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Family

Planning
Project
Natural Methods
Sylvia L., Elizabeth N., Charlene K., Tomi D.

Basal Body Temperature


Description:

Body temperature slightly


drops during ovulation.

Instructions:

Check temperature orally


every morning before getting out of bed.

Side effects/Danger signs:

No side

effects, but risk of pregnancy

Cost:

Thermometer: $5 and up

Effectiveness:

BBT reliability can be


influenced by may variables that can cause
inaccurate interpretation such as baseline body
temperature, stress, illness, alcohol, and
sleeping environment. Varies on individual.

Before ovulation, your BBT probably ranges from 97.2 to about


97.7 degrees Fahrenheit. But 2-3 days after you ovulate,
hormonal changes cause a rise of 0.4-1.0 degree in your BBT,
which lasts until your next period.
http://assets.babycenter.com/ims/Content/bbt_sample_chart.pdf

Basal Body Temperature


ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Inexpensive

Influenced by many
variables

Convenient

Inaccurate

No side effects

Risk of pregnancy

Calendar/Rhythm method
Description:

The recording of a womans menstrual cycle


by calculating her fertile period (assuming ovulation occurs
about 14 days before the onset of next menstrual cycle).

Instructions:
Record # of days in each cycle (from 1st day of menses

for a period of 6 cycles)


To get start of fertile period: subtract 18 days from the
number of days in the womans SHORTEST cycle. (A)
To get the END of fertile period: subtracting 11 days from
the number of days in the womans LONGEST cycle. (B)
Fertile period is from (A) day to (B) day.
Refrain from intercourse during these days to avoid
conception.

Side effects/Danger signs: No side effects, but


risk of pregnancy
Cost: Inexpensive (calculator, calendar)
Effectiveness: not reliable, requires accurate
record keeping and compliance with abstinence
and fertile periods. Varies on individual.

Yay! MATH
What is the fertile period?
Shortest Period: 28
Longest period: 31

ANSWER: Day 10-20

Calendar/Rhythm method
ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Useful when combined


with BBT/Cervical mucus
method

Not very reliable

Inexpensive

Requires accurate record


keeping
Requires compliance in
regard to abstinence
during fertile periods
Risk of pregnancy

Billings Method
Description:

Following ovulation the cervical mucus


becomes thin flexible under influence of estrogen and
progesterone to allow for sperm viability and motility. The
ability for the mucus to stretch between fingers is
greastest during ovulation. (Spinnbarkeit sign)

Instructions:
Hand hygiene
Examine mucus from last day of menstrual cycle.
Mucus obtained from introitus (not necessary to
reach into the vagina or cervix. Ouch!)
Do not douche prior to assessment

Side effects/Danger signs:


hand hygiene

Cost:

infection r/t improper

Inexpensive

Effectiveness: Inaccurate if mucus is mixed

with semen, blood, contraceptive foams, or


discharge from infection. Varies on individual.

Billings Video
The menstrual cycle and your
body's natural signal of
fertility - cervical mucus

https://www.youtube.com/watch
?v=0ldx6Nago6I#action=share

Lowdermilk Pg. 101


cervical mucus
characteristics

Billings Method
ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Knowledgeable in recognizing
her own mucus, ovulation and
self evaluation

Uncomfortable with
touching ones self

Determination of the start of


ovulation cycle (while breast
feeding), menopause, and
planning desired pregnancy.

Inaccurate

Helps recognize the


reproductive health

Risk of pregnancy

World organization of ovulation


method Billings: GLOBAL OUTREACH
USA, Philipines, Mexico, China,
vietnam, Spain, Pakistan, New Zealand
etc.

Douching
Description: There has been debate that douching is harmful and

should be discouraged because it could cause pelvic inflammatory


disease, ectopic pregnancy, vaginal irritation, bacterial vaginosis, and
other conditions.

Instructions:
Hold cap of bottle with one hand and grasp nozzle firmly with
the other hand.
Pull nozzle straight up until it clicks in place. Douche is not
ready for use until you hear this click.
Gently insert nozzle into your vagina, no more than 3 inches,
and slowly squeeze bottle.
Do not close the vaginal opening; douching solution should flow
freely out of vagina.
Use while sitting on the toilet, in the tub, or while standing in
the shower.
Side effects/Danger signs: There has been debate that douching is
harmful and should be discouraged because it could cause pelvic
inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, vaginal irritation, bacterial
vaginosis, and other conditions.

Cost:

Douche $2-$5

Effectiveness: Douching shortly after sex is not likely to work.


Douching is never recommended because it can cause infections
in the uterus and tubes.

Douching
ADVANTAGES

Method of cleaning

DISADVANTAGES

Infections (UTI, bacterial


vaginosis, PID)
Risk of pregnancy

Ineffective/inaccurate
(mainly used for cleaning
purposes)

Periodic Abstinence
Description:

Refraining from having sexual


intercourse (eliminating the possibility of sperm
entering a womans vagina).

Instructions:

Refrain from sexual intercourse.

Participate in gratifying sexual activities such as


hugging, affectionate touching, holding hands,
kissing, oral/manual stimulation.

Side effects/Danger signs:

No physical
side effects, may affect emotion/behavior. No risks.

Cost:

Inexpensive

Effectiveness:

Effective if participants
demonstrate self control, and abstinence is
maintained.

Periodic Abstinence
ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

No risks

Controlled sexual activity

Effective birth control


method

Mood/behavioral changes
may occur

Eliminate risk of UTI

Increase self control

Coitus Interuptus
Description:

Man withdraws penis from


vagina prior to ejaculation. Pull-out method

Instructions:

When the feeling of


ejaculation is felt, withdraw penis from vagina.
Be aware of fluids leaking from the penis

Side effects/Danger signs:

Risk of
pregnancy, STI (without a barrier method)

Cost:

Inexpensive

Effectiveness:

Male partners control can


make this effective. Leakage of spermatozoa
can be deposited in the vagina. Varies on
individuals.

Coitus Interuptus
ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Sexual intercourse
experience

No protection from STI

May be effective (related


to male partners self
control)

May be Ineffective (related


to male partners self
control)
Risk of pregnancy

REFERENCES
Martino, J., & Vermund, S. (2008). Vaginal Douching:
Evidence for risks or benefits to womens health.
Epidemiol Rev. 2002; 24(2): 109-124. Retrieved from
http://
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2567125/
Various Aurthors. (2014). Birth control and family
planning. Birth control methods that do not work
very well. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/
medlineplus/ency/article/001946.htm
Billings LIFE. (2012). Effectiveness in preventing
pregnancy.
What is the Billings ovulation method?
Retrieved from http://www.thebillingsovulationmethod.org/
what-is-the-billings-ovulation-method
%E2%84%A2.html
ATINURSING. (2010). RN maternal newborn nursing. (Ed.
9.0) Assessment technologies institute, LLC. Pg. 2-8.