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Jessika Meza
Professor Ogbara
English 1A
20 November 2015

Research Paper Outline (Draft)

To what extents are physicians technological advanced of assisting suicide or euthanasia to their
patients is it their duty or right to protect patient wrong from wrong or right decisions?
Argument for those who proponents for assisted suicide
Scholarly article Death with Dignity by Susan M. Behuniak - The author argues that one
needs to acknowledge patients illness, mental state of mind, and rights during a time of their
Supporting evidence: Acknowledging the suffering involved in a prolonged death, the Society
embraced the position that it was ethically sound to end this suffering by killing the patient, and
that hastening death was a personal entitlement supported by a legally cognizable right to die
(pg 3).
Patient story in hope to have an assisted death wish to support pro choice: Robert Baxter, a
terminally ill patient with lymphocytic leukemia, contested the law banning physician assisted
death. In the article he expressed that, As death approaches from my disease, however, if my
suffering becomes unbearable I want the legal option of being able to die in a peaceful and
dignified manner by consuming medication prescribed by my doctor for that purpose (p.3).
The patient feels strongly about his personal and private decision to take hold of his life. He
takes on the matter to an assisted death procedure to be his choice as he expressed that it was
my suffering, my life and my death (p. 3). He doesnt blame anyone else for his decision and
desire, unless he is restricted not to by the government.
The Hemlock Society, founded in 1980, set its sights on changing the mainstream
repugnance of anything associated with euthanasia by redirecting attention toward
medical technologies that prolonged suffering and the dying process.
The Hemlock Society was not a threat to the social order because it emphasized
private self deliverance rather than challenges aimed at changing public policy.

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Argument 3: Western understandings of autonomy are based on the writings of John Stuart
Mills (18061873) and Immanuel Kant (17241873). Patients have the freedom and right to
control their future under circumstances that they must respect others.
Kantian definitions of autonomy are linked to concepts of liberty and freedom but constructed
in a moral framework, which asserts that individuals are due autonomy, but must, also respect the
autonomy of others (pg.3).
Kantian approaches can be described as obligation based (Beauchamp & Childress 2001, p.
348) and rest on an assumption that the individual is capable of rational reasoning to do that
which is morally right.
Supporting autonomy requires that patients have willingness, knowledge and understanding to
interpret choices, as well as the ability to make rational decisions.

Argument for Opponents of Assisted suicide

Dr. Alan B. Astrow argued In the Book Facing Death he pronounced that, Legalization of
Assisted suicide and euthanasia would do little, in my view, to enhance the comfort of these
patients and would threaten substantial public harm and damage to the morale of the profession
(p 44).
First argument he expressed that, The Failure to acknowledge that the patient is dying and that
comfort is the most appropriate goal (45).
Supporting evidence:Western religious traditions acknowledge the principle of the double
effect: treatment intended to relieve the suffering of a person with advanced incurable disease is
morally acceptable even if that treatment secondarily shortens the persons life (p.45).
Example of Patient who suffers from ASL story:In persons with end-stage ASL, for instance
(at risk, say, of choking on their own saliva), I would think it medically and morally proper for a
physician familiar with the patient to provide morphine for comfort (p.47).
Second argument he addressed was the misuse of high technology in a manner that prolongs the
dying process.
Supporting evidence:Most physicians, aware of the uncertainties of medical decision-making,
the strain of caring for the chronically ill, and the hostile feeling that such patients may engender,
understand the need to accept limits to what a physician is empowered to do (p.46)
Example of patient who is quadriplegic:one could, for example, imagine the plight of a
person left quadriplegic after a cervical spinal cord injury who, after prolonged consideration,

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decided that he did not wish to go on living but did not have the ability to induce his own death
Dr. Lonny Kliever of Southern Methodist University, explain that his patient who suffered a
spinal cord injury had no choice but to Suffer himself to death (47). He argues that traditional
objection to suicidedid not anticipate the modern day prolongation of the living-dying interval
achieved by medical technology (47).
Dr. Kliever mention his personal opinion as to medical technology seems to do more harm than
good for patients, so assisted suicide and euthanasia are seen as an easy death, to end all
suffering. Religious traditions should rethink their beliefs of assisted suicide to respect death
wish of suffering patient or loved one.
It is a doctors job to prevent death but when all goes wrong one must step into a role as a
Third argument: scholarly article Physician-Assisted Dying Is Not Ethical written by Barbara
A. Rockett is a physician at Newton-Wellesley Hospital in Newton, Massachusetts, and former
president of the Massachusetts Medical Society.
She argues that Physician-assisted suicide is in direct conflict with the Hippocratic Oath, and the
vow to be a professional health care provider will be violated. The Hippocratic Oath is a pledge
that no doctor shall give no deadly medicine to anyone if asked" and ensures that their primary
responsibility is to "first do no harm". It is a commitment to patients, society, and hospital
committee that guides us in the ethical practice of medicine.

The concept of Hospice care for terminally ill patients comes to the united states in
1963.hospice was a drastically different procedure from technological medicine. Dr. Cicely
Saunders approach began with a careful assessment of the patient from my standpoint-medical,
psychologically, spiritual, social, and economic to get a better understanding to patients desires
(81). Nurse worked together to as a team to be ill patient at whatever time they needed their
service. The length of the terminal phase was unpredictable. There was no exact date or time to
when or how long a patient may live. Doctors and nurses goal was to care for ill patients with
palliative is not only the patient who seeks help but also the family and friends of ill
patient. pain, for example, not only comes from the changes in the body organs but also from
the spiritual needs..(88).taking an extra step to comfort survivors has taught plenty to health
care takers, the process of letting go of dying patient. Hospice care doesnt eliminate traditional
treatments but it is an alternative.