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# Limits & Continuity

## 1.3 One Sided Limits & Graphing

One-Sided Limits
In a one-sided limit, the variable approaches the number from one side only. For example, the limit as x
approaches 3 from the left, denoted x3-, means the limit using only x-values to the left of 3, such as 2.9,
2.99, 2.999. The limit as x approaches 3 from the right, denoted x3 +, means the limit using only xvalues to the right of 3, such as 3.1, 3.01, 3.001.
Left and Right Limits
lim f ( x) means the limit of f(x) as x c, but with x < c.
x c

x c

## Two-sided, Left and Right Limits

lim f ( x) L iff both one-sided limits lim f ( x) and lim f ( x) exist and equal the same number L.
x c

x c

x c

x 3x -3
x -3-

## Ex B: For the piecewise linear function () = {

a. lim f ( x)

x 3

+ 1 3
find the following limits by direct substitution.
8 2 > 3

b. lim f ( x)

c. lim f ( x)

x 3

x3

## Limits of Functions of Two Variables

Some limits involve two variables, with only one variable approaching a limit.

Ex C:
#1)

## Finding a Limit of a Function of Two Variables

Find lim ( x 2 xh h 2 )
h 0

#2)

h 0

The Calculus
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## Limits & Continuity

1.3 One Sided Limits & Graphing
Ex D:

## Finding One-Sided Limits

+ 1 3
For the piecewise linear function () = {
find the following limits by graphing.
8 2 > 3

5
a. lim f ( x)

x 3

b. lim f ( x)

x 3

c. lim f ( x)
x3

Infinite Limits
We may use the symbols (infinity) and - (negative infinity) to indicate that the values of a function
become arbitrarily large positive or arbitrarily large negative. Dashed lines on a graph, where a function
approaches or -, are called vertical asymptotes.

## Ex E: Finding Limits Involving +.

For each function graphed below, use the limit notation with and - to describe its behavior as x approaches the
vertical asymptote from the left, from the right, and from both sides.
a.

b.
5

x=2

-5

x = -3

## From the right

Careful. To say that a limit exists is to say that it is a single number. Since is not a number, if lim () = ,

The Calculus
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## Limits & Continuity

1.3A One Sided Limits & Graphing
A: Translate into words:
#1)
x 10-

#4) () = ||

x -10
a.
x -10-

b.
c.

lim f ( x)

x 0

lim f ( x)

x 0

lim f ( x)
x 0

+ 6 2
#2) () = {
2 5 > 2

a.

b.
c.

#5) () =

a.

lim f ( x)

x 2

b.

lim f ( x)

x 2

c.

lim f ( x)

||

lim f ( x)

x 0

lim f ( x)

x 0

lim f ( x)
x 0

x 2

3 + 6
#3) () = {
2 + 6

a.

b.
c.

0
> 0

#6) () =

lim f ( x)

a.

lim f ( x)

b.

x 0

x 0

lim f ( x)
x 0

||

lim f ( x)

x 0

lim f ( x)

x 0

lim f ( x)
c.

x 0

The Calculus
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## Limits & Continuity

1.3A One Sided Limits & Graphing
C: Find each limit.
#7)

#9)

a.
a.

lim f ( x)

x 2

b.
b.

lim f ( x)

lim f ( x)

x 4

x 2

c.
c.

lim f ( x)

x 4

lim f ( x)
x4

lim f ( x)
x 2

#10)

#8)

a.

b.
c.

lim f ( x)

a.

lim f ( x)

b.

x 2

x 2

lim f ( x)

c.

lim f ( x)

x 2

lim f ( x)

x 2

lim f ( x)

x 2

x 2

The Calculus
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## Limits & Continuity

1.3A One Sided Limits & Graphing
C: Find each limit.
#11)

#13)

a.
a.

lim f ( x)

x 0

b.
b.

lim f ( x)

lim f ( x)

x 2

x 0

c.
c.

lim f ( x)

x 2

lim f ( x)

lim f ( x)

x 2

x0

#14)

#12)

a.
a.

lim f ( x)

x 0

b.
b.

lim f ( x)

lim f ( x)

x 0

x 0

c.
c.

lim f ( x)

x 0

lim f ( x)

lim f ( x)
x0

x0

The Calculus
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## Limits & Continuity

1.3A One Sided Limits & Graphing
D: Draw each graph by hand. Find the limit as x
approaches 3 from the left and from the right. Find
the two sided limit.

< 3
#15) () = {
6
3

#16) () = {

2 + 1
2 1

< 3
3

+ 27
#17) () = {3
1

#18) () = {

2
2 + 12

< 3
3

< 3
3

The Calculus
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