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Whatisnationalism?Whatimpactcanithave?

Objective:Explainwhatnationalismisandwhateffectitcanhaveonindividualsandonsociety.

Introduction

Directions:Examinetheimagesandinformationpresented,thenanswerthequestionthatfollows.

Accordingtotheauthorsofthesetwoimages,whateffectsmightnationalismhaveonacountry?

Whatisnationalism?

Directions:Readthedefinitionofnationalismandexaminetheimagesbelow,thencompletethepromptsthataccompanyeachimage.
Nationalism-strongfeelingsofsupportforonesnation

ImageA

ImageB

ImageC

TheFrenchcelebrateBastilleDayeveryyearon
July14thtomarkthestartoftheFrench
Revolutionandhonortheirhistoryofgovernment
basedonEnlightenmentideals.

Inthe1930s,Indiannationalistsprotestedagainst
Britishrule.LedbyMohandasGandhi,theyused
non-violenttacticstogainindependenceforIndia.

Inthe1930s,nationalisminGermanywasfueled
byblamingthecountrysproblemsonJewish
people.Inthisphoto,Germansoldiersholdsigns
readingGermans!Defendyourselves!Dontbuy
fromJews!

Observe:Whatdoyouseehappeningin
thisimage?

Observe:Whatdoyouseehappeningin
thisimage?

Observe:Whatdoyouseehappeningin
thisimage?

Explainwhythisimagedepictsanexample
ofnationalism.

Explainwhythisimagedepictsanexample
ofnationalism.

Explainwhythisimagedepictsanexample
ofnationalism.

GermanUnification(1861-1871)

Directions:Readthroughthetextandexaminetheimagebelow,thenanswerthequestionsthatfollow.
Bythemid-1800s,PrussiahadbeenaforceinpoliticsinNorthernEuropeforcenturies.LikemostofEurope,it
wasconqueredbyNapoleonintheearly1800sandwasapartofthecoalitionofcountrieswhodefeatedhimin
1814.

In1861,KingWilhelmI,asupporterofGermanunity,cametopower.In1862,heappointedOttovonBismarck
(18151898)thenewPrimeMinisterofPrussia.Bismarckbecameknownforhisstyleofdiplomacyknownas
realpolitik.Realpolitikisalsoknownaspragmatismandisawayofmakingpoliticaldecisionsbasedonbeing
practicalinsteadofbasedonideals.BismarckarguedthatGermanycouldonlyunifythroughaforeignpolicy
calledbloodandiron,meaningthroughwarandmilitarystrength.

In186364,disputesbetweenPrussiaandDenmarkgrewoverownershipofanareacalledSchleswigontheir
borders.Thedisputeledtowar,inthecourseofwhichPrussia,joinedbyAustria,defeatedDenmark.Denmark
wasforcedtogiveupSchleswigandanotherGerman-speakingareacalledHolstein.Intheaftermath,the
managementofthetwoareascausedgrowingtensionsbetweenAustriaandPrussia,whichultimatelyledtothe
Austro-PrussianWar(1866).ThePrussianswerevictoriousandasaresult,by1871,Prussia,ledbyKing
WilhelmIandOttovonBismarck,wasincontrolofmostoftheGermanspeakinglandincentralEurope

TimelineofGermanUnification
1861

KingWilhelmIofPrussia
comestopower

1862

WilhelmIappointsOtto
vonBismarckas
Minister-Presidentof
Prussia

1864

DanishWar-

1866

Austro-PrussianWar

1870-1871

Franco-PrussianWar

January18, GermanEmpireis
1871
proclaimed,unifying
Germany

KingWilhelmIandBismarckthenlookedtotheGerman-speakinglandstothewest.Theywenttowaragainst
FranceintheFranco-PrussianWar(1870-71).TheGermansinvadedParis,capturedEmperorNapoleonIII,and
wonthewar.Franceceded[gaveover]whatbecameknownasAlsace-LorrainetoGermany.

DuringtheSiegeofParis,theGermanprincesassembledintheHallofMirrorsofthePalaceofVersaillesand
proclaimedthePrussianKingWilhelmIasthe"GermanEmperor"onJanuary18,1871.TheGermanEmpirewas
thusfounded,andBismarck,again,servedasChancellor.Itwasdubbedthe"LittleGerman"solution,since
Austriawasnotincluded.
Source:Germany.NewWorldEncyclopedia.http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Germany

Questions
1.WhowerethetwoleadersofPrussiathatledtheunificationofGermany?

2.DescribeOttovonBismarckspolicycalledrealpolitik.Howwasrealpolitikdifferentfromtheway
MaximilienRobespierreledduringtheFrenchRevolution?

3.AccordingtoBismarcksbloodandironpolicy,howwasPrussiagoingtounitetheGerman-speaking
people?

4.WhichcountriesdidPrussiagotowarwithtogaincontroloftheGermanspeakingareasinEurope?

ItalianUnification(1849-1878)

Directions:Readthroughthetextandexaminetheimagesandmapsbelow,thenanswerthequestionsthatfollow.

TimelineofItalianUnification

1849

VictorEmmanuelIIbecomeskingofSardinia

1852

CountCavourbecomesprimeministerof
Piedmont

1860

GiuseppeGaribaldisinvasionoftheTwo
Sicilies

March17,
1861

KingdomofItalyisproclaimed

1866

ItalyannexesVenetia

1870

ItalyannexesRome,unitingalloftheItalian
peninsula

AfterNapoleonIsempirecrumbled,therepresentativesattheCongressofViennadecidedtoawardmostofnorthernItalytotheAustrianEmpireandto
grantauthoritytoseveralmonarchsthroughouttheItalianpeninsula,insteadofunifyingthem.DespitetheAustrianEmpiresattemptstosuppressit,
nationalisticfervor[passion]inspiredbytheFrenchRevolutiontookholdoftheItalians.

RevolutionarygroupsformedinItalyandtriedtoorganizethepeopleintorevolt.GiuseppeMazzini,whowaslaterknownasthesoulofItalianunification,
wasapartofoneofthemostinfluentialgroups,knownastheCarbonari,thatcreatedasecretorganizationcalledYoungItalyin1831.InsouthernItaly,
anothermemberoftheCarbonari,ageneralnamedGiuseppeGaribaldigatherednationalisticvolunteerscalledredshirtstofightwithhimagainstthe
AustrianEmpireandthoseItalianmonarchswhodidwanttounifyItaly.Between1814and1849,therebellionsstartedbynationalistorganizationslikethose
ledbyMazziniandGaribaldiwerestampeddownbylocalforcesorAustriantroops.Asaresult,bothMazziniandGaribaldiwereexiledfortheirrevolutionary
actions.TheyreturnedwhenleadersinnorthernItalystartedacampaignthateventuallybroughtItalytogether.

In1849,VictorEmmanuelII,asupporterofItalianunification,becametheKingofSardiniainthePiedmontregionofnorthernItaly.CamillodiCavour,an
experiencedandsavvydiplomat,becameEmmanuelspresidentoftheCouncilofMinistersin1852.EmmanuelandCavour,withthehelpofNapoleonIIIof
France,usedPiedmonteseandFrenchtroopstosuccessfullypushedtheAustriansoutofNorthernandCentralItaly,expandingtheKingdomofSardiniatoa
largeamountoftheItalianpeninsulaby1859.

Garibaldi,whohadreturnedtoItalytoaidintheunification,wasconvincedbyCavourinMayof1860toconcentratehisforcesonSicilywhererecent
rebellionsdemonstratedthattherewassupportfortheircause.GaribaldiandaboutathousandredshirtsconqueredSicilyinthreedays.Garibaldiwentonto
attackseveralothercitiesandinvadedNaples,gainingsupportfromtheinhabitantsandbecominganationalherointheprocess.
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TofinallydefeattheNeapolitanarmy,GaribaldineededhelpfromtheSardinianarmy.UnderVictorEmmanuelscommandtheSardinianarmymarchedsouth,
defeatingthePapalstates,andcomingtoGaribaldisaid.GaribaldigaveoverhiscommandtoEmmanuelandtheydefeatedthekingofNaples.OnlyRome
andVenetiaremained.OnFebruary18,1861,VictorEmmanuelassembledthedeputiesofthefirstItalianParliamentinTurin.OnMarch171861,the
ParliamentproclaimedVictorEmmanuelIIKingofItaly.

Threemonthslater,Cavour,havingseenhislife'sworknearlycomplete,died.Whenhewasgiventhelastrites,Cavourpurportedlysaid:"Italyismade.Allis
safe.

By1871bothVenetiaandRomecameunderthecontroloftheItaliangovernment.VenetiawaswonbecausetheItalianssidedwiththePrussiansinthe
Prusso-AustrianWarin1866andRomewastakenbyforcewhenFrenchtroopsleftthecitytodefendFranceagainstPrussiain1870.
Source:AdaptedfromItalianUnification.NewWorldEncyclopedia.http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Italian_unification

Source:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Italian-unification.gif

1.IdentifythefourmostimportantleadersofItalianunification.

2.Whichcountries/empiresdidtheItalianshavetofightormake
dealswithtogaincontroloftheentireItalianpeninsula?

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