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# 058:0160

Fall 2010

Chapter 7
1

## Chapter 7: Boundary Layer Theory

7.1. Introduction:
Boundary layer flows: External flows around streamlined bodies at
high Re have viscous (shear and no-slip) effects confined close to
the body surfaces and its wake, but are nearly inviscid far from the
body.
Applications of BL theory: aerodynamics (airplanes, rockets,
projectiles), hydrodynamics (ships, submarines, torpedoes),
transportation (automobiles, trucks, cycles), wind engineering
(buildings, bridges, water towers), and ocean engineering (buoys,
breakwaters, cables).
7.2 Flat-Plate Momentum Integral Analysis & Laminar approximate
solution
Consider flow of a viscous fluid at high Re past a flat plate, i.e., flat
plate fixed in a uniform stream of velocity Ui .

## Boundary-layer thickness arbitrarily defined by y = 99% (where, 99% is

the value of y at u = 0.99U). Streamlines outside 99% will deflect an
amount * (the displacement thickness). Thus the streamlines move
outward from y H at x 0 to y Y H * at x x1 .

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7
2

Fall 2010

Conservation of mass:
H

V ndA=0= 0 Udy 0

udy

CS

## Assuming incompressible flow (constant density), this relation

simplifies to

UH udy U u U dy UY u U dy
Note:

u
* 0Y 1 dy
U

## * ( a function of x only) is an important measure of effect of BL on

external flow. To see this more clearly, consider an alternate derivation
based on an equivalent discharge/flow rate argument:

* Lam=/3
* Turb=/8

Udy udy

## Flowrate between * and of inviscid flow=actual flowrate, i.e.,

inviscid flow rate about displacement body = equivalent viscous flow

Udy
Udy
udy

1
0
0
0
0 U dy
*

## w/o BL - displacement effect=actual discharge

For 3D flow, in addition it must also be explicitly required that * is a
stream surface of the inviscid flow continued from outside of the BL.

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7
3

Fall 2010

Conservation of x-momentum:

Fx D

CS

Y

## Drag D U 2 H 0 u 2 dy = Fluid force on plate = - Plate

force on CV (fluid)

Y u
H

## Again assuming constant density and using continuity:

0 U dy
Y
x
2 Y
D U 0 u / Udy u 2 dy 0 w dx
0

2
U

u
Y u
0 1
U
U

dy

## where, is the momentum thickness (a function of x only), an

important measure of the drag.

2D
2 1
CD

## C dx Per unit span

U 2 x x x 0 f
x

Cf

1
U 2
2
d C f

dx
2

Cf

d
xCD 2 d
dx
dx

w U 2

d
dx

Special case 2D
momentum integral
equation for px = 0

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7
4

Fall 2010

## Simple velocity profile approximations:

u U (2 y / y 2 / 2 )
u(0) = 0
u() = U
uy()=0

no slip
matching with outer flow

Use velocity profile to get Cf() and () and then integrate momentum
integral equation to get (Rex)
* = /3
= 2/15
H= */= 5/2

w 2U /
2U /
d
d
Cf
2
2 (2 / 15);
2
dx
dx
1 / 2 U
15dx
d
U
30dx
2
U
/ x 5.5 / Re1x/ 2
Re x Ux / ;
* / x 1.83 / Re1x/ 2
/ x 0.73 / Re1x/ 2
C D 1.46 / Re1L/ 2 2C f ( L)

## 10% error, cf. Blasius

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7
5

Fall 2010

U, ,

y
x

u=v=0

ux vy 0

1 p
(u xx u yy )
x
1 p
vt uv x vv y
(v xx v yy )
y

ut uu x vu y

## Introduce non-dimensional variables that includes scales such that all

variables are of O(1):
x* x / L
y
y*
Re
L
t * tU / L
u* u /U
v*

Re
U
p p0
p*
U 2
Re UL /

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Fall 2010

Chapter 7
6

## The NS equations become (drop *)

ux vy 0
1
u xx u yy
Re
1
1
1
(vt uvx vv y ) p y 2 vxx
v yy
Re
Re
Re

ut uu x vu y px

For large Re (BL assumptions) the underlined terms drop out and the BL
equations are obtained.
Therefore, y-momentum equation reduces to
py 0
i.e. p p ( x, t )
px (U t UU x )

## From Euler/Bernoulli equation for

external flow

2D BL equations:
u x v y 0;

ut uu x vu y (U t UU x ) u yy

Note:
(1)
(2)
(3)

(4)

## U(x,t), p(x,t) impressed on BL by the external flow.

2
0 : i.e. longitudinal (or stream-wise) diffusion is
2

neglected.
Due to (2), the equations are parabolic in x. Physically, this
means all downstream influences are lost other than that
contained in external flow. A marching solution is possible.
Boundary conditions

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7
7

Fall 2010

matching
inlet

Solution by
marching

y
x
X0

No slip

## No slip: u x,0, t v x,0, t 0

Initial condition: u x, y,0 known
Inlet condition: u x0 , y, t given at x0
Matching with outer flow: u x, , t U x, t
(5)

## When applying the boundary layer equations one must keep in

mind the restrictions imposed on them due to the basic BL
assumptions
not applicable for thick BL or separated flows (although
they can be used to estimate occurrence of separation).

(6)

Curvilinear coordinates

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7
8

Fall 2010

## Although BL equations have been written in Cartesian

Coordinates, they apply to curved surfaces provided << R and
x, y are curvilinear coordinates measured along and normal to
the surface, respectively. In such a system we would find under
the BL assumptions

py

u 2
R

dp U 2 y 2

dy
R 2
p( ) p(0)

U 2
3R

Or
p

## U 2 3R therefore, we require << R

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7
9

Fall 2010

(7)

## Practical use of the BL theory

For a given body geometry:
(a) Inviscid theory gives p(x) integration gives L,D = 0
(b) BL theory gives *(x), w(x), (x),etc. and predicts
separation if any
(c) If separation present then no further information must
use inviscid models, BL equation in inverse mode, or NS
equation.
(d) If separation is absent, integration of w(x) frictional
resistance body + * , inviscid theory gives p(x), can go
back to (2) for more accurate BL calculation including
viscous inviscid interaction

(8)

## Separation and shear stress

At the wall, u = v = 0 u yy

px

## 1st derivative u gives w w u y

w = 0 separation
2nd derivative u depends on

px

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Fall 2010

Chapter 7
10

Inflection point

## 7.4. Laminar Boundary Layer - Similarity solutions (2D, steady,

incompressible): method of reducing PDE to ODE by appropriate
similarity transformation

ux vy 0

uu x vu y UU x u yy

BCs:

u x,0 v x,0 0
u x, U x
+ inlet condition

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7
11

Fall 2010

y
u x, y

F
g x related to x
For Similarity U x
g x expect
Or in terms of stream function :
For similarity

u y v x

U x g x f

u y Uf ' v x

y g x

(U x gf Ug x f Ug x f ' )

BC:

## u x,0 0 U ( x) f (0) 0 f (0) 0

v x,0 0 U x ( x) g ( x) f (0) U ( x) g x ( x) f (0)
U ( x) g x ( x) 0 f (0) 0

U x ( x) g ( x) U ( x) g x ( x) f (0) 0

f (0) 0
u x, U x U ( x) f () U x f () 1

## Write boundary layer equations in terms of

y yx x yy UU x yyy
Substitute

yy Uf '' g
yyy Uf

'''

xy U x f ' Uf ''g x / g
Assemble them together:

## Uf ' U x f ' Uf '' ggx U x gf Ug x f Ug xf ' Uf '' g

UU x U f ''' g 2

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7
12

Fall 2010

U
UU x f '2 UU x ff '' U 2 g x g ff '' UU x 2 f '''
g
U
U
UU x f '2 Ug x ff '' UU x 2 f '''
g
g
f
'''

Ug x

ff
''

C1

g2

U x 1 f

'2

C2

## Where for similarity C1 and C2 are constant or function only

i.e. for a chosen pair of C1 and C2 U
(Potential flow is NOT known a priori)
Then solution of

x , g x can be found

## f ''' C1 ff '' C2 1 f '2 0 gives

f u x, y ,

u
w
y

Uf '' 0
g

, , *,, H, Cf, CD

## The Blasius Solution for Flat-Plate Flow

U=constant U x
U
Then C1 gg x

0 C2 0

d 2 2C1
g
dx
U

Let

g x 2C1x U 1 2

C1 1 , then g x 2x
U

U
2x

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7
13

Fall 2010

Blasius equations
for Flat Plate
Boundary Layer

f ''' ff '' 0
f 0 f ' 0 0, f ' 1
Solutions by series technique or numerical

## 0.99 when 3.5

x
U
*

0 1 U

0
U

5
Re x

Re x

2x

'
dy 0 1 f d
U

Uf '' 0
u
w

y w
2x U

CD

D
1
U 2 L
2

Cf
0

v f ' f

1
U
2 Re x

Cf

dx 1.328

L
Re L ;

for

Re L

UL

1
U 2
2

Re x 1

' ' 2x
d
dy 0 1 f f
U
U

*
H 2.59
So,

Ux

1.7208
Re x

0.664
Re x

0.664

Re x x

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Oseen
Blasius

Chapter 7
14

Fall 2010

CD
3-226 (3rd
edition,vicous
flows)

ReL
<1
100<Re<Retr~3
106

LE Higher
order
correction

C D 1.328 / Re L 2.3 / Re L

## Rex small therefore local breakdown

of BL approximation

## Similar breakdown occurs at Trailing edge.

From triple deck theory the correction is
+2.661/ Re7L/ 8

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Fall 2010

Chapter 7
15

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7
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Fall 2010

f f

## f ''' C1 ff '' C2 1 f '2 0

f 0 f ' 0 0, f ' 1

C1

Consider

Ug x

Ug
2

C2

g2

y g x
u U f '

Ux

## (Blasius Solution: C2=0, C1=1)

2Ugg x g 2U x
2Ugg x 2 g 2U x g 2U x

2 g Ug x g 2U x

2C1 C2

Hence

Ug x 2C1 C2 ,
2

C2

## Choose C1=1 and C2 arbitrary=C,

Integrate
Combine
2

C g Ux

Ug 2 2 C x
Ux
C 1

U 2C x
ln U

Then

C
ln x k
2C

U x kxC 2 C
g x

Similarity
form of BL
eq.

2 C
k

1C
x 2 C

g2

Ux

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7
17

Fall 2010

Change constants

U x kx m

f ff 1 f
'''

''

y
m 1 U
y
g
2 x
'2

0 ,

f 0 f ' 0 0

2m
m

2
m 1 ,
f ' 1

## Solutions for 0.19884 1.0

Separation ( w 0 )
Solutions show many commonly observed characteristics of BL flow:
The parameter is a measure of the pressure gradient, dp dx .
For 0 , dp dx 0 and the pressure gradient is favorable. For

## 0 , the dp dx 0 and the pressure gradient is adverse.

Negative solutions drop away from Blasius profiles as separation
approached
Positive solutions squeeze closer to wall due to flow acceleration
Accelerated flow: max near wall
Decelerated flow: max moves toward

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Fall 2010

Chapter 7
18

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Fall 2010

Chapter 7
19

## 7.5. Momentum Integral Equation

Historically similarity and other AFD methods used for idealized flows
and momentum integral methods for practical applications, including
Momentum integral equation, which is valid for both laminar and
turbulent flow:

## BL form of momentum equation u U continuity dy

y 0

d
w
dU
1

C
H

f
dx
U dx
U 2 2

dU
0
For flat plate equation
dx

u
1 dy;
U
0U

*
H ;

u
dy
U

p 1

Momentum: uu x vu y
x y
The pressure gradient is evaluated form the outer potential flow using
Bernoulli equation
p

1
U 2 constant
2

1
px 2UU x 0
2

p x UU x

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7
20

Fall 2010

u U u x v y uu x uv y Uu x Uv y ,
Continuity

uu x vu y UU x

y uu x uv y Uu x Uv y 0

y 2uu x vu y UU x uv y Uu x Uv y

uU u 2 U u U x vU vu
x
y

y dy ( w ) / u U u dy U x U u dy vU vu 0
x 0
0
0

w 2 u u

U 1 dy U x U u dy
x 0 U U
0

U 2 x 2UU x U x *
Cf
2

1 dU
d
2 *
dx
U dx

Cf

d
dU
*
,H

2 H
2
dx
U dx

H
Ux
f
x
2
2
U
U

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7
21

Fall 2010

## Historically two approaches for solving the momentum integral equation

for specified potential flow U(x):
1. Guessed Profiles
2. Empirical Correlations
Best approach is to use empirical correlations to get integral parameters
(, *,, H, Cf, CD) after which use these to get velocity profile u/U
Thwaites Method
Multiply momentum integral equation by

w U d 2 dU

2 H
U dx dx
LHS and H are dimensionless and can be correlated with pressure
2 dU
as shear and shape-factor correlations
dx

w
S ( 0.09)0.62
U
5

H * / H ai (0.25 )i
i 0

## ai = (2, 4.14, -83.5, 854, -3337, 4576)

Note
U d 1 d 2
U
dx 2 dx

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7
22

Fall 2010

1 d 2
S ( ) U 2 H
2 dx
d / U x
U
2S 2 H F
dx

dU
2
Define z
so that z
dx

dz
dU
0.45 6 0.45 6 z
dx
dx
dz
dU
U
6z
0.45
dx
dx
1 d
6
i.e.
zU
0.45
5 dx
U
U

zU 0.45 U 5 dx C
0

0.45
5

U
dx

U 0
x

2
0

## 0 ( x 0) 0 and U(x) known from potential flow solution

Complete solution:

2 dU

dx

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7
23

Fall 2010

w
S
U
* H
Accuracy: mild px 5% and strong adverse px (w near 0) 15%
i. Pohlhausen Velocity Profile:

u
f a b 2 c 3 d 4 with y

## a, b, c, d determined from boundary conditions

1)

y 0 u = 0, u yy

2)

y u U , u y 0 , u yy 0

Ux

F 2 2 3 4
G

1 3

separation

u
F G , 12 12
U

2 dU
2

px
dx
U

2
37

## Profiles are fairly realistic, except near separation. In guessed profile

methods u/U directly used to solve momentum integral equation
numerically, but accuracy not as good as empirical correlation methods;
therefore, use Thwaites method to get etc., and then use to get and
plot u/U.

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7
24

Fall 2010

## ii. Howarth linearly decelerating flow (example of exact solution

of steady state 2D boundary layer)

x

a) Xsep

x
b) C f 0.1

Note Ux = -U0/L
Solution
0.45

5
U
1

0
6
x 0

U 06 1
L

L x
x

0
.
075
dx
1

L
U 0 L
5

## can be evaluated for given L, ReL

(Note:

0 x 0,
)
xL

x 6
2 dU
0.0751 1

dx
L

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

sep 0.09

Chapter 7
25

Fall 2010

X sep
L

0.123

L
0.0661
1
S 0.099 C f Re
2
2(0.099)
Cf
Re

## Compute Re in terms if ReL

2 0.075

L
U0

1 0.1

1 0.0661

L
U0

L 0.0661

0
.
0661

2
Re L
U
L
0
0.257

L Re 12
L

Re

Re L 0.257 Re L 2

L
1
20.099
Cf
Re L 2 0.77 Re L1/ 2
0.257

To complete
solution must
specify ReL

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7
26

Fall 2010

## Consider the complex potential

a
a
F z z 2 r 2 e 2 i
2
2

a
2
a
ImF z r 2 sin 2
2

ReF z r 2 cos 2

## Orthogonal rectangular hyperbolas

: asymptotes y = x
: asymptotes x=0, y=0

1
V r er e
r

v r ar cos 2
0 (flow direction as shown)
v ar sin 2

## V vr cos i sin j v sin i cos j

vr cos v sin i vr sin v cos j
Potential flow slips along surface: (consider
1) determine a such that vr U 0 at r=L,

90 )
90

## vr aL cos(2 90) U 0 aL U 0 , i.e. a

2) let U x vr at x=L-r:
vr aL x cos(2 90) U ( x)
U
x
Or : U ( x) a( L x) 0 ( L x) U 0 (1 )
L
L

U0
L

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Fall 2010

Chapter 7
27

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Fall 2010

Chapter 7
28

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7
29

Fall 2010

## 7.6. Turbulent Boundary Layer

1. Introduction: Transition to Turbulence
Chapter 6 described the transition process as a succession of TollmienSchlichting waves, development of - structures, vortex decay and
formation of turbulent spots as preliminary stages to fully turbulent
boundary-layer flow.
The phenomena observed during the transition process are similar for
the flat plate boundary layer and for the plane channel flow, as shown in
the following figure based on measurements by M. Nishioka et al.
(1975). Periodic initial perturbations were generated in the BL using an
oscillating cord.
For typical commercial surfaces transition occurs at Re x ,tr 5 10 5 .
However, the transition can be delayed to Re x ,tr 3 10 6 by different ways
such as having very smooth walls and/or very low turbulent wind tunnel.

u u u ;

v v v;

w w w;

p p p ;

## Substituting u, v and w into continuity equation and taking the time

average we obtain,

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7
30

Fall 2010

u v w

0
x y z

0
x y z

## Similarly for the momentum equations and using continuity (neglecting

g),

DV
p ij
Dt

Where

ui u j
ui' u 'j

ij
x j xi

Laminar

Turbulent

Assume
a.

x x which means v u ,

x
y

## b. mean flow structure is two-dimensional:

w 0 , z 0
'2

Note the mean lateral turbulence is actually not zero, w 0 , but its z
derivative is assumed to vanish.
Then, we get the following Reynolds averaged BL equations for 2D

u v

0
x y

dU e 1
u
u
v
Ue

dx
y
x
y
p
v '2

y
y

Continuity
x-momentum
y-momentum

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7
31

Fall 2010

## Where U e is the free-stream velocity and:

u
u 'v '
y

Note:
The equations are solved for the time averages u and v
The shear stress now consists of two parts: 1. first part is due to
the molecular exchange and is computed from the time-averaged
field as in the laminar case; 2. The second part appears
additionally and is due to turbulent motions.
The additional term is new unknown for which a relation with
the average field of the velocity must be constructed via a
turbulence model.
Integrate y- momentum equation across the boundary layer

p p e x v ' 2

So, unlike laminar BL, there is a slight variation of pressure across the
turbulent BL due to velocity fluctuations normal to the wall, which is no
more than 4% of the stream velocity and thus can be neglected. The
Bernoulli relation is assumed to hold in the inviscid free-stream:
dpe / dx U e dU e / dx

conditions:
No slip:

u x ,0 v x , 0 0
u x, U e x

## Free stream matching:

3. Momentum Integral Equations valid for BL solutions
The momentum integral equation has the identical form as the
laminar-flow relation:

d
dU e
2 H
w2 f
dx
U e dx
2
U e

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7
32

Fall 2010

## For laminar flow:

( C f , H , ) are correlated in terms of simple parameter

2 dU e

dx

## For Turbulent flow:

( C f , H , ) cannot be correlated in terms of a single parameter.
Additional parameters and relationships are required that model the
influence of the turbulent fluctuations. There are many possibilities all of
which require a certain amount of empirical data. As an example we will
review the method.
4. Flat plate boundary layer (zero pressure gradient)
a. Log law analysis of Smooth flat plate

## Assume log-law can be used to approximate turbulent velocity profile

and use to get Cf=Cf() relationship

u /u
*

ln

yu *

## At y= (edge of boundary layer)

u *
U e / u ln
B

However:
1/ 2

U e / u * U e / w

1 / 2 U e 2 C f
U e /

C
u * U e u *

Re f

Ue
2

C
f

1/ 2

C
f

1/ 2

1/ 2

1/ 2

Cf
ln Re

2

1/ 2

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7
33

Fall 2010

## Following a suggestion of Prandtl, we can forget the complex log law

and simply use a power-law approximation:

C f 0.02 Re 1 / 6
b. Use

d 1
C f U 2
dx 2
d
or : C f 2
dx

w U 2

1 / 6

## LHS: From Log law or C f 0.02 Re

d
u
/
U
RHS: Use
e to get
dx
Example:

7
u
u
(1 )dy
72
Ue
Ue
0
d
7
2 d
Cf 2
0.02 Re1/ 6 2 U e
dx
72
dx
d (Re )
d (Re )
1
Re1/ 6 9.72

d (Re x )
1 / 6
d (Re x )
Re
9.72

u /Ue ( y / )

1/ 7

## Assuming that: =0 at x=0 or Re=0 at Rex=0:

/ x 0.16 / Re1x/ 7 or : x 6 / 7
Turbulent BL has almost linear growth rate which is much faster than
laminar BL which is proportional to x1/2.

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7
34

Fall 2010

Other properties:
C f 0.027 / Re1/x 7
0.0135 1/ 7 6 / 7U 13/ 7
w,turb
x1/ 7
7
CD 0.031/ Re1/L 7 C f ( L)
6
1
*
8
H * / 1.3

## w,turb decreases slowly with x, increases with and U2 and insensitive to

c. Influence of roughness

## The influence of roughness can be analyzed in an exactly analogous

manner as done for pipe flow i.e.

ln

yu *

B ( )

B B ( )

ln(1 0.3 )

## B( ) which, increases with

u* /

A complete rough-wall analysis can be done using the composite loglaw in a similar manner as done for a smooth wall i.e. determine Cf()
and () from and equate using momentum integral equation

C f ( ) 2

d
( )
dx

## Then eliminate to get C f ( x, / x)

However, analysis is complicated: solution is Fig. 7.6. For fully roughflow a curve fit to the Cf and CD equations is given by,

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Chapter 7
35

Fall 2010

## Fig. 7.6 Drag coefficient of laminar and turbulent boundary layers on

smooth and rough flat plates.

x
C f (2.87 1.58 log ) 2.5

L
CD (1.89 1.62 log ) 2.5

## Fully rough flow

Again, shown on Fig. 7.6. along with transition region curves developed
by Schlichting which depend on Ret = 5105
3106

058:0160
Professor Fred Stern

Fall 2010

Chapter 7
36

## 5. Boundary layer with pressure gradient

ux vy 0
1

uu x vu y ( p / )
y
x
u
u v
y
The pressure gradient term has a large influence on the solution. In
flow separation. Recall that the y momentum equation subject to the
boundary layer assumptions reduced to
py= 0 i.e. p = pe = constant across BL.
That is, pressure (which drives BL equations) is given by external
inviscid flow solution which in many cases is also irrotational. Consider
a typical inviscid flow solution (chapter 8)

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## Even without solving the BL equations we can deduce information about

the shape of the velocity profiles just by evaluating the BL equations at
the wall (y = 0)
2u pe

y 2 x
pe
dU e
- Ue
where
x
dx

which, shows that the curvature of the velocity profile at the wall is
Effect of Pressure Gradient on Velocity Profiles
Point of inflection: a point where a graph changes between concave
upward and concave downward.
The point of inflection is basically the location where second derivative
2u
of u is zero, i.e. y 2 0

## (a) favorable gradient ( px<0, Ux>0)

at y 0: uy>0, uyy<0

## No point of inflection i.e. curvature is negative all across the BL and BL

is very resistant to separation. Note uyy()<0 in order for u to merge
smoothly with U.

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## (b) zero gradient (px = 0, Ux =0)

at y = yPI=0: uy>0, uyy=0
at y>0: uy>0, uyy<0

at y < yPI: uy>0, uyy>0
at y = yPI: uy>0, uyy=0
at y > yPI: uy>0, uyy<0

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Note that w = 0 since uy=0.
at y =0 : uy=0, uyy>0
at y < yPI: uy>0, uyy>0
at y = yPI: uy>0, uyy=0
at y > yPI: uy>0, uyy<0

at y =0 : uy<0, uyy>0
at y < yPI: uy increases gradually to positive value, uyy>0
at y = yPI: uy>0, uyy=0
at y > yPI: uy>0, uyy<0

## PI in flow, backflow near wall i.e. separated flow region

i.e. main flow breaks away or separates from the wall: large increase in
drag and loss of performance:
Hseparation = 3.5 laminar
= 2.4 turbulent

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6. -Method

## As mentioned earlier, the momentum integral equation for turbulent

flow has the identical form as the laminar-flow relation:

dU e
d C f

2 H
2
dx
U e dx

(I)

## With U(x) assumed known, there are three unknown C f , H , for

turbulent flow. Thus, at least two additional relations are needed to find
unknowns. There are many possibilities for additional relations all of
which require a certain amount of empirical data. As an example we will
review the method.
Coles law of the wake:
By adding the wake to the log-law, the velocity profile for both overlap
and outer layers can be written as:
u

where

ln y B

f ( )

y /

f ( ) sin 2 ( ) 3 2 2 3
2
A/ 2

## The quantity is called Coles' wake parameter.

By integrating wall-wake law across the boundary layer:
H
H 1
2 3.179 1.5 2
a ( )
(1 )
U 1
Re

exp( B 2 )

a ( )

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## If we eliminate between these formulas, we obtain a unique relation

2
among C f 2 / , H and :
H 2

2
/

2
/
[
(
)
]
C
a
f
H 1

2 3.179 1.5 2

a ( )
(1 )

U 1
exp( B 2 )

Re

(II)

## Clauser's equilibrium parameter :

For outer layer,
U e u f ( w , , y, ,

dp
)
dx

## Using dimensional analysis:

Ue u
y dp
g( ,
)
1/ 2
w dx
( w / )
Clauser (1954) replaced by displacement thickness :
Ue u
y
g( , )
1/ 2
( w / )

* dp
dU e
2 H

U e dx
w dx
is called Clauser's equilibrium parameter.

Das (1987) showed that EFD data points fit into the following
polynomial correlation:
0.4 0.76 0.42 2
Therefore:
dU e
2 H
0.4 0.76 0.42 2
U e dx

(III)

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## If we eliminate using that

Re

1
exp( B 2 ) ,
H

we obtain

2
another relation among C f 2 / , H and .

Equations (I), (II), and (III) can be solved simultaneously using say a
Runge-Kutta method to find C f , H , . Equations are solved with initial
condition for (x0) and integrated to x=x0+x iteratively. Estimated
gives Re and , gives H. Lastly Cf is evaluated using Re and H.
Iterations required until all relations satisfied and then proceed to next
x.

## Momentum integral methods perform well (i.e. compare well with

experimental data) for a large class of both laminar and turbulent 2D
flows. However, for 3D flows they do not, primarily due to the inability
of correlating the cross flow velocity components.

## The cross flow is driven by

outer potential flow U(x,z).

p
, which is imposed on BL from the
z

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## 3-D boundary layer equations

( p / ) u yy (u v);
x
y

## uwx vw y wwz ( p / ) w yy (vw);

y
z
u x v y wz 0;

uu x vu y wu z

closure equations
Differential methods have been developed for this reason as well as for
extensions to more complex and non-thin boundary layer flows.
7.7 Separation
What causes separation?
The increasing downstream pressure slows down the wall flow and
can make it go backward-flow separation.
dp dx 0 favorable gradient, flow is very resistant to separation.
Previous analysis of BL was valid before separation.
Separation Condition
u
w 0
y y 0

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## Note: 1. Due to backflow close to the wall, a strong thickening of the

BL takes place and BL mass is transported away into the
outer flow
2. At the point of separation, the streamlines leave the wall at a
certain angle.
Separation of Boundary Layer

Notes:
1. D to E, pressure drop, pressure is transformed into kinetic energy.
2. From E to F, kinetic energy is transformed into pressure.
3. A fluid particle directly at the wall in the boundary layer is also
acted upon by the same pressure distribution as in the outer flow
(inviscid).
4. Due to the strong friction forces in the BL, a BL particle loses so
much of its kinetic energy that is cannot manage to get over the
pressure gradient from E to F.
5. The following figure shows the time sequence of this process:

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## a. reversed motion begun at the trailing edge

b. boundary layer has been thickened, and start of the reversed
motion has moved forward considerably.
c. and d. a large vortex formed from the backflow and then soon
separates from the body.

## Examples of BL Separations (two-dimensional)

Features: The entire boundary layer flow breaks away at the point of
zero wall shear stress and, having no way to diverge left or right, has to
go up and over the resulting separation bubble or wake.

1. Plane wall(s)

Thin wall

## (a). Plane stagnation-point flow: no separation on the streamlines of

symmetry (no wall friction present), and no separation at the wall
(b).Flat wall with right angle to the wall: flow separate, why?

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2. Diffuser flow:

(a)

(b)

## Influence of a strong pressure gradient on a turbulent flow

(a) a strong negative pressure gradient may re-laminarize a flow
(b) a strong positive pressure gradient causes a strong boundary
layer top thicken. (Photograph by R.E. Falco)

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## Examples of BL Separations (three-dimensional)

Features: unlike 2D separations, 3D separations allow many more
options.
There are four different special points in separation:
(1). A nodal Point, where an infinite number of surface streamlines
merged tangentially to the separation line
(2). A saddle point, where only two surface streamlines intersect and
all others divert to either side
(3). A focus, or spiral node, which forms near a saddle point and
around which an infinite number of surface streamlines swirl
(4). A three-dimensional singular point, not on the wall, generally
serving as the center for a horseshoe vortex.

## 1. Boundary layer separations induced by free surface (animation)

CFDSHIP-IOWA

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Fall 2010

## 3. 3D separations on a round-nosed body at angle of attack

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## Video Library (animations from Multi-media Fluid Mechanics,

Homsy, G. M., etc.)

## Separations on airfoil (different attack angles)

Separations in diffuser

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## Flow over spheres: effect of Re

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