Ax (Bx Cx)]


2. An Am
3. Cn Cm
4. An (Bn Cn)
5. An
6. Bn Cn
7. (Bn Cn) (Cn Bn)
8. (Cn Bn) (Bn Cn)
9. Cn Bn
10. Cn
11. Bn
12. Am (Bm Cm)
13. Am AN
14. Am

/ Bn Bm
1, UI
2, Simp
4, 5, MP
6, Equiv
7, Com
8, Simp
3, Simp
9, 10, MP
1, UI
2, Com
13, Simp
7

Exercise 8.2, I

15. Bm Cm
16. (Bm Cm) (Cm Bm)
17. Bm Cm
18. Cm Cn
19. Cm
20. Bm
21. Bn Bm

12, 14, MP
15, Equiv
16, Simp
3, Com
18, Simp
17, 19, MT
11, 20, Conj

(19) 1. (x)Ax (x)(Cx Bx)


2. (x)(Ax Bx)
3. (x)(Bx Ax)
/ (x)(Cx Ax)
4. Am Bm
2, EI
5. Bm Am
3, UI
6. Am Bm
4, DN
7. Am Bm
6, Impl
8. Am Am
5, 7, HS
9. Am Am
8, Impl
10. Am Am
9, DN
11. Am
10, Taut
12. (x)Ax
11, EG
13. (x)(Cx Bx)
1, 12, MP
14. Cx Bx
13, UI
15. Bx Ax
3, UI
16. Cx Ax
14, 15, HS
17. (x)(Cx Ax)
16, UG
(20) 1. (x)Ax (x)(Bx Cx)
2. (x)Dx (x)Cx
3. (x)(Ax Dx)
/ (x)Bx
4. Am Dm
3, EI
5. Am
4, Simp
6. Dm Am
4, Com
7. Dm
6, Simp
8. (x)Ax
7, EG
9. (x)Dx
7, EG
10. (x)(Bx Cx)
1, 8, MP
11. (x)Cx
2, 9, MP
12. Cn
11, EI
13. Bn Cn
10, UI
14. Bn
12, 13, MT
15. (x)Bx
14, EG
(21) 1. (x)(Ax Bx) (x)(Cx Dx)
2. (x)Ax (x)(Bx Cx)
3. Ae
/ (x)(Dx Bx)
4. (x)Ax
3, EG
8

Exercise 8.2, I

5. (x)(Bx Cx)
6. Be Ce
7. Be
8. Ae Be
9. (x)(Ax Bx)
10. (x)(Cx Dx)
11. Ce De
12. De Ce
13. De
14. De Be
15. (x)(Dx Bx)
(22) 1. (x)(Ax Bx)
2. An [(x)Cx Bc]
3. Am (x)(Cx Dx)
4. An Bn
5. An
6. (x)Cx Bc
7. Am Bm
8. Am
9. (x)(Cx Dx)
10. Ac Bc
11. Bc Ac
12. Bc
13. (x)Cx
14. (x)Cx
15. Cs
16. Cs Ds
17. Ds
18. (x)Dx

2, 4, MP
5, UI
6, Simp
3, 7, Conj
8, EG
1, 9, MP
10, UI
11, Com
12, Simp
7, 13, Conj
14, EG

/ (x)Dx
1, UI
4, Simp
2, 5, MP
1, UI
7, Simp
3, 8, MP
1, UI
10, Com
11, Simp
6, 12, MT
13, DN
14, EI
9, UI
15, 16, MP
17, EG

(23) 1. (x)(Ax Bx)


2. (x)Ax (Ce Be)
3. (x)Bx [(x)Cx (Dn An)]
4. Ax Bx
5. Ax
6. Bx Ax
7. Bx
8. (x)Ax
9. (x)Bx
10. Ce Be
11. Be
12. Be
13. Be Ce
14. Ce
15. (x)Cx (Dn An)
16. (x)Cx

/ (x)Dx
1, UI
4, Simp
4, Com
6, Simp
5, UG
7, UG
2, 8, MP
9, UI
11, DN
10, Com
12, 13, DS
3, 9, MP
14, EG
9

Exercise 8.2, I

17. Dn An
18. An
19. An
20. An Dn
21. Dn
22. (x)Dx

15, 16, MP
8, UI
18, DN
17, Com
19, 20, DS
21, EG

(24) 1. (x)Ax (x)[(Ax Ex) Dx]


2. (x)Dx (x)[Dx (Cx Bx)]
3. An Bn
4. An
5. (x)Ax
6. (x)[(Ax Ex) Dx]
7. (An En) Dn
8. An En
9. Dn
10. (x)Dx
11. (x)[Dx (Cx Bx)]
12. Dn (Cn Bn)
13. Cn Bn
14. Bn An
15. Bn
16. Bn
17. Bn Cn
18 Cn
19. (x)Cx
(25) 1. (x)Ax (x)(Ax Bx)
2. (x)Cx (x)(Dx Bx)
3. (x)(Ax Cx)
4. An Cn
5. An
6. Cn An
7. Cn
8. (x)Ax
9. (x)Cx
10. (x)(Ax Bx)
11. An Bn
12. Bn
13. (x)(Dx Bx)
14. (Dn Bn)
15. Dn Bn
16. Bn Dn
17. Bn
18. Dn
19. (x)Dx

/ (x)Cx
3, Simp
4, EG
1, 5, MP
6, UI
4, Add
7, 8, MP
9, EG
2, 10, MP
11, UI
9, 12, MP
3, Com
14, Simp
15, Dn
13, Com
16, 17, DS
18, EG

/ (x)Dx
3, EI
4, Simp
4, Com
6, Simp
5, EG
7, EG
1, 8, MP
10, UI
5, 11, MP
2, 9, MP
13, UI
14, DM
15, Com
12, DN
16, 17, DS
18, EG
10

Exercise 8.2, II

Part II
(1) 1. (x)(Ox Sx)
2. (x)(Ox Fx)
3. Ox Sx
4. OX Fx
5. Ox Sx
6. Ox Fx
7. (Ox Sx) (Ox Fx)
8. Ox (Sx Fx)
9. Ox (Sx Fx)
10. (x)[Ox (Sx Fx)
(2) 1. (x)(Tx Vx)
2. Tx Vx
3. Tx Vx
4. Vx Tx
5. (Vx Tx) Gx
6. Vx (Tx Gx)
7. Vx (Tx Gx)
8. (Tx Gx) Vx
9. (Tx Gx) Vx
10. (x)[(Tx Gx) Vx]

/ (x)[Ox (Sx Fx)]


1, UI
2, UI
3, Impl
4, Impl
5, 6, Conj
7, Dist
8, Impl
9, UG
/ (x)[(Tx Gx) Vx]
1, UI
2, Impl
3, Com
4, Add
5, Assoc
6, DM
7, Com
8, Impl
9, UG

(3) 1. (x)[(Ax Px) Gx]


2. (Ax Px) Gx
3. (Ax Px) Gx
4. (Ax Px) Gx
5. Gx (Ax Px)
6. (Gx Ax) (Gx Px)
7. Gx Ax
8. Ax Gx
9. Ax Gx
10. (x)(Ax Gx)

/ (x)(Ax Gx)
1, UI
2, Impl
3, DM
4, Com
5, Dist
6, Simp
7, Com
8, Impl
9, UG

(4) 1. (x)(Cx Vx) (x)(Px Fx)


2. (x)(Cx Gx) (x)(Px Gx)
3. (x)(Cx Gx)
4. Cm Gm
5. (x)(Px Gx) (x)(Cx Gx)
6. (x)(Px Gx)
7. Pn Gn
8. (x)(Cx Vx)
9. Cm Vm
10. Cm

/ (x)(Vx Gx) (x)(Fx Gx)


2, Simp
3, EI
2, Com
5, Simp
6, EI
1, Simp
8, UI
4, Simp
11

Exercise 8.2, II

11. Vm
12. Gm Cm
13. Gm
14. Vm Gm
15. (x)(Vx Gx)
16. (x)(Px Fx) (x)(Cx Vx)
17. (x)(Px Fx)
18. Pn Fn
19. Pn
20. Fn
21. Gn Pn
22. Gn
23. Fn Gn
24. (x)(Fx Gx)
25. (x)(Vx Gx) (x)(Fx Gx)
(5) 1. (x)[(Bx Px) Lx]
2. (x)(Gx Lx)
3. (Bx Px) Lx
4. Gx Lx
5. Lx (Bx Px)
6. Gx (Bx Px)
7. Gx (Bx Px)
8. Gx (Bx Px)
9. (Gx Bx) (Gx Px)
10. Gx Bx
11. Gx Bx
12. (x)(Gx Bx)
(6) 1. (x)(Cx Gx)
2. (x)Cx (x)(Px Gx)
3. (x)(Px Vx)
4. Cm Gm
5. Cm
6. (x)Cx
7. (x)(Px Gx)
8. Pn Gn
9. Pn
10. Pn Vn
11. Vn
12. Gn Pn
13. Gn
14. Vn Gn
15. (x)(Vx Gx)

9, 10, MP
4, Com
12, Simp
11, 13, Conj
14, EG
1, Com
16, Simp
17, UI
7, Simp
18, 19, MP
7, Com
21, Simp
20, 22, Conj
23, EG
15, 24, Conj

/ (x)(Gx Bx)
1, UI
2, UI
3, Trans
4, 5, HS
6, DM
7, Impl
8, Dist
9, Simp
10, Impl
11, UG

/ (x)(Vx Gx)
1, EI
4, Simp
5, EG
2, 6, MP
7, EI
8, Simp
3, UI
9, 10, MP
8, Com
12, Simp
11, 13, Conj
14, EG

12

Exercise 8.2, II

(7) 1. (x)[Gx (Ix Px)]


2. (x)[(Ix Px) Rx]
3. Ga Gc
4. Gx (Ix Px)
5. (Ix Px) Rx
6. Gx Rx
7. (x)(Gx Rx)
8. Ga Ra
9. Ga
10. Ra
11. Gc Rc
12. Gc Ga
13. Gc
14. Rc
15. Ra Rc

/ Ra Rc
1, UI
2, UI
4, 5, HS
6, UG
7, UI
3, Simp
8, 9, MP
7, UI
3, Com
12, Simp
11, 13, MP
10, 14, Conj

(8) 1. (x)(Hx Rx)


2. (x)(Bx Sx)
3. (x)Hx (x)[Bx (Sx Ex)]
4. Hm Rm
5. Bn Sn
6. Hm
7. (x)Hx
8. (x)[Bx (Sx Ex)]
9. Bn (Sn En)
10. (Bn Sn) En
11. En
12. Bn
13. Bn En
14. (x)(Bx Ex)

/ (x)(Bx Ex)
1, EI
2, EI
4, Simp
6, EG
3, 7, MP
8, UI
9, Exp
5, 10, MP
5, Simp
11, 12, Conj
13, EG

(9) 1. (x)(Rx Wx) (x)(Cx Px)


2. (x)(Lx Wx) (x)(Px Bx)
3. (x)[(Lx Rx) Wx]
/ (x)(Cx Bx)
4. (Lm Rm) Wm
3, EI
5. Lm Rm
4, Simp
6. Lm
5, Simp
7. Rm Lm
5, Com
8. Rm
7, Simp
9. Wm (Lm Rm)
4, Com
10. Wm
9, Simp
11. Rm Wm
8, 10, Conj
12. Lm Wm
6, 10, Conj
13. (x)(Rx Wx)
11, EG
14. (x)(Lx Wx)
12, EG
15. (x)(Cx Px)
1, 13, MP
16. (x)(Px Bx)
2, 14, MP
13

Exercise 8.2, II

17. Cx Px
18. Px Bx
19. Cx Bx
20. (x)(Cx Bx)

15, UI
16, UI
17, 18, HS
19, UG

(10) 1. (x)[(Ax Kx) Rx] (x)(Gx Sx)


2. (x)[(Ax Kx) Fx] (x)(Gx Px)
3. (x)[(Ax Kx) (Rx Fx)]
4. (Ax Kx) (Rx Fx)
5. (Ax Kx) (Rx Fx)
6. [(Ax Kx) Rx] [(Ax Kx) Fx]
7. (Ax Kx) Rx
8. [(Ax Kx) Fx] [(Ax Kx) Rx]
9. (Ax Kx) Fx
10. (Ax Kx) Rx
11. (Ax Kx) Fx
12. (x)[(Ax Kx) Rx]
13. (x)[(Ax Kx) Fx]
14. (x)(Gx Sx)
15. (x)(Gx Px)
16. Gx Sx
17. Gx Px
18. Gx Sx
19. Gx Px
20. (Gx Sx) (Gx Px)
21. Gx (Sx Px)
22. Gx (Sx Px)
23. (x)[Gx (Sx Px)]

/ (x)[Gx (Sx Px)]


3, UI
4, Impl
5, Dist
6, Simp
6, Com
8, Simp
7, Impl
9, Impl
10, UG
11, UG
1, 12, MP
2, 13, MP
14, UI
15, UI
16, Impl
17, Impl
18, 19, Conj
20, Dist
21, Impl
22, UG

Part III (The letters used in the translations are underlined in the text.)

Wheres the Beef?


Have you decided what to order? Paul says to Mindy, as he folds his menu and puts it on the
table.
I think Ill have the tofu stir-fry, she replies. And you?
Ill have the rib steak, Paul says. You know the rib steak is really good here, and so is
the pork tenderloin.
Im a vegetarian, she says.
Oh, Paul says. He smiles sheepishly.
Mindy smiles too. First date, she says.
Yeah, says Paul. What made you decide to become a vegetarian?
For one thing, Mindy says, I think a vegetarian diet is healthier. People who eat meat
increase their intake of cholesterol and carcinogens. Those who increase their intake of
cholesterol run a higher risk of heart attack, and those who increase their intake of carcinogens
14

Exercise 8.2, III

run a higher risk of cancer. Anyone who runs a higher risk of heart attack and cancer is less
healthy. Thus, people who eat meat are less healthy.
1. (x)[Mx (Ox Ax)]
2. (x)(Ox Hx)
3. (x)(Ax Cx)
4. (x)[(Hx Cx) Lx]
/ (x)(Mx Lx)
5. Mx (Ox Ax)
1, UI
6. Mx (Ox Ax)
5, Impl
7. (Mx Ox) (Mx Ax)
6, Dist
8. Mx Ox
7, Simp
9. Mx Ox
8, Impl
10. (Mx Ax) (Mx Ox)
7, Com
11. Mx Ax
10, Simp
12. Mx Ax
11, Impl
13. Ox Hx
2, UI
14. Mx Hx
9, 13, HS
15. Ax Cx
3, UI
16. Mx Cx
12, 15, HS
17. Mx Hx
14, Impl
18. Mx Cx
16, Impl
19. (Mx Hx) (Mx Cx)
17, 18, Conj
20. Mx (Hx Cx)
19, Dist
21. Mx (Hx Cx)
20, Impl
22. (Hx Cx) Lx
4, UI
23. Mx Lx
21, 22, HS
24. (x)(Mx Lx)
23, UG
I might add that if people who eat meat are less healthy, then if parents are responsible,
then they will refrain from feeding meat to children. All parents love their children, and if they
do, then they are responsible. But if parents refrain from feeding meat to children, then children
will grow up to be vegetarians. And if that happens, then nobody will eat meat in the future.
Thus, we can look forward to a future where everyone is a vegetarian.
[Note: You must include the prior conclusion as a premise. Mx = x is a meateater, Fx = x is a future meat-eater.]
1. (x)(Mx Lx)
2. (x)(Mx Lx) (x)[Px (Rx Ex)]
3. (x)(Px Cx)
4. (x)[Px (Cx Rx)]
5. (x)(Px Ex) (x)(Cx Gx)
6. (x)(Cx Gx) (x)Fx
/ (x)Fx
7. (x)[Px (Rx Ex)]
1, 2, MP
8. Px (Rx Ex)
7, UI
9. Px Cx
3, UI
10. Px (Cx Rx)
4, UI
11. (Px Cx) Rx
10, Exp
12. (Cx Px) Rx
11, Com
13. Cx (Px Rx)
12, Exp
15

Exercise 8.2, III

14. Px (Px Rx)


9, 15, HS
15. (Px Px) Rx
14, Exp
16. Px Rx
15, Taut
17. (Px Rx) Ex
8, Exp
18. (Rx Px) Ex
17, Com
19. Rx (Px Ex)
18, Exp
20. Px (Px Ex)
16, 19, HS
21. (Px Px) Ex
20, Exp
22. Px Ex
21, Taut
23. (x)(Px Ex)
22, UG
24. (x)(Cx Gx)
5, 23, MP
25. (x)Fx
6, 24, MP
Well, I wont hold my breath on that, Paul says, as he offers Mindy a slice of bread
from the basket on the table. If children and teenagers fail to eat meat, then they become
deficient in zinc. And if children become deficient in zinc, then they risk a weakened immune
system. And if that happens, then they are less healthy. Also, if elderly people fail to eat meat,
then they become deficient in iron. And if elderly people become deficient in iron, then they risk
becoming anemic, and if that happens, they are less healthy. Therefore, if children and elderly
people fail to eat meat, then they are less healthy.
1. (x)[(Cx Tx) (Mx Zx)]
2. (x)[Cx (Zx Wx)]
3. (x)[Cx (Wx Lx)]
4. (x)[Ex (Mx Ix)]
5. (x)[Ex (Ix Bx)]
6. (x)[Ex (Bx Lx)]
/ (x)[(Cx Ex) (Mx Lx)]
7. (Cx Tx) (Mx Zx)
1, UI
8. (Cx Tx) (Mx Zx)
7, Impl
9. (Cx Tx) (Mx Zx)
8, DM
10. (Mx Zx) (Cx Tx)
9. Com
11. [(Mx Zx) Cx]
[(Mx Zx) Tx]
10, Dist
12. (Mx Zx) Cx
11, Simp
13. Cx (Mx Zx)
12, Com
14. Cx (Mx Zx)
13, Impl
15. Cx (Zx Wx)
2, UI
16. (Cx Mx) Zx
14, Exp
17. (Cx Zx) Wx
15, Exp
18. (Zx Cx) Wx
17, Com
19. Zx (Cx Wx)
18, Exp
20. (Cx Mx) (Cx Wx)
16, 19, HS
21. [(Cx Mx) Cx] Wx
20, Exp
22. [Cx (Cx Mx)] Wx
21, Com
23. [(Cx Cx) Mx] Wx
22, Assoc
24. (Cx Mx) Wx
23, Taut
25. Cx (Wx Lx)
3, UI
26. (Cx Wx) Lx
25, Exp
16

Exercise 8.2, III

27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.

(Wx Cx) Lx
26, Com
Wx (Cx Lx)
27, Exp
(Cx Mx) (Cx Lx)
24, 28, HS
[(Cx Mx) Cx] Lx
29, Exp
[Cx (Cx Mx)] Lx
30, Com
[(Cx Cx) Mx] Lx
31, Assoc
(Cx Mx) Lx
32, Taut
Cx (Mx Lx)
33, Exp
Ex (Mx Ix)
4, UI
(Ex Mx) Ix
35, Exp
Ex (Ix Bx)
5, UI
(Ex Ix) Bx
37, Exp
(Ix Ex) Bx
38, Com
Ix (Ex Bx)
39, Exp
(Ex Mx) (Ex Bx)
36, 40, HS
[(Ex Mx) Ex] Bx
41, Exp
[Ex (Ex Mx)] Bx
42, Com
[(Ex Ex) Mx] Bx
43, Assoc
(Ex Mx) Bx
44, Taut
Ex (Bx Lx)
6, UI
(Ex Bx) Lx
42, Exp
(Bx Ex) Lx
43, Com
Bx (Ex Lx)
44, Exp
(Ex Mx) (Ex Lx)
45, 49, HS
[(Ex Mx) Ex] Lx
50, Exp
[Ex (Ex Mx)] Lx
51, Com
[(Ex Ex) Mx] Lx
52, Assoc
(Ex Mx) Lx
53, Taut
Ex (Mx Lx)
54, Exp
Cx (Mx Lx)
34, Impl
(Mx Lx) Cx
56, Com
Ex (Mx Lx)
55, Impl
(Mx Lx) Ex
58, Com
[(Mx Lx) Cx]
[(Mx Lx) Ex]
57, 59, Conj
61. (Mx Lx) (Cx Ex)
60, Dist
62. (Cx Ex) (Mx Lx)
61, Com
63. (Cx Ex) (Mx Lx)
62, DM
64. (Cx Ex) (Mx Lx)
63, Impl
65 (x)[(Cx Ex) (Mx Lx)]
64, UG
Mindy smiles. Thats what zinc tablets and iron supplements are for, she says.
Anyway, there are also moral reasons for being a vegetarian. Consider this. Animals are
sentient beingsthey feel pain, fear and joyand they have an interest in preserving their lives.
If animals are sentient, then if humans cause animals to suffer, then they act immorally. And if
animals have an interest in preserving their lives, then if humans exploit animals, then they act

17

Exercise 8.2, III

immorally. But if humans kill animals for food, then they cause animals to suffer or they exploit
them. Therefore, if humans kill animals for food, then they act immorally.
1. (x)(Ax Sx)
2. (x)(Ax Ix)
3. (x)(Ax Sx) (x)[Hx (Cx Mx)]
4. (x)(Ax Ix) (x)[Hx (Ex Mx)]
5. (x){Hx [Kx (Cx Ex)]}
/ (x)[Hx (Kx Mx)]
6. (x)[Hx (Cx Mx)]
1, 3, MP
7. (x)[Hx (Ex Mx)]
2, 4, MP
8. Hx (Cx Mx)
6, UI
9. Hx (Ex Mx)
7, UI
10. Hx [Kx (Cx Ex)]
5, UI
11. (Hx Kx) (Cx Ex)
10, Exp
12. (Hx Cx) Mx
8, Exp
13. (Cx Hx) Mx
12, Com
14. Cx (Hx Mx)
13, Exp
15. (Hx Ex) Mx
9, Exp
16. (Ex Hx) Mx
15, Com
17. Ex (Hx Mx)
16, Exp
18. Cx (Hx Mx)
14, Impl
19. Ex (Hx Mx)
17, Impl
20. (Hx Mx) Cx
18, Com
21. (Hx Mx) Ex
19, Com
22. [(Hx Mx) Cx]
[(Hx Mx) Ex]
20, 21, Conj
23. (Hx Mx) (Cx Ex)
22, Dist
24. (Cx Ex) (Hx Mx)
23, Com
25. (Cx Ex) (Hx Mx)
24, DM
26. (Cx Ex) (Hx Mx)
25, Impl
27. (Hx Kx) (Hx Mx)
11, 26, HS
28. [(Hx Kx) Hx] Mx
27, Exp
29. [Hx (Hx Kx)] Mx
28, Com
30. [(Hx Hx) Kx] Mx
29, Assoc
31. (Hx Kx) Mx
30, Taut
32. Hx (Kx Mx)
31, Exp
33. (x)[Hx (Kx Mx)]
32, UG
I agree with you that animals should not be made to suffer, Paul responds.
But if animals are raised under humane conditions, and some of them are, then they will not be
caused to feel pain or distress. And if animals are not caused to feel pain, then we are morally
justified in eating them. Thus, we are morally justified in eating some animals.
1. (x){Ax [Rx (Px Dx)]}
2. (x)(Ax Rx)
3. (x)[Ax (Px Mx)]
/ (x)(Ax Mx)
4. Ac Rc
2, EI
5. Ac [Rc (Pc Dc)]
1, UI
6. Ac (Pc Mc)
3, UI
18

Exercise 8.2, III

7. Ac
4, Simp
8. Rc (Pc Dc)
5, 7, MP
9. Pc Mc
6, 7, MP
10. Rc Ac
4, Com
11. Rc
10, Simp
12. (Pc Dc)
8, 11, MP
13. Pc Dc
12, DM
14. Pc
13, Simp
15. Mc
9, 14, MP
16. Ac Mc
7, 15, Conj
17. (x)(Ax Mx)
16, EG
But, Paul continues, your argument also suggests that animals have rights. If animals
have rights, then they have moral judgment. And if animals have moral judgment, then they
respect the rights of other animals. But every animal pursues its own self interest to the
exclusion of other animals, and if that is so, then it does not respect the rights of other animals.
Therefore, animals have no moral judgment and they also have no rights.
1. (x)[Ax (Rx Mx)]
2. (x)[Ax (Mx Sx)]
3. (x)(Ax Px)
4. (x)(Px Px) (x)(Ax Sx)
/ (x)[Ax (Mx Rx)]
5. (x)(Ax Sx)
3, 4, MP
6. Ax (Rx Mx)
1, UI
7. Ax (Mx Sx)
2, UI
8. Ax Sx
5, UI
9. (Ax Mx) Sx
7, Exp
10. Sx (Ax Mx)
9, Trans
11. Ax (Ax Mx)
8, 10, HS
12. Ax (Ax Mx)
11, DM
13. Ax (Ax Mx)
12, Impl
14. (Ax Ax) Mx
13, Exp
15. Ax Mx
14, Taut
16. (Ax Rx) Mx
6, Exp
17. Mx (Ax Rx)
16, Trans
18. Ax (Ax Rx)
15, 17, HS
19. Ax (Ax Rx)
18, DM
20. Ax (Ax Rx)
19, Impl
21. (Ax Ax) Rx
20, Exp
22. Ax Rx
21, Taut
23. Ax Mx
15, Impl
24. Ax Rx
22, Impl
25. (Ax Mx) (Ax Rx)
23, 24, Conj
26. Ax (Mx Rx)
25, Dist
27. Ax (Mx Rx)
26, Impl
28. (x)[Ax (Mx Rx)]
27, UG
Well, Mindy replies, by that line of reasoning infants and mentally challenged adults
have no rights. But everyone recognizes that they do have rights. And if infants have rights,
19

Exercise 8.2, III

then some people who lack the capacity for moral judgment have rights. But if this is true, then
animals have rights, and if they do, then surely they have the right to life. But if animals have
the right to life, then if humans are moral, then they must respect that right and they cannot kill
animals for food. Thus, if humans are moral, they cannot kill animals for food.
1. (x)[(Ix Ex) Rx]
2. (x)(Ix Rx) (x)(Cx Rx)
3. (x)(Cx Rx) (x)(Ax Rx)
4. (x)[Ax (Rx Lx)]
5. (x)(Ax Lx)
(x){Hx [Mx (Sx K)]}
/ (x)[Hx (Mx Kx)]
6. (Ix Ex) Rx
1, UI
7. (Ix Ex) Rx
6, Impl
8. Rx (Ix Ex)
7, Com
9. Rx (Ix Ex)
8, DM
10. (Rx Ix) (Rx Ex)
9, Dist
11. Rx Ix
10, Simp
12. Ix Rx
11, Com
13. Ix Rx
12, Impl
14. (x)(Ix Rx)
13, UG
15. (x)(Cx Rx)
2, 14, MP
16. (x)(Ax Rx)
3, 15, MP
17. Ax Rx
16, UI
18. Ax (Rx Lx)
4, UI
19. Ax (Lx Rx)
18, Trans
20. (Ax Lx) Rx
19, Exp
21. Rx Ax
17, Trans
22. (Ax Lx) Ax
20, 21, HS
23. (Lx Ax) Ax
22, Com
24. Lx (Ax Ax)
23, Exp
25. Lx (Ax Ax)
24, Impl
26. Lx Ax
25, Taut
27. Ax Lx
26, Trans
28. (x)(Ax Lx)
27, UG
29. (x){Hx [Mx (Sx K)]}
5, 28, MP
30. Hx [Mx (Sx K)]
29, UG
31. (Hx Mx) (Sx Kx)
30, Exp
32. (Hx Mx) (Sx Kx)
31, Impl
33. [(Hx Mx) Sx]
[(Hx Mx) Kx]
32, Dist
34. [(Hx Mx) Kx]
[(Hx Mx) Sx]
33, Com
35. (Hx Mx) Kx
34, Simp
36. (Hx Mx) Kx
35, Impl
37. Hx (Mx Kx)
36, Exp
38. (x)[Hx (Mx Kx)]
37, UG
20

Exercise 8.2, III

The question of infants and mentally challenged adults raises an interesting point, Paul
says. I think what it comes down to is this. Something is considered to have rights if and only
if it looks human. Infants and mentally challenged adults look human, so they are considered to
have rights. But animals do not look human, so they are not considered to have rights.
[Note: This passage contains two arguments.]
1. (x)(Rx Lx)
2. (x)[(Ix Mx) Lx
/.(x)[(Ix Mx) Rx]
3. (Ix Mx) Lx
2, UI
4. Rx Lx
1, UI
5. (Rx Lx) (Lx Rx)
4, Equiv
6. (Lx Rx) (Rx Lx)
5, Com
7. Lx Rx
6, Simp
8. (Ix Mx) Rx
3, 7, HS
9. (x)[(Ix Mx) Rx]
8, UG
1. (x)(Rx Lx)
2. (x)(Ax L)
/ (x)(Ax Rx)
3. Ax Lx
2, UI
4. Rx Lx
1, UI
5. (Rx Lx) (Lx Rx)
4, Equiv
6. Rx Lx
5, Simp
7. Lx Rx
6, Trans
8. Ax Rx
3, 7, HS
9. (x)(Ax Rx)
8, UG
That sounds awfully arbitrary, says Mindy. But I think what it really comes down to
is power. Something is considered to have rights if and only if it has as much power as humans.
Animals do not have as much power as humans, so animals are not considered to have rights.
But that seems terribly wrong to me. It shouldnt be a question of power. Anyway, now that our
food has arrived, hows your steak?
1. (x)(Rx Px)
2. (x)(Ax Px)
/ (x)(Ax Rx)
3. Ax Px
2, UI
4. Rx Px
1, UI
5. (Rx Px) (Px Rx)
4, Equiv
6. Rx Px
5, Simp
7. Px Rx
6, Trans
8. Ax Rx
3, 7, HS
9. (x)(Ax Rx)
8, UG
Paul takes a bite. Its great, he says. And hows your stir-fry?
Great, Mindy says. She laughs. And so is my conscience.
Exercise 8.3
Part I
(1) 1. (x)Ax (x)Bx
2. (x)Bx

/ (x)Ax
21

Exercise 8.3, I

3. (x)Bx
4. (x)Ax
5. (x)Ax

2, QN
1, 3, MT
4, QN

(2) 1. (x)Ax (x)Bx


2. (x)Bx
3. (x)Bx
4. (x)Bx (x)Ax
5. (x)Ax
6. (x)Ax

/ (x)Ax
2, QN
1, Com
3, 4, DS
5, QN

(3) 1. (x)Ax
2. (x)Ax
3. Ax
4. Ax Bx
5. Ax Bx
6. (x)(Ax Bx)

/ (x)(Ax Bx)
1, QN
2, UI
3, Add
4, Impl
5, UG

(4) 1. (x)Ax (x)(Bx Cx)


2. (x)Bx
3. (x)Bx
4. Bx
5. Bx Cx
6. (Bx Cx)
7. (x)(Bx Cx)
8. (x)(Bx Cx)
9. (x)(Bx Cx) (x)Ax
10. (x)Ax

/ (x)Ax
2, QN
3, UI
4, Add
5, DM
6, UG
7, QN
1, Com
8, 9, DS

(5) 1. (x)(Ax Bx) (x)(Cx Dx)


2. (x)Dx
3. (x)Dx
4. Dm
5. Dm Cm
6. Cm Dm
7. (Cm Dm)
8. (x)(Cx Dx)
9. (x)(Cx Dx)
10. (x)(Cx Dx) (x)(Ax Bx)
11. (x)(Ax Bx)
12. Ax Bx
13. Bx Ax
14. Bx
15. (x)Bx

/ (x)Bx
2, QN
3, EI
4, Add
5, Com
6, DM
7, EG
8, QN
1, Com
9, 10, DS
11, UI
12, Com
13, Simp
14, UG

22

Exercise 8.3, I

(6) 1. (x)Ax (x)(Bx Cx)


2. (x)(Ax Cx)
/ (x)Bx
3. (x)(Ax Cx)
2, QN
4. (Am Cm)
3, EI
5. Am Cm
4, DM
6. Am
5, Simp
7. (x)Ax
6, EG
8. (x)(Bx Cx)
1, 7, MP
9. Bm Cm
8, UI
10. Cm Am
5, Com
11. Cm
10, Simp
12. Bm
9, 11, MT
13. (x)Bx
12, EG
(x)Bx
14.
13, QN
(7) 1. (x)(Ax Bx)
2. (x)Cx (x)Ax
3. (x)Bx
4. (x)Bx
5. Bm
6. Am Bm
7. Am
8. (x)Ax
9. (x)Ax
10. (x)Ax (x)Cx
11. (x)Cx
12. (x)Cx

/ (x)Cx
3, QN
4, EI
1, UI
5, 6, MT
7, EG
8, QN
2, Com
9, 10, DS
11, QN

(8) 1. (x)Ax (x)Bx


2. (x)Bx (x)Cx
3. (x)Ax (x)Bx
4. (x)Ax (x)Cx
5. (x)Cx (x)Ax
6. (x)Cx (x)Ax

/ (x)Cx (x)Ax
1, QN
2, 3, HS
4, Trans
5, QN

(9) 1. (x)(Ax Bx) (x)Cx


2. (x)Cx
3. (x)Cx
4. (x)(Ax Bx)
5. (x)(Ax Bx)
6. (Ax Bx)
7. Ax Bx
8. Ax
9. (x)Ax

/ (x)Ax
2, QN
1, 3, MT
4, QN
5, UI
6, DM
7, Simp
8, UG
23

Exercise 8.3, I

10. (x)Ax
(10) 1. (x)(Ax Bx)
2. (x)(Bx Cx)
3. (x)(Ax Bx)
4. (x)(Bx Cx)
5. (Ax Bx)
6. (Bx Cx)
7. Ax Bx
8. Ax Bx
9. Bx Cx
10. Bx Cx
11. Ax Bx
12. Bx Cx
13. Ax Cx
14. (x)(Ax Cx)

9, QN

/ (x)(Ax Cx)
1, QN
2, QN
3, UI
4, UI
5, DM
7, DN
6, DM
9, DN
8, Impl
10, Impl
11, 12, HS
13, UG

(11) 1. (x)(Ax Bx)


2. (x)(Ax Cx)
3. (x)(Ax Bx)
4. (x)(Ax Cx)
5. (Ax Bx)
6. (Ax Cx)
7. Ax Bx
8. Ax Bx
9. Ax Cx
10. Ax Cx
11. (Ax Bx) (Ax Cx)
12. Ax (Bx Cx)
13. Ax (Bx Cx)
14. (x)[Ax (Bx Cx)]
(12) 1. (x)[(Ax Bx) Cx]
2. (x)(Ax Cx)
3. (x)(Ax Cx)
4. (Am Cm)
5. (Am Cm)
6. Am Cm
7. Am Cm
8. (Am Bm) Cm
9. Cm Am
10. Cm
11. (Am Bm)
12. Am Bm
13. Am

/ (x)[Ax (Bx Cx)]


1, QN
2, QN
3, UI
4, UI
5, DM
7, DN
6, DM
9, DN
8, 10, Conj
11, Dist
12, Impl
13, UG

/ (x)Bx
2, QN
3, EI
4, Impl
5, DM
6, DN
1, UI
7, Com
9, Simp
8, 10, MT
11, DM
6, Simp
24

Exercise 8.3, I

14. Bm
15. (x)Bx
16. (x)Bx

12, 13, DS
14, EG
15, QN

(13) 1. (x)(Ax Bx) (x)Cx


2. (x)(Cx Bx)
3. (x)(Cx Bx)
4. (Cx Bx)
5. Cx Bx
6. Cx
7. (x)Cx
8. (x)Cx
9. (x)(Ax Bx)
10. (x)(Ax Bx)
11. (Am Bm)
12. Am Bm
13. Am Bm
14. Bx Cx
15. Bx
16. (x)Bx
17. Bm
18. Bm Am
19. Am
20. (x)Ax
21. (x)Ax
(14) 1. (x)Ax (x)Bx
2. (x)Ax (x)Bx
3. (x)(Ax Cx)
4. (x)Bx (x)Ax
5. (x)Bx (x)Ax
6. (x)Ax (x)Ax
7. (x)Ax (x)Ax
8. (x)Ax
9. (x)Ax
10. Ax
11. Ax Cx
12. Cx
13. (x)Cx
(15) 1. (x)(Ax Bx)
2. (x)Cx (x)Ax
3. (x)Dx (x)Bx
4. (x)(Ax Bx)
5. (Ax Bx)

/ (x)Ax
2, QN
3, UI
4, DM,
5, Simp
6, UG
7, QN
1, 8, MT
9, QN
10, EI
11, DM
12, DN
5, Com
14, Simp
15, UG
16, UI
13, Com
17, 18, DS
19, EG
20, QN

/ (x)Cx
1, Trans
4, QN
2, 5, HS
6, Impl
7, Taut
8, QN
9, UI
3, UI
10, 11, MP
12, UG

/ (x)(Cx Dx)
1, QN
4, UI
25

Exercise 8.3, I

6. Ax Bx
7. Ax
8. Bx Ax
9. Bx
10. (x)Ax
11. (x)Bx
12. (x)Ax
13. (x)Bx
14. (x)Cx
15. (x)Dx
16. (x)Cx
17. (x)Dx
18. Cx
19. Dx
20. Cx Dx
21. (Cx Dx)
22. (x)(Cx Dx)
23. (x)(Cx Dx)

5, DM
6, Simp
6, Com
8, Simp
7, UG
9, UG
10, QN
11, QN
2, 12, MT
3, 13, MT
14, QN
15, QN
16, UI
17, UI
18, 19, Conj
20, DM
21, UG
22, QN

(16) 1 (x)(Ax Bx) (x)(Cx Dx)


2. (x)[(Ax Ex) (Bx Fx)]
3. (x)Dx
/ (x)(Ex Fx)
4. (x)Dx
3, QN
5. Dn
4, EI
6. Dn Cn
5, Add
7. Cn Dn
6, Com
8. (Cn Dn)
7, DM
9. (x)(Cx Dx)
8, EG
10. (x)(Cx Dx)
9, QN
11. (x)(Ax Bx)
1, 10, MT
12. (x)(Ax Bx)
11, QN
13. (Ax Bx)
12, UI
14 Ax Bx
13, DM
15. (Ax Ex) (Bx Fx)
2, UI
16. (Ax Ex) (Bx Fx)
15, DN
17. (Ax Ex) (Bx Fx) 16, DN
18. (Ax Ex) (Bx Fx) 17, Impl
19. (Ax Ex) (Bx Fx)
18, Impl
20. Ex Fx
14, 19, CD
21. (x)(Ex Fx)
20, UG
(17) 1. (x)(Ax Bx) (x)(Cx Dx)
2. (x)(Ax Cx) (x)Ex
3. En
/ (x)Dx
4. (x)Ex
3, EG
26

Exercise 8.3, I

5. (x)Ex
6. (x)(Ax Cx)
7. (x)(Ax Cx)
8. (x)(Ax Cx)
9. Ax Cx
10. Ax
11. Ax Bx
12. (Ax Bx)
13. (x)(Ax Bx)
14. (x)(Ax Bx)
15. (x)(Cx Dx)
16. Cn Dn
17. An Cn
18. Cn An
19. Cn
20. Dn
21. (x)Dx
(18) 1. (x)Ax [(x)Bx (x)Cx]
2. (x)(Ax Cx)
3. (x)Cx [(x)Fx (x)Bx]
4. An Cn
5. An
6. (x)Ax
7. (x)Bx (x)Cx
8. Cn An
9. Cn
10. (x)Cx
11. (x)Cx
12. (x)Fx (x)Bx
13. (x)Cx (x)Bx
14. (x)Bx
15. (x)Bx
16. (x)Fx
17. (x)Fx

4, 4, QN
2, 5, MT
6, QN
7, DM
8, UI
9, Simp
10, Add
11, DM
12, UG
13, QN
1, 14, DS
15, EI
8, UI
17, Com
18, Simp
16, 19, DS
20, EG

/ (x)Fx
2, EI
4, Simp
5, EG
1, 6, MP
4, Com
8, Simp
9, EG
10, QN
3, 11, MP
7, Com
11, 13, DS
14, QN
12, 15, MP
16, QN

(19) 1. (x)(Ax Bx) (x)(Bx Cx)


2. Bn Cn
/ (x)Ax
3. (x)(Bx Cx)
2, EG
4. (x)(Bx Cx)
3, DN
5. (x)(Bx Cx
4, DM
6. (x)(Bx Cx)
5, Impl
7. (x)(Bx Cx)
6, QN
8. (x)(Ax Bx)
1, 7, MT
9. (x)(Ax Bx)
8, QN
10. (An Bn)
9, UI
27

Exercise 8.3, I

11. An Bn
12. Bn An
13. Bn
14. Bn
15. An
16. (x)Ax
17. (x)Ax
(20) 1. (x)Ax (x)(Bx Ax)
2. (x)Bx (x)(Ex Bx)
3. An
4. (x)Ax
5. (x)(Bx Ax)
6. (x)(Bx Ax)
7. (Bn An)
8. Bn An
9. An Bn
10. An
11. Bn
12. (x)Bx
13. (x)Bx
14. (x)(Ex Bx)
15. (x)(Ex Bx)
16. (En Bn)
17. En Bn
18. En Bn
19. Bn En
20. En
21. (x)Ex
22. (x)Ex

10, DM
11, Com
2, Simp
13, DN
12, 14, DS
15, EG
16, QN

/ (x)Ex
3, EG
1, 4, MP
5, QN
6, UI
7, DM
8, Com
3, DN
9, 10, DS
11, EG
12, QN
2, 13, MP
14, QN
15, UI
16, DM
17, DN
18, Com
11, 19, DS
20, EG
21, QN

Part II
(1) 1. (x)[Px (Hx Nx)] (x)Cx
2. Cf
3. (x)Cx
4. (x)Cx
5. (x)[Px (Hx Nx)]
6. (x)[Px (Hx Nx)]
7. [Pm (Hm Nm)]
8. [Pm (Hm Nm)]
9. Pm (Hm Nm)
10. Pm
11. Pm
12. (Hm Nm) Pm

/ (x)(Px Nx)
2, EG
3, DN
1, 4, MT
5, QN
6, EI
7, Impl
8, DM
9, Simp
10, DN
9, Com
28

Exercise 8.3, II

13. (Hm Nm)


14. Hm Nm
15. Nm Hm
16. Nm
17. Pm Nm
18. (x)(Px Nx)
(2) 1. Ia (x)(Px Ix)
2. (x)Ix
3. (x)Ix
4. Ia
5. (x)(Px Ix)
6. Pa Ia
7. Pa

12, Simp
13, DM
14, Com
15, Simp
11, 16, Conj
17, EG

/ Pa
2, QN
3, UI
1, 4, DS
5, UI
4, 6, MT

(3) 1. (x)(Sx Ax) (x)(Px Rx)


2. (x)(Px Rx)
/ (x)(Sx Ax)
3. (x)(Px Rx)
2, Impl
4. (x)(Px Rx)
3, DM
5. (x)(Px Rx)
4, QN
6. (x)(Sx Ax)
1, 5, MT
7. (x)(Sx Ax)
6, QN
8. (x)(Sx Ax)
7, DM
9. (x)(Sx Ax)
8, Impl
(4) 1. (x)(Gx Px) (x)(Sx Ex)
2. (x)Ex
3. (x)Ex
4. Ex
5. Ex Sx
6. Sx Ex
7. (Sx Ex)
8. (x)(Sx Ex)
9. (x)(Sx Ex)
10. (x)(Sx Ex) (x)(Gx Px)
11. (x)(Gx Px)
12. Gm Pm
13. Pm Gm
14. Pm
15. (x) Px
(5) 1. (x)[(Px Ax) Ix]
2. (x)(Px Ix)
3. (x)(Px Ix)
4. (Px Ix)

/ (x)Px
2, QN
3, UI
4, Add
5, Com
6, DM
7, UG
8, QN
1, Com
9, 10, DS
11, EI
12, Com
13, Simp
14, EG

/ (x)(Px Ax)
2, QN
3, UI
29

Exercise 8.3, II

5. Px Ix
6. Ix Px
7. Ix Px
8. (Px Ax) Ix
9. (Px Ax) Px
10. (Ax Px) Px
11. Ax (Px Px)
12. Ax (Px Px)
13. Ax Px
14. Px Ax
15. (x)(Px Ax)
(6) 1. (x)(Ix Px)
2. (x)(Px Dx)
3. (x)(Ix Px)
4. (x)(Px Dx)
5. (Ix Px)
6. (Px Dx)
7. Ix Px
8. Ix Px
9. Px Dx
10. Px Dx
11. Ix Px
12. Px Dx
13. Ix Dx
14. (x)(Ix Dx)

4, DM
5, Com
6, Impl
1, UI
7, 8, HS
9, Com
10, Exp
11, Impl
12, Taut
13, Trans
14, UG

/ (x)(Ix Dx)
1, QN
2, QN
3, UI
4, UI
5, DM
7, DN
6, DM
9, DN
8, Impl
10, Impl
11, 12, HS
13, UG

(7) 1. (x)(Px Sx) (x)(Ix Gx)


2. (x)(Sx Gx)
3. (x)(Sx Gx)
4. (Sx Gx)
5. Sx Gx
6. (x)(Px Sx)
7. (x)(Ix Gx) (x)(Px Sx)
8. (x)(Ix Gx)
9. Px Sx
10. Ix Gx
11. Sx Px
12. Gx Ix
13. (Sx Px) (Gx Ix)
14. Px Ix
15. (Px Ix)
16. (x)(Px Ix)
17. (x)(Px Ix)

/ (x)(Px Ix)
2, QN
3, UI
4, DM
1, Simp
1, Com
7, Simp
6, UI
8, UI
9, Trans
10, Trans
11, 12, Conj
5, 13, CD
14, DM
15, UG
16, QN
30

Exercise 8.3, II

(8) 1. (x)(Ox Gx) (x)(Hx Rx)


2. (x)(Hx Gx)
/ (x)Ox
3. (x)(Hx Gx)
2, QN
(Hx
4.
Gx)
3, UI
5. Hx Gx
4, DM
6. Hx
5, Simp
7. Hx Rx
6, Add
8. (Hx Rx)
7, DM
9. (x)(Hx Rx)
8, UG
10. (x)(Hx Rx)
9, QN
11. (x)(Ox Gx)
1, 10, MT
12. (x)(Ox Gx)
11, QN
13. (Ox Gx)
12, UI
14. Ox Gx
13, DM
15. Ox Gx
14, DN
16. Gx Hx
5, Com
17. Gx
16, Simp
18. Gx Ox
15, Com
19. Ox
17, 18, DS
20. (x)Ox
19, UI
21. (x)Ox
20, QN
(9) 1. (x){[(Ax Dx) Px] (Ux Sx)}
2. (x)(Ux Sx)
/ (x)(Dx Px)
3. (x)(Ux Sx)
2, QN
4. (Ux Sx)
3, UI
5. [(Ax Dx) Px] (Ux Sx)
1, UI
[(Ax
6.
Dx) Px]
4, 5, MT
7. (Ax Dx) Px
6, DM
8. (Ax Dx) Px
7, DM
9. Px (Ax Dx)
8, Com
10. (Px Ax) (Px Dx)
9, Dist
11. (Px Dx) (Px Ax)
10, Com
12. Px Dx
11, Simp
13. Dx Px
12, Com
14. (Dx Px)
13, DM
15. (x)(Dx Px)
14, UG
16. (x)(Dx Px)
15, QN
(10) 1. (x)[Px (Gx Hx)]
2. (x)[Nx (Px Hx)]
3. (x)(Px Cx) (x)(Px Nx)
4. (x)[Px (Gx Hx)]
5. [Px (Gx Hx)]

/ (x)(Cx Gx)
1, QN
4, UI
31

Exercise 8.3, II

6. Px (Gx Hx)
7. Px (Gx Hx)
8. (Px Gx) (Px Hx)
9. Px Gx
10. (Px Hx) (Px Gx)
11. Px Hx
12. (Px Hx)
13. Nx (Px Hx)
14. Nx
15. Nx Px
16. Px Nx
17. (Px Nx)
18. (x)(Px Nx)
19. (x)(Px Nx)
20. (x)(Px Nx) (x)(Px Cx)
21. (x)(Px Cx)
22. Pm Cm
23. (x)(Px Gx)
24. Pm Gm
25. Pm
26. Pm
27. Gm
28. Cm Pm
29. Cm
30. Cm Gm
31. (x)(Cx Gx)

5, DM
6, DM
7, Dist
8, Simp
8, Com
10, Simp
11, DM
2, UI
12, 13, MT
14, Add
15, Com
16, DM
17, UG
18, QN
3, Com
19, 20 DS
21, EI
9, UG
23, UI
22, Simp
25, DN
24, 26, DS
22, Com
28, Simp
27, 29, Conj
30, EG

Exercise 8.4
Part I
(1) 1. (x)(Ax Bx)
2. (x)(Ax Cx)
3. Ax
4. Ax Bx
5. Ax Cx
6. Bx
7. Cx
8. Bx Cx
9. Ax (Bx Cx)
10. (x)[Ax (Bx Cx)]

/ (x)[(Ax (Bx Cx)]


ACP
1, UI
2, UI
3, 4, MP
3, 5, MP
6, 7, Conj
3-8, CP
9, UG

(2) 1. (x)Ax (x)(Bx Cx)


2. (x)(Cx Dx) (x)Ex
3. Ax
4. (x)Ax

/ (x)(Ax Ex)
ACP
3, EG
32

Exercise 8.4, I

5. (x)(Bx Cx)
6. Bm Cm
7. Cm Bm
8. Cm
9. Cm Dm
10. (x)(Cx Dx)
11. (x)Ex
12. Ex
13. Ax Ex
14. (x)(Ax Ex)
(3) 1. (x)Ax (x)(Bx Cx)
2. (x)Cx
3. (x)Ax
4. (x)Ax
5. (x)(Bx Cx)
6. Bm Cm
7. Cm Bm
8. Cm
9. (x)Cx
10. Cm
11. Cm Cm
12. (x)Ax
13. (x)Ax

1, 4, MP
5, EI
6, Com
7, Simp
8, Add
9, EG
2, 10, MP
11, UI
3-12, CP
13, UG

/ (x)Ax
AIP
3, QN
1, 4, MP
5, EI
6, Com
7, Simp
2, QN
9, UI
8, 10, Conj
3-11, IP
12, DN

(4) 1. (x)(Ax Cx)


2. (x)Cx (x)(Bx Dx)
3. (x)Ax
4. Am
5. Am Cm
6. Cm
7. (x)Cx
8. (x)(Bx Dx)
9. Bn Dn
10. Bn
11. (x)Bx
12. (x)Ax (x)Bx

/ (x)Ax (x)Bx
ACP
3, EI
1, UI
4, 5, MP
6, EG
2, 7, MP
8, EI
9, Simp
10, EG
3-11, CP

(5) 1. (x)(Ax Bx)


2. (x)[(Ax Bx) Cx]
3. Ax
4. Ax Bx
5. (Ax Bx) Cx
6. Bx
7. Ax Bx
8. Cx

/ (x)(Ax Cx)
ACP
1, UI
2, UI
3, 4, MP
3, 6, Conj
5, 7, MP
33

Exercise 8.4, I

9. Ax Cx
10. (x)(Ax Cx)
(6) 1. (x)Ax (x)Bx
2. An Bn
3. An
4. Bn
5. (x)Ax
6. (x)Bx
7. Bn
8. Bn Bn
9. An

3-8, CP
9, UG

/ An
AIP
2, 3, MP
3, EG
1, 5, MP
6, UI
4, 7, Conj
3-8, IP

(7) 1. (x)[(Ax Bx) Cx]


2. (x)[(Cx Dx) Ex]
3. Ax
4. (Ax Bx) Cx
5. (Cx Dx) Ex
6. Ax Bx
7. Cx
8. Cx Dx
9. Ex
10. Ax Ex
11. (x)(Ax Ex)
(8) 1. (x)(Ax Bx) (x)Ax
2. (x)Ax
3. (x)Ax
4. Am
5. Am Bm
6. (x)(Ax Bx)
7. (x)Ax
8. (x)Ax
9. Am
10. Am Am
11. (x)Ax
12. (x)Ax

/ (x)(Ax Ex)
ACP
1, UI
2, UI
3, Add
4, 6, MP
7, Add
5, 8, MP
3-9, CP
10, UG
/ (x)Ax
AIP
2, QN
3, EI
4, Add
5, EG
1, 6, MP
7, QN
8, UI
4, 9, Conj
2-10, IP
11, DN

(9) 1. (x)(Ax Bx)


2. (x)(Cx Dx)
3. (x)(Ax Cx)
4. Am Cm
5. Am Bm
6. Cm Dm
7. (Am Bm) (Cm Dm)
8. Bm Dm

/ (x)(Ax Cx) (x)(Bx Dx)


ACP
3, EI
1, UI
2, UI
5, 6, Conj
4, 7, CD
34

Exercise 8.4, I

9. (x)(Bx Dx)
10. (x)(Ax Cx) (x)(Bx Dx)

8, EG
3-9, CP

(10) 1. (x)(Ax Bx)


2. Am An
3. (x)Bx
4. (x)Bx
5. Am Bm
6. An Bn
7. (Am Bm) (An Bn)
8. Bm Bn
9. Bm
10. Bn
11. Bn
12. Bn Bn
13. (x)Bx
14. (x)Bx

/ (x)Bx
AIP
3, QN
1, UI
1, UI
5, 6, Conj
2, 7, CD
4, UI
8, 9, DS
4, UI
10, 11, Conj
3-12, IP
13, DN

(11) 1. (x)[(Ax Bx) Cx]


2. (x)[(Cx Dx) Ax]
3. (x)Ax
4. (x)Ax
5. Am
6. (Am Bm) Cm
7. Am Bm
8. Cm
9. (Cm Dm) Am
10. Cm Dm
11. Am
12. Am Am
13. (x)Ax
14. (x)Ax

/ (x)Ax
AIP
3, QN
4, EI
1, UI
5, Add
6, 7, MP
2, UI
8, Add
9, 10, MP
5, 11, Conj
3-12, IP
13, DN

(12) 1. (x)Ax (x)(Bx Cx)


2. (x)Dx (x)Cx
3. Ax Dx
4. Ax
5. (x)Ax
6. (x)(Bx Cx)
7. Bx Cx
8. Dx Ax
9. Dx
10. (x)Dx
11. (x)Cx
12. Cx

/ (x)[(Ax Dx) Bx]


ACP
3, Simp
4, EG
1, 5, MP
6, UI
3, Com
8, Simp
9, EG
2, 10, MP
11, UI
35

Exercise 8.4, I

13. Bx
14. (Ax Dx) Bx
15. (x)[(Ax Dx) Bx]

7, 12, MT
3-13, CP
14, UG

(13) 1. (x)Ax (x)(Bx Cx)


2. (x)Dx (x)Bx
3. (x)(Ax Dx)
4. Am Dm
5. Am
6. (x)Ax
7. (x)(Bx Cx)
8. Dm Am
9. Dm
10. (x)Dx
11. (x)Bx
12. Bn
13. Bn Cn
14. Cn
15. (x)Cx
16. (x)(Ax Dx) (x)Cx

/ (x)(Ax Dx) (x)Cx


ACP
3, EI
4, Simp
5, EG
1, 6, MP
4, Com
8, Simp
9, EG
2, 10, MP
11, EI
7, UI
12, 13, MP
14, EG
3-15, CP

(14) 1. (x)Ax (x)(Bx Cx)


2. (x)(Ax Cx)
3. (x)Cx
4. (x)Cx
5. Cx
6. Ax Cx
7. Ax
8. (x)Ax
9. (x)Ax
10. (x)(Bx Cx)
11. Bm Cm
12. Cm Bm
13. Cm
14. Cm
15. Cm Cm
16. (x)Cx
17. (x)Cx

/ (x)Cx
AIP
3, QN
4, UI
2, UI
5, 6, MT
7, UG
8, QN
1, 9, DS
10, EI
11, Com
12, Simp
4, UI
13, 14, Conj
3-15, IP
16, DN

(15) 1. (x)Ax (x)(Bx Cx)


2. (x)Cx (x)(Dx Ex)
3. Ax
4. (x)Ax
5. (x)(Bx Cx)
6. Bm Cm
7. Cm Bm

/ (x)(Ax Ex)
ACP
3, EG
1, 4, MP
5, EI
6, Com
36

Exercise 8.4, I

8. Cm
9. (x)Cx
10. (x)(Dx Ex)
11. Dx Ex
12. Ex Dx
13. Ex
14. Ax Ex
15. (x)(Ax Ex)
(16) 1. (x)[(Ax Bx) Cx]
2. (x)(Ax Dx) (x)Ex
3.(x)Cx
4. (x)Cx
5. Cm
6. (Am Bm) Cm
7. (Am Bm)
8. Am Bm
9. Am
10. Am Dm
11. (x)(Ax Dx)
12. (x)Ex
13. (x)Cx (x)Ex
14. (x)Cx (x)Ex
15. (x)Cx (x)Ex

7, Simp
8, EG
2, 9, MP
10, UI
11, Com
12, Simp
3-13, CP
14, UG

/ (x)Cx (x)Ex
ACP
3, QN
4, EI
1, UI
5, 6, MT
7, DM
8, Simp
9, Add
10, EG
2, 11, MP
3-12, CP
13, Impl
14, DN

(17) 1. (x)Ax (x)(Bx Cx)


2. (x)(Cx Bx)
3. [(x)Ax (x)(Bx Cx)] [(x)(Bx Cx) (x)Ax]
4. (x)Ax
5. (x)Ax (x)(Bx Cx)
6. (x)(Bx Cx)
7. Bm Cm
8. Cm Bm
9. Cm
10. (x)Cx
11. (x)Ax (x)Cx
12. (x)Cx
13. Cn
14. Cn Bn
15. Bn
16. Bn Cn
17. (x)(Bx Cx)
18. [(x)(Bx Cx) (x)Ax] [(x)Ax (x)(Bx Cx)]
19. (x)(Bx Cx) (x)Ax
20. (x)Ax
21. (x)Cx (x)Ax
37

/ (x)Ax (x)Cx
1, Equiv
ACP
3, Simp
4, 5, MP
6, EI
7, Com
8, Simp
9, EG
4-10, CP
ACP
12, EI
2, UI
13, 14, MP
13, 15, Conj
15, EG
3, Com
18, Simp
17, 19, MP
12-20, CP

Exercise 8.4, I

22. [(x)Ax (x)Cx] [(x)Cx (x)Ax]


23. (x)Ax (x)Cx

11, 21, Conj


22, Equiv

(18) 1. (x)(Ax Bx)


2. (x)[Ax (Bx Cx)]
3. (x)Ax (x)Bx
4. (x)Cx
5. (x)Cx
6. Cx
7. Ax (Bx Cx)
8. (Ax Bx) Cx
9. (Ax Bx)
10. Ax Bx
11. (Ax Bx) (Ax Bx)
12. Ax Bx
13. Ax
14. (x)Ax
15. (x)Ax
16. (x)Bx
17. Bx Ax
18. Bx
19. (x)Bx
20. (x)Bx
21. (x)Bx (x)Bx
22. (x)Cx
23. (x)Cx

/ (x)Cx
AIP
4, QN
5, UI
2, UI
7, Exp
6, 8, MT
1, UI
10, Equiv
9, 11, DS
12, Simp
13, UG
14, QN
3, 15, DS
12, Com
17, Simp
18, UG
19, QN
16, 20, Conj
4-21, IP
22, DN

(19) 1. (x)[Bx (Cx Dx)]


2. (x)(Ax Bx)
3. Ax
4. Ax Bx
5. Bx
6. Bx (Cx Dx)
7. Cx Dx
8. Dx Cx
9. Dx
10. Ax Dx
11. (x)(Ax Dx)
12. (x)(Ax Bx) (x)(Ax Dx)

/ (x)(Ax Bx) (x)(Ax Dx)


ACP
ACP
2, UI
3, 4, MP
1, UI
5, 6, MP
7, Com
8, Simp
3-9, CP
10, UG
2-11, CP

(20) 1. (x)[Ax (Bx Cx)]


2. (x)[Dx (Ex Fx)]
3. (x)(Cx Dx)
4. Ax
5. Ax (Bx Cx)
6. Bx Cx

/ (x)(Cx Dx) (x)(Ax Fx)


ACP
ACP
1, UI
4, 5, MP
38

Exercise 8.4, I

7. Cx Bx
8. Cx
9. Cx Dx
10. Dx
11. Dx (Ex Fx)
12. Ex Fx
13. Fx Ex
14. Fx
15. Ax Fx
16. (x)(Ax Fx)
17. (x)(Cx Dx) (x)(Ax Fx)
(21) 1. (x)(Ax Bx)
2. (x)Ax (x)(Cx Bx)
3. (x)Cx
4. Am Bm
5. (x)Bx
6. (x)Bx
7. Bm
8. Bm Am
9. Am
10. (x)Ax
11. (x)(Cx Bx)
12. Cn
13. Cn Bn
14. Bn
15. Bn
16. Bn Bn
17. (x)Bx
18. (x)Bx
(22) 1. (x)Ax (x)Bx
2. (x)(Ax Bx)
3. (x)(Ax Bx)
4. (x)(Ax Bx)
5. An Bn
6. An
7. (x)Ax
8. (x)Ax
9. (x)Bx
10. Bn
11. Bn An
12. Bn
13. Bn Bn
14. (x)(Ax Bx)
15. (x)(Ax Bx)

6, Com
7, Simp
3, UI
8, 9, MP
2, UI
10, 11, MP
12, Com
13, Simp
4-14, CP
15, UG
3-16, CP

/ (x)Bx
1, EI
AIP
5, QN
6, UI
4, Com
7, 8, DS
9, EG
2, 10, MP
3, EI
11, UI
12, 13, MP
6, UI
14, 15, Conj
5-16, IP
17, DN
/ (x)(Ax Bx)
AIP
2, QN
3, DM
4, EI
5, Simp
6, EG
7, QN
1, 8, DS
9, UI
5, Com
11, Simp
10, 12, Conj
2-13, IP
14, DN
39

Exercise 8.4, I

(23) 1. (x)(Ax Ex) (x)(Bx Cx)


2. (x)(Bx Fx) (x)(Cx Dx)
3. (x)(Dx Cx)
/ (x)(Ax Dx) Premise #3 is not used. Delete.
4. Ax
ACP
5. Ax Ex
4, Add
6. (x)(Ax Ex)
5, EG
7. (x)(Bx Cx)
1, 6, MP
8. Bx Cx
7, UI
9. Bx
8, Simp
10. Bx Fx
9, Add
11. (x)(Bx Fx)
10, EG
12. (x)(Cx Dx)
2, 11, MP
13. Cx Dx
12, UI
14. Cx Bx
8, Com
15. Cx
14, Simp
16. Dx
13, 15, DS
17. Ax Dx
4-16, CP
18. (x)(Ax Dx)
17, UG
(24) 1. (x)(Ax Bx)
2. (x)Ax (x)(Cx Dx)
3. (x)(Dx Ex) (x)Bx
4. (x)Bx
5. (x)(Dx Ex)
6. (x)(Dx Ex)
7. (x)(Dx Ex)
8. Dx Ex
9. Dx
10. Dx Cx
11. (Dx Cx)
12. (Cx Dx)
13. (x)(Cx Dx)
14. (x)(Cx Dx)
15. (x)Ax
16. (x)Ax
17. An
18. An Bn
19. Bn
20. (x)Bx
21. (x)Bx (x)Bx
22. (x)Bx
23. (x)Bx

/ (x)Bx
AIP
3, 4, MT
5, QN
6, DM
7, UI
8, Simp
9, Add
10, DM
11, Com
12, UG
13, QN
2, 14, MT
15, DN
16, EI
1, UI
17, 18, MP
19, EG
4, 20, Conj
4-21, IP
22, DN

(25) 1. (x)Ax (x)(Bx Cx)


40

Exercise 8.4, I

2. (x)Dx (x)(Ex Bx)


3. (x)(Cx Ex)
4. (x)(Ax Dx)
5. An Dn
6. An
7. (x)Ax
8. (x)(Bx Cx)
9. Dn An
10. Dn
11. (x)Dx
12. (x)(Ex Bx)
13. (x)(Cx Ex)
14. (Cx Ex)
15. Cx Ex)
16. Cx Ex
17. Cx Ex
18. Bx Cx
19. Bx Ex
20. Ex Bx
21. Bx Bx
22. Bx Bx
23. Bx
24. (x)Bx
25. (x)Bx
26. (x)(Ax Dx) (x)Bx

/ (x)(Ax Dx) (x)Bx


ACP
4, EI
5, Simp
6, EG
1, 7, MP
5, Com
9, Simp
10, EG
2, 11, MP
3, QN
13, UI
14, DM
15, DN
16, Impl
8, UI
17, 18, HS
12, UI
19, 20, HS
21, Impl
22, Taut
23, UG
24, QN
4-25, CP

Part II
(1) 1. (x)(Ax Wx)
2. (x)(Rx Cx)
3. Rx Ax
4. Rx
5. Ax Rx
6. Ax
7. Ax Wx
8. Rx Cx
9. Cx
10. Wx
11. Cx Wx
12. (Rx Ax) (Cx Wx)
13. (x)[(Rx Ax) (Cx Wx)]

/ (x)[(Rx Ax) (Cx Wx)]


ACP
3, Simp
3, Com
5, Simp
1, UI
2, UI
4, 8, MP
6, 7, MP
9, 10, Conj
3-11, CP
12, UG

(2) 1. (x)(Sx Wx)


41

Exercise 8.4, II

2. (x)(Wx Sx) Vo
3. (x)Sx
4. Sm
5. Sm Wm
6. Wm
7. Wm Sm
8. (x)(Wx Sx)
9. Vo
10. (x)Sx Vo

/ (x)Sx Vo
ACP
3, EI
1, UI
4, 5, MP
4, 6, Conj
7, EG
2, 8, MP
3-9, CP

(3) 1. (x)(Jx Wx) (x)(Ax Rx)


2. (x)(Jx Wx) (x)(Ax Rx)
3. (x)(Ax Rx)
4. (x)(Jx Wx)
5. (x)(Jx Wx)
6. (Jm Wm)
7. (Jm Wm)
8. Jm Wm
9. Jm Wm
10. (x)(Jx Wx)
11. (x)(Jx Wx)
12. (Jm Wm)
13. Jm Wm
14. Jm Wm
15. Jm
16. Jm
17. Wm
18. Wm Jm
19. Wm
20. Wm Wm
21. (x)(Ax Rx)
22. (x)(Ax Rx)

/ (x)(Ax Rx)
AIP
1, 3, MT
4, QN
5, EI
6, Impl
7, DM
8, DN
2, 3, MT
10, QN
11, UI
12, DM
13, DN
9, Simp
15, DN
14, 16, DS
9, Com
18, Simp
17, 19, Conj
3-20, IP
21, DN

(4) 1. (x)[(Sx Ux) (Ix Cx)]


2. (x)[(Cx Vx) (Rx Ax)]
3. Sx
4. Sx Ux
5. (Sx Ux) (Ix Cx)
6. Ix Cx
7. Cx Ix
8. Cx
9. Cx Vx
10. (Cx Vx) (Rx Ax)
11. Rx Ax
12. Ax Rx
13. Ax

/ (x)(Sx Ax)
ACP
3, Add
1, UI
4, 5, MP
6, Com
7, Simp
8, Add
2, UI
9, 10, MP
11, Com
12, Simp
42

Exercise 8.4, II

14. Sx Ax
15. (x)(Sx Ax)

3-13, CP
14, UG

(5) 1. (x)(Ax Dx)


2. (x)[(Ex Ax) Cx] (x)[(Cx Dx) Fx]
3. Ex Ax
4. (x)[(Ex Ax) Cx]
5. (x)[(Cx Dx) Fx] (x)[(Ex Ax) Cx]
6. (x)[(Cx Dx) Fx]
7. (Ex Ax) Cx
8. (Cx Dx) Fx
9. Cx
10. Ax Ex
11. Ax
12. Ax Dx
13. Dx
14. Cx Dx
15. Fx
16. (Ex Ax) Fx
17. (x)[(Ex Ax) Fx]
(6) 1. (x)Sx (x)(Ex Wx)
2. (x)(Ex Vx) (x)Lx
3. (x)Vx (x)Sx
4. (x)Lx
5. (x)(Ex Vx)
6. (x)(Ex Vx)
7. (Ex Vx)
8. Ex Vx
9. Ex
10. Ex Wx
11. (Ex Wx)
12. (x)(Ex Wx)
13. (x)(Ex Wx)
14. (x)Sx
15. (x)Sx (x)Vx
16. (x)Vx
17. Vx Ex
18. Vx
19. (x)Vx
20. (x)Vx
21. (x)Vx (x)Vx
22. (x)Lx
23. (x)Lx

/ (x)Lx
AIP
2, 4, MT
5, QN
6, UI
7, DM
8, Simp
9, Add
10, DM
11, UG
12, QN
1, 13, MT
3, Com
14, 15, DS
8, Com
17, Simp
18, UG
19, QN
16, 20, Conj
4-21, IP
22, DN

43

/ (x)[(Ex Ax) Fx]


ACP
2, Simp
2, Com
5, Simp
4, UI
6, UI
3, 7, MP
3, Com
10, Simp
1, UI
11, 12, MP
9, 13, Conj
8, 14, MP
3-15, CP
16, UG

Exercise 8.4, II

(7) 1. (x)Cx (x)[Ax (Sx Dx)]


2. (x)(Cx Ax) (x)(Dx Sx)
3. (x)(Dx Sx)
4. (x)(Cx Ax)
5. (x)(Cx Ax)
6. (Cm Am)
7. (Cm Am)
8. Cm Am
9. Cm Am
10. Cm Am
11. Cm
12. (x)Cx
13. (x)[Ax (Sx Dx)]
14. Am (Sm Dm)
15. Am Cm
16. Am
17. Sm Dm
18. Dm Sm
19. (x)(Dx Sx)
20. (x)(Dx Sx) (x)(Dx Sx)
21. (x)(Dx Sx)
22. (x)(Dx Sx)
(8) 1. (x)Vx (x)(Px Ax)
2. (x)Px (x)(Ax Cx)
3. (x)Vx
4. Px
5. (x)(Px Ax)
6. (x)Px
7. (x)(Ax Cx)
8. Px Ax
9. Ax
10. Ax Cx
11. Cx
12. Px Cx
13. (x)(Px Cx)
14. (x)Vx (x)(Px Cx)
(9) 1. (x)(Sx Px) (x)(Rx Px)
2. (x)(Sx Px) (x)(Wx Px)
3. (x)[(Rx Px) Wx]
4. (Rm Pm) Wm
5. Rm Pm
6. Rm Pm
7. Rm Pm
8. (Rm Pm)

/ (x)(Dx Sx)
AIP
2, 3, MT
4, QN
5, EI
6, Impl
7, DM
8, DN
9, DN
10, Simp
11, EG
1, 12, MP
13, UI
10, Com
15, Simp
14, 16, MP
17, Com
18, EG
3, 19, Conj
3-20, IP
21, DN

/ (x)Vx (x)(Px Cx)


ACP
ACP
1, 3, MP
4, EG
2, 6, MP
5, UI
4, 8, MP
7, UI
9, 10, MP
4-11, CP
12, UG
3-13, CP

/ (x)[(Rx Px) Wx]


AIP
3, EI
4, Simp
5, DN
6, DN
7, DM
44

Exercise 8.4, II

9. (Rm Pm)
10. (x)(Rx Px)
11. (x)(Rx Px)
12. (x)(Rx Px) (x)(Sx Px)
13. (x)(Sx Px)
14. (x)(Sx Px)
15. (x)(Sx Px)
16. (x)(Sx Px)
17. (x)(Wx Px)
18. Wm Pm
19. Wm (Rm Pm)
20. Wm
21. Pm
22. Pm Rm
23. Pm
24. Pm Pm
25. (x)[(Rx Px) Wx]
(10) 1. (x)(Gx Px) (x)(Ax Px)
2. (x)Px (x)[Ax (Cx Dx)]
3. (x)(Dx Cx)
4. (x)(Dx Cx)
5. (Dx Cx)
6. (Cx Dx)
7. (Cx Dx) Ax
8. Ax (Cx Dx)
9. [Ax (Cx Dx)]
10. (x)[Ax (Cx Dx)]
11. (x)[(Ax (Cx Dx)]
12. (x)Px
13. (x)Px
14. Px
15. Px Gx
16. Gx Px
17. (Gx Px)
18. (x)(Gx Px)
19. (x)(Gx Px)
20. (x)(Ax Px)
21. Am Pm
22. Pm Am
23. Pm
24. Pm
25. Pm Pm
26. (x)(Dx Cx)
27. (x)(Dx Cx)

8, Impl
9, EG
10, QN
1, Com
11, 12, DS
13, Impl
14, DM
15, QN
2, 16, DS
17, UI
4, Com
19, Simp
18, 20, MP
5, Com
22, Simp
21, 23, Conj
3-24, IP

/ (x)(Dx Cx)
AIP
3, QN
4, UI
5, Com
6, Add
7, Com
8, DM
9, UG
10, QN
2, 11, MT
12, QN
13, UI
14, Add
15, Com
16, DM
17, UG
18, QN
1, 19, DS
20, EI
21, Com
22, Simp
13, UI
23, 24, Conj
3-25, IP
26, DN
45

Exercise 8.4, II

(An alternate method appears in the back of the textbook.)


Exercise 8.5
Part I
1. All cats are animals.
No cats are dogs.
Therefore, no dogs are animals.
2. Some animals are fish.
All cats are animals.
Therefore, some cats are fish.
3. All women are humans.
Chuck Norris is a human.
Therefore, Chuck Norris is a woman.
4. Some mammals are dogs.
Some mammals write books.
Therefore, some mammals are dogs that write books.
5. Everything is either an animal, vegetable or mineral.
Therefore, either everything is an animal, or everything is a vegetable or everything is a
mineral
6. All dogs are either animals or sharks.
All All animals that are sharks are fish.
Therefore, all dogs are fish.
7. There are flowers.
There are dogs.
No flowers are animals.
Therefore, some dogs are not animals.
8. Anything that is either a dog or a cat is an animal.
Any animal that has a trunk is an elephant.
Therefore, all dogs are elephants.
9. All large cats are mammals.
All large dogs are animals.
Therefore, all large animals are mammals.
10. Some mammals are felines.
Some animals are not felines.
All mammals are animals.
Therefore, some feline animals are not mammals.

46

Exercise 8.5, II

Part II
(1) 1. (x)(Ax Bx)
2. (x)(Ax Cx)

/ (x)(Bx Cx)

For a universe consisting of one member, we have,


Aa Ba / Aa Ca // Ba Ca
F T T
F T F
T F F
(2) 1. (x)(Ax Bx)
2. An
/ (x)Bx
For a universe consisting of two members, we have,
(An Bn) (Aa Ba) / An // Bn Ba
F T T T T T F
T F
T F F
(3) 1. (x)Ax (x)Bx
2. (x)Ax
/ (x)Bx
For a universe consisting of one member, we have,
Aa Ba / Aa // Ba
T T F
T
F
(4) 1. (x)(Ax Bx)
2. (x)Ax
/ (x)Bx
For a universe consisting of two members, we have,
(Aa Ba) (Ab Bb) / Aa Ab // Ba Bb
T T T T F T F
T T F
T F F
(5) 1. (x)[Ax (Bx Cx)]
2. (x)Ax
/(x)Bx
For a universe consisting of one member, we have,
Aa (Ba Ca) / Aa // Ba
T T F T T
T
F
(6) 1. (x)Ax
2. (x)Bx

/ (x)(Ax Bx)

For a universe consisting of two members, we have,


Aa Ab / Ba Bb // (Aa Ba) (Ab Bb)
T T F
F T T
T F F F F F T

47

Exercise 8.5, II

(7) 1. (x)(Ax Bx)


2. (x)Bx (x)Cx

/ (x)(Ax Cx)

For a universe consisting of two members, we have,


(Aa Ba) (Ab Bb) / (Ba Bb) (Ca Cb) // (Aa Ca) (Ab Cb)
T T T T T T T
T T T T T T F
T T T F T F F
(8) 1. (x)(Ax Bx) (x)Cx
2. (x)(Ax Bx)
/ (x)Ax (x)Cx
For a universe consisting of two members, we have,
[(Aa Ba) (Ab Bb)] (Ca Cb) / (Aa Ba) (Ab Bb)
T T T T F F F T T T
T T T T F T F
// (Aa Ab) (Ca Cb)
T F F F T T
(9) 1. (x)(Ax Bx)
2. (x)(Bx Ax)

/ (x)(Ax Bx)

For a universe consisting of three members, we have,


[(Aa Ba) (Ab Bb)] (Ac Bc) / [(Ba Aa) (Bb Ab)] (Bc Ac)
T TTF T F FF T T F FTF
FFF T T T TT F T F FT F
// [(Aa Ba) (Ab Bb)] (Ac Bc)
T T F T F T T F F F F
(10) 1. (x)(Ax Bx)
2. (x)(Ax Bx)

/ (x)(Ax Bx)

For a universe consisting of three members, we have,


(Aa Ba) [(Ab Bb) (Ac Bc)]
T T T T T F F T F F F
/ ( Aa Ba) [( Ab Bb) ( Ac Bc)]
F T FFT T FT FTF T T F TTF
// (Aa Ba) [(Ab Bb) (Ac Bc)]
T T T F T F F F F T F
Part III
(1) 1. (x)[Vx Px) (Ax Mx)
2. (x)(Vx Ox)
/ (x)(Mx Ax)
For a universe consisting of one member, we have,
48

Exercise 8.5, III

(Va Pa) (Aa Ma) / Va Oa // Ma Aa


T F F T F F T
T T T
T F F
(2) 1. (x)[(Px Hx) Mx]
2. Pa
/ (x)Mx
For a universe consisting of two members, we have,
[(Pa Ha) Ma] [(Pc Hc) Mc] / Pa // Ma Mc
T T
T T T F F F T F
T
T F F
(3) 1. (x)Ox (x)Bx
2. (x)Cx (x)Fx
3. Oa Ca
/ (x)(Bx Fx)
For a universe consisting of two members, we have,
(Oa Ob) (Ba Bb) / (Ca Cb) (Fa Fb) / Oa Ca // (Ba Fa) (Bb Fb)
T T
T T T F
T T
T F T T
T T T
T F F F F F T
(4) 1. (x)(Tx Hx)
2. (x)(Tx Hx) (x)(Px Ox)

/ (x)(Tx Ox)

For a universe consisting of two members, we have,


(Ta Ha) (Tb Hb) / [(Ta Ha) (Tb Hb)] [(Pa Oa) (Pb Ob)]
T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T F F F T T T T
// (Ta Oa) (Tb Ob)
T F F F T T T
(5) 1. (x)[(Cx Vx) Mx]
2. (x)(Vx Cx)
3. (x)(Cx Vx)
/ (x)Mx
For a universe consisting of three members, we have,
{[(Ca Va) Ma] [(Cb Vb) Mb]} [(Cc Vc) Mc]
T T F T T T F T T T T T F F F T F
/ [(Va Ca) (Vb Cb)] (Vc Cc) / [(Ca Va) (Cb Vb)] (Cc Vc)
F FFT T T TT F T FFTF
T TT F T F FF T T F FT F
// (Ma Mb) Mc
T T T F F

49

Exercise 8.6, I

Exercise 8.6
Part I
1. Rcp
2. (x)(Rxp Ex)
3. Fje Fjc
4. (x)Fxj Fmj
5. (x)(Tjx Gx)
6. (x)(Mx Tnx)
7. (x)[Px (y)Sxy]
8. (x)[Px (y)Sxy]
9. (x)[Px (y)Sxy]
10. (x)[Px (y)Sxy]
11. (x)[(Dx Srx) Gx] (assuming the hotel also serves food)
(x)[Srx (Gx Dx)] (assuming the hotel serves no food)
12. (x)(Pcx Acx)
13. (x)[(Cx Lx) Dpx]
14. (x)[(Cx Lx) Djx]
15. (x)(Isx Fxs)
16. (x)(Fxc Icx)
17. (x)[Px (y)(Txy Bxy)]
18. (x){Px (y)[(Py Syx) Sxy]}
19. (x){Px (y)[Py (Mxy Axy)]}
20. (x){Px (y)[(Py Mxy) Axy]}
21. (x)[Px (y)(Axy Ty)]
22. (x){Px (y)[(Ty Sxy) Axy]}
50

Exercise 8.6, I

23. (x)Cx (x)(Cx Px)


24. (x){Cx [(y)(Ry Vy) Px]}
25. (x){Lx (y)[(Wy Cy) Rxy]}
26. (x){Lx (y)[(Py Ryy) Rxy]}
27. (x){(Cx Tx) (y)[(By Ly) Rxy]}
28. (x){(Cx Fx) (y)[(By Ly) Rxy]}
29. (x){(Sx Dx) [(y)(Ty By) Hx]}
30. (x)(Sx Dx) (x)[(Sx Dx) Hx]
Part II
(1) 1. (x)[Ax (y)Bxy]
2. Am
3. Am (y)Bmy
4. (y)Bmy

/ (y)Bmy
1, UI
2, 3, MP

(2) 1. (x)[Ax (y)(By Cxy)]


2. Am Bn
3. Am (y)(By Cmy)
4. Am
5. (y)(By Cmy)
6. Bn Cmn
7. Bn Am
8. Bn
9. Cmn

/ Cmn
1, UI
2, Simp
3, 4, MP
5, UI
2, Com
7, Simp
6, 8, MP

(3) 1. (x)[Ax (y)(By Cxy)]


2. (x)Ax Bj
3. Am (y)(By Cmy)
4. Am
5. (x)Ax
6. Bj
7. (y)(By Cmy) Am
8. (y)(By Cmy)
9. Bj Cmj
10. Cmj
11. (x)Cxj

/ (x)Cxj
1, EI
3, Simp
4, EG
2, 5, MP
3, Com
7, Simp
8, UI
6, 9, MP
10, EG

51

Exercise 8.6, II

(4) 1. (x)(y)(Ax By)


2. (x)Ax
3. Ax
4. (y)(Ax By)
5. Ax Bm
6. Bm
7. (y)By
8. (x)Ax (y)By

/ (x)Ax (y)By
ACP
2, UI
1, UI
4, EI
3, 5, MP
6, EG
2-7, CP

(5) 1. (x)Ax (y)By


2. Ax
3. (x)Ax
4. (y)By
5. Bm
6. Ax Bm
7. (x)(Ax Bm)
8. (y)(x)(Ax By)

/ (y)(x)(Ax By)
ACP
2, EG
1, 3, MP
4, EI
2-5, CP
6, UG
7, EG

(6) 1. (x)(y)(Ax By)


2. (x)(y)(Ay Cx)
3. Ax
4. (y)(Ay Cm)
5. Ax Cm
6. Cm
7. (y)(Ax By)
8. Ax Bm
9. Bm
10. Bm Cm
11. Ax (Bm Cm)
12. (y)[Ax (By Cy)]
13. (x)(y)[Ax (By Cy)]

/ (x)(y)[Ax (By Cy)]


ACP
2, EI
4, UI
3, 5, MP
1, UI
7, UI
3, 8, MP
6, 9, Conj
3-10, CP
11, EG
12, UG

(7) 1. (x)[Ax (y)(Ay Bxy)]


2. Am (y)(Ay Bmy)
3. Am
4. (y)(Ay Bmy) Am
5. (y)(Ay Bmy)
6. Am Bmm
7. Bmm
8. (x)Bxx

/ (x)Bxx
1, EI
2, Simp
2, Com
4, Simp
5, UI
3, 6, MP
7, EG

(8) 1. (x)[Ax (y)(By Cxy)]


2. (x)(y)(Ax By)
3. Am (y)(By Cmy)
4. Am
5. (y)(By Cmy) Am

/ (x)(y)Cxy
1, EI
3, Simp
3, Com
52

Exercise 8.6, II

6. (y)(By Cmy)
7. (y)(Am By)
8. Am Bn
9. Bn
10. Bn Cmn
11. Cmn
12. (y)Cmy
13. (x)(y)Cxy
(9) 1. (x)(y)(Axy Bxy)
2. (x)(y)Bxy
3. (y)(Amy Bmy)
4. (y)Bmy
5. Bmn
6. Amn Bmn
7. Amn
8. (y)Amy
9. (x)(y)Axy
10. (x)(y)Axy
11. (x)(y)Axy

5, Simp
2, UI
7, EI
4, 8, MP
6, UI
9, 10, MP
11, EG
12, EG
/ (x)(y)Axy
1, EI
2, UI
4, EI
3, UI
5, 6, MT
7, EG
8, EG
9, QN
10, QN

(10) 1. (x)(y)Axy (x)(y)Bxy


2. (x)(y)Bxy
3. (x)(y)Bxy
4. (x)(y)Bxy
5. (x)(y)Axy
6. (x)(y)Axy
7. (x)(y)Axy

/ (x)(y)Axy
2, QN
3, QN
1, 4, MT
5, QN
6, QN

(11) 1. (x){Ax [(y)By Cx]}


2. (x)(Ax Bx)
3. Am [(y)By Cm]
4. Am
5. Am Bm
6. Bm
7. (y)By
8. [(y)By Cm] Am
9. (y)By Cm
10. Cm
11. (x)Cx

/ (x)Cx
1, EI
3, Simp
2, UI
4, 5, MP
6, EG
3, Com
8, Simp
7, 9, MP
10, EG

(12) 1. (x)(y)[(Ay By) Cxy]


2. (y)(Ay By)
3. Ay
4. Ay By
5. By

/ (y)[Ay (x)Cxy]
ACP
2, UI
3, 4, MP
53

Exercise 8.6, II

6. Ay By
7. (y)[(Ay By) Cmy]
8. (Ay By) Cmy
9. Cmy
10. (x)Cxy
11. Ay (x)Cxy
12. (y)[Ay (x)Cxy]

3, 5, Conj
1, EI
7, UI
6, 8, MP
9, EG
3-10, CP
11, UG

(13) 1. (x){Ax (y)[(By Cy) Dxy]}


2. (x)Ax (y)By
/ (x)(y)Dxy
3. Am (y)[(By Cy) Dmy]
1, EI
4. Am
3, Simp
5. (x)Ax
4, EG
6. (y)By
2, 5, MP
7. Bn
6, EI
8. (y)[(By Cy) Dmy] Am
3, Com
9. (y)[(By Cy) Dmy]
8, Simp
10. (Bn Cn) Dmn
9, UI
11. Bn Cn
7, Add
12. Dmn
10, 11, MP
13. (y)Dmy
12, EG
14. (x)(y)Dxy
13, EG
(14) 1. (x){Ax [(y)(By Cy) Dx]}
2. (x)(Bx Cx)
3. Ax
4. Bx
5. Ax [(y)(By Cy) Dx]
6. (y)(By Cy) Dx
7. Bx Cx
8. Cx
9. Bx Cx
10. (y)(By Cy)
11. Dx
12. Bx Dx
13. Ax (Bx Dx)
14. (x)[Ax (Bx Dx)]
(15) 1. (x)(y)(Ayx Axy)
2. (y)(Aym Amy)
3. Amm Amm
4. Amm Amm
5. Amm
6. (x)Axx
7. (x)Axx

/ (x)Axx
1, EI
2, UI
3, Impl
4, Taut
5, EG
6, QN

54

/ (x)[Ax (Bx Dx)]


ACP
ACP
1, UI
3, 5, MP
2, UI
4, 7, MP
4, 8, Conj
9, EG
6, 10, MP
4-11, CP
3-12, CP
13, UG

Exercise 8.6, II

(16) 1. (x)(Ax Bx)


2. (x)Bx (x)(y)Cxy
3. (x)Ax
4. Ae
5. Ae Be
6. Be
7. (x)Bx
8. (x)(y)Cxy
9. (x)(y)Cxy
10. (x)(y)Cxy
11. (y)Cmy
12. Cmn
13. (x)Ax Cmn

/ (x)Ax Cmn
ACP
3, EI
1, UI
4, 5, MP
6, EG
2, 7, MP
8, QN
9, QN
10, UI
11, UI
3-12, CP

(17) 1. (x)(y)(Axy Byx)


2. (x)(y)(Byx Axy)
3. (y)(Amy Bym)
4. (y)(Bym Amy)
5. Bem Ame
6. Ame Bem
7. Ame Ame
8. Ame Ame
9. Ame
10. (y)Amy
11. (x)(y)Axy
12. (x)(y)Axy
13. (x)(y)Axy

/ (x)(y)Axy
1, EI
2, UI
4, EI
3, UI
5, 6, HS
7, Impl
8, Taut
9, EG
10, EG
11, QN
12, QN

(18) 1. (x)[Ax (y)(By Cxy)]


2. (x)[Ax (y)(By Dxy)]
3. Am (y)(By Dmy)
4. Am (y)(By Cmy)
5. Am
6. (y)(By Cmy)
7. Bn Cmn
8. (y)(By Dmy) Am
9. (y)(By Dmy)
10. Bn Dmn
11. Bn
12. Dmn
13. Cmn Bn
14. Cmn
15. Cmn Dmn
16. (y)(Cmy Dmy)
17. (x)(y)(Cxy Dxy)

/ (x)(y)(Cxy Dxy)
2, EI
1, UI
3, Simp
4, 5, MP
6, EI
3, Com
8, Simp
9, UI
7, Simp
10, 11, MP
7, Com
13, Simp
12, 14, Conj
15, EG
16, EG

55

Exercise 8.6, II

(19) 1. (x)(y)Ayx (x)(y)Bxy


2. (x)(y)(Cy Byx)
3. Cx
4. (y)(Cy Bym)
5. Cx Bxm
6. Bxm
7. (y)Bxy
8. (x)(y)Bxy
9. (x)(y)Bxy
10. (x)(y)Bxy
11. (x)(y)Bxy (x)(y)Ayx
12. (x)(y)Ayx
13. (y)Ayn
14. Axn
15. Cx Axn
16. (y)(Cx Axy)
17. (x)(y)(Cx Axy)

/ (x)(y)(Cx Axy)
ACP
2, EI
4, UI
3, 5, MP
6, EG
7, EG
8, QN
9, QN
1, Com
10, 11, DS
12, EI
13, UI
3-14, CP
15, EG
16, UG

(20) 1. (x)(y)[Axy (Bx Cy)]


2. (x)(y)[(Bx Dy) Axy]
3. (x)(y)Axy
4. (y)Amy
5. Amn
6. (y)[Amy (Bm Cy)]
7. Amn (Bm Cn)
8. Bm Cn
9. Bm
10. (y)[(Bm Dy) Amy]
11. (Bm Dn) Amn
12. Bm Dn
13. Amn
14. Amn Amn
15. (x)(y)Axy

/ (x)(y)Axy
AIP
3, EI
4, EI
1, UI
6, UI
5, 7, MP
8, Simp
2, UI
10, UI
9, Add
11, 12, MP
5, 13, Conj
3-14, IP

Part III
(1) 1. (x)[Px (y)(Ay Oxy)]
2. Pj Ojm
3. Pj (y)(Ay Ojy)
4. Pj
5. (y)(Ay Ojy)
6. Am Ojm
7. Ojm Pj
8. Ojm
9. Am

/ Am
1, UI
2, Simp
3, 4, MP
5, UI
2, Com
7, Simp
6, 9, MT
56

Exercise 8.6, III

(2) 1. (x)[(Fxm Fxp) Rx]


2. (x)Fxm Fem
3. Fam
4. (x)Fxm
5. Fem
6. (Fem Fep) Re
7. Fem Fep
8. Re
9. Fam Re

/ Fam Re
ACP
3, EG
2, 4, MP
1, UI
5, Add
6, 7, MP
3-8, CP

(3) 1. (x)(Hx Ax) /


2. (y)(Hy Oxy)
3. Hm Oxm
4. Hm
5. Hm Am
6. Am
7. Oxm Hm
8. Oxm
9. Am Oxm
10. (y)(Ay Oxy)
11. (y)(Hy Oxy) (y)(Ay Oxy)
12. (x)[(y)(Hy Oxy) (y)(Ay Oxy)]
(4) 1. Po
2. (x)[(Px Cx) Sox]
3. (x)(Px Sxx)
4. Co
5. (Po Co) Soo
6. Po Co
7. Soo
8. Po Soo
9. Soo
10. Soo Soo
11. Co

(x)[(y)(Hy Oxy) (y)(Ay Oxy)]


ACP
2, EI
3, Simp
1, UI
4, 5, MP
3, Com
7, Simp
6, 8, Conj
9, EG
2-10, CP
11, UG

/ Co
AIP
2, UI
1, 4, Conj
5, 6, MP
3, UI
1, 8, MP
7, 9, Conj
4-10, IP

(5) 1. (x){(Hx Px) [(y)(By Cy) Rx]}


2. (x)[(Hx Px) Rx]
3. (Hm Pm) Rm
4. Hm Pm
5. (Hm Pm) [(y)(By Cy) Rm]
6. (y)(By Cy) Rm
7. Rm (Hm Pm)
8. Rm
9. (y)(By Cy)
10. (y)(By Cy)

/ (x)(Bx Cx)
2, EI
3, Simp
1, UI
4, 5, MP
3, Com
7, Simp
6, 8, MT
9, QN
57

Exercise 8.6, III

11. (Bn Cn)


12. (Bn Cn)
13. Bn Cn
14. Bn Cn
15. (x)(Bx Cx)
(6) 1. (x)[(Px Cxx) Crx]
2. Pr
3. (Pr Crr) Crr
4. Pr (Crr Crr)
5. Crr Crr
6. Crr Crr
7. Crr Crr
8. Crr

10, EI
11, Impl
12, DM
13, DN
14, EG
/ Crr
1, UI
3, Exp
2, 4, MP
5, Impl
6, DN
7, Taut

(7) 1. (x){Px (y)[(Py Kxy) Fxy]}


2. (x)[Px (y)(Py Kxy)]
3. Pm (y)[(Py Kmy) Fmy]
4. Pm (y)(Py Kmy)
5. Pm
6. (y)(Py Kmy)
7. Pn Kmn
8. (y)[(Py Kmy) Fmy] Pm
9. (y)[(Py Kmy) Fmy]
10. (Pn Kmn) Fmn
11. Fmn
12. Pn
13. Pm Pn
14. (Pm Pn) Fmn
15. (y)[(Pm Py) Fmy]
16. (x)(y)[(Px Py) Fxy]

/ (x)(y)[(Px Py) Fxy]


1, EI
2, UI
3, Simp
4, 5, MP
6, EI
3, Com
8, Simp
9, UI
7, 10, MP
7, Simp
5, 12, Conj
11, 13, Conj
14, EG
15, EG

(8) 1. (x)[Px (y)(Ry Axy)]


2. (x){[Rx (y)(Py Ayx)] Jx}
3. (x)Px Rm
4. (x)Px
5. Pc
6. Pc (y)(Ry Acy)
7. (y)(Ry Acy)
8. Rm Acm
9. Rm (x)Px
10. Rm
11. Acm
12. [Rm (y)(Py Aym)] Jm
13. Pc Acm
14. (y)(Py Aym)

/ Jm
3, Simp
4, EI
1, UI
5, 6, MP
7, UI
3, Com
9, Simp
8, 10, MP
2, UI
5, 11, Conj
13, EG
58

Exercise 8.6, III

15. Rm (y)(Py Aym)


16. Jm

10, 14, Conj


12, 15, MP

(9) 1. (x)[Mx (y)(Py Syx)]


2. (x)[Dx (y)(Py Byx)]
3. (x)(Mx Dx)
4. Mm Dm
5. Mm (y)(Py Sym)
6. Dm (y)(Py Bym)
7. [Mm (y)(Py Sym)] [Dm (y)(Py Bym)]
8. (y)(Py Sym) (y)(Py Bym)
9. (y)[(Py Sym) (Py Bym)]
10. (y)[(Py Sym) (Py Bym)]
11. [(Py Sym) (Py Bym)]
12. (Py Sym) (Py Bym)
13. (Py Sym)
14. (y)(Py Sym)
15. (y)(Py Sym)
16. (y)(Py Bym)
17. (Py Bym) (Py Sym)
18. (Py Bym)
19. (y)(Py Bym)
20. (y)(Py Bym)
21. (y)(Py Bym) (y)(Py Bym)
22. (y)[(Py Sym) (Py Bym)]
23. (y)[(Py Sym) (Py Bym)]
24. (Pn Snm) (Pn Bnm)
25. Pn (Snm Bnm)
26. (Snm Bnm) Pn
27. Snm Bnm
28. (y)(Sny Bny)
29. Pn
30. Pn (y)(Sny Bny)
31. (x)[Px (y)(Sxy Bxy)]
(10) 1. (x){Ix [(y)(Cy Ay) Ex]}
2. [(x)Tx (x)Wx] [(x)Ix (x)Cx]
3. (x)(Cx Ax)
4. (x)Tx
5. (x)Tx (x)Wx
6. (x)Ix (x)Cx
7. (x)Ix
8. Im
9. Im [(y)(Cy Ay) Em]
10. (y)(Cy Ay) Em
11. (x)Cx (x)Ix

/ (x)[Px (y)(Sxy Bxy)]


3, EI
1, UI
2, UI
5, 6, Conj
4, 7, CD
AIP
9, QN
10, UI
11, DM
12, Simp
13, UG
14, QN
8, 15, DS
12, Com
17, Simp
18, UG
19, QN
16, 20, Conj
9-21, IP
22, DN
23, EI
24, Dist
25, Com
26, Simp
27, EG
25, Simp
28, 29, Conj
30, EG

/ (x)Tx (x)(Ix Ex)


ACP
4, Add
2, 5, MP
6, Simp
7, EI
1, UI
8, 9, MP
6, Com
59

Exercise 8.6, III

12. (x)Cx
13. Cn
14. Cn An
15. An
16. Cn An
17. (y)(Cy Ay)
18. Em
19. Im Em
20. (x)(Ix Ex)
21. (x)Tx (x)(Ix Ex)

11, Simp
12, EI
3, UI
13, 14, MP
13, 15, Conj
16, EG
10, 17, MP
8, 18, Conj
19, EG
4-20, CP

Exercise 8.7
Part I.
Simple identity statements:
1. s = g
2. r m
3. m = b
4. h g
Statements involving "only," "the only," and "no except":
5. Wp (x)(Wx x = p)
6. Pl (x)(Px x = l)
7. Na Ma (x)[(Nx Mx) x = a]
8. Nc Mc (x)[(Nx Mx) x = c]
9. Uw Fw Ua Fa (x)[(Ux Fx) (x = w x = a)]
10. Sh Wh (x)[(Sx Wx) x = h]
11. Sh Ph (x)[(Sx Px) x = h]
Superlative statements:
12. Eh (x)[(Ex x h) Lhx]
13. Pm (x)[(Px x m) Smx]
14. Ah Uh (x)[(Ax Ux x h) Ohx]
15. Rd Nd (x)[(Rx Nx x d) Ldx]
Statements involving "all except":
16. Ci Si (x)[(Cx x i) Sx]
17. Uf Wf (x)[(Ux x f) Wx]
18. Mm Sm (x)[(Mx x m) Sx]
19. Pc Wc (x)[(Px x c) Wx]
Numerical statements:
20. (x)(y)[(Cx Bx Cy By) x = y]
21. (x)(y)(z)[(Nx Sx Ny Sy Nz Sz) (x = y x = z y = z)]
22. (x)(y)[(Nx Jx Ny Jy) x = y]
23. (x)(y)(z)[(Cx Mx Cy My Cz Mz) (x = y x = z y = z)]
60

Exercise 8.7, I

24. (x)(Qx Fx)


25. (x)(y)(Ax Wx Ay Wy x y)
26. (x)(y)(z)(Cx Cy Cz x y x z y z)
27. (x)[Ux (y)(Uy y = x)]
28. (x){Sx Nx (y)[(Sy Ny) y = x]}
29. (x)(y){Sx Bx Gx Sy By Gy x y (z)[(Sz Bz Gz) (z = x z = y)]}
Statements containing definite descriptions:
30. (x)[Wxv (y)(Wyv y = x) Bx]
31. (x)[Wxo (y)(Wyo y = x) x = d]
32. (x){Mx Cxn (y)[(My Cyn) y = x] Rx}
33. (x){Ax Pxa (y)[(Ay Pya) y = x] x = b}
34. (x)[Cxg (y)(Cyg y = x) x s)]
Assorted statements:
35. Sr (x)[(Sx x r) Srx]
36. (x)(Nx Sx)
37. l = s
38. Ar Er (x)[(Ax Ex) x = r]
39. (x)(y)(Cx Qx Cy Qy x y)
40. Pb (x)(Px x = b)
41. (x)(y)[(Sxh Syh) x = y]
42. Mb Hb (x)[(Mx Hx) x = b]
43. (x)(y)(z)[(Sx Nx Sy Ny Sz Nz) (x = y x = z y = z)]
44. m b
45. (x){Ex Dxn (y)[(Ey Dyn) y = x] x = a}
46. Rh (x)[(Rx x h) Ohx]
47. (x)(y){Tx Cx Ty Cy x y (z)[(Tz Cz) (z = x z = y)]}
48. Sn Mn (x)[(Sx x n) Mx]
49. (x){Px Dxr (y)[(Py Dyr) y = x] Ex}
50. (x)(y)(z)(Sx Ox Sy Oy Sz Oz x y x z y z)
Part II
(1) 1. (x)(x = a)
2. (x)Rx
3. Ri
4. i = a
5. Ra
(2) 1. Ke
2. Kn
3. e = n
4. Kn
5. Kn Kn

/ Ra
2, EI
1, UI
3, 4, Id
/en
AIP
1, 3, Id
1, 2, Conj
61

Exercise 8.7, II

6. e n

3-5, IP

(3) 1. (x)(x = c Nx)


2. c = c Nc
3. c = c
4. Nc

/ Nc
1, UI
Id
2, 3, MP

(4) 1. (x)(x = g)
2. (x)(x = i)
3. n = g
4. n = i
5. g = n
6. g = i

/g=i
1, EI
2, UI
3, Id
4, 5, Id

(5) 1. (x)(Gx x = a)
2. (x)(Gx Hx)
3. Ge He
4. Ge e = a
5. Ge
6. e = a
7. He Ge
8. He
9. Ha

/ Ha
2, EI
1, UI
3, Simp
4, 5, MP
3, Com
7, Simp
6, 8, Id

(6) 1. (x)(Ax Bx)


2. Ac Bi
3. c = i
4. Ac Bc
5. Ac
6. Bc
7. Bi
8. Bi Ac
9. Bi
10. Bi Bi
11. c i

/ci
AIP
1, UI
2, Simp
4, 5, MP
3, 6, Id
2, Com
8, Simp
7, 9, Conj
3-10, IP

(7) 1. (x)(x = a)
2. Fa
3. m = a
4. a = m
5. Fm
6. n = a
7. a = n
8. Fn
9. Fm Fn

/ Fm Fn
1, UI
3, Id
2, 4, Id
1, UI
6, Id
2, 7, Id
5, 8, Conj

62

Exercise 8.7, II

(8) 1. (x)(x = r)
2. Hr Kn
3. n = r
4. Hr
5. r = n
6. Hn
7. Kn Hr
8. Kn
9. Kr
10. Hn Kr

/ Hn Kr
1, UI
2, Simp
3, Id
4, 5, Id
2, Com
7, Simp
3, 8, Id
6, 9, Conj

(9) 1. (x)(Lx x = e)
2. (x)(Sx x = i)
3. (x)(Lx Sx)
4. Ln Sn
5. Ln n = e
6. Ln
7. n = e
8. Sn n = i
9. Sn Ln
10. Sn
11. n = i
12. i = n
13. i = e

/i=e
3, EI
1, UI
4, Simp
5, 6, MP
2, UI
4, Com
9, Simp
8, 10, MP
11, Id
7, 12, Id

(10) 1. (x)(Px x = a)
2. (x)(x = c Qx
3. a = c
4. Px
5. Px x = a
6. x = a
7. x = c
8. x = c Qx
9. Qx
10. Px Qx
11. (x)(Px Qx)

/ (x)(Px Qx)
ACP
1, UI
4, 5, MP
3, 6, Id
2, UI
7, 8, MP
4-9, CP
10, UG

(11) 1. (x)(y)(Txy x = e)
2. (x)Txi
3. Tni
4. (y)(Tny n = e)
5. Tni n = e
6. n = e
7. Tei

/ Tei
2, EI
1, UI
4, UI
3, 5, MP
3, 6, Id

63

Exercise 8.7, II

(12) 1. (x)[Rx (Hx x = m)]


2. Rc
3. Rc (Hc c = m)
4. Hc c = m
5. Hc
6. c = m Hc
7. c = m
8. Hm
9. Rc Hm
(13) 1. (x)(Ba x a)
2. Bc
3. a = c
4. c = a
5. Ba
6. Ba c a
7. c a
8. c = a c a
9. a c

/ Rc Hm
ACP
1, UI
2, 3, MP
4, Simp
4, Com
6, Simp
5, 7, Id
2-8, CP

/ac
AIP
3, Id
2, 4, Id
1, UI
5, 6, MP
4, 7, Conj
3-8, IP

(14) 1. (x)Gx (x)(Kx x = i)


2. Gn
3. (x)Gx
4. (x)(Kx x = i)
5. Ks s = i
6. Ks
7. s = i Ks
8. s = i
9. Ki
10. Gn Ki

/ Gn Ki
ACP
2, EG
1, 3, MP
4, EI
5, Simp
5, Com
7, Simp
6, 8, Id
2-9, CP

(15) 1. (x)(Rax Rxc)


2. (x)Rxx
3. c = a
4. Rac Rcc
5. Rcc
6. Rac
7. Rcc
8. Rcc Rcc
9. c a

/ca
AIP
1, IU
2, UI
3, 5, Id
4, 6, MP
5, 7, Conj
3-8, IP

(16) 1. (x)[Nx (Px x = m)]


2. Pm
3. Ne
4. Ne (Pe e = m)
5. Pe e = m
6. Pe

/ Ne
AIP
1, UI
3, 4, MP
5, Simp
64

Exercise 8.7, II

7. e = m Pe
8. e = m
9. Pm
10. Pm Pm
11. Ne

5, Com
7, Simp
6, 8, Id
2, 9, Conj
3-10, IP

(17) 1. (x)(Fx x = e)
2. (x)(Fx x = a)
3. Fn n = a
4. Fn n = e
5. Fn
6. n = e
7. n = a Fn
8. n = a
9. a = n
10. a = e

/a=e
2, EI
1, UI
3, Simp
4, 5, MP
3, Com
7, Simp
8, Id
6, 9, Id

(18) 1. (x)[Ex (Hp x = e)]


2. (x)(Ex x = p)
3. Es s = p
4. Es (Hp s = e)
5. Es
6. Hp s = e
7. Hp
8. s = p Es
9. s = p
10. p = s
11. Hs
12. s = e Hp
13. s = e
14. He

/ He
2, EI
1, UI
3, Simp
4, 5, MP
6, Simp
3, Com
8, Simp
9, Id
7, 10, Id
6, Com
12, Simp
11, 13, Id

(19) 1. (x)(y)(Cxy x = y)
2. (x)(y)(Cxy x = a)
3. (y)(Cny n = a)
4. (y)(Cay a = y)
5. Cam a = m
6. Cnm n = a
7. Cnm
8. n = a Cnm
9. n = a
10. Cam
11. a = m
12. m = a
13. Caa

/ Caa
2, EI
1, UI
4, EI
3, UI
6, Simp
6, Com
8, Simp
7, 9, Id
5, 10, MP
11, Id
10, 12, Id

65

Exercise 8.7, II

(20) 1. (x)[Fx (Gx x = n)]


2. Gn (x)(Hx x = e)
3. Fm
4. Fm (Gm m = n)
5. Gm m = n
6. Gm
7. m = n Gm
8. m = n
9. Gn
10. (x)(Hx x = e)
11. Ha a = e
12. Ha
13. a = e Ha
14. a = e
15. He
16. Fm He

/ Fm He
ACP
1, UI
3, 4, MP
5, Simp
5, Com
7, Simp
6, 8, Id
2, 9, MP
10, EI
11, Simp
11, Com
13, Simp
12, 14, Id
3-15, CP

Part III.
(1) 1. (x)(Nx Wjx Ix)
2. Nc Wjc (x)[(Nx Wjx) x = c]
3. Na Wja Ia
4. (x)[(Nx Wjx) x = c] Nc Wjc
5. (x)[(Nx Wjx) x = c]
6. (Na Wja) a = c
7. Na Wja
8. a = c
9. Ia Na Wja
10. Ia
11. Ic

/ Ic
1, EI
2, Com
4, Simp
5, UI
3, Simp
6, 7, MP
3, Com
9, Simp
8, 10, Id

(2) 1. Ur (x)[(Ux x r) Orx]


2. Uw
3. w r
4. (x)[(Ux x r) Orx] Ur
5. (x)[(Ux x r) Orx
6. (Uw w r) Orw
7. Uw w r
8. Orw

/ Orw
1, Com
4, Simp
5, UI
2, 3, Conj
6, 7, MP

(3) 1. (x){Ax Pxm (y)[(Ay Pym) y = x] Fx}


2. (x){Ax Pxm (y)[(Ay Pym) y = x] x = l}
3. Aa Pam (y)[(Ay Pym) y = a] Fa
4. Ac Pcm (y)[(Ay Pym) y = c] c = l
5. c = l Ac Pcm (y)[(Ay Pym) y = c]
6. (y)[(Ay Pym) y = c] c = l Ac Pcm
66

/ Fl
1, EI
2, EI
4, Com
5, Com

Exercise 8.7, III

7. (y)[(Ay Pym) y = c]
8. (Aa Pam) a = c
9. Aa Pam
10. a = c
11. c = l
12. a = l
13. Fa Aa Pam (y)[(Ay Pym) y = a]
14. Fa
15. Fl

6, Simp
7, UI
3, Simp
8, 9, MP
5, Simp
10, 11, Id
3, Com
13, Simp
12, 14, Id

(4) 1. (x){Nx Tx (y)[(Ny Ty) y = x] Wmx}


2. Ng Wmg (x)[(Nx Wmx) x = g]
/ (x){Nx Tx (y)[(Ny Ty) y = x] x = g}
3. Na Ta (y)[(Ny Ty) y = a] Wma
1, EI
4. (x)[(Nx Wmx) x = g] Ng Wmg
2, Com
5. (x)[(Nx Wmx) x = g]
4, Simp
6. (Na Wma) a = g
5, UI
7. Na
3, Simp
8. Wma Na Ta (y)[(Ny Ty) y = a]
3, Com
9. Wma
8, Simp
10. Na Wma
7, 9, Conj
11. a = g
6, 10, MP
12. Na Ta (y)[(Ny Ty) y = a]
3, Simp
13. Na Ta (y)[(Ny Ty) y = a] a = g
11, 12, Conj
14. (x){Nx Tx (y)[(Ny Ty) y = x] x = g}
13, EG
(5) 1. (x)[Wxk (y)(Wyk y = x) Ex Ax]
2. Em Am
3. Wak (y)(Wyk y = a) Ea Aa
4. (y)(Wyk y = a) Ea Aa Wak
5. (y)(Wyk y = a)
6. Wmk m = a
7. Wmk
8. m = a
9. Aa Wak (y)(Wyk y = a) Ea
10. Aa
11. a = m
12. Am
13. Am Em
14. Am
15. Am Am
16. Wmk

/ Wmk
1, EI
3, Com
4, Simp
5, UI
5, AIP
6, 7, MP
3, Com
10, Simp
8, Id
10, 11, Id
2, Com
13, Simp
12, 14, Conj
7-15, IP

(6) 1. (x){(Dx Bx) (y)[(Dy By) y = x] Lx Tx}


2. La Da
/ Ba
3. Dc Bc (y)[(Dy By) y = c] Lc Tc
1, EI
67

Exercise 8.7, III

4. Lc Tc Dc Bc (y)[(Dy By) y = c]
5. (y)[(Dy By) y = c] Lc Tc Dc Bc
6. (y)[(Dy By) y = c]
7. (Da Ba) a = c
8. a = c
9. Lc
10. c = a
11. La
12. La
13. La La
14. a c
15. (Da Ba)
16. Da Ba
17. Da La
18. Da
19. Da
20. Ba

3, Com
4, Com
5, Simp
6, UI
AIP
4, Simp
8, Id
9, 10, Id
2, Simp
11, 12, Conj
6-10, IP
7, 14, MT
15, DM
2, Com
17, Simp
18, DN
16, 19, DS

(7) 1. Me Se (x)[(Mx x e) Sx]


2. Mn Gn (x)[(Mx x n) Gx]
3. e n
4. (x)[(Mx x e) Sx] Me Se
5. (x)[(Mx x e) Sx]
6. (Mn n e) Sn
7. Mn
8. n e
9. Mn n e
10. Sn
11. (x)[(Mx x n) Gx] Mn Gn
12. (x)[(Mx x n) Gx]
13. (Me e n) Ge
14. Me
15. Me e n
16. Ge
17. Ge Sn

/ Ge Sn
1, Com
4, Simp
5, UI
2, Simp
3, Id
7, 8, Conj
6, 9, MP
2, Com
11, Simp
12, UI
1, Simp
3, 14, Conj
13, 15, MP
10, 16, Conj

(8) 1. Pa Oa (y)[(Py Oy) y = a]


2. Pw Sw (y)[(Py Sy) y = w]
3. (x)(Px Ox Sx)
4. Pc Oc Sc
5. (y)[(Py Oy) y = a] Pa Oa
6. (y)[(Py Oy) y = a]
7. (Pc Oc) c = a
8. Pc Oc
9. c = a
10. (y)[(Py Sy) y = w] Pw Sw

/a=w
3, EI
1, Com
5, Simp
6, UI
4, Simp
7, 8, MP
2, Com
68

Exercise 8.7, III

11. (y)[(Py Sy) y = w]


12. (Pc Sc) c = w
13. Sc Pc Oc
14. Sc Pc
15. Pc Sc
16. c = w
17. a = c
18. a = w

10, Simp
11, UI
4, Com
13, Simp
14, Com
12, 15, MP
8, Id
16, 17, Id

(9) 1. (x){Mx Tx (y)[(My y x) Hxy]}


/ (x){Mx Tx (y)[(My Ty) Hxy]}
2. Ma Ta (y)[(My y a) Hay]
1, EI
3. Ma Ta
2, Simp
4. (y)[(My Ty) Hay]
AIP
5. (x)[(My Ty) Hay]
4, QN
6. [(Mc Tc) Hac]
5, EI
7. [(Mc Tc) Hac]
6, Impl
8. (Mc Tc) Hac
7, DM
9. Mc Tc Hac
8, DN
10. (y)[(My y a) Hay] Ma Ta
2, Com
11. (y)[(My y a) Tay]
10, Simp
12. (Mc c a) Hac
11, UI
13. Mc (c a Hac)
12, Exp
14. Mc
9, Simp
15. c a Hac
13, 14, MP
16. Hac Mc Tc
9, Com
17. Hac
16, Simp
18. ( c a)
15, 17, MT
19. c = a
18, DN
20. Ta Ma
3, Com
21. Ta
20, Simp
22. Tc Hac Mc
16, Com
23. Tc
22, Simp
24. Ta
19, 23, Id
25. Ta Ta
21, 24, Conj
26. (y)[(My Ty) Hay]
4-25, IP
27. (y)[(My Ty) Hay]
26, DN
28. Ma Ta (y)[(My Ty) Hay]
3, 20, Conj
29. (x){Mx Tx (y)[(My Ty) Hxy]}
28, EG
(10) 1. Bw (x)[(Bx x w) Twx]
2. (x){Bx (y)[(By y x) Txy] Cx}
3. (x)(y)(Txy Tyx)
4. Ba (y)[(By y a) Tay] Ca
5. (x)[(Bx x w) Twx] Bw
6. (x)[(Bx x w) Twx]
69

/ Cw
2, EI
1, Com
5, Simp

Exercise 8.7, III

7. (Ba a w) Twa
8. a w
9. Ba
10. Ba a w
11. Twa
12. (y)[(By y a) Tay] Ca Ba
13. (y)[(By y a) Tay]
14. (Bw w a) Taw
15. Bw
16. w a
17. Bw w a
18. Taw
19. (y)(Tay Tya)
20. Taw Twa
21. Twa
22. Twa Twa
23. ( a w)
24. a = w
25. Ca Ba (y)[(By y a) Tay]
26. Ca
27. Cw

6, UI
AIP
4, Simp
8, 9, Conj
7, 10, MP
4, Com
12, Simp
13, UI
1, Simp
8, Id
15, 16, Conj
14, 17, MP
3, UI
19, UI
18, 20, MP
11, 21, Conj
8-22, IP
23, DN
4, Com
25, Simp
24, 26, Id

(11) 1. (x)(y)(Px Lx Py Ly x y)
2. Pr Fr Lr (y)[(Py Fy Ly) y = r]
3. (x)(Px Lx Fx)
4. (y)(Pa La Py Ly a y)
5. Pa La Pc Lc a c
6. (y)[(Py Fy Ly) y = r] Pr Fr Lr
7. (y)[(Py Fy Ly) y = r]
8. (Pa Fa La) a = r
9. (Pc Fc Lc) c = r
10. (x)(Px Lx Fx)
11. (Pa La Fa)
12. Pa La Fa
13. (Pa La) Fa
14. Pa La
15. (Pa La)
16. Fa
17. Fa
18. Pa La Fa
19. Pa Fa La
20. a = r
21. (Pc Lc Fc)
22. Pc Lc Fc
23. (Pc Lc) Fc
24. a c Pa La Pc Lc
70

/ (x)(Px Lx Fx)
AIP
1, EI
4, EI
2, Com
6, Simp
7, UI
7, UI
3, QN
10, UI
11, DM
12, DM
5, Simp
14, DN
13, 15, DS
16, DN
14, 17, Conj
18, Com
8, 19, MP
10, UI
21, DM
22, DM
5, Com

Exercise 8.7, III

25. Pc Lc a c Pa La
26. Pc Lc
27. (Pc Lc)
28. Fc
29. Fc
30. Pc Lc Fc
31. Pc Fc Lc
32. c = r
33. r = c
34. a = c
35. a c
36. a = c a c
37. (x)(Px Lx Fx)
38. (x)(Px Lx Fx)

24, Com
25, Simp
26, DN
23, 27, DS
28, DN
26, 29, Conj
30, Com
9, 31, MP
32, Id
20, 33, Id
24, Simp
34, 35, Conj
3-36, IP
37, DN

(12) 1. Df Bf Dp Bp (x)[(Dx Bx) (x = f x = p)]


2. f p
3. Df Rf (x)[(Dx x f) Rx]
/ (x){Dx Bx Rx (y)[(Dy By Ry) y = x]}
4. (x)[(Dx x f) Rx] Df Rf
3, Com
5. (x)[(Dx x f) Rx]
4, Simp
6. (Dp p f) Rp
5, UI
7. Dp Bp (x)[(Dx Bx) (x = f x = p)] Df Bf
1, Com
8. Dp
7, Simp
9. p f
2, Id
10. Dp p f
8, 9, Conj
11. Rp
6, 10, MP
12. Bp (x)[(Dx Bx) (x = f x = p)] Df Bf Dp
7, Com
13. Bp
12, Simp
14. Dp Bp
8, 13, Conj
15. Dp Bp Rp
11, 14, Conj
16. (y)[(Dy By Ry) y = p]
AIP
17. (y)[(Dy By Ry) y = p]
16, QN
18. [(Da Ba Ra] a = p]
17, EI
19. [(Da Ba Ra) a = p]
18, Impl
20. (Da Ba Ra) a p
19, DM
21. Da Ba Ra a p
20, DN
22. (x)[(Dx Bx) (x = f x = p)] Df Bf Dp Bp 1, Com
23. (x)[(Dx Bx) (x = f x = p)]
22, Simp
24. (Da Ba) (a = f a = p)
23, UI
25. Da Ba
24, Simp
26. a = f a = p
24, 25, MP
27. a p Da Ba Ra
21, Com
28. a p
27, Simp
29. a = p a = f
26, Com
30. a = f
28, 29, DS
71

Exercise 8.7, III

31. Ra a p Da Ba
32. Ra
33. Rf
34. Rf (x)[(Dx x f) Rx] Df
35. Rf
36. Rf Rf
37. (y)[(Dy By Ry) y = p]
38. (y)[(Dy By Ry) y = p]
39. Dp Bp Rp (y)[(Dy By Ry) y = p]
40. (x){Dx Bx Rx (y)[(Dy By Ry) y = x]}

27, Com
31, Simp
30, 32, Id
3, Com
34, Simp
33, 35, Conj
16, 36, IP
37, DN
15, 38, Conj
39, EG

(13) 1. (x)(y)(Ax Ox Ay Oy x y)
2. (x)(Ax Px)
3. (x)(y)(z)[(Px Ox Py Oy Pz Oz) (x = y x = z y = z)]
/ (x)(y){Px Ox Py Oy x y (z)[(Pz Oz) (z = x z = y]}
4. (y)(Aa Oa Ay Oy a y)
1, EI
5. Aa Oa Ab Ob a b
4, EI
6. Aa Pa
2, UI
7. Aa
5, Simp
8. Pa
6, 7, MP
9. Ab Pb
2, UI
10. Ab Ob a b Aa Oa
5, Com
11. Ab
10, Simp
12. Pb
9, 11, MP
13. Oa Ab Ob a b Aa
10, Com
14. Oa
13, Simp
15. Ob a b Aa Oa Ab
5, Com
16. Ob
15, Simp
17. a b Aa Oa Ab Ob
5, Com
18. a b
17, Simp
19. Pa Oa Pb Ob a b
8, 14, 12, 16, 18, Conj
20. (z)[(Pz Oz) (z = a z = b)]
AIP
21. (z)[(Pz Oz) (z = a z = b)]
20, QN
22. [(Pc Oc) (c = a c = b)]
21, EI
23. [(Pc Oc) (c = a c = b)]
22, Impl
24. (Pc Oc) (c = a c = b)
23, DM
25. Pc Oc (c = a c = b)
24, DN
26. (y)(z)[(Pa Oa Py Oy Pz Oz)
(a = y a = z y = z)] 3, UI
27. (z)[(Pa Oa Pb Ob Pz Oz)
(a = b a = z b = z)] 26, UI
28. (Pa Oa Pb Ob Pc Oc)
(a = b a = c b = c)
27, UI
29. Pc Oc
25, Simp
30. Pa Oa Pb Ob
19, Simp
31. Pa Oa Pb Ob Pc Oc
29, 30, Conj
72

Exercise 8.7, III

32. a = b a = c b = c
33. a = c b = c
34. (c = a c = b) Pc Oc
35. (c = a c = b)
36. (a = c c = b)
37. (a = c b = c)
38. (a = c b = c) (a = c b = c)
39. (z)[(Pz Oz) z = a z = b)]
40. (z)[(Pz Oz) z = a z = b)]
41. Pa Oa Pb Ob a b
(z)[(Pz Oz) (z = a z = b)]
42. (y){Pa Oa Py Oy a y
(z)[(Pz Oz) (z = a z = y)]}
43. (x)(y){Px Ox Py Oy x y
(z)[(Pz Oz) (z = x z = y)]}

28, 31, MP
18, 32, DS
25, Com
34, Simp
35, Id
36, Id
33, 37, Conj
20-38, IP
39, DN
19, 40, Conj
41, EG
42, EG

(14) 1. (x)(y)(z)[(Sx Lx Sy Ly Sz Lz) (x = y x = z y = z)]


2. (x)(y)(Sx Lx Rx Sy Ly Ry x y)
3. (x)(Rx Cx)
/ (Sn Cn) Ln
4. (y)(Sa La Ra Sy Ly Ry a y)
2, EI
5. Sa La Ra Sc Lc Rc a c
4, EI
6. (y)(z)[(Sa La Sy Ly Sz Lz)
(a = y a = z y = z)]
1, UI
7. (z)[(Sa La Sc Lc Sz Lz)
(a = c a = z c = z)]
6, UI
8. (Sa La Sc Lc Sn Ln)
(a = c a = n c = n)
7, UI
9. Sn Cn Ln
AIP
10. Sn Ln Cn
9, Com
11. Sn Ln
10, Simp
12. Sa La
5, Simp
13. Sc Lc Rc a c Sa La Ra
5, Com
14. Sc Lc
13, Simp
15. Sa La Sc Lc Sn Ln
11, 12, 14, Conj
16. a = c a = n c = n
8, 15, MP
17. a c Sa La Ra Sc Lc Rc
5, Com
18. a c
17, Simp
19. a = n c = n
16, 18, DS
20. Ra Ca
3, UI
21. Ra Sc Lc Rc a c Sa La
5, Com
22. Ra
21, Simp
23. Ca
20, 22, MP
24. a = n
AIP
25. Cn
23, 24, Id
26. Cn Ln Sn
9, Com
27. Cn
26, Simp
73

Exercise 8.7, III

28. Cn Cn
29. a n
30. c = n
31. Rc Cc
32. Rc a c Sa La Ra Sc Lc
33. Rc
34. Cc
35. Cn
36. Cn Sn Ln
37. Cn
38. Cn Cn
39. (Sn Cn Ln)
40. Sn Cn Ln
41. (Sn Cn) Ln
42. (Sn Cn) Ln

25, 27, Conj


20-23, IP
19, 29, DS
3, UI
17, Com
32, Simp
31, 33, MP
30, 34, Id
10, Com
36, Simp
35, 37, Conj
9-38, IP
39, DM
40, DM
33, Impl

(15) 1. Cm Em (x)[(Cx x m) Ex]


2. Cr Er (x)[(Cx Ex) x = r]
3. m r
/ (x)(y){Cx Cy x y (z)[Cz (z = x z = y)]}
4. Cm
1, Simp
5. Cr
2, Simp
6. (z)[Cz (z = m z = r)]
AIP
7. (z)[Cx (z = m z = r)]
6, QN
8. [Ca (a = m a = r)]
7, EI
9. (Ca a = m a = r)
8, Impl
10. Ca a m a r
9, DM
11. Ca a m a r
10, DN
12. (x)[(Cx x m) Ex] Cm Em
1, Com
13. (x)[(Cx x m) Ex]
13, Simp
14. (Ca a m) Ea
13, UI
15. Ca a m
11, Simp
16. Ea
14, 15, MP
17. (x)[(Cx Ex) x = r] Cr Er
2, Com
18. (x)[(Cx Ex) x = r]
17, Simp
19. (Ca Ea) a = r
18, UI
20. Ca
11, Simp
21. Ca Ea
16, 20, Conj
22. a = r
19, 21, MP
23. a r Ca a m
11, Com
24. a r
23, Simp
25. a = r a r
22, 24, Conj
26. (z)[Cz (z = m z = r)]
6-25, IP
27. (z)[Cz (z = m z = r)]
26, DN
28. Cm Cr m r (z)[Cz (z = m z = r)]
3-5, 27, Conj
29. (y){Cm Cy m y (z)[Cz (z = m z = y)]}
28, EG
30. (x)(y){Cx Cy x y (z)[Cz (z = x z = y)]}
29, EG
74

Exercise 8.7, III

(16) 1. Sc Pc Sn Pn (x)[(Sx x c x n) Px]


2. Sn Dn (x)[(Sx Dx) x = n]
3. (x){Sx [Rx (Dx Px)]}
4. c n
/ (x){(Sx Rx) (y)[(Sy Ry) y = x]}
5. Sc
1, Simp
6. Sc [Rc (Dc Pc)]
3, UI
7. Rc (Dc Pc)
5, 6, MP
8. [Rc (Dc Pc)] [(Dc Pc) Rc]
7, Equiv
9. [(Dc Pc) Rc] [Rc (Dc Pc)]
8, Com
10. (Dc Pc) Rc
9, Simp
11. (x)[(Sx Dx) x = n] Sn Dn
2, Com
12. (x)[(Sx Dx) x = n]
11, Simp
13. (Sc Dc) c = n
12, UI
14. (Sc Dc)
4, 13, MT
15. Sc Dc
14, DM
16. Sc
5, DN
17. Dc
15, 16, DS
18. Pc Sn Pn (x)[(Sx x c x n) Px] Sc
1, Com
19. Pc
18, Simp
20. Dc Pc
17, 19, Conj
21. Rc
10, 20, MP
22. Sc Rc
5, 21, Conj
23. (y)[(Sy Ry) y = c]
AIP
24. (y)[(Sy Ry) y = c]
23, QN
25. [(Sa Ra) a = c]
24, EI
26. [(Sa Ra) a = c]
25, Impl
27. (Sa Ra) a c
26, DM
28. Sa Ra a c
27, DN
29. Sa [Ra (Da Pa)]
3, UI
30. Sa
28, Simp
31. Ra (Da Pa)
29, 30, MP
32. [Ra (Da Pa)] [(Da Pa) Ra]
31, Equiv
33. Ra (Da Pa)
32, Simp
34. Ra a c Sa
28, Com
35. Ra
34, Simp
36. Da Pa
33, 35, MP
37. (x)[(Sx x c x n) Px] Sc Pc Sn Pn 1, Com
38. (x)[(Sx x c x n) Px]
37, Simp
39. (Sa a c a n) Pa
38, UI
40. (Sa a c) (a n Pa)
39, Exp
41. a c Sa Ra
28, Com
42. a c
41, Simp
43. Sa a c
30, 42, Conj
44. a n Pa
40, 43, MP
45. Pa Da
36, Com
75

Exercise 8.7, III

46. Pa
47. (a n)
48. a = n
49. n = a
50. Dn (x)[(Sx Dx) x = n] Sn
51. Dn
52. Da
53. Da
54. Da Da
55. (y)[(Sy Ry) y = c]
56. (y)[(Sy Ry) y = c]
57. Sc Rc (y)[(Sy Ry) y = c]
58. (x){Sx Rx (y)[(Sy Ry) y = x]}

45, Simp
44, 46, MT
47, DN
48, Id
2, Com
50, Simp
49, 51, Id
36, Simp
52, 53, Conj
23-54, IP
55, DN
22, 56, Conj
57, EG

76