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Works Cited

1. Krakauer, Jon. Into The Wild. New York: Anchor, 1997. Print.
Jon Krakaur is an American writer who is known for writing about the outdoors.
He was also a member of a group that went on a traitorous expedition on Mt.
Everest in 1996. It is also known as the 1996 Mount Everest Disaster. He was
born in Brookline, Massachusetts and raised in Corvallis, Oregon. Third of the
five children his mother and father conceived, at age eight, his father introduced
him to the world of mountaineering.
Into the Wild is a non-fictional book based on the life and adventure of
Christopher McMandless, also known and Alexander Supertramp. This is my
Book reference. Upon his graduation at Emory, he then sets off on his journey to
avoid the poison of society. He is basically on a search of Nirvana, which is
eternal enlightenment. He wanted to live in isolation, so he began to journey to his
final destination, Alaska. Living in the wilds of Alaska, Alex realizes that you
cannot escape society, because of the planes he saw even though he was in the
depths of Alaskas woods. He meets his demise from poisoning of herbs he
thought he could eat. Near the end of his lifespan, he then realizes what he has
been searching for and becomes enlightened upon his death.
This Book relates to my topic on how it is to be free. How there are so many
different types of being free and becoming enlightened in searching for Nirvana.
This source will further my knowledge in what it means to be able to be off a
leash. Away from society and how society shuns the thought of wanting to be your
own free spirit. It shows that just because society makes pace at another

frequency, you can create your own and find inner happiness doing what you love
to do. Reflection: Chris reflects the actions of Nirvana. The eternal enlightenment
based off of finding inner peace and happiness. The actions he does to debase the
distractions of society and venture to the wild to find what happiness is to him is a
sub-branch of eternal enlightenment. This book has meaningful information that
will help me with further investigating what I define happiness and being free to
be. It will extend my knowledge and how to apply it to my essay because it is a
great example on many definitions of what freedom truly is in my eyes. Yes, the
reference this book shows me is to not be afraid to set off on my own journey to
seek what I deem my own personal enlightenment is. This book is both the
authors opinion and academic support. It shows one side of how they found
freedom, and what freedom is to them. Is shows academic support because it is
also shows a ploy in different aspects of my topic. This book provides a specific
viewpoint on what Chris saw what happiness was to him. There are so many
different views on this topic, but it is specific to how him being free got to where
is then. The audience for this book is the general public. It is based on the life of
Chris McCandless and how his journey could hopefully enlighten others in what
they do, and what they deem fit of their eternal happiness. Yes the text did help
me understand my topic more. The Book did not change my thinking of my own
topic because it pieces really well with what my topic is and what it could do to
make my essay grow into.
2. "Buddhism - Rebirth and Nirvana." Buddhism - Rebirth and Nirvana. N.p., n.d. Web.

The author was not listed in this article. But this gives a gist of what Nirvana and
being reborn means to a Buddhist.
Reflection: This is my General source. This text is more of an insight of what
some aspects Buddhism is. What this article shares with me is what Buddhist
claim as rebirth, and what nirvana is to them. The way I would conclude this
information into my journal/paper is using the facts given to support my ideals of
freedom. This author goes by what he/she read and researched that came to the
conclusion of what he/she believes the beliefs of Buddhism is. The article itself is
more of a general overview than an in depth experience. I believe the intended
audience for this article is anyone who has an interest in Buddhism and the
following of their sutra. This text gives me a further understanding of my topic. It
did not, because I am also on the search for Nirvana.
3. Grinstead, Eric D. The Tangut Tripitaka. Delhi: Mrs. Dharada Rani, n.d. Print
The author for Buddhist bible is unknown because it was written so long ago. It is
written in a different language and translated by a man named Eric Grinstead. He is a
sinologogist and tangutolgist that specializes in translating the Tangut scripts. This is
my primary source. They say that the Tangut Tripitaka is known for being the
Buddhist Bible.This text gives a peek into what the gateways of reaching eternal
enlightenment, which are steps into achieving nirvana. What is tells is how were are
born, to the life we live, all the way until we reach death, and get reborn into another
species if not human. Although it is translated, it may not be word for word as to
how and what we should do to get past the gateways. This relates to my topic
because it reflects on how I want to be released and free from all burdens. It shapes

what I believe what freedom is.

Reflection: This book is what of the oldest teachings of Buddhism. The Title Tangut
Tripitaka is known as the three baskets. Which in all three baskets are known for
separate things. Basket one is Buddha, the second is Darma, which is the teachings,
and the third is the teacher of Buddhism known is Tang. The teachings in Buddhism
are wisdom, forgiveness, compassion, endeverness, and happiness. These five things
are what lead us to reaching nirvana. Although this is only a text, it is also about
experiencing the hardship upon reaching enlightenment. It is more on academic
source that shows the specifics of Buddhism. This book didnt change my view on
freedom, but gives me more support on what views I have on life.

4. Welbon, Guy Richard. "The Buddhist Nirvana and Its Western Interpreters."
Http:// PhilPapers, n.d. Web.
Guy Richard Welbon published this book in 1968 stating how Buddhism has been
intergraded into western cultures. It tells how it is used and interpreted into what
westerns believe what Nirvana is. Buddhism itself has been spread across the
whole world; from Europe, to Asia, and to the north and south American
Continents. This is one of my secondary sources. The way he explains Nirvana in
the ways I would say his views are also near identical. It is just more of a modern
standpoint. This article will go well with the different aspects and views of
Buddhism and reaching freedom.
Reflection: It differs in little ways, such as different viewpoints on how to
achieve. For the most part, they are alike to my other sources because its all on

Nirvana. It will help in my paper because it complements a different point in

freedom. This is an academic source and a personal opinion since its also a book
that Guy wrote and researched himself to the ideals of enlightenment. I would say
this is a general source. It gives an all round generalization to the western
interpretation on Buddhism. The audience itself is someone who would be
looking for other views instead of just the Asian and European sightings of
Buddhism. It just helps more on enlightening me on the views of the western
cultural points. It has, just on how to find and break through obstacles.
5. Suzuki, Daisetz Teitaro. "Essays in Zen Buddhism." D.T. Suzuki, 18 Jan. 1994. Web.
The Author D.T. Suzuki did his research on what he believes Zen Buddhism is.
He was born on October 18, 1870, and pasted away on July 12, 1966. This is a
secondary source. He wrote this book and was then fully translated in 1994. He
spent most of his days teaching his preference of Zen Buddhism to western
universities. Zen Buddhism is a different aspect and teachings of Buddhism that
originated from China and Adopted by the Japanese. Taoism hugely influences
Zen Buddhism, which is for the most part yin and yang. It deals with the there a
dark side that will always have a little light of good, and a good side that will
always have a taint in their soul no matter how good you are because of the
human nature to be greedy, revengeful, anger, etc. Zen Buddhism focuses on the
meditation process to reach bliss of happiness.
Reflection: It differs because of the different practice of finding freedom. The
ending is the same result but the process is in ways unalike. The book Is more of
an academic support that provides help to my understanding of nirvana, and

another view of how to obtain it. It is general because it speaks about all of Zen
Buddhism instead of little aspects of it. Although it does go into detail in some
area, overall, it is a general source. The audience that is intended from this book is
a person who wants to learn more about a specific type of Buddhism. It has
helped me understand more since I am here yearning to learn more. It hasnt
changed but has enlightened me.
6. Tambiah, Stanley J. "World Conqueror and World Renouncer: A Study of Buddhism
and Polity in Thailand against a Historical Background." Http://
Cambridge University Press, 27 Oct. 1976. Web.
Stanley Jeyaraja was born on January 16, 1929 and past January 19, 2014. He was
a professor that taught anthropology at Harvard University. He specialized in
studies of Thailand, Sri Lanka, and Tamils. This is another secondary source. He
wrote this book on Buddhism and how it fits into todays policy and society of
Thailand. This book is about the first comprehensive and authoritative work on
the relationship of Buddhism and society. It conveys a historical background of
the contemporary structure with Sangha and Buddhism.
Reflection: This text helps me with the comparison on society and Buddhism. It
isnt about searching for nirvana, but how it can be concluded in what society
presumes it to be. If I were to be able to use this in my paper, it would help
support how even in this time of day we could still find nirvana. It is more
specific to policy so more of a specific source. the audience itself would be those
looking to fit Buddhism into their everyday life. It didnt really help me
understand, but helped me find more reason to become enlightened.