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3 Aufrufe51 SeitenEspessura da camada limite de momentum

Dec 06, 2015

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Espessura da camada limite de momentum

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3 Aufrufe

Espessura da camada limite de momentum

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Fall 2010

Chapter 7

1

7.1. Introduction:

Boundary layer flows: External flows around streamlined bodies at

high Re have viscous (shear and no-slip) effects confined close to

the body surfaces and its wake, but are nearly inviscid far from the

body.

Applications of BL theory: aerodynamics (airplanes, rockets,

projectiles), hydrodynamics (ships, submarines, torpedoes),

transportation (automobiles, trucks, cycles), wind engineering

(buildings, bridges, water towers), and ocean engineering (buoys,

breakwaters, cables).

7.2 Flat-Plate Momentum Integral Analysis & Laminar approximate

solution

Consider flow of a viscous fluid at high Re past a flat plate, i.e., flat

plate fixed in a uniform stream of velocity Ui .

the value of y at u = 0.99U). Streamlines outside 99% will deflect an

amount * (the displacement thickness). Thus the streamlines move

outward from y H at x 0 to y Y H * at x x1 .

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7

2

Fall 2010

Conservation of mass:

H

V ndA=0= 0 Udy 0

udy

CS

simplifies to

UH udy U u U dy UY u U dy

Note:

u

* 0Y 1 dy

U

external flow. To see this more clearly, consider an alternate derivation

based on an equivalent discharge/flow rate argument:

* Lam=/3

* Turb=/8

Udy udy

inviscid flow rate about displacement body = equivalent viscous flow

rate about actual body

Udy

Udy

udy

1

0

0

0

0 U dy

*

For 3D flow, in addition it must also be explicitly required that * is a

stream surface of the inviscid flow continued from outside of the BL.

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7

3

Fall 2010

Conservation of x-momentum:

Fx D

CS

Y

force on CV (fluid)

Y u

H

0 U dy

Y

x

2 Y

D U 0 u / Udy u 2 dy 0 w dx

0

2

U

u

Y u

0 1

U

U

dy

important measure of the drag.

2D

2 1

CD

U 2 x x x 0 f

x

Cf

1

U 2

2

d C f

dx

2

Cf

d

xCD 2 d

dx

dx

w U 2

d

dx

Special case 2D

momentum integral

equation for px = 0

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7

4

Fall 2010

u U (2 y / y 2 / 2 )

u(0) = 0

u() = U

uy()=0

no slip

matching with outer flow

Use velocity profile to get Cf() and () and then integrate momentum

integral equation to get (Rex)

* = /3

= 2/15

H= */= 5/2

w 2U /

2U /

d

d

Cf

2

2 (2 / 15);

2

dx

dx

1 / 2 U

15dx

d

U

30dx

2

U

/ x 5.5 / Re1x/ 2

Re x Ux / ;

* / x 1.83 / Re1x/ 2

/ x 0.73 / Re1x/ 2

C D 1.46 / Re1L/ 2 2C f ( L)

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7

5

Fall 2010

U, ,

y

x

u=v=0

ux vy 0

1 p

(u xx u yy )

x

1 p

vt uv x vv y

(v xx v yy )

y

ut uu x vu y

variables are of O(1):

x* x / L

y

y*

Re

L

t * tU / L

u* u /U

v*

Re

U

p p0

p*

U 2

Re UL /

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Fall 2010

Chapter 7

6

ux vy 0

1

u xx u yy

Re

1

1

1

(vt uvx vv y ) p y 2 vxx

v yy

Re

Re

Re

ut uu x vu y px

For large Re (BL assumptions) the underlined terms drop out and the BL

equations are obtained.

Therefore, y-momentum equation reduces to

py 0

i.e. p p ( x, t )

px (U t UU x )

external flow

2D BL equations:

u x v y 0;

ut uu x vu y (U t UU x ) u yy

Note:

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

2

0 : i.e. longitudinal (or stream-wise) diffusion is

2

neglected.

Due to (2), the equations are parabolic in x. Physically, this

means all downstream influences are lost other than that

contained in external flow. A marching solution is possible.

Boundary conditions

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7

7

Fall 2010

matching

inlet

Solution by

marching

y

x

X0

No slip

Initial condition: u x, y,0 known

Inlet condition: u x0 , y, t given at x0

Matching with outer flow: u x, , t U x, t

(5)

mind the restrictions imposed on them due to the basic BL

assumptions

not applicable for thick BL or separated flows (although

they can be used to estimate occurrence of separation).

(6)

Curvilinear coordinates

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7

8

Fall 2010

Coordinates, they apply to curved surfaces provided << R and

x, y are curvilinear coordinates measured along and normal to

the surface, respectively. In such a system we would find under

the BL assumptions

py

u 2

R

dp U 2 y 2

dy

R 2

p( ) p(0)

U 2

3R

Or

p

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7

9

Fall 2010

(7)

For a given body geometry:

(a) Inviscid theory gives p(x) integration gives L,D = 0

(b) BL theory gives *(x), w(x), (x),etc. and predicts

separation if any

(c) If separation present then no further information must

use inviscid models, BL equation in inverse mode, or NS

equation.

(d) If separation is absent, integration of w(x) frictional

resistance body + * , inviscid theory gives p(x), can go

back to (2) for more accurate BL calculation including

viscous inviscid interaction

(8)

At the wall, u = v = 0 u yy

px

w = 0 separation

2nd derivative u depends on

px

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Fall 2010

Chapter 7

10

Inflection point

incompressible): method of reducing PDE to ODE by appropriate

similarity transformation

ux vy 0

uu x vu y UU x u yy

BCs:

u x,0 v x,0 0

u x, U x

+ inlet condition

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7

11

Fall 2010

y

u x, y

F

g x related to x

For Similarity U x

g x expect

Or in terms of stream function :

For similarity

u y v x

U x g x f

u y Uf ' v x

y g x

(U x gf Ug x f Ug x f ' )

BC:

v x,0 0 U x ( x) g ( x) f (0) U ( x) g x ( x) f (0)

U ( x) g x ( x) 0 f (0) 0

U x ( x) g ( x) U ( x) g x ( x) f (0) 0

f (0) 0

u x, U x U ( x) f () U x f () 1

y yx x yy UU x yyy

Substitute

yy Uf '' g

yyy Uf

'''

xy U x f ' Uf ''g x / g

Assemble them together:

UU x U f ''' g 2

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7

12

Fall 2010

U

UU x f '2 UU x ff '' U 2 g x g ff '' UU x 2 f '''

g

U

U

UU x f '2 Ug x ff '' UU x 2 f '''

g

g

f

'''

Ug x

ff

''

C1

g2

U x 1 f

'2

C2

i.e. for a chosen pair of C1 and C2 U

(Potential flow is NOT known a priori)

Then solution of

x , g x can be found

f u x, y ,

u

w

y

Uf '' 0

g

, , *,, H, Cf, CD

U=constant U x

U

Then C1 gg x

0 C2 0

d 2 2C1

g

dx

U

Let

g x 2C1x U 1 2

C1 1 , then g x 2x

U

U

2x

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7

13

Fall 2010

Blasius equations

for Flat Plate

Boundary Layer

f ''' ff '' 0

f 0 f ' 0 0, f ' 1

Solutions by series technique or numerical

x

U

*

0 1 U

0

U

5

Re x

Re x

2x

'

dy 0 1 f d

U

Uf '' 0

u

w

y w

2x U

CD

D

1

U 2 L

2

Cf

0

v f ' f

1

U

2 Re x

Cf

dx 1.328

L

Re L ;

for

Re L

UL

1

U 2

2

Re x 1

' ' 2x

d

dy 0 1 f f

U

U

*

H 2.59

So,

Ux

1.7208

Re x

0.664

Re x

0.664

Re x x

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Oseen

Blasius

Chapter 7

14

Fall 2010

CD

3-226 (3rd

edition,vicous

flows)

ReL

<1

100<Re<Retr~3

106

LE Higher

order

correction

C D 1.328 / Re L 2.3 / Re L

of BL approximation

From triple deck theory the correction is

+2.661/ Re7L/ 8

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Fall 2010

Chapter 7

15

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7

16

Fall 2010

f f

f 0 f ' 0 0, f ' 1

C1

Consider

Ug x

Ug

2

C2

g2

y g x

u U f '

Ux

2Ugg x g 2U x

2Ugg x 2 g 2U x g 2U x

2 g Ug x g 2U x

2C1 C2

Hence

Ug x 2C1 C2 ,

2

C2

Integrate

Combine

2

C g Ux

Ug 2 2 C x

Ux

C 1

U 2C x

ln U

Then

C

ln x k

2C

U x kxC 2 C

g x

Similarity

form of BL

eq.

2 C

k

1C

x 2 C

g2

Ux

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7

17

Fall 2010

Change constants

U x kx m

f ff 1 f

'''

''

y

m 1 U

y

g

2 x

'2

0 ,

f 0 f ' 0 0

2m

m

2

m 1 ,

f ' 1

Separation ( w 0 )

Solutions show many commonly observed characteristics of BL flow:

The parameter is a measure of the pressure gradient, dp dx .

For 0 , dp dx 0 and the pressure gradient is favorable. For

Negative solutions drop away from Blasius profiles as separation

approached

Positive solutions squeeze closer to wall due to flow acceleration

Accelerated flow: max near wall

Decelerated flow: max moves toward

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Fall 2010

Chapter 7

18

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Fall 2010

Chapter 7

19

Historically similarity and other AFD methods used for idealized flows

and momentum integral methods for practical applications, including

pressure gradients.

Momentum integral equation, which is valid for both laminar and

turbulent flow:

y 0

d

w

dU

1

C

H

f

dx

U dx

U 2 2

dU

0

For flat plate equation

dx

u

1 dy;

U

0U

*

H ;

u

dy

U

p 1

Momentum: uu x vu y

x y

The pressure gradient is evaluated form the outer potential flow using

Bernoulli equation

p

1

U 2 constant

2

1

px 2UU x 0

2

p x UU x

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7

20

Fall 2010

u U u x v y uu x uv y Uu x Uv y ,

Continuity

uu x vu y UU x

y uu x uv y Uu x Uv y 0

y 2uu x vu y UU x uv y Uu x Uv y

uU u 2 U u U x vU vu

x

y

y dy ( w ) / u U u dy U x U u dy vU vu 0

x 0

0

0

w 2 u u

U 1 dy U x U u dy

x 0 U U

0

U 2 x 2UU x U x *

Cf

2

1 dU

d

2 *

dx

U dx

Cf

d

dU

*

,H

2 H

2

dx

U dx

H

Ux

f

x

2

2

U

U

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7

21

Fall 2010

for specified potential flow U(x):

1. Guessed Profiles

2. Empirical Correlations

Best approach is to use empirical correlations to get integral parameters

(, *,, H, Cf, CD) after which use these to get velocity profile u/U

Thwaites Method

Multiply momentum integral equation by

w U d 2 dU

2 H

U dx dx

LHS and H are dimensionless and can be correlated with pressure

2 dU

as shear and shape-factor correlations

gradient parameter

dx

w

S ( 0.09)0.62

U

5

H * / H ai (0.25 )i

i 0

Note

U d 1 d 2

U

dx 2 dx

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7

22

Fall 2010

1 d 2

S ( ) U 2 H

2 dx

d / U x

U

2S 2 H F

dx

dU

2

Define z

so that z

dx

dz

dU

0.45 6 0.45 6 z

dx

dx

dz

dU

U

6z

0.45

dx

dx

1 d

6

i.e.

zU

0.45

5 dx

U

U

zU 0.45 U 5 dx C

0

0.45

5

U

dx

U 0

x

2

0

Complete solution:

2 dU

dx

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7

23

Fall 2010

w

S

U

* H

Accuracy: mild px 5% and strong adverse px (w near 0) 15%

i. Pohlhausen Velocity Profile:

u

f a b 2 c 3 d 4 with y

1)

y 0 u = 0, u yy

2)

y u U , u y 0 , u yy 0

Ux

F 2 2 3 4

G

1 3

separation

u

F G , 12 12

U

2 dU

2

px

dx

U

pressure gradient parameter related to

2

37

methods u/U directly used to solve momentum integral equation

numerically, but accuracy not as good as empirical correlation methods;

therefore, use Thwaites method to get etc., and then use to get and

plot u/U.

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7

24

Fall 2010

of steady state 2D boundary layer)

x

a) Xsep

x

b) C f 0.1

Note Ux = -U0/L

Solution

0.45

5

U

1

0

6

x 0

U 06 1

L

L x

x

0

.

075

dx

1

L

U 0 L

5

(Note:

0 x 0,

)

xL

x 6

2 dU

0.0751 1

dx

L

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

sep 0.09

Chapter 7

25

Fall 2010

X sep

L

0.123

L

0.0661

1

S 0.099 C f Re

2

2(0.099)

Cf

Re

2 0.075

L

U0

1 0.1

1 0.0661

L

U0

L 0.0661

0

.

0661

2

Re L

U

L

0

0.257

L Re 12

L

Re

Re L 0.257 Re L 2

L

1

20.099

Cf

Re L 2 0.77 Re L1/ 2

0.257

To complete

solution must

specify ReL

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7

26

Fall 2010

a

a

F z z 2 r 2 e 2 i

2

2

a

2

a

ImF z r 2 sin 2

2

ReF z r 2 cos 2

: asymptotes y = x

: asymptotes x=0, y=0

1

V r er e

r

v r ar cos 2

0 (flow direction as shown)

v ar sin 2

vr cos v sin i vr sin v cos j

Potential flow slips along surface: (consider

1) determine a such that vr U 0 at r=L,

90 )

90

2) let U x vr at x=L-r:

vr aL x cos(2 90) U ( x)

U

x

Or : U ( x) a( L x) 0 ( L x) U 0 (1 )

L

L

U0

L

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Fall 2010

Chapter 7

27

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Fall 2010

Chapter 7

28

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7

29

Fall 2010

1. Introduction: Transition to Turbulence

Chapter 6 described the transition process as a succession of TollmienSchlichting waves, development of - structures, vortex decay and

formation of turbulent spots as preliminary stages to fully turbulent

boundary-layer flow.

The phenomena observed during the transition process are similar for

the flat plate boundary layer and for the plane channel flow, as shown in

the following figure based on measurements by M. Nishioka et al.

(1975). Periodic initial perturbations were generated in the BL using an

oscillating cord.

For typical commercial surfaces transition occurs at Re x ,tr 5 10 5 .

However, the transition can be delayed to Re x ,tr 3 10 6 by different ways

such as having very smooth walls and/or very low turbulent wind tunnel.

u u u ;

v v v;

w w w;

p p p ;

average we obtain,

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7

30

Fall 2010

u v w

0

x y z

0

x y z

g),

DV

p ij

Dt

Where

ui u j

ui' u 'j

ij

x j xi

Laminar

Turbulent

Assume

a.

x x which means v u ,

x

y

w 0 , z 0

'2

Note the mean lateral turbulence is actually not zero, w 0 , but its z

derivative is assumed to vanish.

Then, we get the following Reynolds averaged BL equations for 2D

incompressible steady flow:

u v

0

x y

dU e 1

u

u

v

Ue

dx

y

x

y

p

v '2

y

y

Continuity

x-momentum

y-momentum

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7

31

Fall 2010

u

u 'v '

y

Note:

The equations are solved for the time averages u and v

The shear stress now consists of two parts: 1. first part is due to

the molecular exchange and is computed from the time-averaged

field as in the laminar case; 2. The second part appears

additionally and is due to turbulent motions.

The additional term is new unknown for which a relation with

the average field of the velocity must be constructed via a

turbulence model.

Integrate y- momentum equation across the boundary layer

p p e x v ' 2

So, unlike laminar BL, there is a slight variation of pressure across the

turbulent BL due to velocity fluctuations normal to the wall, which is no

more than 4% of the stream velocity and thus can be neglected. The

Bernoulli relation is assumed to hold in the inviscid free-stream:

dpe / dx U e dU e / dx

conditions:

No slip:

u x ,0 v x , 0 0

u x, U e x

3. Momentum Integral Equations valid for BL solutions

The momentum integral equation has the identical form as the

laminar-flow relation:

d

dU e

2 H

w2 f

dx

U e dx

2

U e

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7

32

Fall 2010

( C f , H , ) are correlated in terms of simple parameter

2 dU e

dx

( C f , H , ) cannot be correlated in terms of a single parameter.

Additional parameters and relationships are required that model the

influence of the turbulent fluctuations. There are many possibilities all of

which require a certain amount of empirical data. As an example we will

review the method.

4. Flat plate boundary layer (zero pressure gradient)

a. Log law analysis of Smooth flat plate

and use to get Cf=Cf() relationship

u /u

*

ln

yu *

u *

U e / u ln

B

However:

1/ 2

U e / u * U e / w

1 / 2 U e 2 C f

U e /

C

u * U e u *

Re f

Ue

2

C

f

1/ 2

C

f

1/ 2

1/ 2

1/ 2

Cf

ln Re

2

1/ 2

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7

33

Fall 2010

and simply use a power-law approximation:

C f 0.02 Re 1 / 6

b. Use

d 1

C f U 2

dx 2

d

or : C f 2

dx

w U 2

1 / 6

d

u

/

U

RHS: Use

e to get

dx

Example:

7

u

u

(1 )dy

72

Ue

Ue

0

d

7

2 d

Cf 2

0.02 Re1/ 6 2 U e

dx

72

dx

d (Re )

d (Re )

1

Re1/ 6 9.72

d (Re x )

1 / 6

d (Re x )

Re

9.72

u /Ue ( y / )

1/ 7

/ x 0.16 / Re1x/ 7 or : x 6 / 7

Turbulent BL has almost linear growth rate which is much faster than

laminar BL which is proportional to x1/2.

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7

34

Fall 2010

Other properties:

C f 0.027 / Re1/x 7

0.0135 1/ 7 6 / 7U 13/ 7

w,turb

x1/ 7

7

CD 0.031/ Re1/L 7 C f ( L)

6

1

*

8

H * / 1.3

c. Influence of roughness

manner as done for pipe flow i.e.

ln

yu *

B ( )

B B ( )

ln(1 0.3 )

u* /

A complete rough-wall analysis can be done using the composite loglaw in a similar manner as done for a smooth wall i.e. determine Cf()

and () from and equate using momentum integral equation

C f ( ) 2

d

( )

dx

However, analysis is complicated: solution is Fig. 7.6. For fully roughflow a curve fit to the Cf and CD equations is given by,

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7

35

Fall 2010

smooth and rough flat plates.

x

C f (2.87 1.58 log ) 2.5

L

CD (1.89 1.62 log ) 2.5

Again, shown on Fig. 7.6. along with transition region curves developed

by Schlichting which depend on Ret = 5105

3106

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Fall 2010

Chapter 7

36

ux vy 0

1

uu x vu y ( p / )

y

x

u

u v

y

The pressure gradient term has a large influence on the solution. In

particular, adverse pressure gradient (i.e. increasing pressure) can cause

flow separation. Recall that the y momentum equation subject to the

boundary layer assumptions reduced to

py= 0 i.e. p = pe = constant across BL.

That is, pressure (which drives BL equations) is given by external

inviscid flow solution which in many cases is also irrotational. Consider

a typical inviscid flow solution (chapter 8)

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Fall 2010

Chapter 7

37

the shape of the velocity profiles just by evaluating the BL equations at

the wall (y = 0)

2u pe

y 2 x

pe

dU e

- Ue

where

x

dx

which, shows that the curvature of the velocity profile at the wall is

related to the pressure gradient.

Effect of Pressure Gradient on Velocity Profiles

Point of inflection: a point where a graph changes between concave

upward and concave downward.

The point of inflection is basically the location where second derivative

2u

of u is zero, i.e. y 2 0

at y 0: uy>0, uyy<0

is very resistant to separation. Note uyy()<0 in order for u to merge

smoothly with U.

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Fall 2010

at y = yPI=0: uy>0, uyy=0

at y>0: uy>0, uyy<0

at y < yPI: uy>0, uyy>0

at y = yPI: uy>0, uyy=0

at y > yPI: uy>0, uyy<0

Chapter 7

38

058:0160

Professor Fred Stern

Fall 2010

Chapter 7

39

Note that w = 0 since uy=0.

at y =0 : uy=0, uyy>0

at y < yPI: uy>0, uyy>0

at y = yPI: uy>0, uyy=0

at y > yPI: uy>0, uyy<0

at y =0 : uy<0, uyy>0

at y < yPI: uy increases gradually to positive value, uyy>0

at y = yPI: uy>0, uyy=0

at y > yPI: uy>0, uyy<0

i.e. main flow breaks away or separates from the wall: large increase in

drag and loss of performance:

Hseparation = 3.5 laminar

= 2.4 turbulent

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6. -Method

flow has the identical form as the laminar-flow relation:

dU e

d C f

2 H

2

dx

U e dx

(I)

turbulent flow. Thus, at least two additional relations are needed to find

unknowns. There are many possibilities for additional relations all of

which require a certain amount of empirical data. As an example we will

review the method.

Coles law of the wake:

By adding the wake to the log-law, the velocity profile for both overlap

and outer layers can be written as:

u

where

ln y B

f ( )

y /

f ( ) sin 2 ( ) 3 2 2 3

2

A/ 2

By integrating wall-wake law across the boundary layer:

H

H 1

2 3.179 1.5 2

a ( )

(1 )

U 1

Re

exp( B 2 )

a ( )

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2

among C f 2 / , H and :

H 2

2

/

2

/

[

(

)

]

C

a

f

H 1

2 3.179 1.5 2

a ( )

(1 )

U 1

exp( B 2 )

Re

(II)

For outer layer,

U e u f ( w , , y, ,

dp

)

dx

Ue u

y dp

g( ,

)

1/ 2

w dx

( w / )

Clauser (1954) replaced by displacement thickness :

Ue u

y

g( , )

1/ 2

( w / )

* dp

dU e

2 H

U e dx

w dx

is called Clauser's equilibrium parameter.

Das (1987) showed that EFD data points fit into the following

polynomial correlation:

0.4 0.76 0.42 2

Therefore:

dU e

2 H

0.4 0.76 0.42 2

U e dx

(III)

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Re

1

exp( B 2 ) ,

H

we obtain

2

another relation among C f 2 / , H and .

Equations (I), (II), and (III) can be solved simultaneously using say a

Runge-Kutta method to find C f , H , . Equations are solved with initial

condition for (x0) and integrated to x=x0+x iteratively. Estimated

gives Re and , gives H. Lastly Cf is evaluated using Re and H.

Iterations required until all relations satisfied and then proceed to next

x.

experimental data) for a large class of both laminar and turbulent 2D

flows. However, for 3D flows they do not, primarily due to the inability

of correlating the cross flow velocity components.

outer potential flow U(x,z).

p

, which is imposed on BL from the

z

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Chapter 7

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( p / ) u yy (u v);

x

y

y

z

u x v y wz 0;

uu x vu y wu z

closure equations

Differential methods have been developed for this reason as well as for

extensions to more complex and non-thin boundary layer flows.

7.7 Separation

What causes separation?

The increasing downstream pressure slows down the wall flow and

can make it go backward-flow separation.

dp dx 0 adverse pressure gradient, flow separation may occur.

dp dx 0 favorable gradient, flow is very resistant to separation.

Previous analysis of BL was valid before separation.

Separation Condition

u

w 0

y y 0

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BL takes place and BL mass is transported away into the

outer flow

2. At the point of separation, the streamlines leave the wall at a

certain angle.

Separation of Boundary Layer

Notes:

1. D to E, pressure drop, pressure is transformed into kinetic energy.

2. From E to F, kinetic energy is transformed into pressure.

3. A fluid particle directly at the wall in the boundary layer is also

acted upon by the same pressure distribution as in the outer flow

(inviscid).

4. Due to the strong friction forces in the BL, a BL particle loses so

much of its kinetic energy that is cannot manage to get over the

pressure gradient from E to F.

5. The following figure shows the time sequence of this process:

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Chapter 7

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b. boundary layer has been thickened, and start of the reversed

motion has moved forward considerably.

c. and d. a large vortex formed from the backflow and then soon

separates from the body.

Features: The entire boundary layer flow breaks away at the point of

zero wall shear stress and, having no way to diverge left or right, has to

go up and over the resulting separation bubble or wake.

1. Plane wall(s)

Thin wall

symmetry (no wall friction present), and no separation at the wall

(favorable pressure gradient)

(b).Flat wall with right angle to the wall: flow separate, why?

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2. Diffuser flow:

(a)

(b)

(a) a strong negative pressure gradient may re-laminarize a flow

(b) a strong positive pressure gradient causes a strong boundary

layer top thicken. (Photograph by R.E. Falco)

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Features: unlike 2D separations, 3D separations allow many more

options.

There are four different special points in separation:

(1). A nodal Point, where an infinite number of surface streamlines

merged tangentially to the separation line

(2). A saddle point, where only two surface streamlines intersect and

all others divert to either side

(3). A focus, or spiral node, which forms near a saddle point and

around which an infinite number of surface streamlines swirl

(4). A three-dimensional singular point, not on the wall, generally

serving as the center for a horseshoe vortex.

CFDSHIP-IOWA

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Homsy, G. M., etc.)

Separations in diffuser

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Fall 2010

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