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Elemental Balance Method:

1. Hydrocracking is an important refinery process for converting low-valued heavy hydrocarbons into
more valuable lower molecular weight hydrocarbons by exposing the feed to a zeolite catalyst at high
temperature and pressure in the presence of hydrogen. Researchers in this field study the hydrocracking
of pure components, such as octane, to understand the behavior of cracking reactions. In one such
experiment for the hydrocracking of octane, the cracked products had the following composition in mole
percent: 19.5% C3H8, 59.4% C4H10, and 21.1 % C5H12. You are asked to determine the molar ratio of
hydrogen consumed to octane needed for this process.
Combustion: Read pgs 283 286

Assignment: Orsat Apparatus

Problems:
A. Fuel analysis is given:
1. Ethane is burned with 50% excess air. The percentage conversion of ethane is 90%; Of the ethane
burned, 25% reacts to form CO and the balance reacts to form CO2. Calculate the molar composition of
the stack gas on a dry basis and the mole ratio of water to dry stack gas.
2. A liquid fuel analyzing 90% C and 10% H by weight is burned with 20% excess air. Only 90% of the
carbon burns to CO2 and the rest to CO. Per 100 kg of fuel used, find the flow velocity of the combustion
gases flowing through the stack 20cm in diameter if it is at 200C and 10 cm H2O draft.
3. A mixture of 75% mole propane and 25% mole hydrogen is burned with 25% excess air. Fractional
conversion of 90% of the propane and 85% of the hydrogen are achieved. Of the propane that reacts,
95% reacts to form CO2 and the balance reacts to form CO. (a) Calculate the concentration of CO (in ppm)
in the stack gas
4. Toluene is burned with 30% excess air. A bad burner causes 15% of the carbon to form soot (pure C)
deposited on the walls of the furnace. What is the Orsat Analysis of the gases leaving the furnace?
5. 10.19. A gas with the following composition is burned with 50% excess air in a furnace: 60% CH4, 20%
C2H6, 5% CO, 5% O2 and 10% N2. What is the composition of the flue gas by percent assuming complete
combustion? B. If 85% of the carbons burns to form CO2 and the rest to CO, what is the Orsat analysis
of the flue gas?
6. A fuel gas supplied at 25C and 1000 mm Hg analyzes 20% H2, 5% CO, 35% CH4, 10% C2H6, 20% C3H8 and
10% N2. It is burned completely with 25% excess air ( 755 mm Hg, 30C). For every 100 m3 of the fuel,
calculate the volume of the flue gas ( 800C, 4 cm H2O draft) produced and the volume of the air used.

B. Flue gas analysis is given:

1. A hydrocarbon fuel is burned with excess air. The Orsat analysis of the flue gas shows 10.2% CO2, 1%
CO, 8.4% O2 and 80.4% N2. Determine (a) atomic ratio of H to C in the fuel (b) % excess air used.
2. Pure carbon is burned in oxygen. The flue gas analysis is: 75% (n) CO2, 14% CO and 11% O2. What was
the % excess oxygen used?
3. Burning a fuel consisting only of carbon and hydrogen results in gas analyzing 11.72% CO 2, 1.3% CO,
4.32% O2 and 82.66% N2. From this data, determine (a) % excess air used (b) empirical formula of the fuel.
4. The analysis of a flue gas from a fuel gas containing no nitrogen is 4.62% CO2, 3.08% CO, 8.91% O2 and
83.39% N2. Calculate a. % excess air used b. If the fuel gas is a mixture of methane and ethane, what
is the % of ethane in the fuel?
5. A gas containing only CH4 and N2 is burned with air yielding a flue gas that has an Orsat Analysis of 8.7%
CO2, 1% CO, 3.8% O2 and 86.5% N2. Calculate the % excess air used in the combustion and the composition
of the CH4 N2 mixture.
6. A flare is used to convert unburned gases to innocuous products such as CO2 and H2O. If a gas of the
following composition ( in percent) is burned in the flare 70% CH4, 5% C3H8, 15% CO,, 5% O2, 5% N2 and
the flue gas contains 7.73% CO2, 12.35% H2O, and the balance is O2 and N2., what was the % excess air
used?
7. Ethylene oxide (C2H4O) is a high volume chemical intermediate that is used to produce glycol and
polyethylene glycol. Ethylene oxide is produced by the partial oxidation of ethylene (C2H4) using a solid
catalyst in a fixed-bed reactor:
C2H4 + O2 C2H4O
In addition, a portion of the ethylene reacts completely to CO2 and H2O.
C2H4 + 3 O2 2 CO2 + 2 H2O
The product gas leaving a fixed-bed reactor has the following water free-composition: 20.5% C2H4O,
72.7% N2, 2.3% O2 and 4.5% CO2. Determine the % excess air used based on the desired reaction, and the
lb/h of ethylene feed required to produce 100,000 tons/yr of ethylene oxide.
8. The Orsat analysis of a gas leaving a pyrites burner shows 10% SO2, 5% O2 and the rest N2. What percent
of the sulfur burned is oxidized to SO3?