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RUNNING HEAD: Bring Your Own Device Initiatives in Education

Literature Review: Bring Your Own Device Initiatives in Education
Ashley McClain-Clark, Damien Wagaman, David Weaks, Jared Young
Liberty University
EDUC 639


Bring Your Own Device Initiatives in Education


BYOD is the technology model that allows students to bring their own devices to school for the
purpose of learning. This reduces costs for the school and allows students to use a device they
are comfortable with. Many schools are moving to adopt this model. But along with the benefits
come significant challenges. It is these challenges that cause some teachers and parents to resist
the idea. School leadership needs to make an informed decision on this issue. This literature
review aims to look at what current research is showing as both the benefits and challenges of
implementing a Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) initiative. It also hopes to provide insight into
the rationale behind adopting such a program. Current research provides schools with the
information they need. Given this information, schools can make a rational decision on BYOD.

Keywords: engagement, mobile security, BYOD, retention, inquiry-based learning,
digital divide, acceptable use policies and procedures, malware, best

by using their own device. 2014). BYOD is cheaper as the school no longer has to purchase or lease so many devices. the schools are getting the students ready for the 21st-century workplace. They know their way around it and how to get it to do what they want. Each subject they study. This leads to higher retention rates. These benefits fuel the BYOD discussions that occur among school leadership. There are many benefits to adopting BYOD policies. Instead of the school supplying technology devices to the students. is a technology model where students bring a personally owned device to school for the purpose of learning (Song.Bring Your Own Device Initiatives in Education 3 Introduction Educational institutes exist for the purpose of preparing youth for eventual entry into the workplace. One way that can be done is through the use of BYOD. An increasing number of schools are adopting this model. . Allowing students to use their own devices increases the access they have to that technology. students may have an increased personalization and depth of learning. Students might become more engaged in their learning if they are allowed to use the device of their choosing. is designed to give them the tools they need to succeed in their future careers. It is an educator’s duty to ensure they are given the proper training and tools needed to achieve their goals. It would stand to reason that the students are comfortable with their own device. Bring Your Own Device. This saves the school from having to waste time on teaching the students the nuances of a particular device. the students supply their own device. BYOD. Also. And given the current trend in the business world of moving toward BYOD. from math to language arts. This increased access can lead to developing better communication between students and teachers. There are several rationales for this.

classroom teachers.. building administrators.Bring Your Own Device Initiatives in Education 4 But there are many challenges to BYOD as well. as a whole. as they provide considerations of BYOD from a conceptual standpoint through the eyes of stakeholders at the district-level. and sexting. 2014). Current research can help schools make that decision. Song. there are consistent and notable themes that persist. to Bring Your Own Device initiatives and are given as: the potential impact of BYOD initiatives. And finally. These themes relate. 2013. 2015). applicability of technology-specific skills for the 21st century (Grant et al. cheating. O'Bannon & Thomas. But teachers and parents aren’t completely sold on the idea. 2014). 2014. These are the things that schools need to consider when contemplating BYOD models. Themes Throughout an investigation into current literature and research involving BYOD. The schools need to make an informed decision concerning BYOD. Thomas et al. The nature of these thematic representations allow for a fuller picture of BYOD implementation to be formed. and students. and shifting perceptions of mobile technologies for the classroom (Burns-Sardone. The increased access to the devices also increases the risk of encountering cyber bullying... but teachers still need to be proficient in using BYOD to their advantage. Many of them view the devices as distractions and would prefer they not be in the classroom. adopting BYOD models can increase the digital divide if the school is not careful. 2014. The benefits outweigh the challenges for many schools. Thomas et al. financial considerations of BYOD (Kong and Song. 2015. Mobile security is a big concern as allowing students so much access to their devices increases their chance of getting viruses or losing personal information. Teachers are not trained very well in BYOD. Incorporating input from all of these sources is vital for a . The development of acceptable use policies and procedures can help with the distractions.

O’Bannon & Thomas. as it follows that if students are more deeply engaged with content learning there is an increase in the possibility for knowledge acquisition. yet realistic.” Student engagement is imperative to increase potential for learning. 2013. 2014. student engagement in increased through use of MCDs both for classroom specific learning activities and those that extend beyond the walls of the classroom. Rationale Adoption of a BYOD initiative requires that one consider the thematic consistencies presented through the literature. energy. (2014) indicate an improvement in student levels of engagement through the use of students’ personal devices. one must consider the cost benefits of utilizing personal devices for learning. Careful planning must be made to allow students to use technology for learning purposes and not to merely have access to use personal devices openly. Best practices for device utilization in the classroom must be enacted as a way to combat such a barrier. Unintended use of MCDs by students is a consistently realized barrier from multiple researchers (Grant et al. Both Kong and Song (2015) and Grant et al. approach to mobile computing device (MCD) incorporation in the classroom..Bring Your Own Device Initiatives in Education 5 complete view of BYOD to be formed which allows for greater validity and more informed decision making to be made. Kong and Song (2015) define engagement as “an action or a set of behaviors in which learners devote time.. 2015. Thomas et al.. 2014). The idea of providing multiple devices for a mass of the student population can be daunting for . Thomas et al. Secondarily. First. By making such considerations a number of rationales can be formed which provide for a positive. This is not to say that device usage alone can foster engagement. and resources for enhancing learning.

This allows for a lower overhead cost to company budget line items and gives employees the freedom to use devices that are already familiar. A notable increase in emerging and developed markets (Burns-Sardone. it follows that students who will eventually be participants in the workforce should have sufficient skills to market themselves to future employers (Jones et al. there is still an inherent prohibitive aspect to purchase of a large number of computing devices. Although device cost has increased the possibility of providing a greater number of devices for student use. 191) have enacted policies which allow employees to bring their devices into the workplace for use in place of company owned devices. Access for all students is one of the barriers that Thomas et al. However. With this uptick in the volume of businesses that have adopted BYOD policies for the workplace. However. the possibility of allowing students to provide their own devices for classroom use provides an opportunity for districts to offset a portion of budgetary restrictions that can be used toward other necessary costs. 2014) the use of those devices has become more prevalent in public and private sector career fields. 2015. . Districts will likely need to purchase some devices for students that have limited access. p. 2014). (2014) mention in their review of survey responses from over one thousand educators in Kentucky and Tennessee. the skills garnered from BYOD initiatives are those that have impact and applicability to use in the 21st century. As access to mobile computing devices has increased (Grant et al. Thomas et al. Third.. this is an overcomable obstacle when considering increased device usage.Bring Your Own Device Initiatives in Education 6 school districts. teachers in this study and that from O'Bannon and Thomas (2014) indicated that while access is a consideration that must be made. 2014...

This may not initially seem as though it would be a rationale for adoption. However. should extend beyond technical skills and reach a place of higher-order thinking and processing. While this increase only involves device usage in the classroom. 2014). but a move toward more technology friendly learning environments would allow for BYOD initiative to have a less restrictive environment in which to flourish. the motivation to afford learners with the skills necessary to work effectively in a 21st century workplace is growing among local educational stakeholders (Burns-Sardone. the authors noted that teachers under the age of 32 and those between . then. This involves more than a cursory knowledge of how to operate a device and perform menial tasks. 192) note that a nineteen percent increase in principals that indicated allowed usage of mobile devices for learning from 2010 to 2013. p. A fourth rationale for BYOD initiative adoption is that there is a shift in perceptions of technology in the classroom. the same reporting period resulted in a threefold growth in schools that had implemented a full-scale BYOD initiative.BurnsSardone (2014) indicates. should be utilized from an educational perspective in order to produce students that are prepared to enter a BYOD rich employment environment? This is dependent upon the depth of BYOD adoption by school districts. O'Bannon and Thomas (2014) note that there is a large portion of young educators that are willing to break down previously erected barriers such as policies that prohibit any mobile device usage at school.Bring Your Own Device Initiatives in Education 7 What skills. Burns-Sardone (2014. Training for teachers and students. In their investigation into teachers attitudes toward cell phone usage for learning in the classroom. Such a concept may be far off for some school districts. Students must be able to utilize their devices to access information from various sources and synthesize this information so that they may create an extension of the information using technical resources as an aid in this endeavor. moving from twenty-two to forty-one percent.

the growth of mobile devices has grown assessable for the majority of adults and teenagers to own one. exit the teaching profession. Burns-Sardone (2014. and Britt (2014). but appropriate technological and pedagogical professional development opportunities for administrators and educators will fuel the journey beyond initial implementation. are more willing to utilize technology as a resource for learning. 297). p. with greater efficacy. likely due to increased familiarity and comfortability in using such technologies. to enter. digital natives in their own right (Thomas et al. Ongoing and pertinent professional development allows for educators to implement student devices. Grant et al.193) states that “tossing teachers into a BYOD environment without any training wouldn’t be very effective. or any device for that matter. According to 17.” This is true for all teachers. O’Bannon. As more experiences educators.18). 40). considerations must be given to training for educators in the use of and best practices for device use in educational settings. In their 2015 study of schools that have effectively implemented BYOD initiatives. not just those that would not be considered a digital native. they leave room for younger educators. These young teachers. that were less likely to involve technology in the classroom. Benefits of BYOD In the United States. p. 373). . more versed in technology usage..year olds own a mobile device (p.Bring Your Own Device Initiatives in Education 8 32 and 50 were considerably more willing to consider student cell phone use for learning activities than those over the age of 50 (p. indicate that healthy device initiatives are those that have teachers who engage in and seek out professional development (p. 91% of adults and 78 % of 12. Shifting perceptions of technology may help to drive device initiatives. This age division provides another factor in support of BYOD adoption by means of shifting perceptions. In order for BYOD rationale to move forward. 2013.

studies have shown that students have higher rates of achievements from using a mobile computing device. and the Partnership for 21st. National Educational Technology Standards for Students (ISTE). 2015). BYOD’s personalized content tools enable individuals to learn and use applications to advance their thinking. and (4) life and occupational skills (Brooks.century skills. Furthermore. there are three stakeholders with documents that identify twenty-first. however. 2010). different scholars have reported that user’s familiarity of their phones allows personalization of their devices (Horizon Report. According to Brooks .Bring Your Own Device Initiatives in Education 9 The Horizon Report of 2015. 2013). Students from this study exemplify that using . Notably. the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL). & Papadakis. The post-test revealed that both groups of students achieved better test scores. The use of personal devices is assisting teachers with successfully incorporating the student centered learning style. The three documents hold similar themes that consist of (1) staple topics and 21st.Young (2010). (3) information. Similarly.Young.Century Skills. presented advantages to the BYOD movement. the experimental groups achieved higher critical thinking and retained the information better than the controlled group of students (Ahmed and Oarsons. which allows for uses to accomplish work more efficiently. Being familiar allows users to save time and effort to customize a new device. Kalogiannakis. When millennial students use mobile applications that are created to focus on specific skills or problems they become more effective learners (Zaranis. (2) scholarship and innovations skills. media.century themes. 2013). BYOD will assist learners with honing these skills. Ahmed and Parsons (2013) conducted a study that involved an experimental group of a student using the application ThinknLearn on a mobile device and a controlled group of students who did not use mobile devices. and technology skills. BYOD allows schools and companies to reduce their spending on technology.

Bring Your Own Device Initiatives in Education 10 mobile technology. Comparable to the results of other studies. they duplicate a web-based learning model for mobile learning. The BYOD movement can become a gateway to provide students with content through mobile media. Lakeshore University. In the Gikas and Grant(2013) experiment. Sweeney. Brown. Hwang and Chang’s results concluded that after used mobile devices the group of experiment students’ had an increase in interest and attitude towards local culture. they administered the questions through mobile devices to the control group while the other students learned through the regular walk questionnaire. & Jones (2014) . and The University of Northbrook to help them conduct Skype interviews for determining student’s perspective on using mobile phones and social media for educational purposes. An additional benefit of the BYOD initiative. Ferguson. Ultimately students are motivated to participate with classmates and experts through applications or social media platforms to further their learning. The study discovered that students believed that their phones played a significant role in their engagement in content because of their connectedness (Gikas and Grant. Teachers from the Grant. Students from the Kong and Song (2015) research study echoed similar results from their investigation of mobile learning hub and reflective engagement. students can utilize 21st Century skills and successfully advance their learning performance. is that students using mobile technology increase in engagement in learning. During the study. 2013). Their aim was to increasing fifth graders knowledge of local culture. Studies have proven that adding technology to lessons pushes students towards more positive outlooks and awareness for learning. In the Hwang and Chang (2011) research trail. The BYOD movement can assist students with looking forward to topics they do not like. they used individual professors from Coastal College. Students felt that they learned a lot from sharing information with students and instructors.

Young. . The addition of technology to lessons grabs student’s attention and makes them want to participate in learning. blogs or social media networks that support group work and communication (Brooks. The use of Web 2. they present more individualized learning. Students from the Laskin and Avena study mentioned how they thought technology could help them foster a better relationship with their peers and teacher. 2013). Millennial students are familiar with mobile technology and willing to collaboration through the virtual web (Laskin and Avena. students from Lakeshore University gained a rich learning experience from their inclass Twitter session (Gikas and Grant. Integration of BYOD will allow students to make educational connections anytime. send reminders. 2010). Mobile computing creates connections for formal and informal learning opportunities (Gikas and Grant. When students take the time to make process classwork outside in the real world. 2015).0 tools to help them explains or again information.0 tools can be wikis.Bring Your Own Device Initiatives in Education 11 experiment expressed that their use of technology in the classroom heightened student learning and the way they came to conclusions for answers. Students from the Gikas and Grant study sensed relationships between formal lessons from the classroom and informal lesson that they captured on their phones when they were out in the world. 2013) This study is a great example of how teachers can utilize the BYOD movement to create authentic learning when while students are on the web. or submit assignments and provide quick annotated feedback (p. 38).0 tools increased student’s willingness to collaborate to support learning goals. One teacher from the Grant et al. BYOD will allow anyone to work individually or in a group the main point is they have access to content to matter the time or the place. Web 2. 2013). Some students even become more effective communicators when they use Web 2. Without distractions. anywhere (Gikas and Grant. (2014) study described how he used mobile technology “to exchange voice mails.

& Jones (2014) states that “School administrators reported that 52% of their districts banned studentowned mobile devices in classrooms (p. . Squire and Dikkers assert that some teachers do not allow phones in the classroom to avoid. the mature students from the University of Northbrook did not feel that the device was a distraction. Ferguson. By offering access to portable information students are more likely to seek out information that useful to their development. “distraction. Challenges of BYOD The BYOD movement can have negative experiences for students and school administrators and teachers. Educators are responsible for helping students learn and protecting them. Students like having access to information on their mobile devices. Tamim. According to the survey conducted by Almaiah and Jalil (2014). The college age students at Lakeshore University sometimes battled with using social media for personal usage or responding to a text message. Grant.Bring Your Own Device Initiatives in Education 12 Moreover. Whereas. Brown. (2013) the results were mixed amongst two schools about the distractions they faced. Banning students from bringing cellphones is still prevalent. 2015). School districts and teachers have student’s best interest in mind when they prohibition mobile devices in classrooms. students of today are fond of using technology for educational purposes. In a study based on three universities conducted by Grant and Gikas. Sweeney. and the potential for engaging in nefarious behaviors” (as cited in Laskin and Avena. The use of mobile technology positively impacts students to make educational connections share the information with peers and professionals. students strongly believe that mobile computing will increase the flexibility to learn inside and outside the classroom. The lack of adoption of BYOD can be due to the number of disruptions that the schools are faced with. theft. 34).

When schools are implementing BYOD. the professor discarded of the information time would be used more effectively if they would have planned accordingly. there is no confusion about what is inappropriate. 2014). teachers can prepare in advance and know what apps do not work on what operating system. With proper training. 203). revealed security best practice that all students should follow: - Turn off features not needed Look at reviews of developers before downloading new apps Review and understand the permissions you are giving to apps Use password protection on your mobile device Obtain malware protection Be aware of applications that enable geo-location Don’t jailbreak or root your device Don’t connect to unknown wireless networks Wipe the device (return to factory settings) when selling or trading it in Apply updates in a timely manner Avoid clicking links from unknown sources (p. (Gikas and Grant. or cyberbullying (Thomas et al.. Training on different app interfaces and operating systems can be vital to help with the transition goes smoothly. The school must teach the student how to use safe mobile practices and security measures. Professor from Coastal College ultimately had to discard of the Oovoo video conferencing application because students had issues using it. Moreover. (2014). especially with the curriculum (Burnes-Sardone. Instructors are faced with the fear of students cheating. 74. they must create policies and procedures to assist teachers with their jobs and keep students safe. Practitioners feel that to ensure success with the BYOD initiative teacher training is crucial. Jones et al.75). mobile security becomes a high-risk challenge because students are not in a secured network opening the school up to security risks.Bring Your Own Device Initiatives in Education 13 Developing of clear policies and procedures for teachers and students is vital to correct use of technology. When teachers and students know what is expected of them. . 2014). Although. Training teachers is an issue that must be tackled before incorporating BYOD. sexting.

Some feel that banning of phones in school grows the negative perception of technology and nurtures the digital dive.4%. 2013).3% for exam results were the highest ranked. In a university study.5% preferred access learning contents online using their mobile device and 81.3%. O’Bannon. the Innovative Educator. freshmen to junior Computer Science students surveyed their perception of mobile learning services. there are students whose parents do not buy them technology rather they cannot afford it or lack of parental control. In the Laskin and Avena (2015) study. By allowing students of low socioeconomic status to use their phone in the classroom. like Gary Stager. shadowed admission status 75. course registration 70.8%. library service 71.2% and the lowest rank was to collaborate with lecturers 54. Exponents. it helps reduce the traditional digital divide (Thomas. Students want additional services and for teachers to be more open to using mobile technology. believe that the BYOD creates a new digital divide because some students will have advanced technology and others will have the poor technology. Finally. schedule services 67. This paradox can be explained by teachers nonuse of technology forced these students to believe that their phones are for recreational purposes though they use their devices for an educational purpose outside of the classroom. to collaborate with other students and financial balance 58. 2013). director of the Constructing Modern Knowledge Institute and Lisa Nielsen. the research concluded that students in the app development class did not feel that mobile media (p. 35). most students are proponents of BYOD they too have objections to mobile learning. the bulk of respondents 83.9% ( p. . 2012).0%. Students identified the size of the keyboard as an issue when typing long responses (Gikas and Grant. & Bolton.Bring Your Own Device Initiatives in Education 14 Another dilemma that can be viewed in different ways is the digital divide. Although. 281). (Fingal. Almaiah & Jalil (2014) discovered.

2013). 24). All of this is done collaboratively with other students in the classroom. and then develop evidence based explanations (Song. one student explained. The Common Core State Standards include technology use as part of the standards. Students need to be training on proper knowledge for media and their identity. Students barely made differences between text messaging and social media (Gikas and Grant. school districts must continue to come up with ways to incorporate that technology into the classroom. In inquiry based learning. Technologies such as mobile devices allow students to freely explore and find their own answers (Ahmed & Parsons. gather and analyze data. the teacher becomes a guide who steers the students in the direction they need to go. First. Gikas and Grant mention (2013). students pose questions. Inquiry based learning is currently considered the learning style most in line with the nature of the Common Core State Standards. Next.Bring Your Own Device Initiatives in Education 15 The results from the Gikas and Grant interviewed revealed students from each of the three universities blended words. As a result. Finally. 2014). Students are expected to learn how to use technology as well as incorporating technology into their learning. you don't forget it. rather than being an instructor or lecturer. “Yeah. there were the issues of students blending the terms social networks tools and mobile devices. Additionally. 2013). the Common Core State Standards also encourage learning at higher levels with deeper engagement of the content. because I mean. This is most effectively done when each student has access . Student preferred to use applications and text messaging to communicate about coursework. students phones have combined their identities with their mobile devices. Discussion As technology continues to march forward. students were blurring the lines of formal and informal learning. it kinda becomes this extra part of our bodies sort of” (p. The students take ownership of their learning and develop higher level thinking skills.

Districts then only need to purchase enough devices for students who do not have a device and cannot afford to purchase one. streaming video. 2013). However. The network must be able to handle the additional load from the many devices connecting to it. School district budgets are more limited than ever and most do not have the funds to purchase enough devices to create a 1:1 student to technology learning environment. especially if homework is going to be assigned that requires access to the internet or a mobile device to complete it (Ciampia & Gallagher. it slows down the learning process and restricts the flow of information in the classroom. 2013). Kalagiannakis.Bring Your Own Device Initiatives in Education 16 to a device throughout the day (Zaranis. or engaging in collaboration with others both inside and outside of the school. These students must be provided access to mobile devices that can be taken home. schools must proceed cautiously when creating a BYOD initiative. When students are required to share devices. There must be sufficient bandwidth to allow many students to be online. This particular point is an important one. If districts leverage the devices that students already have. In the event of a breach of the security measures in place. & Papadakis. These students are particularly susceptible to falling behind their more affluent peers in academic achievement. 2010). that will free up funding for other purposes. For most districts. a BYOD initiative makes sense. there must be established guidelines for . The network also must have the necessary safeguards in place to stop any use that is malicious or potentially damaging to the school’s infrastructure (Robinson & Brown. There are significant risks when students and teachers are allowed to bring their own devices and connect them to the school’s network. the digital divide falls very closely in line with the poverty line and high needs populations. Schools in these communities tend to be even more limited in budget than schools in more affluent regions.

is occurring more frequently and students often do not realize the long term impact of their actions on a mobile device. other students are having their lives negatively impacted because of a photograph they decided to take of themselves and send to another student. it will reduce the effectiveness of the device for education and can also pose a risk to the school district’s network and internal security. While text lingo is okay when having a conversation with friends. Students may not know the appropriate way to interact with peers or teachers through mobile devices in the educational setting. Proper training will allow teachers to know when students are using their mobile devices . If a student’s device is compromised. Schools must also develop plans for training students in the importance of utilizing proper security measures on their devices. and cheating. Students also need to be taught the dangers associated with using mobile devices.” cyber bullying. Teachers need to be provided with sufficient training and professional development on properly integrating BYOD and mobile devices into the classroom (Ciampia & Gallagher. Inappropriate use.Bring Your Own Device Initiatives in Education 17 dealing with the breach quickly and there also need to be clear consequences for any students that attempt to bypass security measures such as blocks on certain websites (Robinson & Brown. 2013). 2010). These consequences are very real and there must be dedicated time in class devoted to helping students understand the risks of these actions. Students are committing suicide over cyber bullying. such as “sexting. it is not going to be appropriate for academic purposes and students need to be taught to distinguish between various settings so that they can appropriately communicate. Students must also be trained and taught how to properly use their devices. School districts also need to have clear and immediate consequences for anyone found guilty of inappropriate use of a mobile device during school hours (Robinson & Brown. 2010).

Teachers will also be able to more effectively incorporate BYOD into their curriculum and maximize student engagement and learning. The teacher then becomes a facilitator and guide to the students rather than a giver of knowledge. Teachers will be more likely to engage in practices such as the flipped classroom and inquiry based learning if they have been provided the appropriate training. However. 2013). These students may stand to benefit the most from being able to have a mobile device in the classroom. there are many opportunities to do additional research into BYOD initiatives in school systems. The students seek out answers to their questions and work together both in the classroom and in a virtual environment such as Google Classroom. The increase in academic engagement and achievement is significant enough to make it worth it despite the risks and challenges of incorporating personal devices into the curriculum. usually in the form of collaborative projects. the ability to provide students with greater differentiation and personalization in learning also results in greater achievement. current literature seems to indicate that a BYOD initiative is a good choice for many school districts. Conclusion Overall. However. . for this style of learning to be successful. teachers must be provided with specific training on how to properly incorporate it into their curriculum (Ciampia & Gallagher. The flipped classroom generally requires students to watch lecture or concept explanation videos for homework and then they do the traditional homework during class time. which may be particularly important for students that have special needs or are otherwise at a high risk for failing to reach grade level standards. One area that would greatly benefit from additional research is the distraction that is created by students having access to their personal devices during instructional time.Bring Your Own Device Initiatives in Education 18 inappropriately during instructional times. Additionally.

With many corporate workplaces beginning to adopt their own BYOD policies. The concept is still very new and as such. Research may yield results that certain age groups are impacted negatively by the number of distractions on their personal devices. As more districts adopt these initiatives. Another area for further study is effective policies within districts to minimize misuse and abuse of a BYOD initiative. usually within a university. Research into the most effective policies would assist district decision makers in choosing the best approach for their students. BYOD in the classroom may help students to prepare for how to appropriately use their personal devices in the workplace and help them to be more successful at integrated into a BYOD workplace. It would also be beneficial to further explore the long term impact of BYOD. they are going to need to develop and implement acceptable use policies as well as consequences and discipline for misuse of personal devices on school property. such as texting or social media. It would be good to explore how elementary or secondary students are able to manage the significant number of distractions available on a personal mobile device.Bring Your Own Device Initiatives in Education 19 Much of the literature currently available focuses on the post-secondary level of education. students. there has not been the opportunity to follow a group of students throughout their education and into their careers to determine if there is any benefit to BYOD as students transition into the workplace. These policies need to be easily understood by both teachers. . and parents.

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