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522

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16 05'
500(144)- 21.22 2
x 32.2
AL=
[0.0051(480)5(462)*]
21.22(1)+
[ 7.41 x 10" (0.1662)* 21.221
= (72,000- 84.88)/(21.22

+ 0.005774) = 3,388 ft

or
A'
-=-AI.,

500
3,388

- 0.1476 psi/ft
The Beggs-Brill Method [20,25]

The parameters studied in this method and their range of variation were
as follows:
gas flowrate 0 to 300 Mscfd
liquid flowrate 0 to 50 gal/min
average system pressure 35 to 95 psia
pipe diameter 1 and 1.5 in.
liquid holdup 0 to 0.870
pressure gradient 0 to 0.8 psi/ft
inclination angle -90" to +90 also horizontal flow patterns

A flow diagram for calculating a pressure traverse in a vertical well is shown


in Figure 6-75. The depth increment equation for AI., is

(6-130)

where y,

two-phase specific weight in lb/ft3

v, = twephase superficial velocity (v,


f, = two-phase friction factor

G,

two-phase weight flux rate (lb/s

v , ~+ v ~ in
) ft/s

ftg)

A detailed procedure for the calculation of a pressure traverse is following:


1. Calculate the average pressure and average depth between the two points:

(p,

P'V2

14.7

2. Determine the average temperature T at the average depth. This value

must be known from a temperature versus depth survey.


3. From P-V-T analysis or appropriate correlations, calculate Rs,Bo, B, po,
pw,&, bo,owand Z at T and p.

Flow of Fluids

523

Calculate Ah

Flgure 6-75. Flow diagram for the Beggs-Brill method [19].


4. Calculate the specific gravity of the oil SG,:
SG, =

141.5

131.5 + API

5. Calculate the liquid and gas densities at the average conditions of pressure
and temperatures:

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Production

350SG0+ 0 . 0764RSGg
5.615

Yo

Yw

350SGw
= 5.615BW

Yg

= (14.'7)(T

0 . 0764SGgp(520)

+ 460)Z

6. Calculate the in situ gas and liquid flowrates.


qg =

3.27 x 10-'Zqo(R- R,)(T + 460)


P

e = 6.49 x 10-5(q0B0+ qwBw)


7. Calculate the in
V,L

e/%

"sg

situ superficial gas, liquid and mixture velocities:

v, = V& + v1
8. Calculate the liquid, gas and total weight flux rates:

G,

= YLVL

G,

G, + Gg

Gg = Y A g
9. Calculate the input liquid content (neslip holdup):

,N the liquid viscosity, pL, the mixture


viscosity pm and the liquid surface tension oL:

10. Calculate the Froude number

Flow of Fluids

545

pt = pLh + ~ $ -1 X)(6.72 x lo4)


aL = oofo+ awfw
11. Calculate the no-slip Reynolds number and the liquid velocity number:

%)

a 25

N, = 1.%8v,(

12. To determine the flow pattern that would exist if flow were horizontal,
calculate the correlating parameters,
L,, $, L3 and L4:
L

316hO.0302

L = 0.1oh-1.4516

L,

L4

= 0.5h-6.738

0.0009252h-'.4684

13. Determine flow pattern using the following limits:

Segregated

0.01 and N, < L,

or

h 1 0.01 and N, < L,


Transition:

h 2 0.01 and L, < N, < Ls


Intermittent:
0.01 I h < 0.4 and Ls < N, < L,
or

h 1 0.4 and L, < N, .5 L4

Distributed:
h < 0.4 and N, 2 L,

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Production
or

h 2 0.4 and N, > L,


14. Calculate the horizontal holdup H,(O):

where a, b and c are determined for each flow pattern from the following table:
~~~

Flow pattern
~~

~~

Segregated
Intermittent
Distributed

0.98
0.845
1.065

0.4846
0.5351
0.5824

0.0868
0.0173
0.0609

15. Calculate the inclination correction factor coefficient:


C = (1 - h)ln(&Ni$Jk)

where d, e, f, and g are determined for each flow condition from the
following table:
Flow Pattern

Segregated uphill
Intermittentuphill
Distributeduphill

0.011
-3.768
2.96
0.305
No correction

All flow patterns downhill

4.70

-0.3692

3.539
4.4473

-1.614
0.0978

0.1244

4.5056

c=o

16. Calculate the liquid holdup inclination correction factor:

I = 1 + Crsin(1.80) - 0.333 sin3(1.80)]= 1 + 0.3C


for vertical well
17. Calculate the liquid holdup and the two-phase density:
H,(0) = HLWW

P,

PLHL + p,(l

- HL)

18. Calculate the friction factor ratio:


f,/f..

where S

el

[ln(y)l/{-0.0523 + 3.182 ln(y) - 0.8725 [ln(y)I4


+

0.01853 [ln(y)I4)

Flow of Fluids

527

WHL(~)l4

S becomes unbounded at a point in the interval 1 < y < 1.2; and for y in
this interval, the function S is calculated from

s = h(2.2y -

1.2)

19. Calculate the no-slip friction factor:


f,

1/{2 log [NJ(4.5223

0.0056 + 0.5/(N,)0.34

log Nkm - 3.8215)])'

or
f,

20. Calculate the two-phase friction factor:


f, = f,/(f,/fJ

21. Calculate AL. If the estimated and calculated values for AL are not
sufficiently close, the calculated value is taken as the new estimated value
and the procedure is repeated until the values agree. A new pressure
increment is then chosen and the process is continued until the sum of
the AL's is equal to the well depth.

Example 5
Solve the problem in Example 2 using the Beggs-Brill method.

Solution
1. p = 1,719.7 psia
2. T = 90F
3. R, = 947.3 scf/stb Bo = 1.495 bbl/stb
pw = 0.5 cp, 6, = 28 dyn/cm, Z = 0.72
4. SG, = 0.736, y = 8.823 lb/ft5
5. yo = 38.32 lb/fpts (from Example 3)
6. q, = 0.08855 ft5/s
qL = 0.0466 ft3/s
7. A, = 0.0217 ft'
vsL = e / A , = 2.147 ft/s, vs, = 4.081 ft/s
8. Calculate the liquid, gas and total weight flux rates:
GL =

YLvT.L,

G, = Ygvq

G, = GL + G,
=

38.32 x 2.147 + (8.823)x 4.081

118.3 lb/(s

ftp)

9. Calculate the input liquid (no-slip holdup):


k = q L -0m0466
= 0.3448 = 0.345
qL+q,
0.0466+0.08855

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Production

10. The Froude number, viscosity and surface tension


Nm=<=
gd
=

6.23'
= 7.26
32.174~0.1662

pofo+ pwfw= 0.5(1.0) + ~ ~ ( 0 .=0 0.5


)

p, = (6.72 x 104)[0.5 x 0.345 + 0.02(1

- 0.345)] = 1.164 x

0.0001164 lbm/(ft/s)

=
0, =

oofo+ owfw
= 28 x 1.0

28 dyn/cm

11. Calculate the no-slip Reynolds number and the liquid velocity number:

N,

1.938 x 2.147(38.32/28)0.*5= 4.5

12. Determine the flow pattern that would exist if flow were horizontal:
L,

316h0.30*
= 316 x (0.345)0.3" = 229.14

0.0009252(0.345)-*.46&4
= 1.2796 x lo-*

L3 = 0.10h-'.*16

0.10(.345)-1."16

0.4687

L4 = 0.5h-6.ns = 0.5(0.345)-6.7s8= 650.3


13. Determine flow pattern:

0.4 > h > 0.01 and

Lp < N, < L

The flow pattern is intermittent.


14. Calculate the horizontal holdup:
HJO)

0.845(0.345)0~5551/7.260~0175
= 0.462

15. Calculate the inclination correction factor coefficient:


C

(1 - 0.345) ln(2.96 x 0.345~5054.5-0~~737.260~0g78)

0.18452

16. Calculate the liquid holdup inclination correction factor:


\v

1 + C[sin(l.8 x 90) - 0.333 ~ i n ~ ( 1X. 990)


1 + C(0.309 - 0.009826) = 1 + 0.3C

1 + 0.3(0.18452)

1.055

Flow of Fluids

549

17. Calculate the liquid holdup and the two-phase density:


HL(90)= H L ( 0 )=~ 0.462 x 1.055

r, = y,H,
=

0.4876

r, (1 - HL) = 38.32(0.4876) + 8.823 (1 - 0.4876)

23.2 Ib/ft3

18. Calculate the friction factor ratio:

[0.345/(0.4876)2] = 1.451, In 1.451 = 0.3723

fc/fns = exp[0.3723/(-0.0523 + 3.182 x 0.3723)

- 0.8725 x 0.3723p

+ 0.1853 x 0.37234)]
=

exp(0.3723/1.0118)

3.36796
= 1.4447

19. Calculate the no-slip friction factor:


f,, = 1/{2 l0g[NRcns/(4.5223log Nk
=

- .3.8215)])*

1/36.84 = 0.0271

20. Calculate the two-phase friction factor:


ft

fnJft/fns)= 0.0271(1.4447) = 0.0391

21. Determine the distance AL for Ap

500 psi from Equation 6-130

23.2(6.23)4.081 144
50011 - 32.174 x 1.719.7
AL=
23.2(1.0)+ 0.0391( 118.3)6.23
2(32.174)O.1662
4

= 2,750 ft

and

_
A - 500 = 0.18 psi/ft
AL

2,750

Example 6

Solve example 1 using the Beggs-Brill method

q,

40 MMscf/d, p,

q,, = 40,000 stb/d, T,


ID

9 in.

2,000 psia

80F

SGp = 0.75 at p

Rp = 990 scf/bbl

14.7 psia in T

60F

530

Production

Solution
1. SG, = 141.5/131.5 + API = 0.86
2. Calculate R,, Bo, potp,, Zg at pav and :
,
T
Z, = 0.685

pg = 0.0184 cp
R, = 477 scf/stb

Bo = 1.233 rb/stb

po = 2.96 cp
3. Calculate yo and

Yo =

Yg

Y, at average parameters:

350(0.86) +0.0764(477)(0.75) = 47.42


5.614( 1.233)

Iwft3

0.07Wgp(520) - 0.0764(0.73)(2,000)(520) =
+ 460)Zg (14.7)(80 x 460)(0.685)

= (14.?)(T

Iwft3

4. Calculate the in situ gas and liquid flowrates,

qg =

3.27 X lo9 Zgqo(R - R,)(T + 460)

- 3.27~10"(0.685)(40,000)(990- 477)(80+ 460)


2,000
= 1.241 ft3/s

qL= 6.49 x 10" (qoBo+ qwBw)


=

6.49 x 10" [40,000(1.233) + 01

3.201 ft3/s

5. Calculate A,:

6. Calculate the in situ superficial gas, liquid and mixture velocities:

vL = q,/A,

3.201/0.4418

7.25 ft/s

Flow of Fluids
vsg = q/Ap
v,,, - V~

1.241/0.4418

2.81 ft/s

v ~ , 7.25 + 2.81

10.06 ft/s

531

Calculate the liquid, gas and total mass flux rates:


G , = pLvsL= (4'7.42)('1.25) = 343.6 lb/(s

ft)

G,

ft)

p,v,,

(10.96)(2.81) = 30.79 Ib/(s

G,,, = G, + G, = 343.6 + 30.8 = 374.4 lb/(s

ft)

Calculate the no-slip holdup:

qL+qs

32+1.241

z0.72

Calculate the Froude number N,,


tension oL:

pm

the mixture viscosity pm and surface

6.27 x 10-4 [pLh + pg(i - h)]

6.27 x

[2.96(0.72) + 0.0184(0.28)]

1.44 x

lb/(ft/s)

oL= 37.5 - 0.257(API) = 37.5

- 0.257(33) = 29.0

dyn/cm

10. Calculate the non-slip Reynolds number and the liquid velocity number:

0.25

N,

= 1.938vsL($]

= 1.938(7.25)(47.42/29)0.*5 = 15.88

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Production

12. Determine flow pattern:


Since 0.721 2 0.4 and L, < N,

I L4

Flow is intermittent.
13. Calculate the horizontal holdup H,(O):
H,(O)

ahb/Nc,

0.845 x 0.721~555'/7.1860~01m
= 0.692

14. Calculate \~rand HL(0) and two-phase specific weight:

e = O", k = 1 + 0 = 1

Since

H,(O")

H,(O)h = 0.692

7, = yLH, + r,Cl - HL) = 47.42(0.692) + 10.96(1 -0.692)


=

36.19 lb/ft3

15. Calculate the friction factor ratio:

ln(y) = 0.4092
S = ln(y)/[-0.0523 + 3,182 In y
=

- 0.8725(1n y)* + 0.01853(1n y)'

0.3706

fJf,

e'

eoJ706
= 1.449

16. Calculate the non-slip friction factor f,:


f, = 1/{2 log[ReJ4.5223

log ReN - 3,8215)]1'

1/(2 1og[195,000/(4.5223 log 195,000 - 3.8215)])2

0.01573

17. Calculate the two-phase friction factor:


f, = f,(fJf,)

0.01573(1.449) = 0.0227

18. Calculate the pressure gradient:


(36.19)(10.06)(2.81)
(32.2)2,000( 144)
--AL. gp
tGmvm
36.19(
1)(
0)
+ 0.0227(374.4)(10.06)
*~(144) yP sin e + 2(32.2)(9/12)
2gd
l--

= 0.5646

7tVmV.p

1-

Natural Flow Performance

AL = 81.3
P

or

533

AP = 1.23 x lo-* psi/ft


-

AL

because pressure is decreasing in flow direction to proper value of


Ap/AL = -1.23 x lO-?si/ft.

Summary
In this work attention was paid only to five methods. These are flow regime
maps, the Duns-Ros method, the Orkiszewski method, the Hagedorn-Brown
method and the Beggs-Brill method. They are the most often used. However, it
is necessary to point out that in literature [19,20,25,26,27] it is possible to find
a lot of other methods. Large numbers of correlations indicate that this problem
has not been properly solved so far. Pressure loss in pipe is a function of a few
parameters. The most important are sort of fluid mixture, working temperature
and pressure, pipe diameters and inclination. In practice the best way to evaluate
methods is to make measurement of pressure drop distribution in wells or pipes,
and, next, adjust a proper correlation. It means that for various oil-gas fields
different methods could satisfy the above requirements.
For production purposes pressure gradient is often evaluated based on
Gilberts type curves. This method is not accurate, but still is used.

NATURAL FLOW PERFORMANCE


The most important parameters that are used to evaluate performance or
behavior of petroleum fluids flowing from an upstream point (in reservoir) to
a downstream point (at surface) are pressure and flowrate. According to basic
fluid flow through reservoir, production rate is a function of flowing pressure
at the bottomhole of the well for a specified reservoir pressure and the fluid
and reservoir properties. The flowing bottomhole pressure required to lift the
fluids up to the surface may be influenced by size of the tubing string, choke
installed at downhole or surface and pressure loss along the pipeline.
In oil and gas fields, the flowing systems may be divided into at least four
components, as follow:
1. reservoir
2. wellbore
3. chokes and valves
4. surface flowline

Each individual component, through which reservoir fluids flow, has its own
performance and, of course, affects each other. A good understanding of the flow
performances is very important in production engineering. The combined performances are often used as a tool for optimizingwell production and sizing equipment.
Futhermore, engineering and economic judgments can depend on good information on the well and reasonable prediction of the future performances.
As has been discussed in previous sections, hydrocarbon fluids produced can
be either single phase (oil or gas) or two phases. Natural flow performance of
oil, gas and the mixture will therefore be discussed separately. Some illustrative
examples are given at the end of each subsection.