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Limits & Continuity

1.2 Limits by Substitution


Some limits can be found by direct substitution,
while others cannot. The Rules for Limits exist to
help in determining which limits can be found by
substitution.

Ex A: Finding Limits by Direct Substitution


#1) Find lim x .
Simply
x

substitute c
into x and
simplify.
As long as
your answer
is defined,
this is the
simplest
way to
evaluate a
limit.

Rules for Limits


For any constants a and c, and any positive integer n:
1. lim =

2. lim =

3. lim = (c > 0 if n is even)

4. If lim () and lim () both exist, then

#2) Find lim


x

x2
x 3

a. lim[() + ()] = lim () + lim ()

b. lim[() ()] = lim () lim ()

c. lim[() ()] = lim () lim ()

#3) Find lim (2 x 2


d. lim

()

()

lim ()

lim ()

4 x 1) .

lim () 0

Summary of Rules of Limits


For functions composed of additions, subtractions,
multiplications, divisions, powers, and roots, limits
may be evaluated by direct substitution, provided that
the resulting expression is defined.
lim () = ()

The Calculus
Page 1 of 2

Limits & Continuity


1.2 Limits by Substitution
Sometimes direct substitution into a quotient gives an
undefined expression. If this happens, factoring,
simplifying, and then using direct substitution may
help.
Ex B: Finding Limits by Simplifying

x2 1
and graph the function.
1 x
1

#1) Find lim


x

2 x 2 10 x
and graph the function.
5
x 5

#2) Find lim


x

The Calculus
Page 2 of 2

Limits & Continuity


1.2A Limits by Substitution
Finding each limit by substitution. You may have to
simplify first.
#1) lim
x

#2) lim 4 x 2
x

#6) lim 3x 2 h

x 7

7x 1

2 x 2 30 x
15
x 15

3xh 33

#7) lim

x2 5
x 5

#8) lim

x 5
x 7 x 10

#3) lim
x

6 x 2 5x
0
11x

#9) lim
#4) lim
x

#5) lim x 80 x
x

81

77

1/ 2

3x 2 h 12 xh 2
0
h

#10) lim
h

4h 3

The Calculus
Page 1 of 2

Limits & Continuity


1.2A Limits by Substitution
Finding each limit by substitution. You may have to
simplify first.
#11) lim x
x 9

#16) lim 9 x 2 h 8 xh
h

#17) lim

x 2 25
x 5

#13) lim

#18) lim

x 2
x 7 x 10

#14) lim 11

#19) lim

#12) lim 9 x
x

8x 4

2 x 2 15
4 5x 1

#15) lim x
x 16

4x

1/ 2

x3

x2
x

x
x

8 x 2 h 3xh 2
0
h

#20) lim

h3

The Calculus
Page 2 of 2