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ACTION RESEARCH FALL 2015

Action Research Project


Fall 2015
Abby Johnson

ACTION RESEARCH FALL 2015

Initial Meeting and Documentation:


Our Meeting:
I spoke to my cooperating teacher about the Action Research project on September 24.
We discussed the goal of this project and how I hoped to work with a small group of students
over the course of the semester. When I came to class the next week, she gave me the students I
would be working with. I was given three students who were all on reading level F. Her students
were already divided into groups of three based on reading level for when she works with small
groups during class. She told me they are on target with their reading skills, but they could
benefit from more challenging, individualized instruction.

Student K: This student was chosen by Mrs. Bowen because of his need for more challenging
instruction. When Mrs. Bowen gave an initial assessment at the beginning of the year over Frys
300 Instant Phrases, he was already able to read all of them. This student reads with ease, but he
does not always comprehend what he is reading. This student comes from a Spanish-speaking
family.

Student L: This student was chosen by Mrs. Bowen because of her advanced reading level and
need for more intense instruction. She reads with ease, but she does not always understand the
words in the text. Her family speaks Spanish in the home.

Student V: Mrs. Bowen chose this student because she was also on reading level F. She has no
difficulty reading a text, but she also needs extra instruction to build her vocabulary. She can be
easily distracted which inhibits her ability to comprehend.

ACTION RESEARCH FALL 2015


The Question:

ACTION RESEARCH FALL 2015

After Mrs. Bowen identified the three students I will be working with, we discussed the
common problem among these students to formulate a target area and question. This led me to
ask: What are the best practice strategies to improve a students vocabulary skills so that they are
able to better comprehend a text? This question was chosen because all of these students need
more challenging vocabulary instruction. With an increase in vocabulary and an understanding
of decoding techniques, students will be able to read and comprehend more difficult texts.

Timeline

Pre-Session

Initial meeting with Mrs. Bowen


o Select students to work with
o Examine their individual needs
o Create the essential question

Session 1

Initial Assessments
o Elementary Reading Attitude Survey
o San Diego Quick Assessment
o Abecedarian Reading Assessment Vocabulary Section
o Grade 1 Reading Comprehension Passage A Visit to the Water Park

Session 2

Creation of Vocabulary Journal

Vocabulary Lesson
o Blew, Pile, Travel, Rustle
o Leaf Man

Context Clues
o Pick the Meaning Worksheet
o Just-Right and Choice Books

Session 3

Session 4

Session 5

Midpoint Assessment
o Reading Comprehension Passage
2nd Grade: The Clean Park
1st Grade: A Dog and His Ball (Student V)
o Abecedarian Reading Assessment

Session 6

ACTION RESEARCH FALL 2015

Synonyms
o Identify the Synonym Worksheet
o Interactive Synonym Word Game
o Just-Right and Choice Books

Session 7

Antonyms
o Adjective Antonyms
o Interactive Antonym Word Game
o Just-Right and Choice Books

Session 8

Prefixes
o Prefix Matching Activity
o Finding Prefixes Just Right and Choice Books

Final Assessment
o Reading Comprehension Passages
K: The Skeleton Key
L: The Closet Creature
V: Superhero Joey
o Abecedarian
o San Diego

Session 9

ACTION RESEARCH FALL 2015

Initial Assessment Reflection


For my initial assessments, I gave the Elementary Reading Attitude Survey, the San
Diego Quick Assessment, the vocabulary section of the Abecedarian Reading Assessment, and a
first grade reading comprehension passage entitled A Visit to the Water Park. The first
assessment I gave was the Elementary Reading Attitude Survey. I wanted to get a better
understanding of my students attitudes towards reading. Student K scored a seventy out of
eighty for the Elementary Reading Attitudes Survey. He circled either the happiest Garfield or
the slightly smiling Garfield on every question. He loves spending his time reading whether that
is in class or at home. Student L and student V fell in the neutral range. However, they were on
the higher end of that range. Student L scored a fifty-four out of eighty. She enjoys reading
much more in an academic context than reading in her free time recreationally. Similarly,
student V is neutral towards reading, scoring a fifty-nine on the scale. Her lowest ratings
concerned reading out loud in class or answering questions in front of the entire class. This is
something helpful to think about as I begin working with her in a small group. I am very pleased
that my students do not have a negative view towards reading.
The next assessment I gave was the San Diego Quick Assessment. This assessment
helped me determine their reading levels. This assessment showed a wide range of abilities.
Student K was placed on grade four for the independent level and grade five for the frustration
level. The only words he missed in grades three and four were frightened and entered. I was
amazed at how he was able to read such difficult words being in first grade. Students L and V
were similar in reading levels. Student L was placed on grade two for the independent level and
grade three for the frustration level. In grade three, she missed the words moment, frightened,
and exclaimed. Student Vs frustration level was also on grade three, missing the words middle,

ACTION RESEARCH FALL 2015

frightened, and exclaimed. However, her independent level was grade one. All students are able
to read on grade level, but I will have to vary the difficulty of the text to provide each student
with instruction that is challenging.
Next, I administered the vocabulary portion of the Abecedarian Reading Assessment. In
the production section, students must give the definition for ten words, scoring at least an eight.
Student K was the only one who passed this section. Similarly, in the antonym stage, student K
passed while students L and V failed. However, on the synonym section, students K and L
passed with perfect scores. Student V only scored a six. This score gave me a good indication
on some of their vocabulary, but it did not give a good indication of their ability to determine the
answers in a reading context.
The last assessment I gave was a first grade reading comprehension passage. Because I
am looking at vocabulary, I wanted to know the number of words in the passage that the students
did not understand. I asked them to circle the words they did not know as they read and then
answer the four questions at the end. Student K completed the assessment quickly, not circling
any unknown words in his passage. However, he did miss one of the four questions at the end.
Student L circled five different words in the passage; however, she did not miss any of the
comprehension questions. Finally, student V circled two unknown words and also missed two
questions.
Despite the fact that all the students are reading on or above a first grade reading level,
two of them still need help comprehending the text. Moving forward, I know I will need to
determine a way where each student is able to progress in their comprehension abilities and
expand their vocabulary. By building their vocabulary, I believe they will be able to read and
comprehend more difficult texts.

ACTION RESEARCH FALL 2015

Anecdotal Timeline
Date/
Time
Spent
10/8/15
30 mins.

Strategy
Description

Anecdotal
Observation

Assessment
Data

Plan for
Next Session

Reflect/Respond

- Vocabulary
Assessments

I noticed that
student V is easily
distracted. There
was a lot of time
repeating and
regaining her
focus. All of the
students are eager
to participate.

Garfield
Interest
Inventory
- K: 70/80
- L: 54/80
- V: 59/80
San Diego
- K:
Independent at
Grade
4/Frustration
at Grade 5
- L:
Independent at
Grade
2/Frustration
at Grade 3
- V:
Independent at
Grade
1/Frustration
Grade 3
Abecedarian
-K: Passed
Production (8),
Antonyms (8),
and Synonyms
(10)
-L: Passed
Synonyms
(10)/ Failed
Production (5)
and Antonyms
(6)
-V: Failed
Production (7),
Antonyms (6),
and Synonyms
(6)
Reading
Comprehensi

-I will create
a vocabulary
journal that
the students
can build on
each week.
This will be
another way
that they can
see progress.
Each student
can have
words that
are on their
different
levels.

From these
assessments, I
have realized all
of these students
are in different
placed with their
vocabulary.
Student K enjoys
reading and is far
beyond a first
grade reading
level. He did
well on all of the
assessments.
Student L is in
the middle. She
is above a first
grade reading
level, but she did
not do well
creating
definitions of
words. Student
V is on a first
grade reading
level. She did
not do well on
the Abecedarian
or the Reading
Comprehension
assessments.
They can all
improve their
vocabulary, but it
will be at various
levels. I need to
figure out a way
to give
instruction that is
beneficial for all.

ACTION RESEARCH FALL 2015

10/15/15
15 mins.

10/20/15
40 mins.

- Selection of
Vocabulary
Words
- Vocabulary
Journal
- Vocabulary
SelfCollection
Strategy
-Illustrations
-6 Step
Vocabulary
Instruction

All the students


were excited to
begin today.
They are all very
outgoing and like
to answer the
questions. L and
V were really
excited to have a
journal.

- Explicit
Instruction
- Nonlinguistic
- Read Alouds

The students were


ready to leave the
room to meet
together. During
the lesson, they
enjoyed the
activities where
they got to get up
and move. K
disengaged very
quickly after he
heard the
information once.

9
on Passage
(1st)
-K: Circled 0
words/Missed
1 question
-L: Circled 5
different
words/Missed
0 questions
-V: Circled 2
words/Missed
2 questions
Each student
selected a
word from his
or her list. We
discussed each
word and
came up with
another way to
say the word
and a word
that means the
opposite.
Their favorite
part was
drawing a
picture.

Each student
scored 100%
on a worksheet
that concerned
using the
vocabulary
words in a
sentence.

I will be
teaching a
vocabulary
lesson to my
students for
the next
session.

Next week, I
would like to
begin
focusing on
strategies
they can use
when reading
to figure out
what a word
means.

I think this
journal will be a
helpful tool to
continue building
their vocabulary.
I was able to
create a different
list of words for
each student
based on the
words they
missed in the
assessments. I
know it is not
going to be
enough to do
each week. I
would like to go
deeper with the
vocabulary words
with my students.
This week I
worked on four
specific words
with the students.
By the end of the
lesson, they knew
what all the
words meant.
However, I
realize this is not
going to be
enough to do
each week. It

ACTION RESEARCH FALL 2015

10

V was distracted
by materials used.

10/21/15
20 mins.

10/23/15
20 mins.

- Context
Clues
- Read Alouds

All of the
students were
excited to see
what we were
doing today.
They also enjoyed
using their Just
Right and
Choice books.

-Vocabulary
Assessments

The students did


not want to do
another
assessment.
However, I told
them if they did
their best then
they could see
how much they
have learned.
After agreeing to
let them play a

Students
identified
words in the
text that they
did not know.
They used
context clues
to figure out
the meaning.
K did this with
ease while V
just started
guessing
without
putting in
much thought.
L came to the
correct
conclusions
with some
guidance.
Abecedarian
-K: Passed
Production (9),
Antonyms (8),
and Synonyms
(10)
-L: Passed
Synonyms (9)
and Antonyms
(8)/Failed
Production (7)
-V: Passed

Next session,
I want to give
my midpoint
assessment. I
would like to
give the
Abecedarian
and another
Reading
Comprehensi
on Passage.

Next week, I
would like to
work with
them on
synonyms.
Instead of the
students
learning
synonyms for
random
words, I
would like to

will slowly build


vocabulary, but it
will not help
them
significantly over
this short time. I
need to focus
more on
strategies the
students can use
to figure out the
meaning of
unknown words.
I really liked how
todays session
went. The
students seemed
to really
understand what
was going on.
They enjoyed
using their own
books. I want to
continue using
this because I
think it helps
them realize why
this is helpful. I
would like to
incorporate more
movement so that
the students stay
engaged longer.
The students
seem to be
progressing.
They all continue
to be at different
levels, but they
have all
improved in
some way. I
modified the
Abecedarian
assessment and

ACTION RESEARCH FALL 2015


game, they
continued to be
engaged as they
learned
vocabulary
words.

10/29/15
20 mins.

- Synonyms

Production (8)
and Synonyms
(8)/Failed
Antonyms (7)
Reading
Comprehensi
on Passage
(2nd)
-K: Circled 3
words/Missed
0 question
-L: Circled 8
different
words/Missed
1 questions
-V: Began
circling almost
every word. I
asked her to
try her best,
but she said
she was and
that she didnt
know the
words. I gave
her the first
grade passage
again.
Circled 2
words/Missed
0 questions
The students were The students
excited again
completed the
today to work.
sheet Identify
Student V was
the Synonym
making student L together. After
frustrated.
going over the
Student K began
first three,
working with us
student K
in the beginning,
asked if he
but then he asked could continue
to work
to answer
independently.
them on his
They loved the
own. He
game that we
completed it
played.
with 100%

11
continue to
teach context
clues as they
find
synonyms.

gave them
sentences with
the words. I
think that is more
realistic to
indicate their
reading
comprehension
ability. I want to
continue to
introduce them to
new individual
words while also
teaching them
strategies they
can use in their
reading.

Next week, I
would like to
teach
antonyms.
This week
went well so
I will use the
same format.

This was by far


the most
successful
session that I
have had. The
students learned
a new skill. They
applied it, and
they stayed
engaged the
entire time. They
really like the
game at the end.
I think it will be
helpful to

ACTION RESEARCH FALL 2015

11/5/15

- Antonyms

20 mins.

11/12/15
15 mins

- Word
Families

12

accuracy.
Students L and
V understood,
but it took
some more
guidance from
me. Student K
helped
students L and
V when he
finished.
During the
game, all of
the students
did a great job
and did not
miss a
question.
Student K was
The students
much quieter
all worked
today. He got in
together. I had
trouble in class
to remind
that morning so
them that we
he was not his
were talking
normal self. The about a word
other girls were
that means the
very talkative.
opposite.
Student V was
However, they
much more
did a great job
focused today and in the end.
asked great
They
questions,
answered all
showing that she
of the
was engaged in
questions right
learning.
in the game.

All of the
students were
talkative today.
They enjoyed
doing the
worksheet that

This session
was more
difficult for
them. It
helped that the
prefixes had

continue
introducing a
new topic, having
them practice
with literature,
and then letting
them play a game
where they can
practice again. I
want to make
sure that I find a
way to challenge
K as much as the
other girls.

Next week, I
would like to
work on
prefixes of
words with
the students.

This week went


well. They had
to be reminded
that we were
looking for the
opposite. Once
again, they got
all of the
questions to the
game right. I
think it was
helpful to use a
variety of
strategies in one
lesson. I think
these students
understand all of
this so I would
like to try
something more
challenging like
prefixes.
Next week is This session did
the final
not go as well as
session so I
I had hoped it
will be giving would. I think
my final
the concept of
assessments. prefixes is too

ACTION RESEARCH FALL 2015

11/19/15
20 mins.

- Final
Assessment

13

they colored and


matched. They
also love using
books from their
book bucket.

been colorcoded.
However, I
dont think
they thought
this material
was as
important as
the other
information
we worked on.
They did not
do as well
when we
looked for
prefixes in
words.

The students were


sad that this was
the last week.
Before they began
their assessments,
we looked
through all of the
work they had
given me this
semester. They
all got really
excited and
stayed engaged
during the
assessments to
show me how
much they
learned.

San Diego
- K:
Independent at
Grade
4/Frustration
at Grade 5
- L:
Independent at
Grade
3/Frustration
at Grade 5
- V:
Independent at
Grade
2/Frustration
Grade 3
Abecedarian
-K: Passed
Production
(10),
Antonyms
(10), and
Synonyms
(10)
-L: Passed
Production (8),
Synonyms

I will give the


San Diego,
Abecedarian,
and a
Reading
Comprehension Passage.

challenging for
them. They all
participated and
did well.
However, they
did not
understand
breaking apart
the words into
smaller pieces to
find the meaning.
If I had time to
give another
session, I would
probably
continue to work
with them on
understanding
words in context.
After
administering the
San Diego to
determine what
independent
reading level the
students were on,
I gave them the
Reading
Comprehension
Passage. I was
pleased to see
that they all
improved. While
students K and L
passed all
sections of the
Abecedarian,
student V still
failed the
antonyms section
by one. Students
K and V only
missed one
question on their
reading
comprehension

ACTION RESEARCH FALL 2015

14
(10), and
Antonyms (8)
-V: Passed
Production (8)
and Synonyms
(10)/Failed
Antonyms (7)
Reading
Comprehensi
on Passage
-K (4th):
Missed 1/5
-L (3rd):
Missed 0/5
-V (2nd):
Missed 1/5

passage while
student L didnt
miss any. I am
amazed that the
students
performed so
well on a passage
for such a high
reading level.
While the
students could
read the words
before, I think
the key was
improving their
ability to figure
out the definition
so that they could
comprehend the
text.

ACTION RESEARCH FALL 2015

Student Progress Monitoring Chart


Student K:

Student L:

15

ACTION RESEARCH FALL 2015

Student V:

16

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17

Student Growth
Abecedarian (Production)

Initial
Midpoint
Final

Abecedarian (Antonyms)
12

10

8
Initial
6

Midpoint
Final

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18

Abecedarian (Synonyms)

Initial
Midpoint
Final

Student K

Student L

Student V

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19

Strategies/Activities Used

Nonliguistic Representations
Explicit Instruction
Read-Alouds
Vocabulary Journal
Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy
Synonym Instruction
Antonym Instruction
Context Clues
Prefixes

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20

Final Reflection
After meeting with my teacher, I assumed I would be working with three students who
were on the same ability level and teaching them various vocabulary words. However, as I
began working with my students and administered initial assessments, I quickly realized they
were on differing levels. I knew that each student could benefit from vocabulary instruction
because that was preventing them from easily comprehending a text. As I began my project, I
intended to spend time during each session in explicit vocabulary instruction. The first session, I
introduced a vocabulary journal that the students kept the entire time. This was a way students
could choose words and learn them in a meaningful way. The next week, I taught an explicit
vocabulary lesson on four words. I used nonlinguistic examples and other evidence based
strategies to teach these words. The students responded well to these sessions and learned new
words. However, after a couple of sessions, I realized the students vocabulary would not
significantly expand in that amount of time nor would they be any better prepared to read and
comprehend a text independently when our time ended. This led me to rethink my plan of
action. I decided it would be most beneficial to the students if I equipped them with strategies to
use when they encountered a word they did not know in a text. Before the midpoint assessment,
I was able to spend one session on context clues. The next session, after administering the
assessments and analyzing the data, I saw progress in all three students. Because of this, I
decided to continue teaching strategies.
The rest of the semester, we focused on a different component of vocabulary during each
session. These included synonyms, antonyms, and prefixes. I saw the students more engaged in
their learning, and they seemed to have a better understanding of how this applied to their
learning in the classroom. One way that I was able to differentiate their instruction and make it

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21

on their level was through the books they used during the sessions. Each student has a bucket in
the classroom of books on their level and books they choose from the class library. These are
books the students are reading everyday in the classroom independently and with a partner. They
remained engaged when looking for unknown vocabulary words in their own books and
identifying the meaning, synonyms, and antonyms. I also saw a significant improvement in their
engagement when they participated in interactive games. Next, we moved on to prefixes. While
I think this would have been helpful for them, they did not seem to grasp the concept of different
prefixes. I think I introduced too many at a time. If I did this again, I could have introduced one
a week instead of many in less than twenty minutes.
When it was time for the final assessment, I was interested to see how all of the students
would perform. I administered the San Diego Quick Assessment to determine what reading level
their reading comprehension passage should be. Each students reading level increased. After
administering the assessment, I gave each student a passage on their grade level. Students K and
V only missed one question while student L did not miss any questions. I was pleased with their
progress especially since these were harder passages than they initially completed. All of the
students also improved on their Abecedarian assessments. Overall, this was a very beneficial
project for the students and for me. I grew as an educator as I learned how to constantly assess
students to improve my practice. I could definitely see myself incorporating this into my
classroom. Throughout this process, I was able to see the importance of allowing students to
guide instruction in the classroom.

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22

The Impact of Vocabulary on Reading Comprehension


Abby Johnson
Samford University
Orlean Bullard Beeson School of Education

ACTION RESEARCH FALL 2015

23
Abstract:

Through proper vocabulary instruction and practice, students can improve their fluency and
reading comprehension skills. Vocabulary words should be chosen based upon common
academic vocabulary, words that are encountered the most, words that are most crucial to the
learning objectives at the time, and words students encounter and are interested in. By accessing
prior knowledge and providing a variety of practice methods, students vocabulary knowledge
will increase and impact fluency and comprehension.
Keywords: vocabulary instruction, fluency, reading comprehension

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24

The Impact of Vocabulary on Fluency and Reading Comprehension


Developing and implementing a strong vocabulary curriculum is essential for the success
of young readers. Without the knowledge and understanding of the meaning of simple words,
students are not about to understand the definitions of more complex words (Hiebert, 2003, p.
3). The foundation for vocabulary growth begins at a very early age. From kindergarten to first
grade alone, childrens vocabulary increases by 62.9% (p. 4). This increase in vocabulary
knowledge promotes fluency and boosts comprehension among readers (Bromley, 2004, p. 3).
Research has found that word meanings make up 74% of reading comprehension. By engaging
in intentional and multidimensional strategies for vocabulary acquisition, students ability to read
and comprehend a text will be strengthened.
Before instruction begins, selection of the vocabulary words must occur (Mason &
Sweeny, 2011, p. 2). When deciding which vocabulary words to focus on, teachers must begin
by assessing student knowledge before instruction (Bromley, 2004, p.7). Words that occur with
greater frequency across literature and the curriculum should be emphasized rather than words
that occur infrequently (Hiebert, 2003, p. 2). Research has proven that fewer words introduced
and discussed at a deep level is much more effective than a large list of vocabulary words to
memorize (Mason & Sweeny, 2011, p. 2). With frequent opportunities to work with these words
in meaningful contexts, students can infer the meaning of new words. When choosing words, it
is important to include common academic vocabulary, words that are encountered the most, and
words that are most crucial to the learning objectives at the time. When this is done, vocabulary
knowledge can be applied across content and curriculum. Teachers should also keep in mind that
learning is more meaningful when the students can choose what vocabulary words they want to
learn. This can occur with a pre-assigned passage. The Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy can

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also be employed with students (p. 6). Each week students pick a word he or she is interested in
learning the meaning of. The class keeps a journal of these words. They discuss the meaning of
the words and practice using the words through activities. At the end of the week and semester,
students are assessed on their progress.
While wide and independent reading can build vocabulary knowledge, many times
struggling readers do not have enough of a foundation to practice independent reading (Mason &
Sweeny, 2011, p. 1). In order to assist these struggling readers in vocabulary growth, teachers
must incorporate direct, indirect, and small group instruction. Vocabulary is very complex and
includes many dimensions (Bromley, 2004, p. 4). The components of words include visual,
structural, spoken, written, grammatical, and semantic. These are all areas that should be
incorporated into vocabulary instruction. Research has proven that teachers should assist
students in accessing prior knowledge when introducing vocabulary (p.7). Making connections
and using the vocabulary words frequently sustain a students learning. Words cannot be taught
through memorization and flashcards (Hiebert, 2003, p. 4). Effective instruction does not
include strictly teaching the dictionary definition (Marzano and Simms, 2013). Students should
learn key words in semantic families, identify word families, understand prefixes and roots, and
recognize synonyms and antonyms while connecting the new words to old ones (Mason &
Sweeny, 2011, p.3). Teaching children how to analyze various parts of words and how to
evaluate the use of the words are great ways for vocabulary instruction to carry into other areas
of their learning (p. 3). Through these strategies and instruction, students are able to learn
decode more specialized words in other content areas (Hiebert, 2003, p. 5).
Once vocabulary words and the instructional method are chosen, it is important to have
evidence-based strategies to employ in the classroom. This should include linguistic and non-

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linguistic activities (Marzano and Simms, 2013). Mason and Sweeny (2011, p.5) suggest
implementing read-alouds in the classroom. Before beginning, the teacher can choose
vocabulary words by identifying those that are central to the understanding of the text and
present in multiple circumstances. Teachers can assess student understanding by asking
comprehension questions at the end of the reading. Students can also gain a deeper
understanding of words by acting out the definition, drawing a picture that displays the meaning,
or even grouping words into categories and using word mapping (p. 5). Another great tool are
interactive games, puzzles, and passages that can be used to improve vocabulary (Bromley, 2004,
p.7).
Marzano and Simms (2013) suggest a six-step approach when teaching vocabulary. First,
the teacher will give a description and example of the word, followed by the students own
description and example. Next, students illustrate their description and engage with the word
through various activities. It is also important that the teacher provides opportunities for the
students to discuss the topic amongst themselves.
Vocabulary instruction is most effective when implemented school-wide; however, each
teacher can make a difference by taking steps to implement these strategies (Mason & Sweeny,
2011, p.2). Their attitude and excitement for language and words makes a significant impact on
student success (Bromley, 2004, p. 6). When students are anchored in a variety of rich texts
and proper vocabulary instruction, they excel in reading comprehension (p. 4).

ACTION RESEARCH FALL 2015

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References

Bromley, K. (2004). Rethinking vocabulary instruction. The language and literacy spectrum,
14, 3-12.
Hiebert, E. H., & Kamil, M. (Eds.). (2003). FVF Conference 03: In pursuit of an effective,
efficient vocabulary curriculum for elementary students. Berkeley: University of
California.
Marzano, Robert J., & Simms, Julia A. (2013). Vocabulary for the common core. Marzano
Research Webinar. Webinar retrieved from
http://www.marzanoresearch.com/resources/webinars/vocab-for-common-core-ewp045
Mason, Pamela A., & Sweeney, Sheelah M. (2011). Research-based practices in vocabulary
instruction: an analysis of what works in grades preK-12.