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2.1.

Voice Modulations

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Voice modulation and pitch control are!wop^our'vS'mood and meaning. It

Understood by the audience.

ca

In simple words, we h

U8h * ^ ^ ^
, T v presenter
and down very

" .VEK?? of the key UKtia you can uae to make your speech a
success.
9 11. Some Tins of Voice Modulation
...
1
- - -- -1
7~ . T/fwer the pitch of your voice slightly when speaking in pu ..
. 1. Lower your voice -. ^'^'SeyoJ words unintelligible. Dont lower your votcej

fceping it even and lower - even in moments o, pass.onau| normal conversanon is too fcst ,0'a P"1? P ^ w

,< listtner to digest what was just said|

rsssirassrs--- =->1
shout.

2
2

Pitch has tw o important aspects "


2 Ton* T ,
.
qualities are made^of thatch rtaracS^ ^
delivered and the

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i****---.
P is while speaking.
1,16 quaIity of a persons voice These
f ?
" V ^

d em has

!n fttlng a message across. It is very useful in exnr^V ^ f VOlCe pIays a maJr role loud words can
C
illustrate anger Soft^murmnr l ^ l 2 emotlons or opinions. Curt harsh A .one that rises to pto ,0IKS

l* P^ure or bTit
of their perception of you based on ymr tone of i~ Tv * qUM"0' People develoP much may think you
are confident. People who speak haltinvlv your tone ls olear and strong, they weak, tonid r afraid. Some
/ a lw volume may be considered
0Jwh<>
may hkely be thought of as boring and unimaginative
' re8ardless of;)mw intenigent,
undere^1 ^
conveying mistrust.

?, . * c"d
y ng frustra
tion, (m) or with a skeptical tone

Sima,ion is a basic social ski,,


speak so loudly that they forge, that they a^ovL ,u fT P Pl*. prevent your voice
U cha
from slipping into monolm^ *
* *es in volume to
your audience ,0
nuances of your message. Always speak loudly enouTT
you. Speak a little more loudly
if toe audience !s tone evJnT' yUr audien can he Uwer the volume for an aside. Raise the ratomf a ,?
y
Me usinS a microphone.
1 8

ublic

sr~

Influence of mother tongue!

sm 5S

* defll1"9 ** *- sounds, accenl,

^raiTo^
following examples, stressed syllables are undefined
Photograph, Photography, Photographic,

Pencil, Comrnittee, Volunteer,


Maryland, Society, Information, Teacher,

Japan, China, Above. Conversation,


Interesting, Important, Demand.

" 6 ther syIlables- In the


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24 / Eagle's English & Communication


Skills-II
The syllables that are not stressed are weak. There are two very important rules about word
stress :
(i) One word, one stress, one word cannot have two stresses.
(ii) The stress is always on a vowel not on consonants.
2. Rhythm : Rhythm is the pattern of the sounds you produce. Use rhythm to carry meaning. Slow
the pace of speech to emphasize certain ideas. Quicken the pace to show excitement or humour.
Rhythm is a recurring movement of sound or speech. An examp rhythm is the rising and falling
of someones voice.
3 Weak and Strong form : Grammatical words are words that help us construct die sentence
but they dont mean anything : articles, prepositions, conjunctions, auxiliary verbs etc Th^woVds
have no stress, and so they are weakened. That weakened fonn is called AVeak "as opposed to a
strong form," which is Use tali form of stress Thestrong form only happens when the pronounce
the words alone, or when ^ emphasize them. Weak forms are very often pronounced with a
schwa and so are very we ancf sometimes a bit difficult to hear properly. The most common
weak form words ar .
The, a, and, that, than, at, for, from, of, to, as, some, can, has, have, shall, do, is, am, ar;
etc.

Some strohg form words are :


But must, would, cup, good, left, said, Mexico, home, sell, did etc.

b y T p m s e w o r d s . As much by Ure gaps as by the -* p^te Pause


^underscore nijor points or to give listeners time to absorb a complex d Pause also when you are
about to shift to another idea. Pause when you are searching fo word. Instead of tumbling that
time, fall silent for a moment, but keep your eves of listeners Once you get comfortable with this
approach, you will find you think fas Jhen you are focused. Use effective pauses in your speech to
slow down the pace and incr^ the understanding of your audience. Leave a pause after making an
important pom. j mdStta emphasis to your speech. Alter asking a question, pause for a moment
and y ^a^mSf of your Lienee. Your pause brings tiieir focus stiaight your questi^
5 Falling and Rising Tones : A felling tone is by for the most common used tone of all
sienals a sens! of finality Completion, belief in the content of the utterance, and so on. A speak,
by choosing a falling tone, also indicates to the addressee that that is all he has to say, and o
^=ssee to comment on. agree or disagree with, or add to his utterance.
The rising tone is used in genuine Yes/No questions where the speaker is sure that does
not know the answer and that the addressee knows the answer. Such Yes/No question^ uttered
with a rising tone. For example consider the following question uttered with a tone, the answer
of which could be either of the three options :
I dont know.
.

6.Fluency : Fluency means having good command over language, whether spoken or written.
It means the smoothness or flow with which sounds, syllables, words and phrases are joined

5 / Eagle's English & Communication


Skills-II
together when speaking quickly. Language fluency is used informally to denote a high level of
language proficiency most typically foreign language or another learned language. Fluency m
language is basically ones ability to be understood by both native and non-native
listeners. In the sense the proficiency, fluency encompasses a number of related but separable skills.
.
.
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(i) Reading : The ability to easily read and understand texts written in the language.
(ii) Writing : The ability to formulate written texts.
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(iii) Comprehension : The ability to follow and understand speech.

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(iv) Speaking : The ability to produce speech in the language and be understood by its
speakers.
7.Pace of Delivery : A great speech on paper is not a great speech unless it is delivered
effectively. To ensure the greatness of a speech the speaker must speak at an appropriate speed. A
common problem with nervous speakers is setting a steady pace. Many of us want to get the
presentation over as quickly as possible, and it shows as we speed through our delivery Pace is the
speed at which you put thoughts together out loud. Speak slowly and with purpose. Take your time
and use your notes to regroup at the end of sections or when changing ideas. When you feel you are
speaking too slowly, you are likely speaking just right for your audience. It will take a few seconds
for your audience to hear and understand what you have said It will take even longer for them to
make the transition from one topic area to another. So set your pace slowly to give your audience
the best possible delivery.
8. Dealing with problem sounds : Speech sound disorders are speech disorders in which some
speech sounds are either not produced, not produced correctly or are not used correctly. To deal
with the problem sounds speak clearly, naturally and correctly. Speaking clearly and naturally
includes establishing eye contact, speaking at an easy-to-understand rate and saying sounds
precisely. Use gestures along with words. Slow the pace of your conversation.
9. Accent : In linguistics, an accent is a manner of pronunciation peculiar to a particular
individual, location or nation. This is the unique way that speech is pronouncedby, a.group of
people speaking the same language. An accent may identify the locality in which its speakers
reside, the socio-economic status of its speakers, their ethnicity, their caste or social class, their first
language and so on. Although grammer, semantics, vocabulary and other language characteristics
often vary with accent, the word Accent refers specifically to the differences in pronunciation. A
persons accent depends on many factors.

w.v.v.v.v.w ...........
(i)
Regional Accent: People who are from Punjab often sound different than people are
from Maharashtra.
(U) Foreign Accent: Someone who was raised Speaking English will sound different Someone
who was rased speaking Spanish and learned English as an ; adult.
Some people may have difficulty in communicating because of their accent. These difficult!'
include the following :
*
(i) People not understanding you.
(ii) Avoiding social interaction with those who may not understand you.
(iii) Frustration from having to repeat yourself all the time.
(iv) People focusing on your accent more than on what you are trying to say.
10.Influence of Mother Tongue : Mother tongue is a persons native language, that is,i language
learnt from birth. The general usage of the term Mother tongue denotes not oni the language one
learns from ones mother, but also the speakers dominant and home languag As our mother tongue
doesnt have some sounds found in English, we may struggle to spe with those sounds. It may
obstruct you from speaking a neutral accent. To reduce the influen of mother tongue one should think
in English and speak with neutral English sounds. M people get rejected at the interview stage,
because of the influence of mother tongue.
In todays competitive worfd everyone wants to speak English but the problem is the cannot speak
with the influence of mother tongue. All you need to do is train yourself to spe- English as
comfortably and perfectly as you speak your mother tongue. Speak loudly in Englis in order to get rid
of mother tongue influence. Try to improve your way of speaking. Try t mix with native speaker for
getting good accent. Try to imitate the intonation and rhythm their speech.
2.3. Situational Conversotion/Role playing with feedback preferably through Vid Recording
. , ; .

...

Situational conversation or role plays are important in the communicative approach becau they
give learners an opportunity to practise, communicating in different social contents and i different
social roles. A role play is a highly flexible learning activity which has a wide scop 1 for variation and
imagination. Role play uses different communicative techniques and develop fluency in die language,
promotes interaction and increases motivation. Role play can improv: speaking skills in any situation
and helps to interact.
Effective feedback is essential to the success of role playing. The learners require feedbacl to
improve. People need to know what they did well, what they need to change. In role playin feedback
can occur from the person role playing, him or herself-self: generated feedback. Mos often feedback is
given by other members of the group.
In the feedback die other participants should be allowed to observe the role play and to givi their
comments. We not only have our own response to the role play, we can also benefit fror our fellow
role players observations and the feedback from the observers.
The language of feedback is very important. Feedback should follow the rules of being specific,
measurable, agreed, realistic, time bound. The role play feedback should not contain subjective
judgements or comments based on personal knowledge or assumptions. Feedback should be
meaningful and specific-something that the role player can act on. It should be remembered that the
:
purpose of role play is for the development of the person or the people doing the role play.
.

The role play must be focussed. Its objective should be clear and understood. The feedback given
should be specific, relevant, achievable and it should be given immediately.
Below are some of the examples for practice.
I. Conversation for introduction :
A. What is your name/full name ?
B. Mark Stevenson.

.......

A. How old are you ?


B. 25 years.
A. Where are you from ?
B.
A.
B.
A.

Calefornia, U.S.A.
Who do you do ?
........... ,,
Im a scientist.
May I have your date of birth and your social security number, please ?
B. Sure. My date of birth is Dec. 16, 1986. My social security no. is 5554-77-8890. n.
Collection of Books
John
:
This is a great collection of books, is
not it ?
Mark
:
It is wonderful. Let us have a look.
John
:
There are a lot of books about sport. Here is one -My life in cricket.
Mark

John :

That is certainly sports. Whos.the author.

. . -s- a7r;;

Peter Adams.

..

Mark

He also wrote journeys through Spain.

John

Have you read any of his books ?

Mark
:
Yes, his books are tremendous source of adventurous incidents. ,;
2.4. Telephonic Conversation
Handling business calls requires awareness of our unconscious actions which often amount to bad
manners or lack of appropriate skills of inter-personal communication on the telephone.
In telephonic conversation, the way we receive, respond, speak or hang up is as important what is
H
communicated.
In the modern era, telephonic conversation is the most commonly used means of or
communication. It is useful not only in saving time but also in providing immediate feedbac But as
the communication depends only on the spoken words and the quality of the voi misunderstandings
are quite frequent.
One should be aware of the following manners while making a call:
1. One should be brief in conversation. In business communication, time and money bo are
important. So dont indulge in any pointless talk on the phone. Be to the point.

2. Be courteous to the other person while talking. The main purpose of every busine
communication is to create a good impression and good-will. So all this depends upon how behave on
the telephone calls. Be polite and dont forget to use the words like Sorry Thank you.
3. Speak clearly while talking, you should have good pronunciation of the words. U correct
grammer so that the other person can easily understand you.
4. Be natural in your conversation. Dont shout or speak so loud on the phone. Dont to use an
artificial tone while talking.
5. Last but not the least be prepared with a paper or pen to note down some impo information.
6. Answer the caller politely. First wish him and then introduce, yourself followed by th name of
your company.
7. Listen to the caller patiently. Dont interrupt him until he finishes.
8. If you are unable to connect the caller with the desired person for any reason then no down
his name, the company and the contact number.
9. Do repeat the message after noting it down, so that no misunderstanding is left.
10. In the end do not put down the receiver harshly.
Be polite so that the other person should not feel that you were not at all interested in th
communication with him.
2.4.1.

Types of calls

1. Making complaints : Its frustrating when things go wrong in life - whether th deliveries that
are not made on time, the repairman not turning up, or a direct - debit paymen going wrong etc.
Whatever the problem is we have to make complaints. So following are a fe steps for making a
complaint:

(a) Try first to contact with the person you originally dealt with. If they are unable t help you
then ask for any other person who will be handling your complaint.
(b) While making a complaint on the phone, make sure to ask for the name of the person you
speak to and their job title. Keep a note of this, with the date and time of your
call and what was said you may need to refer to this later.
(c) Try to stay calm and polite, however angry or upset you are. This will help you to explain
your complaint as clearly and effectively as possible.
(d) Keep things brief and to the point. Set out the facts clearly and in a logical order. Say why
you are not happy and what you want the business to do about it. This will make it easier for
them to look into the problem and sort things out.
(e) Dont always expect immediate results - some complaints mgy take time to investigate
properly and resolve.
2 Handling complaints : Everytime you receive a telephone call, you represent your Institute The
person on the other end of the phone cannot see you, so that persons, first impression of you, may
will be determined by your voice and telephone manners. Following
are a few steps of how to handle a complaint:
'
(a) Empharize with the caller. Try to understand how the person is feeling.

(b) Apologize and acknowledge the problem. You dont have to agree with the caller, but
express regret that there is a problem. People want to be heard and no one s complaint is
trivial. Each deserves prompt handling, so do not deal with it in a trivial
manner.
(c) Accept responsibility. Make sure something is done. Take it upon yourself to do something.
Many times thats all that people want the reassurance that something will
be done.
(d) Stay calm even if the caller is angry or has an irritating manner. Getting angry
yourself will only make it worse.
.
(e) jf the customers accept your proposed solution, act straight away if possible.
3 Agreeing and Disagreeing : Agreeing and disagreeing plays a very important role in business
communication especially on telephone call. One must be very polite. Even when you think some one
is wrong about something, it is rude to directly contradict that person. You have to do so indirectly.
Some common expressions for agreeing and disagreeing are given
below.
(a) Agreeing :
I agree with you 100 percent.

nr*

Thats for sure.


You are absolutely right.

"> *

No doubt about it.


You have a point there.
I was just going to say that.
You are so right.
If you say so.
I couldnt agree with you more.
Absolutely.

(^Disagreeing :

I dont think so.


Noway.
Iam afraid I disagree.
Not necessarily.
Thats not always true. ,
No, Iam not so sure about that.
Do you think so ?
Thats rubbish.

- s W h a t are you talking about ?


I dont share your opinion.

2.5.
2.5.1.

A Small Formal and Informal Speech


Formal Speech

A formal speech is a speech presented without visual aids. The purpose of the forma speech is to
inform, to persuade, to entertain, to stimulate action or further interest in a topic community concern.
Since it is more difficult to hold the attentions of an audience without the use of visuals, the formal
speech requires more attention to colourful language than the illustrated speech or demonstration. It
contains more poetry, quotations, wit and humour,j imagery and references to books. Although you
may use these things in all types of speeches| their absence will not be noticed as much when visual
material is added to the presentation.
The steps to a formal speech
1. Determine the purpose of your speech. Is it to entertain, to inform, or to persuade the
audience ? Is it a combination ?
2. Write out the purpose of your speech in clear and precise terms.
3. Research your topic using your own knowledge and your own experiences related ti the topic
from the very start, being writing down your ideas.
4. Write your outline after your notes are made. Decide upon three or four main point to! be
covered. List these main headings and group your notes under the proper heading. The nexi thing to
do is to plan and prepare your speech. Most speeches are made up of three parts the? introduction,
the body, and the conclusion. Although the introduction comes first, the body o: the speech contains
your real message and should be prepared first. Begin with something that

is familiar to your audience. Move from the known to unknown. As a rule, if you cant clearly
summarize or restate your speech in three or four sentences then you have probably tried to include
too much.

Tips for a Good Presentation :


1. How to interest your audience ?
(a) Your audiences main interest is in itself.
(b) We are all interested in unusual facts about ordinary things.
(c) Human interest stories about people will almost always win attention.
(d) Try to use words that create a clear, visual picture. Use lively, action verbs.
(e) Be concrete, specific and honest- simple, natural,,friendly.
(f) If possible, use balanced sentences and contrasting ideas.
2. How to make your meaning clear ?
(a) Be sure that you understand your subject clearly yourself.
(b) Describe the unknown things to the people in terms of things with which they are familiar.
(c) Put your ideas in a language that anyone can understand.
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(d) Restate your big ideas but without using the same phrases ever again.
(e) Make abstract statements clear by following them with specific instances and concrete
cases.
.
,
(f) Do not strive to cover too many points.
3. How to open a speech ?
(a) Make your opening free, casual, friendly and short.

..........

(b) Arouse the curiosity of your audience. .


(c) Ask direct questions.
(d) Open with a striking quotation.

(e) Start with a shocking fact.


(f) Show, quickly, how your topic affects the vital interest of your audience.
4. How to end a speech ?
*

(a) Dont talk about stopping stop.


(b) Always stop before your audience wants you to.
fcj Close with the idea that you want to be remembered longest.

(d) One sound ending is to summarize the main points you have covered.
(e) Another is to pay your audience a sincere compliment.
(f) Another is to leave your audience laughing or at least smiling.
(g) Dont ask, Are there any questions ?
5. Secrets of Good Delivery.

(a) Talk to your audience as through you were talking to a single person and as if y expected
him/her to answer you.
(b) Speak naturally, with all your heart.
(c) Stress the important word in your sentences.
"(d) Let the pitch of your voice flow from high to low, and back again.
(e) Vary your rate of speaking, spending the most time on the important words.
(f) , Pause before and after your important ideas.
Hei^is^a.list of topics for the formal speech :
1. Action against Global Warming

2. Leaning foreign languages


3. Immigration
4. If I ruled the world !
5. Animal Rights
6. Human Cloning
7. Working Mothers
8. Armed Forces
9. Mahatma pandhi
10. Banning Boxing.
2.5.2.

Informal Speech

When giving speech to a group, you will often be speaking to an audience that you do n need to
be ..formal with. It may be an informal meeting with colleagues, friends, family, other suchjgrqup.
These speeches are often the hardest to give, as you usually know the peopl
Why is it hard to speak in front of people we know ? For the most part it is a matter fear. Fear of
speaking in general, compounded with speaking to people you often see creates a horrible brew.
Mosttmformal speeches are expository. Sometimes a serious, persuasive message is containe in
the.speech. Doctors, for example, might have given an after dinner speech, about the need t increase
donations of O-blood.
Remember, when making an informal speech, it must be fun. Both you and the audien should
enjoy the speech. Fun doesnt mean ignoring proper presentation and oratorical technique Fun. does
mean you may add some appropriate humour. Your gestures should be upward broader.
Speaking to a group, when leading is a hard task. Leadership skills are coupled very nicely with
speech skills. Most competitive speakers are very active in leadership rolls. When giving a speech to
the group as a leader, you must be firm.
2.6.

Seminar

A seminar is a meeting for exchange of ideas, holding discussions or exchanging information. It


may also be a small group of advanced students in a college engaged in original research or intensive
study under the guidance of a professor who meets regularly with them to discuss their reports and
findings. A seminar is, ideally, a small group teaching situation in which a subject is discussed, in
depth, by the participants. But the seminars are hot always as small as the optimum maximum of 15

people. In some settings, seminars are hardly indistinguishable from classes, with the teaching
presenting material to the students with minimum interaction.
2.6.1. How to face a Seminar ?

1. One should not try to memorize the whole material because that way there are more chances
to forget.
2. One should not read the whole speech. That way it will look more like a reading than a
speech.
3. One should make small notes for the seminar. This is better than reading the whole material
from the paper. The speaker can have normal voice inflection and more effective eye contact.
4. Visual aids can also be used. Simple visual aids can effectively serve as headings and
subheadings. If you forget something, just go on with the topic. Dont be nervous there.
5. Practise using these headings as your hints. This will force you. to better internalise your
speech.
2.6.2.

How to take Seminars effectively ?

1. Communicate clearly with your audience. Your presentation should demonstrate that you have
evaluated the scientific merits or faults.
2. Be straight forward and logical.
3. Be certain to start with a brief introductory summary of what you will cover.
4. Provide sufficient background so that the audience can appreciate the significance of the
paper.
5. Use appropriate visual aids.
6. Speak clearly. Project your voice without shouting at the audience.
7. State the objectives of study right at the start of the talk.
8. Your seminar should be understandable to a general audience.
9. Be certain that you understand the work yourself and do not use a word that you could not
explain.
10. At the close of the seminar be certain to summarize the main conclusions and provi the
audience with the most significant points.
EXERCISES FOR PRACTICE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Below are given some Seminar topics for practice :


Competitive India.
Future of Insurance Sector in India.
History of women in teaching.
Environment Protection.
Music as culture.
Caring for elderly parents.
Personality Development.

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Developing leadership skills.


Drugs and Society.
Climate changes.
Internet and Democracy.
Noise Pollution.
Health and fitness.
Pollutants in edibles.
Half empty or half full How do you live your life ?
Optimism path to success.
2.7. Debate
You may be right and I may be wrong but with cm effort, together we may get nearer th truth.
Debate can be discussed as a representational argument which is intended to advocate particular
point of view. It is a formal contest in which the affirmative and negative sides of proposition are
advocated by opposing speakers. Debate is a way for those who hold opposin views to discuss
controversial issues without descending to insult, emotional appeals or persona bias. It is a method of
interactive and representational argument. This is a broader form o argument than logical argument
which examines factual argument. The technique of persuasio is involved in it.
Debating has strict rules of conduct and quite sophisticated arguing techniques and you will
often be in a position where you will have to argue the opposite of what you believe in. Informal
debate is a common occurrence, the quality and depth of a debate improves wi knowledge and skill of
its participants as debaters. In a formal debating contest, there are rule! for people to discuss and
decide on differences, within a framework defining how they will interact.

2.7.1. Process of Debate

In a debating team each speaker has specified roles that they must fulfil to play their part in the
team. They are laid out below in the order that the speaker will speak :
1st Affirmative Must:

Define the topic.

Present the affirmatives team line.

1st Negative Must:

Accept or reject the definition.

Present the negative team line.

Present the first half of the negative teams case.


.
In this process, the speakers will proceed the discussion. The second affirmative reaffirm the
affirmative s team line. And after the second half, one of the speaker will present a summary of the
case. In this process, manner plays the prominent role and there are various aspects of manner that
you need to be aware of. Here are some tips and pointers :

1
a

j
3
1
f
n

Active Interaction : Debating is an exercise in lively interaction between two teams and
between the teams and the audience ; not in reading a speech. Do not write out your speech on
cue cards.

Eye Contact : If you look at the audience you will hold their attention. If you spend your time
reading from cue cards or looking at a point just above the audiences head, they will lose
concentration very quickly.

Voice : Use volume, pitch and speed to emphasise important points in your speech.
Body Language : Gestures, expressions and confidence are the main tools to make your
speech more effective.

Clarity : The arguments and your view points should be clear and solid. You should present
your ideas with examples and with logics.

An important trademark of debate is that it rarely ends in agreement but rather allow for a robust
analysis of the question at hand. Perhaps this is what French Philosopher Joseph Jonbert meant when
he said, It is better to debate a question without setting it, than to settle a question without
debating it.
.
EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE ' V
Some of the debate topics for practice are given below :
1. Should animals be used for scientific experimentation ?
2. Does God exist or not ?

h
s

11

3. Is it is better to be a leader or a follower ?


10. Work with others :

' >

(i) Understand and work within the dynamics of a group. ,


(ii) Ensure that a teams purpose and objectives are clear.
(iii) Be flexible : respect, be open to and supportive of the thoughts, opinions and contributions

of others in a group.
'
(iv) Recognise and respect peoples diversity, individual differences and perspectives.
(v) Accept and provide feedback in a constructive and considerate manner.
PRACTICAL
P-6.1. Group Discussions
Minds, when united can move mountains.
,-.
Group discussion is a systematic and purposeful interactive oral process . Literal meaning of the
word discuss is to talk about a subject in detail. Group discussion is a kind of communication that is
held among the people of a group who discuss a topic, a problem, an issue or an idea to come to a
decision. In other words, it is a used to refer to a situation in which admail number of persons meet
face to face and through free oral interaction among themselves exchange information or attempt to
reach a decision on shared problems. ' '
Group discussion has the main objectives : Decision making, Problem solving, Personality
Evaluation. It is used mostly by the business organisation for making some important decisions.
Process of Group Discussion

First of all, the main topic should be clear for discussion. There is no chair person, no secretary
and no detailed agenda. Only the issue or topic is started and any member can initiate the discussion
and deal with any aspect. Similarly, any member can give a preview of what points are likely to arise,
provide an internal summary of the views expressed upto a point of time and summarise the
discussion towards,the end. Each member should participate'so that the discussion may proceed in a
systematic manner, leading to the emergence of a solution, a common viewpoint. The participants
externally sit in a circle round; a'table so that each participant is able to observe the expression and
make eye contact with other .
Essentials for Group Discussions :
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1. Good Communication Skills: You should have good communication skills to participate in
the group discussions. The language should be simple so that it iseasily understandable by others.
The words pronounced should be clear. The speaker should be of pleasant nature so that everybody is
ready to listen to him. The language should be free from the grammatical errors.
2. Patience : You should have patience in the group discussions: Listen to others ideas carefully
and patiently. When one is speaking, let him finish and wait for your turn. Give proper attention to
others because only then they will pay attention to you. .
3. Planning : You should plan properly. Collect your ideas together.. Arrange them in a
sequence. You can also note down your points on a paper and you can, use ihern on a proper time. ;
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4. Body,Language : Your body language should be positive. Including the spoken words; J
everybodyNotices your body language also. The positive non verbal language adds to your 1
personality.
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5a Team Spirit : One should have good inter-personal relationships, only then he can succeed
in group discussion. You should not try to dominate the conversation, rather you should try to
develop the feelings of co-operation, and co-ordination with others. If you do not agree to the
opinions of other, do notiose 'patience, but be polite and humble in expressing your disagreement.
Do 'not make personal comments and do no make fun of others.
6. Leadership Qualities,: In the group discussion, a leader.emerges. To be a leader you

should have the in-depth knowledge of the subject.' He should have good communication skills, s He
should have the ability to Co-ordinate with others and to motivate others. He should not * impose his
ideas on others and try to avoid the conflicts. He should try to include everyone in y the conversation.
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7. Knowledge-: You.should have the complete knowledge of the subject to be discussed. ? He
should have the originality of ideas and the solutions to the problems.
, The mixture of coordination, inspiration and motivation can make the discussion more useful and
comfortable. It is the foremost instrument of education to develop and judge the students personality.
Broadly speaking, The ability to take effective part in group discussion is ; one of the most important
skills that contribute to professional success.
Some Topics for Group Discussion :
1. Does God exist or not ?
2. Global Warming.
3. Scientific experiments on animals.

4. Can we judge a student only through exams ?


5. Youngsters in Public.

6. Has Science cursed the man ?


7. I.T. Revolution.
8. Inflation v/s common man.
9. Media : A Friend or A Foe ?
10. Mushrooming of colleges.
P-6.2. Presentation of a Technical Report, Using Audio-Visual Aids
The whole endeavours, which you have put in a project, will prove to be futile, if you will be
unable to present it in a proficient manner. So it should be taught to the students that how they can
give a good presentation. The guidelines that are to be kept in mind while giving a presentation are
hereunder :
. (i) The speaker should have a pleasing voice quality. He or she should pronounce words with
proper stress and intonation. .
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(ii) For an effective presentation, we should avoid too many gestures or body movements . while
speaking. Our body language should not display any aggressiveness, irritation,
tiredness, panic, hurry or hesitation.
(iii) For Effective presentation, we should know how to mention our points that require
specific attention and consideration. -

(iv) We . should have a detailed analysis of the report.


(v) The presentation should -be of such a manner that it should communicate even more than
your words.
(vi) We should have a proper beginning, well-constructed middle and a desired result.
Now as far as the audio-visual Aida are concerned,, there are so many types of audio-visual aids
that can be used to make the presentation effective. It is important to consider them using because :
1. They break whole things up, which is very useful in longer talks.

2. Being audio-visual, it attracts the attention ahd the concentration of the listeners.
3. Using audio visual aids make the things easily understandable and effectively
communicating. Now here are some df the audio-visual aids that are generally used :
1. Slides or transparencies : Giving presentation with the help of slides or .presentations with
the help of overhead projector or slide projector is the best way. The transparencies should be neatly
written and clearly drawn so that everyone sitting in front of you has a clear sight of all the
proceedings.
2. Charts : You can elaborate the things with the help of charts. You can draw images or
letters on charts.
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3. Models : It is a good to have a model of the equipment/object of which is you talking about
so that the audience can see and examine it.
4. Films and Videos : Films and videos are very useful to illustrate particular points very
usefully.


5. Objects : Having actual physical objects during presentation is a good option. But it should
not be time consuming.'
American Management Association found that comprehension from an oral presentation
increases about ten percent to as high as fifty percent with the use of audio visual aids. This increase
assumes that the visuals are well planned to help clarify major points or confusing ideas.
Power Point is the best source to make your presentation more clear and interesting. More than
ninety percent of all computerised presentation in the developed countries are created by using the
power point program, which is widely distributed as part of the j Microsoft Office Software.
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Execution .'iNow ,comes,the actual execution. Now here comes the actual testing. Before the
presentation, you must have rehearse it once. Plan the use of audio-visual aids. It will avoid any
mishappening during the presentation.
1. Proper Planning : Proper planning is the sole foundation of an effective presentation. We
should plan everything to the perfection. Plan the use of audio-visual aids. Every action should have a
particular time.
2. Keep them simple : Always try to simplify the information that is to be presented. Do not use
bombastic language. Always try to be meticulous but not loquacious.
' 3. Limit the humber : We should try to use a limited audio-visual aids. Dont overdo it. Otherwise
it will prove to be a monotonous and tiresome job.
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4. Make the large : If you are using a flip chart, write in large letters. It should be visible to the
audience sitting on the back chairs otherwise the presentation will lose its impact.
5. Proper equipment testing before presentation : It is necessary to check the equipments that '!
are to be used during so that any mishappening during presentation can be avoided.
6. Easily reachable : The audio-visual aids should be within the reach. Too much hustling
during presentation should be avoided. It looks ridiculous searching for something during
presentation.

7. Practice*: Integrate your presentation aid smoothly into your speech. Go to the room in
place where you will be speaking to decide where you will place your aid both before and during your
speech.
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8. Eye Contact: Maintain eye contact with listeners. You want them to see both you and your
presentation aid.

These are few of the guidelines that are to be kept in mind while preparing or giving a
Presentation.
So, presentation aids can increase comprehension authenticate a point, add variety, increase your
credibility and help .your speech have lasting impact. Always remember one thing that presentation
aids enhance your verbal message, not.replace it.
P-6.3. Interview Techniques : Telephonic interview, Group Interviews, Face to Face Interviews !/- v,
Interviewing for a job is a tough job for sbme of the people. You may feel uncomfortable
sitting yourself dr facing unexpected questions. In one way it is great to get an interview. It means
that youtfini^l'jpb enquiry, usually in the form of a letter or a CV has been met with a degree of
approval. You jnust-know your worth and be comfortable expressing it. Going into an interview with
confidence not only instantly boosts ones drive and enables them to share their value with ease, but
also.shows the interviewer the qualities they expect their employees to have.
Types of Interviews : ,
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1. Telephonic Interviews: Telephonic interview has emerged as a popular way to conduct the
preliminary round during the interview. The companies have the telephonic interviews justto make
sure they are going to invest time with the right candidate. It is done in order to narrow the pool of
applicants who will be invited for in-person interviews.
Some tips before taking up a Telephonic Interview :
(a) Keep your resume in front of you.
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

Keep all of your employer research material within easy reach of the phone.
Have a notepad to take notes.
Turn off your stereo, TV, and any other potential distraction.
Warm up your voice while waiting for the call.
(f) Have a glass of Water handy, since you will not have a chance to take a break during the
call.

Tips during the Interview :


(a) Dont smoke, chew gum, eat or drunk.
(b) Smile. Smile will project a positive image to the listener and will change the tone of your
voice.
(c) Speak slowly.
(d) Dont interrupt the interviewer.

(e) Take your time. It is perfectly acceptable to take a moment or two to collect your . thoughts.
(f) Give short answers.
(g) Take the telephonic interview as seriously as a personal interview.
(h) You need to have enthusiasm and sound confident while answering the questions.
(i) After the interview, dont forget to say Thank you.
2. Group Interview : A group interview is a special interviewing situation where several
candidates are interviewed at one time. It is also known as Mass Interview. A group interview takes
place when a candidate is interviewed by more than one interviewer at the same time.
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Purpose of a Group Interview :
(a) To check if the candidate stands out amongst the crowed.
(b) Communication skills.
(c) To assess the dress, manner, participation, leadership qualities and presentation skills.
'(d) Cooperation abilities.
-(e) Interaction with others.
278 / Eag.lefs English & Communication Skills-II

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How to prepare for a Group Interview ?
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<a>

^ ^ contact. say Mo. ad if

(b) Before you begin, introduce yourself politely to the other candidates .

(c) Dont focus on any one individual. You should make an effort to engage everyone in the
group when you are asking or answering questions.
(d) Dont show surprise or annoyance when faced with a group interview,
(e)

Pr

f*Te for ^ group interview by making a list of questions that you may be asked
and practising how you might answer them.

(h) Avoid dominating the conversation and dont interrupt the other candidates.
(i Be
\ aware of your body language. This is something that will be carefully observed.
(j) TTiaiik everyone, who interviewed you and remember names and titles.
(f) If you are interviewed with other candidates, it is better to lead than to follow
Interviewers may not remember you if you blend into the background.
^ Sidlls you will be expected to demonstrate during group interview exercise include
eadership skills, your ability to handle stress and pressure, teamwork skills and how well
you take and give criticism.
r*?? I^rv?eF : An interview is a purposeful discussion between two or more people that can help
you gather valid and reliable data that is relevant to the objectives of a
company. Face to face interviews allow for personal communication and make it possible
to gather
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more information.
Tips for face to face Interviews :
^ Collect some information about the company where you are going for the interview. Gather the
information about five year growth of the company, the financial position the product line
r
etc.

(b) Know time, date, location, directions to the company.


(c) Be enthusiastic, confident, prepared, professional and definitely on time.
(d) Take plenty of current resumes with you.
(e) Give short, positive reasons why you left your last job. '
(f) Know how you plan your days, weeks, months in order to demonstrate that you can plan
and oiganise your time.
(g) Be able to ask good, solid, thoughtful questions.
(h) Make eye contact with your interviewer. Show you want the job with your interest.
(i) Wait until you are offered a chair before sitting. Sit upright, look alert and interested at all
times. Listen carefully.

(j) Dont answer with a simple yes or no. Explain whenever possible.
(k) If you dont understand a question or need a moment to think about it-say so. Never
pretend to know something or someone when you dont.
(l) Dont make negative remarks about present or former employees.
P-6.4. Mannerism and Etiquette
Manners and etiquettes are required in all the walks of life. A person is seen reformed and
instantly liked by everyone if he/she displays good manners all the time.
Manners involve a wide range of social interactions With cultural norms. Etiquette is a code
of behaviour that describes social behaviour according to contemporary and conventional norms
within a society, social class or group. Etiquette has gradually grown plural, especially in a multiethnic society. A rule of etiquette may reflect a persons fashion or status. Rules of etiquette are
usually unwritten, but aspects of etiquette have been modified from time, to time.
Etiquette is necessary to have an effective and well groomed personality. It is considered as an
everlasting impression on the people you meet. This does not only refer about etiquette but also
public mannerism. Mannerism is any exaggerated style, distinctive traits, or behavioural habit of
one individual. Etiquette and public mannerism can be good or bad impression depending on how
we behave. To have an everlasting good impression on the people we meet, we must possess the
qualities to build a personality that is charming, decent, lovable and welcome anywhere and every
where we go. At some points our manners are categorised as good or bad depending on the society
we live in and on the environment we grew in. Heres a list of some poor manners :
1. Eating with your mouth open.
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2. Making loud noise and slurping sound while eating.
3 . Picking your nose in the public.

4. Biting nails.

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' 5. Spitting in the public.

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6. Coughing and yawning and without covering your mouth.


7. Crossing the road wherever you feel like.
8. Not saying Please and Thank you.
9. Smoking at prohibited places.
Following are some of the good manners which one should follow :
1. When you are in a line waiting to be served, wait patiently in the line for your turn.
2. Always thank the people who helped you.
3. Keep your mobile phone on silent mode when attending a meeting, conference or training
or seminar. If you receive any urgent call, go out of the venue without disturbing others.
4. Respect everyone.
5. Do not insult anyone.
6. Be courteous to everyone. .

7. Be cheerful.
8. Always be punctual. Keep no one waiting.
9. Extend a hearty handshake.
10. Look people in the eye while conversing with them.
11. Do not raise your voice.
12. Be a good listener.
13. Be alert.
14. Keep control of yourself even if provoked.
15. Do not mislead others.
16. Always be optimist in life.
17. Always use these words where necessary Thank you, Sorry, Excuse me, I beg your
pardon, Please.
18. Dont act superior to others.
19. The way you walk,
The way you talk,
The way you behave
matter a lot.
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20. Always keep in mind the way we treat others and want to b.e treateS by 6therHa.return.
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Manners and etiquette in a nutshell are little rules that help us all act with respect toward one
another. If you are not sure what to do in a particular situation, remember that manners strive to
make everyone around you feel comfortable, and take action based on this thought.