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FLIGHT DYNAMICS & STABILITY


Lecture 03-2: Directional Control

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Rudder

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Yawing Moment Coefficient


=
=

=
+

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Rudder Control Effectiveness


= =
=

Compare with:



=
=

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Flap Effectiveness Parameter

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Rudder Design Requirements

Adverse Yaw
Cross Wind Takeoff/Landing
Asymmetric Power Condition
Spin Recovery

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Adverse Yaw

The rudder must be able to overcome the adverse yaw so that a coordinated turn
can be achieved. The critical condition for yaw occurs when the airplane is flying
slow (high CL).

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Cross Wind Takeoff/Landing

The rudder must be powerful enough to permit the pilot to trim the airplane for the
specified cross-winds. For transport airplanes, landing may be carried out for cross-winds
up to 15.5 m/s or 51 ft/s.

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Asymmetric Power Condition

The rudder must be powerful enough to overcome the yawing moment produced
when one engine fails at low flight speed

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Spin Recovery

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Example
Obtain the minimum control speed in the event of an engine failure for the
following airplane:
= 65 2, = 6.5 2 , = 10.5 , = 880 ( ),
= = 75%, = 4.2 , = 0.02 ,
= 250 .
Solution:

= =
4.2 2.772 106
= 0.75 880 1000
=

= = =


1
= 10.5 0.02 25 1.0
1.225 2 6.5
2
= 20.9 2

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Under equilibrium condition:


= + = 0
2.772 106
20.9 2 = 0

2.772 106
20.9
= 0.51 102 = 51 = 183.6

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